WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying age differences

  1. Age differences in the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E; Hess, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) examine whether age differences exist in the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on cognitive performance and (b) examine whether emotion regulation abilities may buffer against threat effects on performance. Older and younger adults were exposed to positive or negative age-relevant stereotypes, allowing us to examine the impact of threat on regulatory focus and working memory. Self-reported emotion regulation measures were completed prior to the session. Older adults' performance under threat suggested a prevention-focused approach to the task, indexed by increased accuracy and reduced speed. The same pattern was observed in younger adults, but the effects were not as strong. Age differences emerged when examining the availability of working memory resources under threat, with young adults showing decrements, whereas older adults did not. Emotion regulation abilities moderated threat effects in young adults but not in older adults. The results provide support for the notion that stereotype threat may lead to underperformance through somewhat different pathways in older and younger adults. Future research should further examine whether the underlying reason for this age difference is rooted in age-related improvements in emotion regulation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Breast cancer under age 40: a different approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnikar, D; Ribeiro, J M; Pinto, D; Sousa, B; Pinto, A C; Gomes, E; Moser, E C; Cardoso, M J; Cardoso, F

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) under age 40 is a complex disease to manage due to the additionally fertility-related factors to be taken in consideration. More than 90% of young patients with BC are symptomatic. Womenmanagement strategies for every individual patient with BC before the start of any therapy including surgery. This applies to both early (early breast cancer (EBC)) and advanced (advanced breast cancer (ABC)) disease, before the start of any therapy. Mastectomy even in young patients confers no overall survival advantage when compared to breast-conserving treatment (BCT), followed by radiotherapy. Regarding axillary approach, indications are identical to other age groups. Young age is one of the most important risk factors for local recurrence after both breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and mastectomy, associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis and death. Radiation after BCS reduces local recurrence from 19.5 to 10.2% in BC patients 40 years and younger. The indications for and the choice of systemic treatment for invasive BC (both early and advanced disease) should not be based on age alone but driven by the biological characteristics of the individual tumor (including hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) status, grade, and proliferative activity), disease stage, and patient's comorbidities. Recommendations regarding the use of genomic profiles such as MammaPrint, Oncotype Dx, and Genomic grade index in young women are similar to the general BC population. Especially in the metastatic setting, patient preferences should always be taken into account, as the disease is incurable. The best strategy for these patients is the inclusion into well-designed, independent, prospective randomized clinical trials. Metastatic disease should always be biopsied whenever feasible for histological confirmation and reassessment of biology. Endocrine therapy is the preferred option for hormone receptor-positive disease (HR+ve), even in

  3. Aging Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high......-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach...... based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests...

  4. Age-related changes in force control under different task contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Vieluf, Solveig; Sleimen-Malkoun, Rita

    2017-01-01

    We investigated age-related differences in motor behavior under different task contexts of isometric force control. The tasks involved rapid force production and force maintenance, either separately or in combination. For the combined context, we used Fitts-like tasks, in which we scaled either the force level (D manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the amplitude of the force to be produced) or the tolerance range (W manipulation, i.e., manipulation of the target width in which force is allowed to fluctuate). We studied two age groups and analyzed mainly variables that quantify behavioral variability (SD), information processing (signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency functions), and age-related slowing (slowing ratio). For rapid force control, age-related differences were more pronounced when preplanned processes were primarily involved, that is, in the rapid force production and Fitts-D manipulation tasks. Further, older adults were comparable to the younger adults in terms of end-point variability at the cost of being slower and more variable in timing. For force maintenance control, requiring mainly online control, age-related differences were the most visible in the stabilized phase of Fitts-D manipulation, followed by Fitts-W manipulation for SD, and then the force maintenance task. In sum, our findings reveal an age-related reorganization of how preplanned and online control processes are combined under different force control contexts. Indeed, both behavioral slowing and the overreliance on online control processes seem to be dependent on the task. In this respect, beyond the study of force control, we show the interest of investigating age effects using functionally different tasks.

  5. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamao Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing. Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3(age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older ×2(option framing: additive vs. subtractive ×2(focus condition: information vs. emotion mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  6. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huamao; Xia, Shiyong; Ruan, Fanglin; Pu, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing) than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing). Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3 (age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older) × 2 (option framing: additive vs. subtractive) × 2 (focus condition: information vs. emotion) mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus) or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus) when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales.

  7. Age Differences in Consumer Decision Making under Option Framing: From the Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huamao; Xia, Shiyong; Ruan, Fanglin; Pu, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Option framing effect is the phenomena that participants often accept more options when they are asked to delete undesired options from a full model (subtractive framing) than they do when they are instructed to add desired options to a base model (additive framing). Whether the same effect exists in different age groups is less well known. To explore the roles of age and purchase motivations on the option framing effect for automobiles purchases, this study adopted a 3 (age group: younger, middle-aged, vs. older) × 2 (option framing: additive vs. subtractive) × 2 (focus condition: information vs. emotion) mixed design. To manipulate purchase motivations, participants in the three age groups were instructed to focus on the ratio of utility and price of options (information-focus) or the extent of pleasure induced by the options (emotion-focus) when they made purchase decisions in two framing conditions. The results revealed similar option framing effect across all age groups in the information-focus condition regarding the total price paid for accepted options. In contrast, the framing effect was not found in the emotion-focus condition. In addition, older adults accepted more options and an overall higher price than younger and middle-aged adults in both focus conditions. This difference was more obvious in the emotion-focus condition than in the information-focus condition. Moreover, both the number of accepted options and the total accepted price of the younger group in the information-focus condition were higher than those in the emotion-focus condition, whereas the older and middle-aged groups accepted same number of options and price between two focus conditions. These results imply that purchase motivation is a moderator of the option framing effect and age characteristics linked with motivations must be considered in sales. PMID:27872603

  8. Late-Age Properties of Concrete with Different Binders Cured under 45°C at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly accepted that high curing temperature (near 60°C or above results in reduced mechanical properties and durability of concrete compared to normal curing temperature. The internal temperature of concrete structures at early ages is not so high as 60°C in many circumstances. In this paper, concretes were cured at 45°C at early ages and their late-age properties were studied. The concrete cured at 20°C was employed as the reference sample. Four different concretes were used: plain cement concrete, concrete containing fly ash, concrete containing ground granulate blast furnace slag (GGBS, and concrete containing silica fume. The results show that, for each concrete, high-temperature curing after precuring does not have any adverse effect on the nonevaporable water content, compressive strength, permeability to chloride ions, and the connected porosity of concrete at late ages compared with standard curing. Additionally, high-temperature curing improves the late-age properties of concrete containing fly ash and GGBS.

  9. Lithium-ion battery aging mechanisms and life model under different charging stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zhang, Caiping; Zhang, Weige; Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The charging time-consuming and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries have always been the bottleneck for the tremendous application of electric vehicles. In this paper, cycle life tests are conducted to reveal the influence of different charging current rates and cut-off voltages on the aging mechanism of batteries. The long-term effects of charging current rates and cut-off voltages on capacity degradation and resistance increase are compared. The results show that there exists a critical charging current and a critical charging cut-off voltage. When the charging stress exceeds the critical value, battery degradation speed will be greatly accelerated. Furthermore, battery aging mechanisms at various charging currents and cut-off voltages are investigated using incremental capacity analysis. It is indicated that charging current and cut-off voltage should be reduced to retard battery degradation when the battery degrades to a certain extent. The time when the loss of electrode material accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging current and the time when the loss of lithium inventory accelerates is taken as the crisis to reduce charging cut-off voltage. Moreover, an experiential model quantitatively describing the relationship between capacity degradation rate and charging stresses at different aging states is established.

  10. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass cv. Tanzania at different ages. The pastures of guinea grass were managed in six pasture conditions related to the combination of three frequencies (90, 95, and 99% light interception and two post-grazing heights (25 and 50 cm. In these six pastures conditions, three tiller ages were evaluated (young, mature, and old. The design was of completely randomized block with three replications. Young tillers exhibited higher leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate and, consequently, higher final leaf length and number of live leaves than mature and old tillers, regardless of the pasture condition. On pastures managed with 90 or 95% light interception associated with a post-grazing height of 25 cm, old tillers presented longer leaf lifespan than young and mature ones. There is a progressive reduction in the vigor of growth of pastures of guinea grass cv. Tanzania with advancing tiller age.

  11. Age and body weight at puberty in Muturu heifers under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and body weight at puberty were studied in two groups of Muturu heifers aged 4 to 7 months and comprising 13 heifers in each group. Group I heifers received nutritional supplementation of a mixture of dry brewer's spent grain and palm kernel cake in a ratio of 3:1 in addition to normal grazing. Group II heifers were ...

  12. Age-related decrease in motor cortical inhibition during standing under different sensory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Taube, Wolfgang; Hogenhout, Margot; Baudry, Stephane; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although recent studies point to the involvement of the primary motor cortex in postural control, it is unknown if age-related deterioration of postural control is associated with changes in motor cortical circuits. We examined the interaction between age and sensory condition in the

  13. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  14. Effects of seed size and aging on field performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. under different irrigation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of lentil (Lens culinaris ‘Kimia’ seeds was kept as bulk (S1 and another sample was separated to large (S2 and small (S3 seeds. A sub-sample of each size was kept as control or high vigor seed lot (A1 and the two other sub-samples were artificially aged for 2 and 4 days (A2 and A3, respectively. Field performance of these seeds was evaluated during 2011 and 2012. Yield components and grain yield of lentil decreased with decreasing water availability. The highest yield components (except 1000 grain weight and grain yield per unit area were obtained by plants from large seeds. The superiority of plants from large seeds in grain yield was more evident under limited irrigations than under well watering. Seed aging resulted in poor stand establishment and consequently low grain yield per unit area. Plants from aged large seeds showed the lowest reduction in grain yield per unit area, compared with those from aged small and bulk seeds. It seems that cultivation of large seeds somehow can reduce the deleterious effects of drought stress and seed aging on grain yield per unit area of lentil.

  15. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. CONCENTRATION OF CIRCULATING IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFLAMMATORY PROCESS IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE UNDER ACTION OF IMMUNOMODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko T.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under physiological conditions a formation and a presence of the CEC in liquids is one of the manifestations of the immune response to receipt of antigens and an important factor, which provides immunity. Circulating immune complexes act as agents involved in the regulation of immune response and maintaining communication between the immune system and other regulatory systems of the body and direction to his defense. The intensity of the formation of the CEC may vary under the influence of infectious antigens and immune preparations. Material and methods. Material for the experiment were white male rats 3 months of age ("young" weighing 100 -140gr. (n = 40 and 22-month ("old" weighing 200 -240 g. (n = 40. And the first (n=10 and second (n=10 groups of rats served as controls. Third (n=15 and fourth (n=15 group of animals was injected intraperitoneal daily agar culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa № 27835 ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml suspension of bacteria, which contained 109 CFU/ml. Fifth (n=15 and sixth (n=15 groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally daily agar culture of Escherichia coli number 25592, ATCC (injected with 1.5 ml of bacteria suspension which contain 109 CFU/ml. Control animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation 3rd day – n=20. Control and infected animals were taken from the experiment by decapitation at 3rd day - n=27, 5th day – n=27 and 7th day – n=26. In the second phase of the experiment Ia (n = 6 and IIa (n = 6 were the control group of rats following administration of the experimental composite preparation consisting amino acids, nucleotides, enzymes, vitamins (MF. In two age groups of animals with inflammation induced by E. coli suspension treated with MF 20 mсl 3- month rats (IIIa group n = 6 and 40 mсl 22-month rats (IVa group n = 6. Ib (n = 6 and IIb (n = 6 were the control group of rats after the injection of comparison, containing mannitol and natural antioxidant betakaroten (PO. In two age

  17. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Age differences in concept formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Marilyn; Stratton-Salib, Brea C

    2007-02-01

    In order to identify the source of age-related deficits in concept formation, older and younger adults completed a new Concept Matching Test, tests of selective attention, and the Sorting Test, a standardized test of concept formation (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Older adults showed intact concept identification, the ability to generate abstract concepts from stimulus features, but age differences were observed when irrelevant features were present. In addition, selective attention, but not concept identification ability, predicted age-related declines on the Sorting Test. Thus, reduced concept formation in older adults may stem from declines in abilities other than the capacity for abstraction.

  19. Sex-related differences in outcomes among men and women under 55 years of age with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from the PROMETHEUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Faggioni, Michela; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna; Weintraub, William; Rao, Sunil; Kapadia, Samir; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Toma, Catalin; Muhlestein, Brent; DeFranco, Anthony; Effron, Mark; Keller, Stuart; Baker, Brian; Pocock, Stuart; Henry, Timothy; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-03-01

    Young women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience greater adverse events than men, potentially due to under-treatment. We sought to compare the 1-year outcomes by sex in patients ≤55 years of age from a contemporary PCI cohort. PROMETHEUS was a retrospective multicenter observational US study comparing outcomes in clopidogrel and prasugrel treated patients following ACS PCI. MACE was defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke or unplanned revascularization. Clinically significant bleeding was defined as bleeding requiring transfusion or hospitalization. Hazard ratios were generated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The study cohort included 4,851 patients of which 1,162 (24.0%) were women and 3,689 (76.0%) were men. In this cohort, the prevalence of diabetes (41.0 vs. 27.9%) and chronic kidney disease (12.7 vs. 7.2%) was higher among women compared with men. Irrespective of sex, prasugrel was used in less than one-third of patients (31.8% in men vs. 28.1% in women, P = 0.01). Unadjusted, 1-year MACE (21.1% vs. 16.2%, P < 0.001) and bleeding (3.6% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in women compared with men, but these results were no longer significant after adjustment for risk (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36 for MACE and HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85-2.04 for bleeding). Women ≤ 55 years of age undergoing ACS PCI have significantly greater comorbidities than young men. Despite a higher risk clinical phenotype in women, prasugrel use was significantly lower in women than men. Female sex was associated with a significantly higher risk of 1-year MACE and bleeding than male sex, findings that are attributable to baseline differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of microstructural evolution on high-temperature strength of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel under different aging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Peng; Liu, Zhengdong; Bao, Hansheng; Weng, Yuqing; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of microstructures and high-temperature strength at 650 °C of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel after aging at 650 °C and 700 °C for different time durations have been experimentally investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and post-aged tensile tests. The results show that after aging at 650 °C, the high-temperature strength and the microstructures of 9Cr–3W–3Co steel keep almost stable with increasing aging time from 300 h to 3000 h. In comparison, after aging at 700 °C, there are obvious changes in the high-temperature strength and the microstructures. The strengthening mechanisms of the 9Cr–3W–3Co steel were also discussed and the athermal yield stresses were calculated. The change of the high-temperature strength is mainly affected by the evolution of dislocations and laths. The precipitates mainly act as obstacles against motion of dislocations and lath boundaries

  1. The dynamics of indicators of physical qualities of boys aged 10-13 years under the influence of different types of tourism activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Grinyova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the development of physical qualities of young men engaged in hiking, biking and water sports tourism. Shows the development of the physical qualities of young men who do not engage in sports clubs. The study involved 18 children (age 10-13 years in each of the groups. Classes are held on standard programs tourist sports clubs, which provide for 216 hours per year (2 sessions per week with duration of 3 hours each. Determined that the long-term and systematic training tourism contribute to the level of physical fitness tourists. Found that different types of tourism have a different effect on the development of a variety of physical properties. Classes hiking more improves flexibility, agility and speed-strength, cycling speed, agility, and speed-strength, water tourism force.

  2. Driving under the influence of cannabis: a 10-year study of age and gender differences in the concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan W; Holmgren, Anita; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2008-03-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent of cannabis and its various preparations. Increasing use of cannabis for recreational purposes has created a problem for road-traffic safety. This paper compares age, gender and the concentrations of THC in blood of individuals apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden, where a zero-tolerance law operates. Specimens of blood or urine were subjected to a broad screening analysis by enzyme immunoassay methods. THC positives were verified by analysis of blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a deuterium-labelled internal standard (d(3)-THC). All toxicology results were entered into a database (TOXBASE) along with the age and gender of apprehended drivers. Over a 10-year period (1995-2004), between 18% and 30% of all DUID suspects had measurable amounts of THC in their blood (> 0.3 ng/ml) either alone or together with other drugs. The mean age [+/- standard deviation (SD)] of cannabis users was 33 +/- 9.4 years (range 15-66 years), with a strong predominance of men (94%, P THC concentrations (n = 8794) was skewed markedly to the right with mean, median and highest values of 2.1 ng/ml, 1.0 ng/ml and 67 ng/ml, respectively. The THC concentration was less than 1.0 ng/ml in 43% of cases and below 2.0 ng/ml in 61% of cases. The age of offenders was not correlated with the concentration of THC in blood (r = -0.027, P > 0.05). THC concentrations in blood were higher when this was the only psychoactive substance present (n = 1276); mean 3.6 ng/ml, median 2.0 ng/ml compared with multi-drug users; mean 1.8 ng/ml, median 1.0 ng/ml (P THC as the only drug present the concentration was less than 1.0 ng/ml in 26% and below 2.0 ng/ml in 41% of cases. The high prevalence of men, the average age and the concentrations of THC in blood were similar in users of illicit drugs (non-traffic cases). The concentration of THC in blood at the time of driving is probably a

  3. Racial Differences in Attitudes toward Aging, Aging Knowledge, and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Robert C.; Kurth, Maria L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults in a sample of 271 Non-Hispanic White and African-American undergraduates. Research examining racial differences in knowledge of aging, attitudes toward aging, ageism, and contact with older adults has been sparse. Results for the current…

  4. Age Differences in Age Perceptions and Developmental Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J; Bremner, Ryan H; Johnson, David J; Giasson, Hannah L

    2018-01-01

    Is 50 considered "old"? When do we stop being considered "young"? If individuals could choose to be any age, what would it be? In a sample of 502,548 internet respondents ranging in age from 10 to 89, we examined age differences in aging perceptions (e.g., how old do you feel?) and estimates of the timing of developmental transitions (e.g., when does someone become an older adult?). We found that older adults reported older perceptions of aging (e.g., choosing to be older, feeling older, being perceived as older), but that these perceptions were increasingly younger than their current age. The age to which individuals hope to live dramatically increased after age 40. We also found that older adults placed the age at which developmental transitions occurred later in the life course. This latter effect was stronger for transitions involving middle-age and older adulthood compared to transitions involving young adulthood. The current study constitutes the largest study to date of age differences in age perceptions and developmental timing estimates and yielded novel insights into how the aging process may affect judgments about the self and others.

  5. Bayesian estimation of isotopic age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curl, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic dating is subject to uncertainties arising from counting statistics and experimental errors. These uncertainties are additive when an isotopic age difference is calculated. If large, they can lead to no significant age difference by classical statistics. In many cases, relative ages are known because of stratigraphic order or other clues. Such information can be used to establish a Bayes estimate of age difference which will include prior knowledge of age order. Age measurement errors are assumed to be log-normal and a noninformative but constrained bivariate prior for two true ages in known order is adopted. True-age ratio is distributed as a truncated log-normal variate. Its expected value gives an age-ratio estimate, and its variance provides credible intervals. Bayesian estimates of ages are different and in correct order even if measured ages are identical or reversed in order. For example, age measurements on two samples might both yield 100 ka with coefficients of variation of 0.2. Bayesian estimates are 22.7 ka for age difference with a 75% credible interval of [4.4, 43.7] ka

  6. Living with Spina Bifida (at different ages)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides information about living with spina bifida at different ages. Meeting the complex needs of a person ... Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this ...

  7. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  8. THE CHILD OFFENDER UNDER THE AGE OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Niculina KARACSONY

    2015-01-01

    At European level crime among children represents a contemporary issue and in Romania, the philosophy of the new penal code approved by Law No 286/2009 is shaped around punishment. Prevention policy in Romania and juvenile justice objectives relative to age criteria outlines two different legal manners to address children's liability under the law. One is targeting the category of children between 0 and 14 years of age, which consideres the absolute inability of criminal responsibility and on...

  9. Age differences in visual sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Thompson, L W

    1978-05-01

    Age differences in visual sensory memory were studied using the direct measure procedure of Haber and Standing (1969) -- the longest interstimulus interval at which subjects reported a single stimulus as continuous was measured. The visual storage of the young (mean age 24 years) was found to persist for 289 msec compared to 248 for the old (mean age 67 years). Similar estimates of sensory memory duration were obtained when either monoptic or dichoptic stimulus presentations were employed, supporting the idea that visual storage is centrally mediated for both age groups. The relevance of these findings for age differences in the registration of information into primary and secondary memory and their implications for the stimulus persistence hypothesis are considered. The appropriateness and validity of the persistence of form task for studies of sensory memory and aging are also discussed.

  10. Patterns of Ageism in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines age-based stereotypes in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model in four different age groups: schoolchildren, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Participants were asked to rank graphic portraits of both genders of four age clusters in terms of warmth and competence. The hypothesis that age groups, besides a positive evaluation of their own age cluster, would rate old people in an increasingly negative way as they themselves get older, was not confirmed. On the contrary, young children seem to have the most extreme prejudice against older people. Interestingly, adults and elderly appear to evaluate their own age cluster rather negatively too. Other relations between age groups indicate that ageism does not only affect old people and that it can include positive stereotypes as well. It is also argued, that ageism may have a changing pattern throughout the lifespan.

  11. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  12. Age Differences in Visual and Kinesthetic Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Tim

    1978-01-01

    Thirty elderly subjects (mean age 70 years) were matched with 30 young Ss (mean age 20 years) and tested on a kinesthetic short-term memory task which required the replication of criterion moves after a variable retention interval under conditions of either rest, differing interpolated movement tasks, or mental activity. (Author/CL)

  13. Object Construction and Imitation under Differing Conditions of Rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulos, John; Hunt, J. McV.

    1971-01-01

    Compares the ages at which infants living under different conditions in two orphanges in Athens, Greece achieve levels of object construction and imitation, both verbal and gestural. Home-reared infants of the same age range were also examined using two of the Uzgiris-Hunt Ordinal Scales of Infant Psychological Development. (WY)

  14. NUTRITIONAL PARAMETERS OF TANZANIA GRASS IN DIFFERENT CUTTING AGE UNDER NITROGEN DOSES PARÂMETROS NUTRICIONAIS DO CAPIM-TANZÂNIA SOB DOSES CRESCENTES DE NITROGÊNIO EM DIFERENTES IDADES DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Sayuri Miyagi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective this experiment was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Tanzania grass under increasing nitrogen levels in different cutting ages, under irrigation. The treatments were three N levels (ammonium sulphate: 200, 400 and 600 kg.ha-1 for year and four cutting ages: 28; 56; 84 and 112 days. A randomized complete blocks design in factorial 3x4 arrangement (three N levels and four cutting ages, with three repetitions was used. The analyses were accomplished using the sta-tistical System of Analysis of Variance of Data Balanced (SISVAR program. The DM tenors didn’t differ (P<0.05 among the cutting ages, except to the 112 days of increasing. Among the N levels the DM tenors differed (P<0.05 with the equivalent application to 400 and 600 kg.ha-1 of N. The CP (P>0.05 didn’t differ among the cutting ages, however they differed (P<0.05 among the N leves appraised. The NDF ADF and IVDMD didn’t differ (P>0.05 among the cutting ages, except the 112 days, however, they differed among the N levels applied.KEY-WORDS: Chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility, nitrogen fertilization.

    Avaliou-se a composição químico-bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca do capim-tanzânia submetido a doses crescentes de nitrogênio em diferentes idades de corte, sob irrigação. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três doses de N (sulfato de amônio: 200, 400 e 600 Kg/ha/ano, e quatro idades de cortes: 28; 56; 84 e 112 dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3x4 (três doses de nitrogênio x quatro idades de cortes com três repetições. Realizaram-se as análises mediante a  utilização do programa estatístico Sistema de Análise de Variância de Dados Balanceado (SISVAR. Os teores de MS não diferiram (P<0,05 entre as idades de corte, exceto aos 112 dias de

  15. Gender differences in survival in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Aaron; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Stessman, Jochanan

    2014-12-01

    Although increased survival among females is observed throughout much of adult life, supporting evidence among the oldest old is lacking. We examined the hypothesis that gender differences in survival diminish with advancing age. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Study follows a representative cohort born 1920-1921, comprehensively assessed at ages 70, 78, 85, and 90 (n=463, 927, 1224, and 673, respectively). Mortality data were collected during 1990-2013. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and mortality hazards ratios (HRs) were determined, adjusting for gender, marital status, education, loneliness, self-rated health, physical activity, functional status, neoplasm, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. Survival between ages 70-78 was 77.3% (n=358/463), 78-85 was 68.9% (n=635/927), 85-90 years was 71.1% (n=870/1224), and 90-93 years was 80.5% (n=542/673). With advancing age, the survival advantage among females versus men declined-at ages 70-78 (85.6% vs. 71%, p<0.0001), 78-85 (74% vs. 63%, p=0.001), 85-90 (74% vs. 67.5%, p=0.06), and 90-93 (80% vs. 81%, p=0.92). Compared to females (HR=1.0), the adjusted HR for male mortality at ages 70-78 was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.91), ages 78-85 was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.92), ages 85-90 was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2), and ages 90-93 was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.8). Our findings confirm the hypothesis that the increased longevity observed among females at age 70 gradually diminishes with advancing age, and disappears beyond age 90.

  16. The relationship between groundwater ages, streamflow ages, and storage selection functions under stationary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, W.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Waters in aquifers are often much older than the streamwaters that drain them. Simple physically based reasoning suggests that these age contrasts should be expected wherever catchments are heterogeneous. However, a general quantitative catchment-scale explanation of these age contrasts remains elusive. We show that under stationary conditions conservation of mass and age dictate that the age distribution of water stored in a catchment can be directly estimated from the age distribution of its outflows, and vice versa. This in turn implies that the catchment's preference for the release or retention of waters of different ages can be estimated directly from the age distribution of outflow under stationary conditions. Using simple models of transit times, we show that the mean age of stored water can range from half as old as the mean age of streamflow (for plug flow conditions) to almost infinitely older (for strongly preferential flow). Streamflow age distributions reported in the literature often have long upper tails, consistent with preferential flow and implying that storage ages are substantially older than streamflow ages. Mean streamflow ages reported in the literature imply that most streamflow originates from a thin veneer of total groundwater storage. This preferential release of young streamflow implies that most groundwater is exchanged only slowly with the surface, and consequently must be very old. Where information is available for both storage ages and streamflow ages, our analysis establishes consistency relationships through which each could be used to better constrain the other. By quantifying the relationship between groundwater and streamflow ages, our analysis provides tools to jointly assess both of these important catchment properties.

  17. Sex Differences in Aging: Genomic Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kathleen E; Riddle, Nicole C

    2018-01-16

    Aging is characterized by decreasing physiological integration, reduced function, loss of resilience, and increased risk of death. Paradoxically, although women live longer, they suffer greater morbidity particularly late in life. These sex differences in human lifespan and healthspan are consistently observed in all countries and during every era for which reliable data exist. While these differences are ubiquitous in humans, evidence of sex differences in longevity and health for other species is more equivocal. Among fruit flies, nematodes, and mice, sex differences in lifespan vary depending on strain and treatment. In this review, we focus on sex differences in age-related alterations in DNA damage and mutation rates, telomere attrition, epigenetics, and nuclear architecture. We find that robust sex differences exist, eg, the higher incidence of DNA damage in men compared to women, but sex differences are not often conserved between species. For most mechanisms reviewed here, there are insufficient data to make a clear determination regarding the impact of sex, largely because sex differences have not been analyzed. Overall, our findings reveal an urgent need for well-designed studies that explicitly examine sex differences in molecular drivers of aging. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Age differences in stress and coping processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Pimley, S; Novacek, J

    1987-06-01

    The dramatic increase in the numbers of people who are living into old age has been accompanied by a growing interest among psychologists and health care professionals in their sources of stress and how they cope with them. Despite this interest, little is known about normative stress and coping patterns and the ways in which these patterns differ in older and younger people. This study, which draws on stress and coping theory, compares younger and older community-dwelling adults in daily hassles and eight kinds of coping. Two interpretations of age differences are evaluated: a developmental interpretation, which says that there are inherent, stage-related changes in the ways people cope as they age, and a contextual interpretation, which says that age differences in coping result from changes in what people must cope with. The findings indicate that there are clear age differences in hassles and coping. Overall, the findings tend to support the developmental interpretation, although the contextual interpretation also applies.

  19. Time Perspective and Age: A Review of Age Associated Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureiro-Martinez, Daniella; Trujillo, Carlos A.; Unda, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between age and the five dimensions of time perspective measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future). Time perspective is related to well-being, decision-making, level of development, and many other psychological issues. Hence, the existence of a systematic relationship between time perspective and age should be considered in all studies for which time is a relevant variable. However, no specific research about this has been conducted. We collected 407 papers that referenced the ZTPI between 2001 and 2015. From those, 72 studies met our inclusion criteria. They included 29,815 participants from 19 countries whose age spans most phases of adulthood (from 13.5 to 75.5 years, mean 28.7). We analyzed these studies adapting meta-analytical techniques. We found that present hedonistic and past negative dimensions are negatively related to aging with partial eta squared effect sizes of roughly 0.15. Our results have implications for the design of studies related to time as our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the differences associated with age. PMID:28261119

  20. DAILY DYNAMICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF MULE DUCKS BEHAVIOR AT A DIFFERENT AGE, BRED IN INTEGRATED FISH PONDS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRIENT REGIMES. II. AT APPLYING THE SCHEME OF FEEDING WITH PARTIAL RESTRICTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila NIKOLOVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation upon the daily dynamics of the separate elements of mule ducks behavior has been carried out at the Institute of Fisheries and Acuaculture Plovdiv, Bulgaria, applying the schedule of feeding with partial restriction, at conditions of integrated fish-ducks technology. Our investigation has shown that the fishponds have been suitable for mule ducks rearing – the birds have had a good plumage status without demonstrations of cannibalism and aggressiveness. Together with the fattening period advance, ducks have spent less time for feeding and have reacted rather weakly to forage supply; the dry land stay time has been on the account of the fish-pond stay, having in mind that the swimming time has increased, as well as the rest time in the fish-pond together with the advance in age.

  1. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cerebellum (CER), striatum (STR), hippocampus (HIP)] of four diverse age groups [1 Month (young), 4 Month (adult), 12 Month (middle-aged), 24 Month (old age)] to understand age-related differences in selected brain regions and their contribution to age-related chemical sensitivity. Mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters and enzyme activity were measured under identical conditions across multiple age groups and brain regions in Brown Norway rats (n = 5). The results indicate age- and brain region-specific patterns in mitochondrial functional endpoints. For example, an age-specific decline in ATP synthesis (State 111 respiration) was observed in BS and HIP. Similarly, the maximal respiratory capacities (State V1 and V2) showed age-specific declines in all brain regions examined (young > adult > middle-aged > old age). Amongst all regions, HIP had the greatest change in mitochondrial bioenergetics, showing declines in the 4, 12 and 24 Month age groups. Activities of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV enzymes were also age- and brain-region specific. In general changes associated with age were more pronounced, with

  2. Individual differences in performance under acute stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to predict which persons are capable to perform under acute stress is important for the selection and training of professionals in the military, police, and fire- fighting domain. The present study examines how individual differences in coping (style, efficacy, and behavior) explain

  3. The organic matter of the different ages fallow Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giniyatullin, K. G.; Valeeva, A. A.; Smirnova, E. V.; Okunev, R. V.; Latipova, L. I.

    2018-01-01

    The study of the change in the humus state of the fallow Luvisols of different ages under the influence of weeds and meadow vegetation was carried out in dynamics (after 5 years). It is shown that both under weedy and meadow vegetation there is a statistically significant accumulation of organic matter in the upper part of the long-arable horizon. Based on the study of composition and spectral properties of soil organic matter in fallow soils of different ages concluded that the significant qualitative change of the humus state of fallow soils requires significant time, measured at least decades.

  4. Domination of Tradition in Under Age Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sulaiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was the phenomenon of early marriage which was domi- nated by cultural traditions. It was a qualitative research that used interview, obser- vation and document reviews to collect the data. The result of the study was expected to provide people enough information and materials on the picture of early marriage. The findings showed some determining factors in the phenomenon: culture, textual understanding of religion, and economic motives. Although the phenomenon of early marriage was like this, people actually perceive that the ideal marriage was a mar- riage which is conducted after reaching the age mature enough to be able to live inde- pendently. The practice of such marriage should get special attention because there are many social problems that are related direcly to the mature age of marriage, such as: mortality, poverty, and the low quality of education. Therefore, the implementa- tion of the marriage must be in accordance with the laws and regulations.

  5. THE CHILD OFFENDER UNDER THE AGE OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculina KARACSONY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At European level crime among children represents a contemporary issue and in Romania, the philosophy of the new penal code approved by Law No 286/2009 is shaped around punishment. Prevention policy in Romania and juvenile justice objectives relative to age criteria outlines two different legal manners to address children's liability under the law. One is targeting the category of children between 0 and 14 years of age, which consideres the absolute inability of criminal responsibility and one that provides criminal liability starting from the age of 14. The sensitivity of the issue of children involved in unlawfull acts and the inventory of responses to it brought me to the necessity of research the types of approach and diversity of social services built around this target group.

  6. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  7. Seed ageing and field performance of maize under water stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, plant biomass and grain yield per unit area for plants from aged seeds were considerably lower than those from non-aged seeds. No significant interaction of irrigation × seed ageing was observed for grain yield, suggesting that aged seeds had low yield under both well and limited irrigation conditions. Therefore ...

  8. Seed ageing and field performance of maize under water stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... As a result, plant biomass and grain yield per unit area for plants from aged seeds were considerably lower than those from non-aged seeds. No significant interaction of irrigation × seed ageing was observed for grain yield, suggesting that aged seeds had low yield under both well and limited irrigation ...

  9. Modeling of STATCOM under different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Kowsalya, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study and analysis of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), mainly the modeling of STATCOM. Reactive Power Compensation plays a very important role in the transmission of Electric Power. A comparative study of how the reactive power is injected into the transmission ...... system with and without STATCOM under different loading condition is also illustrated in this paper. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software....

  10. Digital inequalities and different experiences of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    The complexity of the emerging digital media environment inevitably raises questions about digital literacy and social inequality. However, a major shortcoming of the existing research on digital inequality in later life is that it tells us little to nothing about how and why media actually matters...... to different older people and how this intersects with dis- or empowerment in later life and social segmentation. The way people use (digital) media in everyday life therefore constitutes a critical access-point to the study of differences in ageing as well as to the study of what literacy - or the lack...... of such - actually means to different people. My research is based on the assumption that people’s access to (and use of) media is integral to the power relations of current social and cultural transformations. In order to contribute to user-centered and practice-based understandings of why and how media matters...

  11. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri Moghadam, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...

  12. Sensorial differences according to sex and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L A; Lin, S M; Teixeira, M J; de Siqueira, J T T; Jacob Filho, W; de Siqueira, S R D T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate age and sex differences in orofacial sensory detection. One hundred and twenty-six (126) healthy subjects were divided into five groups according to their ages. They were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing protocol for gustative, olfactory, thermal (cold/warm), mechanical (tactile/vibration/electric), and pain (deep/superficial) detection thresholds. The corneal reflex was also evaluated. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA, chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The groups of subjects over 61 years old had higher olfactory (P sweet P = 0.004, salty P = 0.007, sour P = 0.006), thermal (warm P sweet P = 0.020, salty P = 0.002, sour P < 0.001, and bitter P = 0.002), olfactory (P = 0.010), warm (P < 0.001) and deep (P < 0.001), and superficial pain (P = 0.008) detection thresholds than men, and men from all age groups had lower vibratory detection thresholds (P = 0.006) than women. High sensory detection thresholds were observed in subjects over the 6th decade of life, and women had a more accurate sensory perception than men. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles.

  14. Opinions of educated youth towards age at marriage and difference in age between partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patravali, P; Gaonkar, V

    1991-04-01

    Professors conducted a survey of 160 18-24 year old students attending 4 colleges of Dharwad city of Karnataka in India to examine their opinion concerning ideal marriage age and age difference between spouses. Females tended to prefer a higher marriage age for males than did males (26.5 vs. 25.5), but the difference was not significant. Rural males believed the ideal marriage age for females be 20 years whereas rural females believed it to be 22 years (p .05). Urban females also believed it to be 22 years and urban males reported 21 years. Most students (57.5%), especially 18-19 year olds (77.5%) and females (61.77% vs. 56.36% for males), said the ideal age difference between spouses was under 5 years. Students who were at least 24 years old tended to state 5-10 (60%). Males also preferred this age difference (42.06% vs. 38.23% for females). 2 20-23 year old male students believed the ideal age difference to be more than 10 years. Students' age was significantly associated with their opinion on the ideal age difference between spouses (p .05). Students from extended families and rural areas tended to prefer a 5-10 year age difference between the spouses with a few mentioning more than 10 years whereas students from nuclear families and urban areas preferred under 5 years with no one mentioning more than 10 years (p .05). These results indicated that both males and females prefer to marry after they have completed their education. The advantages of schooling including improved thinking and decision-making abilities allow them to wisely allocate family resources and decide upon an ideal family size.

  15. Gender, Age, Social differences and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.

  16. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  17. Sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction in men under 55 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janggen

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity in childhood are associated with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF as predisposition for atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction (MI in a cohort of men under 55 years of age.The Bern percutaneous coronary intervention Registry (NCT 02241291 was analyzed from March 2009 until January 2012. Male patients with first MI, age 18 to 54 years and body mass index ≤25kg/m2 were included. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their starting age with organized sports ≥1 h/week outside school (EARLY: <18, CONTROL: ≥18 years or never. We assessed age at time of first MI, CVRF, and volume of sports training.Of 4,394 consecutive patients, 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (EARLY n = 81, CONTROL n = 42. Age at the time of first MI was 3 years younger in the EARLY compared to the CONTROL group (46.8±6.0 vs. 49.8±4.6 years, p = 0.006. Total lifetime training hours, and average yearly training hours, both, before and after age 18, were significantly greater in the EARLY group. Years of training <18 years were weakly inversely correlated with age at first MI (r2 = 0.075, p = 0.002. The proportion of sports-related MI was not different between EARLY and CONTROL (13.6% vs. 11.9%. Patients in the EARLY group had fewer CVRF (2 vs. 3; p = 0.001. Prevalence of smoking was equally high in both groups (63.0% and 64.3%.In our patients aged 54 and younger, the first MI occurred 3 years earlier in those who started regular sports activity before age 18, despite a more active lifestyle and favorable CVRF profile.

  18. Sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction in men under 55 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janggen, Christoph; Gräni, Christoph; Brunner, Jonas; Trachsel, Lukas D; Windecker, Stephan; Eser, Prisca; Räber, Lorenz; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity in childhood are associated with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) as predisposition for atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction (MI) in a cohort of men under 55 years of age. The Bern percutaneous coronary intervention Registry (NCT 02241291) was analyzed from March 2009 until January 2012. Male patients with first MI, age 18 to 54 years and body mass index ≤25kg/m2 were included. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their starting age with organized sports ≥1 h/week outside school (EARLY: sports training. Of 4,394 consecutive patients, 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (EARLY n = 81, CONTROL n = 42). Age at the time of first MI was 3 years younger in the EARLY compared to the CONTROL group (46.8±6.0 vs. 49.8±4.6 years, p = 0.006). Total lifetime training hours, and average yearly training hours, both, before and after age 18, were significantly greater in the EARLY group. Years of training sports-related MI was not different between EARLY and CONTROL (13.6% vs. 11.9%). Patients in the EARLY group had fewer CVRF (2 vs. 3; p = 0.001). Prevalence of smoking was equally high in both groups (63.0% and 64.3%). In our patients aged 54 and younger, the first MI occurred 3 years earlier in those who started regular sports activity before age 18, despite a more active lifestyle and favorable CVRF profile.

  19. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  20. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  1. Histological Characteristics of Bruises with Different Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kostadinova-Petrova

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: A detailed analysis of tissue changes in bruises every day from the initiation until their recovery, a detailed description of the histological finding can be given, which will be supported in the precise determination of the age of the injuries themselves.

  2. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobenzene in Eisenia foetida at different aging stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjian

    2009-01-01

    The impacts of contact time on the extractability, the availability of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in different soils (paddy soil, red soil, and fluvo-aquic soil) and bioaccumulation in earthworm Eisenia foetida were investigated under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results indicated that the aging rate of HCB displaying a biphasic character in different soils: a rapid aging in the first 60 d followed by a slow aging in the next 120 d incubation time. Moreover, most of extractable HCB (about 90%) decline occurred in the first 60 d after HCB was spiked into the soils. The aging rate of HCB in the paddy soil was higher than that in the fluvo-aquic soil or the red soil. The amount of HCB accumulated in the earthworms and its accumulative ability, expressed as a bioaccumulation factor (BAF), declined as the aging time increased from 1 to 180 d. Although the extractable HCB decreased with increasing residence time in soil, much of HCB could still be accumulated by earthworms (457.6-984.3 ng/g) through bioaccumulation, which poses a potential risk to soil ecological safety.

  3. AGE DIFFERENCES IN OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Adamović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational injuries at construction sites are identified as a major problem throughout the world. The purposes of this study are to estimate the number and average annual rate of occupational traumatic injuries and to estimate the age differences in transition period between 1993s and 2003s in construction industry. The most prevalence of injuries was registered in 1994 (4.55% and in 2003 s (4.38%. The number of injured workers under the 20 years of age decreased in the examined period (from 22.2% in 1993s to 4.6% in the 2003s. The number of injured worker over the 51 years of age increased in the examined period (from 0.9% in 1993s to 17.8% in 2003 s. Closed fractures (24.1%, open fractures (14.6% and dislocated fractures (10.9% were the most common type of injuries in the examined period. These types of injuries were the most frequently presented at the workers over the 51 years of age. Falls from height, falls on same level and traffic accidents were the most common causes of occupational injuries in the examined period. Falls from height and falls on the same level were the most common presented at the workers over the 51 years of age. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of occupational injuries among the workers under the 30 years of age. Severity ratio of occupational injuries raised by the age of injured workers. Severity ratio of injuries raised in the examined period (from 60.6 in 1993s to 82.7 in the 2003s. Traumatic occupational injuries are a specific and significant problem in construction industry in the transition period.

  4. Identification of carbonate pedofeatures of different ages in modern chernozems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovda, I. V.; Morgun, E. G.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Oleinik, S. A.; Shishkov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate pedofeatures of three chernozemic soils developed from loesslike loams in the foreststeppe zone of Lipetsk oblast under fallow plot (Luvic Chernozem (Clayic, Pachic)) and under forest (Calcic Chernozem (Clayic, Pachic)) and in the steppe zone of Dnepropetrovsk oblast (Calcic Chernozem (Episiltic, Endoclayic, Pachic)) were studied in the field and laboratory with the use of a set of methods, including the radiocarbon method, mass spectrometry, and micro- and submicromorphology. The morphological diversity of carbonate pedofeatures in these soils was represented by carbonate veins, coatings, disperse carbonates (carbonate impregnations), soft masses (beloglazka), and concretions. In the forest-steppe soils, disperse carbonates and soft masses were absent. The radiocarbon age of carbonate pedofeatures in the forest-steppe soils varied within a relatively narrow range of 3-4.3 ka cal BP with a tendency for a younger age of carbonate concretions subjected to destruction (geodes). In the steppe chernozem, this range was larger, and the 14C ages of different forms of carbonate pedofeatures were different. Thus, soft masses (beloglazka) had the age of 5.5-6 ka cal BP; disperse carbonates, 17.5-18.5 ka cal BP; and hard carbonate concretions, 26-27 ka cal BP. Data on δ13C demonstrated that the isotopic composition of carbon in virtually all the "nonlabile" carbonate pedofeatures does not correspond to the isotopic composition of carbon of the modern soil organic matter. It was shown that the studied chernozemic soils are polygenetic formations containing carbonate pedofeatures of different ages: (a) recent (currently growing), (b) relict, and (c) inherited pedofeatures. The latter group represents complex pedofeatures that include ancient fragments integrated in younger pedofeatures, e.g., the Holocene soft carbonate nodules with inclusions of fragments of the ancient microcodium.

  5. The decomposition of estuarine macrophytes under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The low levels of total oxidised nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite) released during decomposition were attributed to the inhibition of nitrification by heterotrophic bacteria under anoxic conditions. The relative levels of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) released were lower than that observed for DIN, and peaked early on in the ...

  6. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  7. Rebrota de cepas de Acacia mearnsii em diferentes idades, épocas do ano e alturas de corte Resprouting of Acacia mearnsii stumps under different ages, seasons and cut heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Rogério Perrando

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade, da época do ano e da altura de corte sobre a capacidade de rebrota de cepas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. O trabalho foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso e parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Em árvores de quatro e sete anos, foram avaliadas as alturas de corte de 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60; 1,2 e 2 m aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90 dias depois do corte, nas quatro estações do ano. Obteve-se interação significativa entre a altura de corte e a época de avaliação, em ambas as idades avaliadas. As maiores médias, quanto ao número de brotações por cepa, foram constatadas a 1,2 e 2 m de altura, na idade de quatro anos. Elevados porcentuais de mortalidade foram registrados em cepas com sete anos, independentemente da altura de corte. A capacidade de rebrota em cepas de acácia-negra é estimulada, quando o corte é realizado no período entre o outono e a primavera. O verão é a estação menos adequada à rebrota de cepas dessa espécie.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of age, time of the year and cut height on the resprouting capacity of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stumps. The work was conducted in stands of four and seven years of age, in randomized blocks design and time subdivided plots. Different cut heights (0.15; 0.30; 0.45; 0.60; 1.2 and 2 m, and evaluation times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after cutting, in the four seasons of the year were evaluated. A significant interaction between cut height and evaluation time was found in both ages. The higher averages due to stumps in each strain were verified in 1.2 and 2 m height, in the age of four years. High death percentages were registered in seven years-old stumps, independently of cut height. The resprouting capacity of black wattle stumps is stimulated when cut is conducted between autumn and spring; summer is the least suitable season to stumps resprouting of this specie.

  8. Modeling heat stress under different environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carabano, Maria-Jesus; Logar, Betka; Bormann, Jeanne; Minet, Julien; Vanrobays, ML; Diaz, Clara; Tychon, Bernard; Gengler, Nicolas; Hammami, Hedi

    2016-01-01

    Renewed interest in heat stress effects on livestock productivity derives from climate change, which is expected to increase temperatures and the frequency of extreme weather events. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of temperature and humidity on milk production in highly selected dairy cattle populations across three European regions differing in climate and production systems to detect differences and similarities that can be used to optimize heat stress (HS) effect modeling. Mi...

  9. Behavior of Confined Columns under Different Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Osman; Ata El-Kareim Shoeib Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Since columns are the most important elements of the structures, failure of one column in a critical location can cause a progressive collapse. In this respect, the repair and strengthening of columns is a very important subject to reduce the building failure and to keep the columns capacity. Twenty columns with different parameters is tested and analysis. Eleven typical confined reinforced concrete (RC) columns with different types of techniques are assessment. And also,...

  10. Nutritional status of children under the age five in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rjimati, Arbi; El Menchawy, Imane; Baddou, Issâd; El Kari, Khalid; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Rabi, Baha

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In Morocco we live nutritional, demographic and epidemiological transition. These transitions affect the nutritional status of the population, especially that of children under five years of age. They also play a guiding role in the development of strategies to be implemented to improve the situation. Aim: To describe the evolution of the nutritional status of children under five years in Morocco over the past ten years. Methods: Two national surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2011. One of the objectives of these surveys is to assess the nutritional status of children aged less than five years compared to WHO standards. Results: The surveys that included 5737 children under 5 years in 2004 and 7271 in 2011 showed according to WHO standards, at the national level , a prevalence of underweight of 3.1 % ( weight / age <- 2SD) in 2011, compared to 10.7 % in 2004. At the national level in 2011, 14.9 % of children under 5 suffer from stunting ( height / age <-2 SD), this proportion was 23.7 % in 2004, acute malnutrition affects 2.3 % of children under five in 2011 against 12.7% in 2004, the proportion of children who are overweight and obese is 12. 5% (BMI for age > 2 SD) 2.6 % of which are obese (BMI for age > 3 SD), whereas the proportion of children with overweight and obesity was 10.4 % in 2004. Discussion/conclusions: These studies show that acute malnutrition almost disappeared in Morocco, however prevalence of stunting remains high, overweight and obesity among children less than five years increased in the country. (author)

  11. Soil aggregation under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Mascioli Rebello Portella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the soil aggregation reflects the interaction of chemical, physical and biological soil factors, the aim of this study was evaluate alterations in aggregation, in an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, since over 20 years, using as reference a native forest soil in natural state. After analysis of the soil profile (cultural profile in areas under forest management, samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm, with six repetitions. These samples were analyzed for the aggregate stability index (ASI, mean weighted diameter (MWD, mean geometric diameter (MGD in the classes > 8, 8-4, 4-2, 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25, and < 0.25 mm, and for physical properties (soil texture, water dispersible clay (WDC, flocculation index (FI and bulk density (Bd and chemical properties (total organic carbon - COT, total nitrogen - N, exchangeable calcium - Ca2+, and pH. The results indicated that more intense soil preparation (M < NT < PC resulted in a decrease in soil stability, confirmed by all stability indicators analyzed: MWD, MGD, ASI, aggregate class distribution, WDC and FI, indicating the validity of these indicators in aggregation analyses of the studied soil.

  12. Surgical outcomes in two different age groups with Focal Cortical Dysplasia type II: Any real difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Molina, Jorge Luis; Di Giacomo, Roberta; Mariani, Valeria; Deleo, Francesco; Cardinale, Francesco; Uscátegui-Daccarett, Angélica María; Lorenzana, Pablo; Tassi, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Focal Cortical Dysplasias (FCDs) represent a common architectural cortical disorder underlying drug-resistant focal epilepsy. So far, studies aimed at evaluating whether age at surgery is a factor influencing surgical outcome are lacking, so that data on the comparison between patients harboring Type II FCD operated at younger age and those operated at adult age are still scarce. We compared presurgical clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients with histopathologically diagnosed Type II FCD undergoing surgery at an earlier age with those operated after 20 years of age. We retrospectively analyzed 1660 consecutive patients operated at the "Claudio Munari" Epilepsy Surgery Centre. There were 289 patients (17.4%) with a neuropathological diagnosis of Type II FCD. We included two different groups of patients, the first one including patients operated on at less than 6years, the second sharing the same seizure onset age but with delayed surgery, carried out after the age of 20. Seizure characteristics and, neuropsychological and postoperative seizure outcomes were evaluated by study group. Forty patients underwent surgery before the age of 6 and 66 patients after the age of 20. Surgical outcome was favorable in the whole population (72.6% were classified in Engel's Class Ia+Ic), independently from age at surgery. In the children group, 32 patients were classified in Class I, including 30 (75%) children in classes Ia and Ic. In the adult group, 53 belonged to Class I of whom 47 (71%) were in classes Ia and Ic. The percentage of permanent complications, the surgical outcomes, and AED withdrawal did not significantly differ by study group. Our results indicate that there is no difference between the groups, suggesting that outcome depends mainly on the histological findings and not on timing of surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  14. ( Arachis hypogeae ) Yield Performance under different Weeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two–year field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ekiti State University, Ado – Ekiti, Nigeria, during 2008 and 2009 cropping seasons to determine the effects of different weeding regimes on soil chemical properties and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae). The experiment was laid out ...

  15. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  16. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli in children under-five years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 children with diarrhea from December 2011 to February 2012. Identification of E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following ...

  17. Age differences in the spontaneous termination of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P J; Rogers, N L; Campbell, S S

    2000-03-01

    The stage from which the spontaneous ending of sleep occurred was investigated in 138 sleep episodes obtained from 14 younger (19-28 years) and 11 older (60-82 years) individuals. The possible influences of circadian phase and quality of the preceding sleep period, as well as the impact of aging on characteristics of sleep termination were examined. Under experimental conditions in which subjects were isolated from time cues, and behavioral options to sleep were limited, no age-associated differences in the duration of sleep periods, or in the number or duration of REM episodes were observed. Despite similar percentages of NREM (stages 2-4) and REM sleep across age groups, younger subjects awakened preferentially from REM while older subjects did not. Of the sleep episodes obtained from older subjects, those with sleep efficiencies higher than the median were more likely to terminate from REM than those with lower sleep efficiencies. For all subjects, the REM episodes from which sleep termination occurred were truncated relative to those that did not end the sleep period. In addition, nonterminating REM episodes that were interrupted by a stage shift were most often interrupted by brief arousals to stage 0. Such arousals within nonterminating REM episodes occurred, on average, after a similar duration as the terminating point of sleep-ending REM episodes. The results from this study demonstrate that there are age-related differences in the sleep stage from which spontaneous awakenings occur, and that these differences may be due in part to the quality of the sleep period preceding termination. Findings regarding the characteristics of both terminating and nonterminating REM episodes are consistent with the notion that the neural and biochemical context of REM sleep may facilitate a smooth transition to wakefulness. It is speculated that age-associated changes in sleep continuity may render unnecessary the putative role of REM sleep in providing a 'gate' to

  18. Histological Characteristics of Bruises with Different Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova-Petrova, Irena; Mitevska, Elida; Janeska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In forensics bruises as injuries take an important part in the interpretation of the causes of death. Since activating the inflammatory response of the body in their formation, histological analysis of the bruised tissue can provide data on the determination the time when the injury occurred. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the histological features of 1-day and 5-days old bruises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bruised human skin samples, 1-day old in group A and 5-day-old in group B, obtained at autopsy from individuals who died from a violent death, were analyzed in this study. The qualitative microscopic analysis was performed on serial paraffin sections of tissues stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and Pearls Prussian Blue method, using a light microscope connected to a digital camera. RESULTS: Qualitative histological analysis of the studied group A presented with fresh bruises, less than 24 hours old, showed ruptured smaller vessels and extravasated red blood cells in the connective tissue of the skin, with subsequent expansion and infiltration of fibrous septa of the skin. In the area of bleeding an initial infiltration by macrophages was observed. In the studied group B, presented with bruises 3-7 days old, histological analysis showed a marked presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages and presence of hematoidin granules in the area of bleeding, as well as ruptured small blood vessels and red blood cells extravasation in the dilated fibrous septa. CONCLUSION: A detailed analysis of tissue changes in bruises every day from the initiation until their recovery, a detailed description of the histological finding can be given, which will be supported in the precise determination of the age of the injuries themselves. PMID:29362602

  19. Produtividade de forragem e morfogênese de "Trachypogon vestitus" em diferentes idades de rebrota nos cerrados de Roraima Forage production and morphogenesis of “Trachypogon vestitus” under different regrowth ages in the Roraima’s savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gianluppi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da idade da planta ao corte (21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 e 70 dias sobre a produção de forragem e características morfogênicas e estruturais de Trachypogon vestitus, submetido a queima, durante o período chuvoso, foi avaliado em condições de campo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. As avaliações foram realizadas no período de maio a julho de 2009. O aumento da idade das plantas resultou em maiores rendimentos de forragem, taxa absoluta de crescimento (TAC, número de perfilhos/planta, número de folhas/perfilho, tamanho médio de folhas, área foliar e taxas de expansão e senescência foliar. As relações entre idade das plantas e o rendimento de matéria seca, a TAC, a taxa de expansão foliar e o tamanho médio de folhas da gramínea foram ajustadas ao modelo quadrático de regressão, sendo os máximos valores registrados aos 65,8; 50,1; 43,4 e 62,0 dias de rebrota, respectivamente. As taxas de crescimento da cultura, taxa de crescimento relativo, taxas de aparecimento de perfilhos e de folhas foram inversamente proporcionais às idades das plantas. Visando conciliar produtividade de forragem com a maximização das características morfogênicas e estruturais da gramínea, o período de utilização mais adequado de suas pastagens situa-se entre 49 e 56 dias de rebrota.The effects of plant age regrowth (21; 28; 35; 42; 49; 56; 63 and 70 days on dry matter yield, and morphogenetic and structural characteristics of Trachypogon vestitus, submitted to burning, during rainy season, were evaluated under natural field conditions. Evaluations were carried out during the period of May to July 2009. The dry matter yield, absolute growth rate, number of tillers/plant, number of leafs/plant, leaf area, leaf senescence and elongation rates and blade length increased consistently with growth stage. The relations between dry matter yield and absolute growth rate, elongation leaf rate and

  20. Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in Cannabis Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calakos, Katina C; Bhatt, Shivani; Foster, Dawn W; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide. In recent decades, highly concentrated products have flooded the market, and prevalence rates have increased. Gender differences exist in cannabis use, as men have higher prevalence of both cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD), while women progress more rapidly from first use to CUD. This paper reviews findings from preclinical and human studies examining the sex-specific neurobiological underpinnings of cannabis use and CUD, and associations with psychiatric symptoms. Sex differences exist in the endocannabinoid system, in cannabis exposure effects on brain structure and function, and in the co-occurrence of cannabis use with symptoms of anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. In female cannabis users, anxiety symptoms correlate with larger amygdala volume and social anxiety disorder symptoms correlate with CUD symptoms. Female cannabis users are reported to be especially vulnerable to earlier onset of schizophrenia, and mixed trends emerge in the correlation of depressive symptoms with cannabis exposure in females and males. As prevalence of cannabis use may continue to increase given the shifting policy landscape regarding marijuana laws, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of cannabis exposure in females and males is key. Examining these mechanisms may help inform future research on sex-specific pharmacological and behavioral interventions for women and men with high-risk cannabis use, comorbid psychiatric disease, and CUD.

  1. Modeling heat stress under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Logar, B; Bormann, J; Minet, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Díaz, C; Tychon, B; Gengler, N; Hammami, H

    2016-05-01

    Renewed interest in heat stress effects on livestock productivity derives from climate change, which is expected to increase temperatures and the frequency of extreme weather events. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of temperature and humidity on milk production in highly selected dairy cattle populations across 3 European regions differing in climate and production systems to detect differences and similarities that can be used to optimize heat stress (HS) effect modeling. Milk, fat, and protein test day data from official milk recording for 1999 to 2010 in 4 Holstein populations located in the Walloon Region of Belgium (BEL), Luxembourg (LUX), Slovenia (SLO), and southern Spain (SPA) were merged with temperature and humidity data provided by the state meteorological agencies. After merging, the number of test day records/cows per trait ranged from 686,726/49,655 in SLO to 1,982,047/136,746 in BEL. Values for the daily average and maximum temperature-humidity index (THIavg and THImax) ranges for THIavg/THImax were largest in SLO (22-74/28-84) and shortest in SPA (39-76/46-83). Change point techniques were used to determine comfort thresholds, which differed across traits and climatic regions. Milk yield showed an inverted U-shaped pattern of response across the THI scale with a HS threshold around 73 THImax units. For fat and protein, thresholds were lower than for milk yield and were shifted around 6 THI units toward larger values in SPA compared with the other countries. Fat showed lower HS thresholds than protein traits in all countries. The traditional broken line model was compared with quadratic and cubic fits of the pattern of response in production to increasing heat loads. A cubic polynomial model allowing for individual variation in patterns of response and THIavg as heat load measure showed the best statistical features. Higher/lower producing animals showed less/more persistent production (quantity and quality) across the THI scale. The

  2. Biomechanics of fall arrest using the upper extremity: age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    This study tried to isolate critical biomechanical factors in fall arrests using the upper extremity during simulated forward falls. This study also attempted to find the differences in those factors between young and old age groups. The role of the upper extremity is not well defined despite its primary usage as a local shock absorber during fall impact. Comparative study in which two age groups underwent motion analysis.Methods. Ten healthy older males (mean age, 66.4 years) and 10 young males (mean age, 24.1 years) volunteered to perform self-initiated and cable-released falls at selected falling distances, while the joint motion and impact forces at the hand were recorded. Significant age differences were demonstrated in joint kinematics and impact force parameters at close distances. Excessive reflexive responses of the upper extremity in cable-released falls for the older adults resulted in 10-15 times higher peak impact forces and 2-3 times shorter body braking time than in self-initiated falls. Pre-impact activities of the upper extremity predispose the post-impact response during fall arrests. Suppressing excessive pre-impact reflexive activation of the arms could efficiently decrease the risk of fall-related injuries, which calls for securing sufficient arm movement time. Any fall prevention strategy that can increase arm movement time would be effective against injuries of the upper extremity during falling in the older adults. The findings will help to understand underlying mechanisms of fall arrest using the upper extremity for prevention of fall-related fractures.

  3. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  4. 8 Different approaches needed to manage ED demand among different age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Melanie; Ablard, Suzanne; O'Keeffe, Colin; Mason, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    including patient education, co-location of other services with ED ('ED hubs'), and extending community-based services. ED staff attribute distinctly different patterns of ED attendance to patients of different age groups, including reasons for attending ED, the route to the ED, and the rate of non-urgent attendance. Given this variation, proposed demand management interventions are likely to impact differently on different age groups, and one solution is unlikely to be optimal for all ages. Therefore a number of different approaches will be needed to manage ED demand among different age groups. © 2017, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  6. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Andreas; Gligor, Mark; Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Rosenkranz, David; Zupke, Oliver

    2011-10-11

    Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs in different environmental settings. This sheds light on the

  7. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  8. DC Electrical Ageing of XLPE under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Benlizidia Lalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental electrical ageing, of cross-linked polyethylene films 100 μm thick, was investigated under high hydrostatic pressure of 300 bar and at atmospheric pressure. The tests are conducted on direct current (dc for up to 1000 h ageing and at temperature of 70°C. The use of the Weibull statistic, with the estimation of confidence bounds at 90%, has shown that the hydrostatic pressure has a real effect on the lifetime. These lifetime data are qualitatively analyzed with the inverse power model. It was found that thermally activated process is able to describe the pressure effect on the electrical ageing of XLPE.

  9. Diesel soot aging in urban plumes within hours under cold dark and humid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, A C; Wittbom, C; Roldin, P; Sporre, M; Öström, E; Nilsson, P; Martinsson, J; Rissler, J; Nordin, E Z; Svenningsson, B; Pagels, J; Swietlicki, E

    2017-09-28

    Fresh and aged diesel soot particles have different impacts on climate and human health. While fresh diesel soot particles are highly aspherical and non-hygroscopic, aged particles are spherical and hygroscopic. Aging and its effect on water uptake also controls the dispersion of diesel soot in the atmosphere. Understanding the timescales on which diesel soot ages in the atmosphere is thus important, yet knowledge thereof is lacking. We show that under cold, dark and humid conditions the atmospheric transformation from fresh to aged soot occurs on a timescale of less than five hours. Under dry conditions in the laboratory, diesel soot transformation is much less efficient. While photochemistry drives soot aging, our data show it is not always a limiting factor. Field observations together with aerosol process model simulations show that the rapid ambient diesel soot aging in urban plumes is caused by coupled ammonium nitrate formation and water uptake.

  10. Ageing of portland cement concrete cured under moist conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Z.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Deterioration of microstructure in cement concrete will cause changes in the transport properties of the concrete. Transport properties at different ages of the concrete provide information about the microstructural changes of the material. A way to measure the transport properties, i.e. the

  11. Mineralogical composition changes of postagrogenic soils under different plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilin, Nikita; Chizhikova, Natalia; Varlamov, Evgheni; Churilina, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Plant communities play the leading role in transformation of soil. The need of studying former arable lands increases due to large number of abandoned lands in Russia. It is necessary to study mineralogical composition of soils involved into natural processes to understand the trends of their development after agricultural activities in the past. The aim of the study is to identify changes in mineralogical composition of soils under the influence of different plant communities. Soils were sampled in the south of Arkhangelsk region, Ustyansky district, near Akichkin Pochinok village. Soils are formed on clay moraine of Moscow glaciation. Soil profiles were dug on interfluve. We selected 4 plant communities on different stages of succession: upland meadow with domination of sod grasses (Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis), 16-year-old birch forest where dominants are herbaceous plants such as Poa sp., Chamerion angustiflium, Agrostis tenuis, 16-year-old spruce forest with no herbaceous vegetation and 70-year-old bilberry spruce forest with domination of Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. To separate soil fractions mineral content. We noticed a clear differentiation of studied soils both in the content of fraction and composition of minerals. Mineralogical composition and major mineral phases correlation of profiles under 70 years and 16 years of spruce forests are different. Mineralogical content in upper part of profile under the young spruce is more differentiated than in old spruce forest: the amount of quartz and kaolinite increases in upper horizon, although in this case the overall pattern of profile formation of clay material during podzolization remains unchanged. There is more substantial desilting under the birch forest, compared with profile under the spruce of same age within top 50 cm. Under the meadow vegetation we've discovered differentiation in mineral composition. Upper horizons contain smectite phase and differ from the underlying

  12. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stereotypes of Age Differences in Personality Traits: Universal and Accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kourilova, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claduio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. PMID:23088227

  14. THE EVALUATION OF SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE UNDERLYING DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the embodied cognition theory and to the sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge: (a concepts are represented in the brain in the same format in which they have been constructed by the sensory-motor system and (b various conceptual categories differ for the weight that different kinds of information play in their representation. In our study, we have tried to check the second assumption by asking normal elderly subjects to rate their subjective evaluation of the role that various perceptual, motor and language-mediated sources of knowledge could have in the construction of different semantic categories. Our first aim consisted in rating the influence that different sources of knowledge could have in the representation of animals, plant life and artifact categories, rather than in those of living and non-living beings, as many previous studies on this subject have made. We also tried to check the influence of age and stimulus modality on these evaluations of the ‘sources of knowledge’ underlying different conceptual categories. The influence of age was checked by comparing results obtained on our group of elderly subjects with those obtained in a previous study, conducted with the same methodology on a sample of young students, whereas the influence of stimulus modality was assessed by presenting the stimuli in the verbal modality to 50 subjects and in the pictorial modality to 50 other subjects.The distinction between ‘animals’ and ‘plant life’ within the ‘living’ categories was confirmed bythe analysis of their prevalent sources of knowledge and by a cluster analysis, which allowed to distinguish fruits and vegetables from animals. Furthermore, results of the study showed: (a that the visual modality was considered by our subjects as the main source of knowledge for all the categories taken into account; (b that in biological categories the next more important source of information was represented by other

  15. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    until failure. The characterization at different stages of lifetime indicates that the rise in resistance originates from thermo-mechanical degradation of interconnects. Post-test investigations: four-point probing and micro-sectioning indicate thermo-mechanical induced degradation of the chip topside...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested......This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...

  16. Psychological Features of Foreign Language Acquisition in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Kudinova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age factor on the foreign language learning is examined in the article from the practical point of view. The specific age features and their influence on the foreign language acquisition at different stages of age are highlighted and analyzed on the basis of psychological research.

  17. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  18. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSteffener

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance.

  19. Age Differences in Loneliness from Late Adolescence to Oldest Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…

  20. Peculiarities of roentgenosemiotics of ulcerous disease in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshenko, Yu.T.; Reztsova, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Roentgenomorphological and functional signs of stomach and duodenum ulcer disease was studied in different age groups in 382 patients that were subjected to a complex of clinico-laboratory and roentgenological examinations. It is concluded that in different age groups ulcerous disease of stomach and duodenum is characterized by a considerable peculiarities of roengenomorphologic characters. In some age groups disclosed are characteristic symptomocomplexes of roentgenofunctional shifts typical of ulcers of different localisations. It is shown that there is a regular relation between the type of functional shifts, age of a patient and location of ulcers

  1. HOW LITERACY AFFECTS UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN PALESTINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed SALAMA

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how literacy rate affects unemployment among different ages in Palestine. Using labour force surveys and annual reports of Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS, 2000-2015), we analyzed 16 years (2000-2015) regarding unemployment percentage and literacy rates among different ages in both genders in Palestine. Linear regression models were used to show how literacy rate affects unemployment among the various ages. The results showed that literacy rate is sig...

  2. Pharmacist or Physician: Age Differences in Satisfaction with Medical Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Odette N.; Wasylkiw, Louise; Rogers, Erin E.; MacPherson, Miranda

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined predictors of medical care satisfaction in communities in Eastern Canada. Both studies focused on how the roles of pharmacists and physicians are perceived by adults of different ages. Using a survey methodology, Study 1 demonstrated that middle-aged adults, older adults, and community pharmacists differ in the extent to which…

  3. Explaining individual differences in cognitive processes underlying hindsight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolin, Alisha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Allen E; Thornton, Wendy Loken

    2015-04-01

    After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contributing to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon. More recent applications of this model have revealed that, in comparison to younger adults, older adults are more susceptible to two underlying HB processes: recollection bias and reconstruction bias. However, the impact of cognitive functioning on these processes remains unclear. In this article, we extend the MPT model for HB by incorporating individual variation in cognitive functioning into the estimation of the model's core parameters in older and younger adults. In older adults, our findings revealed that (1) better episodic memory was associated with higher recollection ability in the absence of outcome knowledge, (2) better episodic memory and inhibitory control and higher working memory capacity were associated with higher recollection ability in the presence of outcome knowledge, and (3) better inhibitory control was associated with less reconstruction bias. Although the pattern of effects was similar in younger adults, the cognitive covariates did not significantly predict the underlying HB processes in this age group. In sum, we present a novel approach to modeling individual variability in MPT models. We applied this approach to the HB paradigm to identify the cognitive mechanisms contributing to the underlying HB processes. Our results show that working memory capacity and inhibitory control, respectively, drive individual differences in recollection bias and reconstruction bias, particularly in older adults.

  4. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Janz, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  5. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Study design and methods. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Results. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. Conclusions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  6. Modeling of the bipolar transistor under different pulse ionizing radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. M.; Skorobogatov, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a 2D model of the bipolar transistor 2T312 under gamma, X-ray and laser pulse ionizing radiations. Both the Finite Element Discretization and Semiconductor module of Comsol 5.1 are used. There is an analysis of energy deposition in this device under different radiations and the results of transient ionizing current response for some different conditions.

  7. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  8. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  9. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  10. [Comparative assessment of aging rates in population from different cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negasheva, M A; Lapshina, N E; Sineva, I M; Gritchina, O I; Kharlova, A G; Okushko, R V

    437 people (214 men and 223 women) at the age of 50-90 years old, residents of different cities of Russia and Pridnestrovie (Moscow, Barnaul, Tiraspol) have been examined. Using a complex of morphofunctional characteristics, parameters of the biological age have been analyzed, and groups with delayed, moderate and accelerated aging rates have been outlined. Regional peculiarities in distribution of incidence of different variants of aging rates have been revealed. In Moscow men and women, the delayed variant of development of age involution changes is the most widespread. In Tiraspol women, compared to the Moscow group, incidence of people with accelerated aging rates is 2 times higher, which can be stipulated by influence of a complex of biosocial factors.

  11. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  12. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  13. Age and education differences and their effects on life satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.J.N.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2002-01-01

    Within marriages husbands typically tend to be older and higher educated than their wife. This paper tries to explain this by analyzing whether age and education differences between spouses have an effect on happiness. Two alternative hypotheses are tested on the relation between age and education

  14. Age and Gender Differences in Premarital Sexual Attitudes of Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined age and gender differences in the premarital sexual attitudes exhibited by adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional design was employed. A total of 1044 participants in four age categories were drawn from 4 secondary schools and 4 universities all located within three states of South-West ...

  15. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep

  16. Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...

  17. Age and Schematic Differences in the Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Judith A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies the reliability of eyewitness testimony for shoplifting in terms of age, prior knowledge/expectations, and type of memory test. Fifth graders, college students, and older adults participated in two studies. All subjects had expectations concerning common and unusual aspects of shoplifting. Age differences were greatest for recall…

  18. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Y. El Dib; Hoda M. Onsi

    2011-01-01

    Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI). In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF) to analyze different facial parts: (a) eye wrinkles, (b) whole internal face (without forehead area) and (c) whole face (with forehead area) using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and...

  19. Quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode under different illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Du, Yujie; Qiao, Jianliang

    2011-07-01

    GaN samples are activated by Cs/O under illumination of deuterium lamp, 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 70 μW and 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 35 μW, respectively. Photocurrent is detected before activation under illumination of deuterium lamp. Quantum efficiency (QE) is tested after activation. The results indicate that GaN activated under 300 nm monochromatic light have higher QE than that under deuterium lamp, and no obvious difference is detected between different power 300 nm monochromatic light. The photocurrent before activation inhibits the adsorption of Cs on the GaN surface, which decrease the QE of GaN.

  20. Sex-Differences in Skeletal Growth and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2017-04-01

    There have been numerous published reports describing skeletal differences between males and females. The goal of this report is to describe recent findings to help elucidate remaining questions. It is known that even in youth, there are sex differences in skeletal health. One recent report suggests these differences are evident at 6 years of age. With the availability of newer imaging techniques, specifically HRpQCT and microCT-3D, micro-architectural differences related to sex-differences have been studied. This has highlighted the importance of cortical porosity in describing possible sex differences in fracture risk. We have a better understanding of skeletal microarchitecture that highlights sex differences in both growth and aging that may relate to fracture risk, although more longitudinal studies are needed. Sex differences in microarchitecture, particularly cortical porosity may also be important in understanding any, as of yet unknown, sex differences in fracture reduction with treatment.

  1. Bipolar disorder in the elderly; different effects of age and of age of onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oostervink, Frits; Boomsma, Maarten M; Nolen, Willem A

    2009-01-01

    Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited.......Information about differences between younger and elderly patients with bipolar disorder and between elderly patients with early and late age of onset of illness is limited....

  2. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...... in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...... was preferred in 22 patients (20.5%). The overall mean operative duration was 97.02 min; blood transfusion rate, fever and stone-free rates were 9%, 14% and 70.1%, respectively. •  A comparison of the paediatric PCNL cases according to age groups showed no statistically significant differences between...

  4. Age differences in eyewitness memory for a realistic event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robin L; Stone, Kevin R

    2014-05-01

    To better understand the effects of misinformation on eyewitnesses of different ages, older and younger adults experienced an event under intentional and incidental learning conditions in a naturalistic experiment using multiple memory tests. Following exposure to the event, which was a brief interruption of a group testing session, participants completed several memory tests. For half of the participants, misinformation was embedded in the first cued recall test. On subsequent free recall and cued recall tests, basic scores and misinformation-based memory errors were examined. As expected, younger adults had higher recall scores than older adults. Older and younger adults made the same number of misinformation errors in free recall and in cued recall with intentional learning. However, in the incidental condition, younger adults made more misinformation errors likely due to the information processing strategies they employed after incidental learning. Misinformation effects were quite strong, even with a realistic scene and intentional learning. Older adult suggestibility was no worse than that of younger adults. When misinformation was combined with incidental learning, younger adults may have used strategic processing to encode misinformation to their detriment.

  5. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  6. Differences in age at death according to smoking and age at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Younger age at menopause is associated with overall mortality, and cigarette smoking is the only lifestyle factor influencing this association. However, the combined effects of age at menopause and smoking have never been quantified in terms of survival time. Our aim was to evaluate, in a large cohort of Swedish women, differences in age at death according to age at menopause and smoking status. Age at menopause and smoking were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, in a population-based cohort of 25,474 women aged 48 to 83 years. Laplace regression was used to calculate differences in median age at death (50th percentile difference [PD]) according to smoking and age at menopause. Across 16 years of follow-up, 5,942 participants died. The difference in median age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years was 1.3 years (50th PD, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). Compared with current smokers, former smokers and never smokers had older median age at death-2.5 years (50th PD, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1) and 3.6 years (50th PD, 3.6; 95% CI, 3.1-4.1), respectively. When analysis was restricted to current smokers, the difference in age at death between women with menopause at 40 years and women with menopause at 60 years increased to 2.6 years (50th PD, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.8-4.5). No association among never smokers was observed. Younger age at menopause is linearly associated with shorter survival. This association tends to be stronger among current smokers.

  7. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  8. Thermal aging effects of VVER-1000 weld metal under operation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobaeva, A.A.; Kuleshova, E.A.; Gurovich, B.A.; Erak, D.Y.; Zabusov, O.O.; Maltsev, D.A.; Zhurko, D.A.; Papina, V.B.; Skundin, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VVER-1000 thermal aging surveillance specimen sets are located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under real operation conditions. Thermal aging surveillance specimens data are the most reliable source of the information about changing of VVER-1000 RPV materials properties because of long-term (hundred thousand hours) exposure at operation temperature. A revision of database of VVER-1000 weld metal thermal aging surveillance specimens has been done. The reassessment of transition temperature (T t ) for all tested groups of specimens has been performed. The duration of thermal exposure and phosphorus contents have been defined more precisely. The analysis of thermal aging effects has been done. The yield strength data, study of carbides evolution show absence of hardening effects due to thermal aging under 310-320 C degrees. Measurements of phosphorus content in grain boundaries segregation in different states have been performed. The correlation between intergranular fracture mode in Charpy specimens and transition temperature shift under thermal aging at temperature 310-320 C degrees has been revealed. All these data allow developing the model of thermal aging. (authors)

  9. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Compressions of electrorheological fluids under different initial gap distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wen, Shizhu; Meng, Yonggang

    2003-05-01

    Compressions of electrorheological (ER) fluids have been carried out under different initial gap distances and different applied voltages. The nominal yield stresses of the compressed ER fluid under different conditions, according to the mechanics of compressing continuous fluids considering the yield stress of the plastic fluid, have been calculated. Curves of nominal yield stress under different applied voltages at an initial gap distance of 4 mm overlapped well and were shown to be proportional to the square of the external electric field and agree well with the traditional description. With the decrease of the initial gap distance, the difference between the nominal yield stress curves increased. The gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids could not be explained by the traditional description based on the Bingham model and the continuous media theory. An explanation based on the mechanics of particle chain is proposed to describe the gap distance effect on the compression of ER fluids.

  11. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lykholat, O.A.; Grigoryuk, I.P.; Lykholat, T.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions...

  12. Age differences in callosal contributions to cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fling, Brett W.; Chapekis, Melanie; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Anguera, Joaquin; Bo, Jin; Langan, Jeanne; Welsh, Robert C.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2011-01-01

    In many cases bilateral cortical activation in older adults has been associated with better task performance, suggesting that a greater reliance on interhemispheric interactions aids performance. Interhemispheric communication is primarily mediated via the corpus callosum (CC), however with advancing age the anterior half of the CC undergoes significant atrophy. Here we determine whether there are age differences in the relationship between cross-sectional area of the CC and performance on co...

  13. Functional implications of age differences in motor system connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Langan; Jeanne Langan; Scott Peltier; Jin Bo; Brett W Fling; Brett W Fling; Robert C Welsh; Robert C Welsh; Rachael D Seidler; Rachael D Seidler; Rachael D Seidler

    2010-01-01

    Older adults show less lateralized task-related brain activity than young adults. One potential mechanism of this increased activation is that age-related degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) may alter the balance of inhibition between the two hemispheres. To determine whether age differences in interhemispheric connectivity affect functional brain activity in older adults, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess resting functional connectivity and functional activation during ...

  14. Effect of aging time and aging temperature on fatigue and fracture behavior of 6063 aluminum alloy under seawater influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, R.A.; Abdul-Wahab, S.A.; Pervez, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes experimentally the effect of seawater corrosion, aging time, and aging temperature on the fatigue resistance property of 6063 aluminum alloy. The 6063 aluminum alloy that was used for the study was heat treated and soaked in seawater for different intervals of time between 2 and 30 weeks. It was found that the maximum fatigue resistance property in the 6063 aluminum alloy was observed when aged between 7 and 9 h and heat treated at temperatures between 160 o C and 200 o C. Generally at constant load, the results indicated that the number of cycles to fail the 6063 aluminum alloy decreased with increasing the soaking time in seawater. Moreover, fracture surfaces were considered and studied under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the brittle fracture pattern tended to occur with the increase in aging time and temperature. The fatigue striations were observed very clearly at low and peak aging temperature. The increase in the fatigue resistance property with aging time was linked with the vacancies assisted diffusion mechanism and also by the hindering of dislocation movement by impure atoms

  15. HOW LITERACY AFFECTS UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN PALESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SALAMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how literacy rate affects unemployment among different ages in Palestine. Using labour force surveys and annual reports of Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS, 2000-2015, we analyzed 16 years (2000-2015 regarding unemployment percentage and literacy rates among different ages in both genders in Palestine. Linear regression models were used to show how literacy rate affects unemployment among the various ages. The results showed that literacy rate is significantly correlated with the percentage of unemployment among ages of (15 to 24, 25 to 34, and 35 to 44. Gender is significantly correlated with the percentage of unemployment among the ages of (15 to 24, 25 to 34, and 45 to 54. A positive relationship appears between literacy and unemployment. Females have more unemployment than males among ages of (15 to 24 and 25 to 34. On the other side, females have less unemployment than males in the (35 to 44 and 45 to 54 age categories.

  16. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  17. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method for accelerated aging under combined environmental stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated aging method which can be used to simulate aging in combined stress environment situations is described. It is shown how the assumptions of the method can be tested experimentally. Aging data for a chloroprene cable jacketing material in single and combined radiation and temperature environments are analyzed and it is shown that these data offer evidence for the validity of the method

  19. Age and gender differences in health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.

  20. Sex and age related differences in postmyelographic adverse reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, P.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in frequency of postmyelographic adverse reactions were analyzed with respect to sex and age in a prospective study including 1026 patients injected with metrizamide and 739 injected with iohexol. Regardless of the type of contrast medium or myelography, all types of adverse reactions were 1.4-3.8 times as frequent in women as in men. Most of the differences were statistically significant. Headache was more frequent, while vomiting and dizziness were less frequent in both women and men aged 26-50 years compared with those over 50 years of age. Dizziness and increased low back pain were consistently reported spontaneously by the patients less frequently than emerged via formal interview. The large differences between the sexes suggest that further research on contrast media toxicity would be best performed with separation of the data by gender. (orig.)

  1. Chronic rhinosinusitis and age: is the pathogenesis different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Grammer, Leslie C

    2013-10-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease with a significant impact on quality of life, which is seen across all age groups. There are differences in symptomatology, histopathology and associated diseases when comparing pediatric versus adult patients with CRS. Nasal polyposis tends to be less commonly seen in pediatric CRS compared with adults except in children with cystic fibrosis or allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The differences in histopathology of CRS in different age groups include higher cellularity and more prominent lymphocytic infiltration in children compared with adults who tend to have a stronger eosinophilic infiltration and more prominent glandular hyperplasia. There are data supporting a stronger association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and otitis media with CRS in children compared with adults. Adenoids may play a role in pediatric, but not adult CRS. Immunodeficiencies and asthma are strongly associated with CRS in all age groups. There is a paucity of data on pathophysiology of disease on elderly CRS.

  2. Chemical dosimetry techniques for various applications under different geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, B L; Narayan, G R; Nilekani, S R

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives the results of dosimetry for various applications under different geometrical arrangements. These applications include: gamma chambers, blood irradiators, radiotherapy using both sup 6 sup 0 Co and accelerators, animal irradiations with different types of radiation sources, fluid irradiators for sludge and rubber latex and industrial electron irradiators. The dosimeters used were Fricke, FBX and alanine/glutamine (spectrophotometric readout).

  3. Hormones as "difference makers" in cognitive and socioemotional aging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Kamin, Hayley; Diaz, Vanessa; Cohen, Ronald A; MacDonald, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems-cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin-as "difference makers" in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: (1) examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; (2) exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and (3) considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  4. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  5. Gender and age differences in expressing disruptive behavior during class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Jasmina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.

  6. Sex differences, sexual selection, and ageing: an experimental evolution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-10-01

    Life-history (LH) theory predicts that selection will optimize the trade-off between reproduction and somatic maintenance. Reproductive ageing and finite life span are direct consequences of such optimization. Sexual selection and conflict profoundly affect the reproductive strategies of the sexes and thus can play an important role in the evolution of life span and ageing. In theory, sexual selection can favor the evolution of either faster or slower ageing, but the evidence is equivocal. We used a novel selection experiment to investigate the potential of sexual selection to influence the adaptive evolution of age-specific LH traits. We selected replicate populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus for age at reproduction ("Young" and "Old") either with or without sexual selection. We found that LH selection resulted in the evolution of age-specific reproduction and mortality but these changes were largely unaffected by sexual selection. Sexual selection depressed net reproductive performance and failed to promote adaptation. Nonetheless, the evolution of several traits differed between males and females. These data challenge the importance of current sexual selection in promoting rapid adaptation to environmental change but support the hypothesis that sex differences in LH-a historical signature of sexual selection-are key in shaping trait responses to novel selection.

  7. [The outcome analysis of different age paragraph hearing aid users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Huijfang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Yuxi; Wang, Xiuzhen

    2012-05-01

    To compare and analysis outcomes of different age paragraph hearing aid users by questionnaires. The questionnaire was deployed to 90 hearing aid users, 40 females and 50 males, with ages between 19 and 80 years-from junior high school education to university education, suffering binaural severe or moderate sensorineural deafness. The subjects were devided into 3 groups, the A group with ages between 19 and 40 years, the B group with ages between 41 and 60 years, the C group with ages between 61 and 80 years. After being fitted with hearing aids for 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months, SADL and IOI-HA were applied to evaluating 90 subjects. The study was carried out through face to face interview or by telephone. There were significant differences in SADL scores of positive effect, service and Personal image among the 3 groups (P paragraph is improved with the wearing time growth, but the outcome and satisfaction of hearing aids are decreased with the age growth.

  8. Analysis of low-marbled Hanwoo cow meat aged with different dry-aging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Different dry-aging methods [traditional dry-aging (TD, simplified dry-aging (SD, and SD in an aging bag (SDB] were compared to investigate the possible use of SD and/or SDB in practical situations. Methods Sirloins from 48 Hanwoo cows were frozen (Control, 2 days postmortem or dry-aged for 28 days using the different aging methods and analyzed for chemical composition, total aerobic bacterial count, shear force, inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP and free amino acid content, and sensory properties. Results The difference in chemical composition, total aerobic bacterial count, shear force, IMP, and total free amino acid content were negligible among the 3 dry-aged groups. The SD and SDB showed statistically similar tenderness, flavor, and overall acceptability relative to TD. However, SDB had a relatively higher saleable yield. Conclusion Both SD and SDB can successfully substitute for TD. However, SDB would be the best option for simplified dry-aging of low-marbled beef with a relatively high saleable yield.

  9. Age Differences in Cancer Treatment Decision Making and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok-Schoen, Jessica L; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Dailey, Phokeng M; Wojno, Julianne C; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the decision-making (DM) styles of younger (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (≥60 years) cancer survivors, the type and role of social support, and patient satisfaction with cancer treatment DM. Adult cancer survivors ( N = 604) were surveyed using Qualtrics online software. Older adults reported significantly lower influence of support on DM than younger adults. The most common DM style for the age groups was collaborative DM with their doctors. Younger age was a significant predictor of independent ( p social support in cancer treatment DM, older adults were more satisfied with their DM than younger and middle-aged adults. Health care workers should be aware of different DM styles and influence of social networks to help facilitate optimal patient DM and satisfaction.

  10. Age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five from age 16 to 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J A; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five measures. Age differences were found suggesting that mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion are negatively associated with age, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness are positively associated. Openness to experience demonstrated a curvilinear association with age, with the highest mean levels in midlife. Gender differences were found suggesting that women, on average, have higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness, while men are more open to experience. Neither the main effect of gender nor Age × Gender interactions were significant in the case of conscientiousness. In comparison to the 2 traditional Big Five measures, age differences in the motivational manifestations of the Big Five as assessed by the FIRNI were more pronounced, which might be explained by the greater developmental plasticity of flexible motivational processes or the intraindividual phrasing of the items of the FIRNI, compared to the kinds of behavioral descriptions that are emphasized in traditional Big Five items. The further study of such motivational processes might contribute to a better understanding of personality development. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. [Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Ji, Ning; Guan, Li-li; Chen, Yun; Qian, Qiu-jin; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    To study age distribution of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidities in a relatively large sample, and exam the hypothesis of bad prognosis for ADHD. Using semi-structured clinical diagnosis interview scale, we investigated comorbidities of 1,002 ADHD children and adolescents from psychiatric out-patient clinic, and compared comorbidity frequency in 4 age groups. The comorbidity frequencies of disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), mood disorder, tics disorder and learning disorder (LD) in different age groups of ADHD patients differed significantly (Pdisorder in the age group of 12-14 years (124 cases,51.5%;18 cases,7.5%, respectively) were more than those in the 6-8 years group (160 cases,41.7%;9 cases,2.3%, respectively; PTics disorder in the 12-14 years group (50 cases,20.8%)was more than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years group (for the 6-8 years group, 51 cases,13.4%;for the 9-11 years group , 42 cases,12.5%; Pdisorder grew up with age. The comorbidity frequency of the 9-11 years group (106 cases,31.5%) was significantly higher than that of the 6-8 years group (80 cases,20.9%; PADHD patients without any comorbidities in the two age groups more than 12 years (for the 12-14 years group, 29 cases,12.0%;for the 15-17 years group, 4 cases,10.0%)were less than those in the two age groups of less than 12 years (for the 6-8 years group, 126 cases,32.8%;for the 9-11 years group, 110 cases,32.6%; Pdisorders increase as the ADHD children become adolescents. The situation is severer in late adolescence. Therefore, ADHD children should accept appropriate treatment as early as possible, and adopt the second degree prevention actively.

  12. Aging in Precarious Circumstances: Do Positive Views on Aging Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Gellert, Paul; Flick, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Precariousness, defined as low income combined with lack of security for retirement, can influence the way people grow old and result in health inequalities in old age. A sequential mixed methods approach was used to identify differences in behavioral (physical activity), social (social network), and psychological resources (positive views on aging) that middle-aged individuals from both precarious and financially secure backgrounds use in preparation for positive aging and keep high levels of health and well-being. It was investigated whether positive views on aging can compensate the detrimental association of a lack of resources with health and well-being in midlife. Data from the German Aging Survey (N = 1,992 in the secure group, N = 240 in the precarious group) were analyzed to understand the relationship between resources on the one hand and health and well-being on the other, as well as to compare the strategies of individuals with precarious and financially secure backgrounds. Semistructured interviews with middle-aged individuals (N = 20) from these two categories were analyzed in order to further explain the quantitative findings. Precarious individuals are indeed disadvantaged in terms of behavioral, social, and psychological resources as well as in health and well-being. However, having a positive view on aging can compensate for insufficient resources. Qualitative findings showed differences in strategies for resource management and perceptions of positive aging. Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data reflects the importance of positive views on aging as a resource for a healthy old age despite aging in precarious circumstances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Predicting, categorizing and intercomparing the lifetime of OPVs for different ageing tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2014-01-01

    P3HT:PCBM based devices produced with different architectures and methods ranging from spin coating to roll-to-roll manufacturing. The purpose of the chosen diversity was to establish the possible spread in the ageing rates generated by different architectures. A logarithmic lifetime diagram...... associated with the common time units was used for presenting the ageing data, which regardless of the spread in the lifetimes allowed categorizing the level of the stability of P3HT:PCBM based devices tested under different ageing conditions. Moreover, the approach also allowed for estimating...

  14. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. El Dib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF to analyze different facial parts: (a eye wrinkles, (b whole internal face (without forehead area and (c whole face (with forehead area using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and whole face. Furthermore, more extensive experiments are made on FG-NET database by increasing the number of missing pictures in older age groups using MORPH database to enhance the results.

  15. Age Differences in the Complexity of Emotion Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Geren, Jennifer L; Knight, Bob G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined age differences in the number of emotion components used in the judgment of emotion from facial expressions. Fifty-eight younger and 58 older adults were compared on the complexity of perception of emotion from standardized facial expressions that were either clear or ambiguous exemplars of emotion. Using an intra-individual factor analytic approach, results showed that older adults used more emotion components in perceiving emotion in faces than younger adults. Both age groups reported greater emotional complexity for the clear and prototypical emotional stimuli. Age differences in emotional complexity were more pronounced for the ambiguous expressions compared with the clear expressions. These findings demonstrate that older adults showed increased elaboration of emotion, particularly when emotion cues were subtle and provide support for greater emotion differentiation in older adulthood.

  16. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    , and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...... a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes...... regime in whichthe monetary authority optimises preferences which include an employment targetand an inflation target. As government spending affects the representativeindividual's utility, the choice of exchange rate regime has an impact on welfare.Keywords: exchange rate regimes; fiscal policy...

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  18. Age Differences in Responses to Conflict in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark H.; Kraus, Linda A.; Capobianco, Sal

    2009-01-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) has been used successfully to explain age differences in interpersonal conflict behavior: older adults are generally less likely to engage in destructive responses, and more likely to employ nonconfrontational ones. However, this research has focused almost exclusively on conflict with intimates (spouses,…

  19. Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and awareness of obesity among people of different age groups in educational institutions in Morogoro, Tanzania. ... The four institutions included a primary and a secondary school, a teacher's training college and a university. ... Employed subjects had higher rate of obesity (22.2%) than pupils or students.

  20. Age differences in media multitasking: a diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van der Goot, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight in age differences in the amount of media multitasking and in the media that people combine. Results of a diary study (N = 3,048) among 13- to 65-year-olds reject the popular notion that media multitasking is particularly prevalent among young people. The youngest (13-16

  1. Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Schipper, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Game-elements can easily be embedded within product advertisements, but little is known about the success factors of this technology. We investigated which motivational

  2. Differences among Age, Gender and School Factors in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion of the study was that there were differences with respect to age, gender, course of study and school type in students' aspirations for entrepreneurial careers, while there was none regarding form/class level. Among the counselling implications are that counsellors must take into consideration personal and ...

  3. 1 Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics under different plantation crops of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the SOC as indicator, the soil organic matter content needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. ... microorganisms which are involved in litter degradation process. However, there. J S Ogeh* ... by the linear regression study. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, plantation crops, different ages, tropics, cashew,.

  4. [Study on the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation stages among different skeletal malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Changyan; Cong, Chao; Wang, Shihui; Gu, Yan

    2015-10-01

    To compare the difference of corresponding age at cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages among different skeletal malocclusions and provide clinic guideline on optimal treatment timing for skeletal malocclusion. Based on ANB angle, 2 575 cephalograms collected from Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from May, 2006 to November, 2014 were classified into skeletal Class I (ANB 0°~5°, 1 317 subjects), Class II (ANB > 5°, 685 subjects) and Class III (ANB stages were evaluated with the modified version of CVM method. Independent sample t test was performed to analyze the difference of age at different CVM stages among various skeletal groups. Significant gender difference of age was found at CS3 to CS6 for skeletal Class I group (P stage, the average age of male in skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups was (11.6 ± 1.5) years old and (10.3 ± 1.9) years old, respectively; the average age of females in those two groups was (11.7 ± 1.3) years old and (9.3 ± 1.5) years old, respectively, and significant difference was found in both comparisons (P age at CS5 and CS6 between skeletal Class II and skeletal Class III groups [the ages of male was (15.1 ± 1.7) and (16.8 ± 1.6) years old, the ages of male was (14.6 ± 1.2) and (15.7 ± 2.5) years old], significant difference was also found (P stage and age in skeletal Class I, II and III groups. Significant differences of age at different CVM stage was noted when skeletal Class II was compared with skeletal Class III groups.

  5. Modelling fracture of aged graphite bricks under radiation and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Hashim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The graphite bricks of the UK carbon dioxide gas cooled nuclear reactors are subjected to neutron irradiation and radiolytic oxidation during operation which will affect thermal and mechanical material properties and may lead to structural failure. In this paper, an empirical equation is obtained and used to represent the reduction in the thermal conductivity as a result of temperature and neutron dose. A 2D finite element thermal analysis was carried out using Abaqus to obtain temperature distribution across the graphite brick. Although thermal conductivity could be reduced by up to 75% under certain conditions of dose and temperature, analysis has shown that it has no significant effect on the temperature distribution. It was found that the temperature distribution within the graphite brick is non-radial, different from the steady state temperature distribution used in the previous studies [1,2]. To investigate the significance of this non-radial temperature distribution on the failure of graphite bricks, a subsequent mechanical analysis was also carried out with the nodal temperature information obtained from the thermal analysis. To predict the formation of cracks within the brick and the subsequent propagation, a linear traction–separation cohesive model in conjunction with the extended finite element method (XFEM is used. Compared to the analysis with steady state radial temperature distribution, the crack initiation time for the model with non-radial temperature distribution is delayed by almost one year in service, and the maximum crack length is also shorter by around 20%.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying probalistic category learning in normal aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fera, F.; Weickert, T.W.; Goldberg, T.E.; Tessitore, A.; Hariri, A.; Das, S.; Lee, S.; Zoltick, B.; Meeter, M.; Gluck, M.A.; Weinberger, D.A.; Matta, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic category learning engages neural circuitry that includes the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus, two regions that show prominent changes with normal aging. However, the specific contributions of these brain regions are uncertain, and the effects of normal aging have not been

  7. Automatic age and gaze estimation under uncontrolled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alnajar, F.

    2016-01-01

    Can the computer learn a person’s age just from analyzing facial images obtained by a simple webcam? If so, you can automatically determine if a person has the right age to buy beer (shops), to use a credit card (retail), and can enter bars (entertainment). Can the computer automatically recognize

  8. Surface Hardness of Resin Cement Polymerized under Different Ceramic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kesrak, Pimmada; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the surface hardness of two light-cured resin cements polymerized under different ceramic discs. Methods. 40 experimental groups of 2 light-cured resin cement specimens (Variolink Veneer and NX3) were prepared and polymerized under 5 different ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press HT, LT, MO, HO, and Cercon) of 4 thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm), Those directly activated of both resin cements were used as control. After light activation and 3 7 ∘ C storage in an incuba...

  9. Sex and age differences in mate-selection preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sascha; Hassebrauck, Manfred

    2012-12-01

    For nearly 70 years, studies have shown large sex differences in human mate selection preferences. However, most of the studies were restricted to a limited set of mate selection criteria and to college students, and neglecting relationship status. In this study, 21,245 heterosexual participants between 18 and 65 years of age (mean age 41) who at the time were not involved in a close relationship rated the importance of 82 mate selection criteria adapted from previous studies, reported age ranges for the oldest and youngest partner that they would find acceptable, and responded to 10 yes/no questions about a potential marriage partner. For nearly all mate selection criteria, women were found to be the more demanding sex, although men placed consistently more value on the physical attractiveness of a potential partner than women. Also, the effects of the participants' age and level of education were nearly negligible. These results demonstrate the robustness of sex differences in mate selection criteria across a substantial age range.

  10. Integrating age information from different localities for stratigraphic marker beds: discussion of the Eltville Tephra age (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Zens, Joerg; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Stratigraphic marker beds are often used in geosciences for regional and global correlation. For various reasons dating those layers directly proves to be difficult sometimes. In such cases ages from above and below such a horizon represent minimum- and maximum-ages. If these ages are determined from more than one location, it is possible to combine these ages, test their consistency and finally derive an age in agreement with the findings from most localities. Several approaches to integrate the age information from different localities are discussed, resulting in combined ages consistent with both stratigraphy and most of the dating results. All approach rely on assumptions, most importantly the correctness of ages and their reported uncertainty. The Eltville Tephra originates from an unknown eruption in the Eifel volcanic field is an important maker bed in Rhine-Meuse Area nearby the boundary between the deposition of reworked and primary loess during the LGM (ca. 20 ka). The Eltville Tephra is usually imbedded in loess; dates from directly above and below come almost exclusively from luminescence dating. As different luminescence dating techniques were applied to samples over- and underlying the Eltville Tephra a systematic bias of the sum of these techniques seems unlikely, but may be present due to the fact that most ages are feldspar ages uncorrected for fading. The results of several statistical approaches to deal with ages from various localities are compared, and their chances and shortcomings using well understood artificial data are discussed. These are also used to obtain an integrated datum for the Eltville Tephra including a reproducible uncertainty. This has the potential to improve on existing dates for various other stratigraphic marker beds especially in the terrestrial realm, where often dates for (or around) correlative sediments are obtained from various localities.

  11. Aging on a different scale – chronological versus pathology-related aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Joost P.M.; Jonker, Martijs J.; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Breit, Timo M.; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging. PMID:24131799

  12. Aging on a different scale--chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Joost P M; Jonker, Martijs J; Vijg, Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Breit, Timo M; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make the necessary progression in aging research. In a recently published study we have attempted to make a step interpreting aging data on chronological as well as pathological scale. For this, we sampled five major tissues at regular time intervals during the entire C57BL/6J murine lifespan from a controlled in vivo aging study, measured the whole transcriptome and incorporated temporal as well as physical health aspects into the analyses. In total, we used 18 different age-related pathological parameters and transcriptomic profiles of liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain and created a database that can now be used for a broad systems biology approach. In our study, we focused on the dynamics of biological processes during chronological aging and the comparison between chronological and pathology-related aging.

  13. Efficacy of Varicocele Repair in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Mohammad; Hadi, Mazaher; Abbasi, Homayoun; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Mirsattari, Arash; Hadi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    To compare semen parameters and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocele repair in 2 age groups. Mean changes in spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology after varicocele repair in 83 patients were compared between patients aged 30 years or younger (group 1) and those older than 30 years (group 2). Spouse pregnancy rates were compared between the 2 age groups. The mean sperm concentration increased significantly in both groups (P group 1 and from 47.2% to 53.2% in group 2 one year after varicocele repair. The increase in motility was statistically significant for both groups (P groups (P = .01). The percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology decreased significantly in both groups 12 months postoperatively (from 62.7% to 59.6% in group 1 and from 61.3% to 58% in group 2; P = .03). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the improvement in sperm morphology between the 2 groups (P >.05). The pregnancy rates in the patients' spouses were 51.1% and 44.7% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (P = .9). There was no statistically significant difference in semen parameter improvement and spouse pregnancy rates after varicocelectomy in the 2 age groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    The article analyses how government spending is determined under differentexchange rate regimes in the context of a small open economy. Assumingnominal wage contracts which last for one period and assuming a benevolentgovernment which determines government spending to optimise a representativeind......The article analyses how government spending is determined under differentexchange rate regimes in the context of a small open economy. Assumingnominal wage contracts which last for one period and assuming a benevolentgovernment which determines government spending to optimise...... a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes......, and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...

  16. Age differences in positive feelings and their expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Margund K; Wieck, Cornelia; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Although various studies point to the importance of positive emotions for health and well-being across the entire life span, current research on age differences in emotional reactivity mainly focuses on negative emotions. Empirical evidence on positive emotions is scarce and mixed. Part of the inconsistencies may be related to study differences in the stimuli used and the emotional response systems considered. Thus, the present study examined different response systems (i.e., subjective feelings, facial and verbal expressions) and used internal stimuli of high personal relevance to all participants. More specifically, we used a modified relived emotion task in which younger (M = 25.64, SD = 4.05) and older (M = 70.06, SD = 3.94) adults first privately relived emotions associated with a recent positive event in their life, and subsequently thought aloud about this event and its accompanying feelings. We additionally explored whether conscientiousness, as a marker of self-regulatory skills, is associated with interindividual and age-related differences in positive emotions. During the relived emotion task, there were no age differences in positive feelings; however, compared with young adults, older adults reported more positive feelings during the think-aloud phase. Contrary to our prediction, however, older adults verbally and nonverbally expressed fewer positive emotions than their younger counterparts. Moreover, conscientiousness was associated with individual and age-related differences in positive feelings, pointing to the potential explanatory role of self-regulatory skills in the experience of positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prognostics Approach For Power Mosfet Under Thermal-Stress Aging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prognostic technique for a power MOSFET presented in this paper is based on accelerated aging of MOSFET IRF520Npbf in a TO-220 package. The methodology utilizes...

  18. Production Of Some Virulence Factors Under Different Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of some virulence factors under different growth conditions and antibiotic susceptbility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this sudy. The virulence actors tested on the isolates included haemolytic activity, exopolysaccharide (capsule) and toxin production. Other cell property evaluated was ...

  19. Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological conditions. Ali A Kherd, Nawal Helmi, Khadijah Saeed Balamash, Taha A Kumosani, Shareefa A AL-Ghamdi, Qari M, Etimad A Huwait, Soonham S Yaghmoor, Alaama Nabil, Maryam A AL-Ghamdi, Said S Moselhy ...

  20. Dam break flood wave under different reservoir's capacities and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dam failure has been the subject of many hydraulic engineering studies due to its complicated physics with many uncertainties involved and the potential to cause many ... This paper presents an experimental study on instantaneous dam failure flood under different reservoir's capacities and lengths in which the side slopes ...

  1. Spatial patterns of encroaching shrub species under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Middelburg (Eastern Cape, South Africa) coexist and partition space under different grazing regimes (viz. continuous rest, and continuous, summer and winter grazing). We used point-pattern analysis to assess the spatial ecology of these species. We also used an index of integration (mingling index), where low values ...

  2. Growth Performance of Grain Amaranth under Different Nursery Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth performance of grain amaranth under different soil nursery media was studied in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment with five replications. The experiment was carried out at the teaching and research farm of the department of Agricultural ...

  3. Investigating the Nature of GxE Interaction under Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for this study were from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trials (ILHT) conducted in ... This phenomenon, referred to as COI, introduces a degree of uncertainty into the ... Investigating the Nature of GxE Interaction under Different Management Systems [3]. Materials and Methods. Setup of the trial. The number of trial sites used for ...

  4. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  5. Rainwater use by cotton under different irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater Use by Cotton Under Different Irrigation Systems To increase the efficiency by which agronomic crops use water input from both irrigation and rain during the growing season requires quantifying the proportion of rainfall used by the crop for any rain event. The rainfall pattern in the Texa...

  6. Age differences in inflammatory and hypermetabolic postburn responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Norbury, William B; Finnerty, Celeste C; Mlcak, Ronald P; Kulp, Gabriela A; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Herndon, Blair; Swick, Aron; Herndon, David N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify contributors to morbidity and death in severely burned patients 4 years of age lost body weight and lean body mass. The inflammatory cytokine profile showed no differences between the 3 age groups, whereas liver size increased significantly in the 10- to 18-year-old group and was lowest in the 0- to 3.9-year-old group. Acute-phase protein and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in the toddler group, compared with the older children. Cardiac data indicated increased cardiac work and impaired function in the toddler group, compared with the other 2 age groups. Increased mortality rates for young children are associated with increased cardiac work and impaired cardiac function but not with the inflammatory and hypermetabolic responses.

  7. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (± 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (± 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....

  8. Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth A; Kalasky, Martha J; Proctor, David N

    2010-09-01

    There are considerable data addressing sex-related differences in cardiovascular system aging and disease risk/progression. Sex differences in cardiovascular aging are evident during resting conditions, exercise, and other acute physiological challenges (e.g., orthostasis). In conjunction with these sex-related differences-or perhaps even as an underlying cause-the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and/or physical activity on the aging cardiovascular system also appears to be sex-specific. Potential mechanisms contributing to sex-related differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptability include changes in sex hormones with age as well as sex differences in baseline fitness and the dose of activity needed to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. The purpose of the present paper is thus to review the primary research regarding sex-specific plasticity of the cardiovascular system to fitness and physical activity in older adults. Specifically, the paper will (1) briefly review known sex differences in cardiovascular aging, (2) detail emerging evidence regarding observed cardiovascular outcomes in investigations of exercise and physical activity in older men versus women, (3) explore mechanisms underlying the differing adaptations to exercise and habitual activity in men versus women, and (4) discuss implications of these findings with respect to chronic disease risk and exercise prescription.

  9. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2010-05-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model's predictions and the data were examined for the "worst performance rule", the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  12. Walking while memorizing: age-related differences in compensatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K Z; Lindenberger, U; Freund, A M; Baltes, P B

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated predictions of the life-span theory of selection, optimization, and compensation, focusing on different patterns of task priority during dual-task performance in younger and older adults. Cognitive (memorizing) and sensorimotor (walking a narrow track) performance were measured singly, concurrently, and when task difficulty was manipulated. Use of external aids was measured to provide another index of task priority. Before dual-task testing, participants received extensive training with each component task and external aid. Age differences in dual-task costs were greater in memory performance than walking, suggesting that older adults prioritized walking over memory. Further, when given a choice of compensatory external aids to use, older adults optimized walking, whereas younger adults optimized memory performance. The results have broad implications for systemic theories of cognitive and sensorimotor aging, and the costs and benefits of assistive devices and environmental support for older populations.

  13. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  14. Age differences and schema effects in memory for crime information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Allison, Meredith; Stephens, Joseph D W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigated age-related differences in memory for crime information. Older adults have been found to rely more than young adults on schema- and stereotype-based processing in memory, and such age differences may have implications in the criminal justice system. Some prior research has examined schema-based processing among older adults in legal settings, but no studies have tested for schema effects on older adults' memory for specific details of a crime. Older adults (N = 56, ages 65-93) and young adults (N = 52, ages 18-22) read a passage about a criminal suspect's "bad" or "good" childhood, and then read a crime report containing incriminating, exonerating, and neutral details with regard to the suspect. Participants were subsequently tested on recognition of accurate versus altered details from the crime report. Participants also rated the suspect"s guilt, and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Correct and false recognition rates were analyzed with ANOVA to compare means across age group, evidence type, and background type, and guilt ratings were analyzed with linear regression using neuropsychological scores as predictors. Among older adults, an interaction was found between evidence type (incriminating/exonerating) and suspect's background (good/bad childhood) in false recognition of altered details from the crime report, supporting the hypothesis that schema-based processing influenced older adult memory from crime information. Additionally, although guilt ratings were not related to the suspect's background for either age group, they were predicted by older adults' short-delay recall (β = -.37), suggesting that cognitive decline may play a role in older adults' interpretations of evidence. The findings suggest reduced cognitive capacity in older adults increases schema-based processing in memory for crime information, and are consistent with research in other domains that has demonstrated greater schema

  15. Age Differences in LGBT Attitudes Toward Marriage Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Maccio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes of older versus younger lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals regarding marriage equality. Data were collected via self-report questionnaires from 350 LGBT adults in a mid-size city in the southern United States. Older and younger LGBT cohorts did not differ significantly in voter registration, political party affiliation, awareness of LGBT political issues, or voting on social issues. Older LGBT adults were less likely to find same-sex marriage important. Yet, age cohorts did not differ significantly on legalizing same-sex marriage. Social work implications are discussed regarding this policy area.

  16. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Sean G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers' age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  17. Materials aging: first predictive modeling of iron under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from the CEA-Bruyeres-le-Chatel have been able to quantitatively foresee for the very first time the evolution of irradiation defects inside a structural material. Their results, obtained with iron, will contribute to better understand the aging of the materials of today's nuclear power plants and of future nuclear systems. Short paper. (J.S.)

  18. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-01-01

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars)

  19. Brain Events Underlying Episodic Memory Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Storsve, Andreas B; Grydeland, Håkon; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges where the rate of reduction of the relevant brain structure was lowest, implying selective impacts of the different brain events on memory. Together, these findings suggest a partly sequential and partly simultaneous model of brain events underlying cognitive changes in aging, where different functional and structural events are more or less important in various time windows, dismissing a simple uni-factorial view on neurocognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Adult Gesture in Collaborative Mathematics Reasoning in Different Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, M. S.; Harisman, Y.; Harun, L.; Amam, A.; Maarif, S.

    2017-09-01

    This article describes the case study on postgraduate students by using descriptive method. A problem is designed to facilitate the reasoning in the topic of Chi-Square test. The problem was given to two male students with different ages to investigate the gesture pattern and it will be related to their reasoning process. The indicators in reasoning problem can obtain the conclusion of analogy and generalization, and arrange the conjectures. This study refers to some questions—whether unique gesture is for every individual or to identify the pattern of the gesture used by the students with different ages. Reasoning problem was employed to collect the data. Two students were asked to collaborate to reason the problem. The discussion process recorded in using video tape to observe the gestures. The video recorded are explained clearly in this writing. Prosodic cues such as time, conversation text, gesture that appears, might help in understanding the gesture. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether different ages influences the maturity in collaboration observed from gesture perspective. The finding of this study shows that age is not a primary factor that influences the gesture in that reasoning process. In this case, adult gesture or gesture performed by order student does not show that he achieves, maintains, and focuses on the problem earlier on. Adult gesture also does not strengthen and expand the meaning if the student’s words or the language used in reasoning is not familiar for younger student. Adult gesture also does not affect cognitive uncertainty in mathematics reasoning. The future research is suggested to take more samples to find the consistency from that statement.

  1. Usefulness of ultrasonography for detection of breast cancer in patients under 30 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Yoon, Sang Wook

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare mammography and breast sonography in detection of breast cancer and to suggest reasonable guideline of breast imaging in breast cancer patients under 30 years of age in whom breast cancer shows different clinicopathologic characteristics compared with breast cancer in older women. Authors reviewed medical records of 27 patients under 30 years of age with pathologically-proven breast cancer. Age, family history, physical examination findings, indications for breast sonography were reviewed. Cases in whom breast cancer lesion is detectable and cases in whom not detectable using mammography or breast sonography were reviewed. And then, authors evaluated the usefulness of each method and reasons for nonvisualization of lesion on mammography. Among 27 patients, 25 patients had palpable breast mass as indication of mammography and breast sonography. Cancer lesions were detectable in 16 of 25 patients (64%) on mammography and 24 of 25 patients (96%) on breast ultrasonography. Reasons for nonvisualization of cancer lesions on mammography were dense breast with nodular parenchyma pattern and minimal breast change of ductal carcinoma in situ. In breast cancer patients under 30 years of age who have palpable breast mass as a initial, and main clinical problem, breast ultrasonography is superior to mammography in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer. We suggest that guidelines can avoid unnecessary mammography in these patients

  2. Metabolic syndrome markers in wistar rats of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi Ana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades, metabolic syndrome has become a public health problem throughout the world. Longitudinal studies in humans have several limitations due to the invasive nature of certain analyses and the size and randomness of the study populations. Thus, animal models that are able to mimic human physiological responses could aid in investigating metabolic disease. Thus, the present study was designed to analyze metabolic syndrome markers in albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus of different ages. The following parameters were assessed at two (young, four ( adult, six (adult, and twelve (mature months of age: glucose tolerance (glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test; fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholestero, and LDL cholesterol concentrations; glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle; and total lipid concentration in subcutaneous, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. We found that aging triggered signs of metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. For example, mature rats showed a significant increase in body weight that was associated. In addition, mature rats showed an increase in the serum concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which is characteristic of dyslipidemia. There was also an increase in serum glucose compared with the younger groups of animals. Therefore, aging Wistar rats appear to be an interesting model to study the changes related to metabolic syndrome.

  3. Probabilistic assessment of an aged highway bridge under traffic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Maljaars, J.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Abspoel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Existing civil infrastructure represents a large economic value. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under investigation. Consequently, the traffic load models play an

  4. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica. Escherichia coli is one of the lead- ing causes of acute diarrhea in developing countries in children under 5 years old, with significant morbidity and mortality6. The prevalence, antibiogram and epidemiological fea- tures of E. coli as the causative agent of diarrhea vary from region to region around the ...

  5. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  6. Seismic Behaviour Evaluation of Suleymaniye Mosque Under Different Earthquake Records

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Ayhan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 3D structural model of SuleymaniyeMosque which Mimar Sinan began the construction in 1550and finished in 7 years is developed and the behavior isexamined under the influence of different earthquakes. Finiteelement (FE) model of the structure is generated and modalanalysis is carried out. The obtained dynamic characteristicssuch as natural frequencies and mode shapes are comparedwith experimental works and the FE model is updated.Earthquake analysis of the mosque is carried out ...

  7. Bank stress testing under different balance sheet assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Ramona; Drescher, Christian; Memmel, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Using unique supervisory survey data on the impact of a hypothetical interest rate shock on German banks, we analyse price and quantity effects on banks' net interest margin components under different balance sheet assumptions. In the first year, the cross-sectional variation of banks' simulated price effect is nearly eight times as large as the one of the simulated quantity effect. After five years, however, the importance of both effects converges. Large banks adjust their balance sheets mo...

  8. Loaded and unloaded jump performance of top-level volleyball players from different age categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Finotti, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete’s body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate. SJ and CMJ jump height values were higher for professional and under-21 players than under-17 players (pvolleyball players. Therefore, to increase the vertical jumping ability of these team sport athletes throughout their long-term development, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are encouraged to implement consistent neuromuscular training strategies, in accordance with the specific needs and physiological characteristics of each age group. PMID:29158621

  9. NADPH oxidase deficiency underlies dysfunction of aged CD8+ Tregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenke; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Li, Yinyin; Ju, Jihang; Yang, Zhen; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:27088800

  10. Metabolic effects of alimentary estrogen in different age animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Lykholat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of alimentary exogenous estrogen that can be presented in agricultural products on state of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system components and cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the organs of experimental different ages animals. It was established that the severity of the effects had been higher in females in puberty compared to sexually mature animals, which indicates the existence of specific age-related physiological conditions defined high sensitivity to exogenous estrogen-like compounds. Presents results on the effects of nutritional estrogens on metabolic processes in animals of different ages testify to the potential health risks of consumer products that may be contaminated with endogenous hormones. Despite the steady growth of agricultural production, development of agro-industrial pollution drugs like compounds of food is very likely. This phenomenon is of concern and requires increased control of both the responsible organizations and public associations that will enable to avoid the negative effects of dietary factors on the population health. Particular attention should be paid to the safety and quality of children's food, because this population is extremely sensitive to the influence of previously alimentary factors.

  11. Brain Activation Underlying Threat Detection to Targets of Different Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senholzi, Keith B.; Depue, Brendan E.; Correll, Joshua; Banich, Marie T.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don’t shoot responses to unarmed individuals, with the cost of not shooting armed individuals being greater than that of shooting unarmed individuals. Participants were faster to shoot armed Blacks than Whites, but faster in making don’t shoot responses to unarmed Whites than Blacks. Brain activity differed to armed versus unarmed targets depending on target race, suggesting different mechanisms underlying threat versus safety decisions. Anterior cingulate cortex was preferentially engaged for unarmed Whites than Blacks. Parietal and visual cortical regions exhibited greater activity for armed Blacks than Whites. Seed-based functional connectivity of the amygdala revealed greater coherence with parietal and visual cortices for armed Blacks than Whites. Furthermore, greater implicit Black-danger associations were associated with increased amygdala activation to armed Blacks, compared to armed Whites. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms may underlie racial differences in responses to armed versus unarmed targets. PMID:26357911

  12. Functional implications of age differences in motor system connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Langan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show less lateralized task-related brain activity than young adults. One potential mechanism of this increased activation is that age-related degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC may alter the balance of inhibition between the two hemispheres. To determine whether age differences in interhemispheric connectivity affect functional brain activity in older adults, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to assess resting functional connectivity and functional activation during a simple motor task. We found that older adults had smaller CC area compared to young adults. Older adults exhibited greater recruitment of ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1, which was associated with longer reaction times. Additionally, recruitment of ipsilateral M1 in older adults was correlated with reduced resting interhemispheric connectivity and a larger CC. We suggest that reduced interhemispheric connectivity reflects a loss of the ability to inhibit the nondominant hemisphere during motor task performance for older adults, which has a negative impact on performance.

  13. Properties of different aged jicama (Pachyrhizus Erozus) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursandi, F.; Machmudi, M.; Santoso, U.; Indratmi, D.

    2017-07-01

    Jicama crop potential is very large, the tuber is used as a fresh fruit, ice mix fruit, salad, and can be made into flour, starch and inulin. The nutritional content of yam tubers depends on the age of the harvest, while farmers harvest jicama tubers at the age varying between 4-6 months. The research objective is to analyze the content of proximate fresh tubers and three kinds of flour (flour, starch and starch dregs) by harvesting different age plants. The study was conducted in Malang at a height of 560 m above sea level. Planting was done using plastic mulch with a spacing of 80 cm × 20 cm. Research using complete Randomized block Design with one factor harvesting consisting of 16, 18, 20 and 22 weeks after planting. Jicama tubers were harvested and analyzed the proximate for moisture, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrates in the fresh tubers, flour, starch and jicama flour dregs. The results showed that the late harvest resulted in moisture content, ash content, fiber and fat increase while the protein and carbohydrate decreased. The content of carbohydrates in the flour, starch and starch dregs was almost the same at different harvest time. The protein content of the flour is from 4.22 to 5.87%; while protein content of starch and protein content flour dregs is from 1.05 to 1.90% and 3.95 to 4.84%. Flour fiber content increased with increasing age of plants, while the fiber content of starch decreased but the dregs flour fiber content is almost the same

  14. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  15. Age Differences in Emotion Perception: The Effects of the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Matthew W. E.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults tend to have lower emotion-perception accuracy compared to younger adults. Previous studies have centered on individual characteristics, including cognitive decline and positive attentional preferences, as possible mechanisms underlying these age differences in emotion perception; however, thus far, no perceiver-focused factor has…

  16. Colour Stability and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Longissimus Lumborum under Different Packaging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Dadji Stéphane Serge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the colour stability and lipid oxidation of beef under different packaging methods. The muscles longissimus lumborum were randomly packed in vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 80% O2, 20% CO2. Both packages were aged at 4°C for 7, 14 and 21 days. After each ageing time, samples were displayed in a refrigerator for 2, 4 and 6 days. Colour stability, lipid oxidation and their correlation were determined. Beef under vacuum packaging showed higher a* values on 7, 14, and 21 days of ageing and lower L* values on 14 and 21 days of ageing than beef in MAP (p<0.05. Lower a* values were observed in the samples packed in MAP, then displayed compared to samples packed in vacuum, then displayed after 21 days of ageing time on day 2, 4 and 6 of the display period (p<0.05. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS increased significantly in MAP compared to vacuum during 7, 14, and 21 days of ageing (p<0.05. An increase of TBARS was also observed during display after 14 and 21 days of ageing in samples packed in MAP, then displayed. Furthermore, a significant difference (p<0.05 was observed between samples packed in MAP and vacuum in peroxide value on 14 days of ageing. Lipid oxidation was observed mainly in the samples packed in MAP compared to vacuum, and positively correlated with results on colour stability.

  17. Anxiety, depression and alexithymia in fibromyalgia: are there any differences according to age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba Puente, Cecilia; Velasco Furlong, Lilian; Écija Gallardo, Carmen; Cigarán Méndez, Margarita; McKenney, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression associated with fibromyalgia (FM) in three age groups in comparison to how they evolve in the same age groups in healthy women. A total of 240 women participated in the study (120 diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 120 healthy women), divided into three age groups (≤35 years,>35 and anxiety, and depression in FM patients showed increased levels compared to healthy controls. Also, young women with FM (under 35) show lower alexithymia, anxiety, and depression levels in comparison to older patients (≥65). Alexithymia in FM patients follows a similar pattern as in healthy women (although with significantly higher scores), increasing with age. Our results show that depression, anxiety, and alexithymia develop over age in a different way in FM patients than in healthy individuals, increasing over age.

  18. Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Davis, Simon W.; Mitchell, Daniel J.; Taylor, Jason R.; Duncan, John; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Ed; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Matthews, Fiona; Marslen-Wilson, William; Rowe, James; Shafto, Meredith; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Geerligs, Linda; McCarrey, Anna; Tsvetanov, Kamen; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Henson, Richard N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by declines on a variety of cognitive measures. These declines are often attributed to a general, unitary underlying cause, such as a reduction in executive function owing to atrophy of the prefrontal cortex. However, age-related changes are likely multifactorial, and the relationship between neural changes and cognitive measures is not well-understood. Here we address this in a large (N=567), population-based sample drawn from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) data. We relate fluid intelligence and multitasking to multiple brain measures, including grey matter in various prefrontal regions and white matter integrity connecting those regions. We show that multitasking and fluid intelligence are separable cognitive abilities, with differential sensitivities to age, which are mediated by distinct neural subsystems that show different prediction in older versus younger individuals. These results suggest that prefrontal ageing is a manifold process demanding multifaceted models of neurocognitive ageing. PMID:25519467

  19. Esophageal replacement in patients under 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gomez, M

    1994-04-01

    From 1985 to 1991, esophageal replacement was performed in seven patients with esophageal atresia without fistula. In four, the operation was performed in the neonatal period; three of these patients are alive. The other three patients were operated on between 2 and 3 months of age; two of them are alive. Six of the patients had colonic interposition, and the other had gastric interposition. Of the two patients who died, one had multiple associated malformations; the other one had a massive barium bronchoaspiration before the esophageal replacement.

  20. Magnetic Properties of Different-Aged Chernozemic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Shinkarev, Aleksey; Kondrashina, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties and degree of mineral weathering in profiles of different-aged chernozemic soils derived from a uniform parent material. In this work, layer samples of virgin leached chernozem and chernozemic soils formed on the mound of archaeological earthy monument were used. The characterization of the magnetic properties was carried out on the data of the magnetometry and differential thermomagnetic analysis. The evaluation of the weathering degree was carried out on a loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity and X-ray phase analysis on the data of the original soil samples and samples of the heavy fraction of minerals. It was found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in humus profiles of newly formed chernozemic soils lagged significantly behind the organic matter content enhancement. This phenomenon is associated with differences in kinetic parameters of humus formation and structural and compositional transformation of the parent material. It is not enough time of 800-900 years to form a relatively "mature" magnetic profile. These findings are well consistent with the chemical kinetic model (Boyle et al., 2010) linking the formation of the soils magnetic susceptibility with the weathering of primary Fe silicate minerals. Different-aged chernozemic soils are at the first stage of formation of a magnetic profile when it is occur an active production of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals from Fe2+ released by primary minerals.

  1. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  2. Rapid Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As life expectancy continues to rise, in the future there will be an increasing number of older people prone to falling. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for comprehensive testing of older individuals to collect data and to identify possible risk factors for falling. Here we use a low-cost force platform to rapidly assess deficits in balance under various conditions. We tested 21 healthy older adults and 24 young adults during static stance, unidirectional and rotational displacement of their centre of pressure (COP. We found an age-related increase in postural sway during quiet standing and a reduction of maximal COP displacement in unidirectional and rotational displacement tests. Our data show that even low-cost computerized assessment tools allow for the comprehensive testing of balance performance in older subjects.

  3. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... age of the insured under a life insurance contract. (a) In general. This section provides guidance on determining the attained age of an insured under a contract that is a life insurance contract under the... second of the two insureds dies. (ii) Section 1.7702-2(c)(1) provides that if a life insurance contract...

  4. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  5. Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation in French fries was investigated in relation under different processing conditions and the content of glucose and asparagine of the strips before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents...... of 10,g/L for an hour; (iii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10 and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min). Acrylamide content was determined in French fries while the glucose and asparagine content in the potato...... color difference showed high correlation (r(2) of 0.854) with the acrylamide content of French fries....

  6. ANTHROPOMETRICAL STATUS AND GENDER DIFFERENCES AT 12 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Gllareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to verify the current anthropometrical status of the pupils of the age 12, as well as to compare it with the standards of raising in accordance with the WHO standards. In the study were included 62 pupils (42 male and 20 female. The anthropometric tests were done in height, weight, biacromial and elbow breadth, subcutaneous adipose tissue at the : suprailiac skinfold; subscapular skinfold; triceps skinfold, as well as the abdominal circumference. The results showed that there was a heterogenic distribution of results, especially in the body weight, where the distribution between the minimal and maximal results is 28-70 kg, with the average 43, 14 ± 9, 78 of standard deviation with the male pupils, while with the female pupils was noticed more homogenous group and the standard deviation was significantly lower than with the female pupils in all variables. The findings show that almost in all measured variables female pupils are more developed at this age, especially the body high, body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while as regards the abdominal circumference and body breadth, the male pupils are more developed. Comparison of symbolic sample of this research with the WHO data shows an approximate trend of raising and development of children which were included in this research, and the difference is as follows: Female pupils age 12, body height=151.97 cm

  7. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  8. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S. K.; Jespersen, L. N.; Nissen, M.

    2014-01-01

    splines and paternal age groups. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Compared with children born to fathers aged 30-34 years, a statistically significant excess risk was found for children born to fathers aged 40-44 years [HR: 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00-1.21)] and children born to fathers aged 45+ years [HR: 1.......16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.32)]. When only looking at 1-5 year olds, the relative risk (HR) among children born to fathers aged 40-44 years increased to 1.24 (95% CI: 1.00-1.53) and the risk in the oldest paternal age group (45+ years) rose to 1.65 (95% CI: 1.24-2.18). The results suggest that the elevated risk......STUDY QUESTION: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...

  9. Autonomic receptors in urinary tract: Sex and age differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latifpour, J.; Kondo, S.; O'Hollaren, B.; Morita, T.; Weiss, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    As age and sex affect the function of the lower urinary tract, we studied the characteristics of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in various parts of lower urinary tract smooth muscle of young (6 months) and old (4 1/2-5 years) male and female rabbits. Saturation experiments performed with [3H]prazosin, [3H]yohimbine, [3H]dihydroalprenolol and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzylate in rabbit bladder base, bladder dome and urethra indicate the presence of regional, sex- and age-related differences in the density of alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor density is considerably higher in the female than in the male urethra of both age groups, whereas the higher density of beta adrenergic receptors in the female than in the male bladder base is observed only in the younger animals. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in bladder dome than in bladder base or urethra in young rabbits of both sexes. In the old animals, the density of muscarinic receptors in bladder base increases to the level observed in bladder dome. Inhibition experiments with selective adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicate that the pharmacological profiles of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the urethra and beta adrenergic receptors in the bladder dome and bladder base are similar in both sexes and at both ages. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are shown to be predominant in bladder base and bladder dome of rabbits. Parallel studies in rabbit urethra, adult rat cortex and neonatal rat lung show that the urethral alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are of the alpha-2A subtype

  10. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  11. Falls and traumatic brain injury in adults under the age of sixty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Daniel; Brunton, Isabel; Potts, Jacquie

    2014-02-01

    Falls are a significant cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI). There has been little research into falls resulting in a TBI in adults under the age of 60. The authors retrospectively analysed consecutive referrals to their community rehabilitation service between 2009 and 2012 in order to determine whether falls are a common cause of TBI in adults under 60, the different types of falls, the presence of alcohol at the time of the fall, and return to work following TBI. Falls accounted for 25 % of TBI. Ground-level falls and falls down stairs were the main causes of falls leading to TBI. Alcohol was present in 30 % of the falls. 44 % of individuals who had been working prior to their fall related-TBI had returned to work 1 year post-TBI. The authors conclude that falls amongst adults under sixty is an important cause of traumatic brain injury, and requires preventative and reduction strategies.

  12. Reliability Analysis of a Green Roof Under Different Storm Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. K.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban environments continue to face the challenges of localized flooding and decreased water quality brought on by the increasing amount of impervious area in the built environment. Green infrastructure provides an alternative to conventional storm sewer design by using natural processes to filter and store stormwater at its source. However, there are currently few consistent standards available in North America to ensure that installed green infrastructure is performing as expected. This analysis offers a method for characterizing green roof failure using a visual aid commonly used in earthquake engineering: fragility curves. We adapted the concept of the fragility curve based on the efficiency in runoff reduction provided by a green roof compared to a conventional roof under different storm scenarios. We then used the 2D distributed surface water-groundwater coupled model MIKE SHE to model the impact that a real green roof might have on runoff in different storm events. We then employed a multiple regression analysis to generate an algebraic demand model that was input into the Matlab-based reliability analysis model FERUM, which was then used to calculate the probability of failure. The use of reliability analysis as a part of green infrastructure design code can provide insights into green roof weaknesses and areas for improvement. It also supports the design of code that is more resilient than current standards and is easily testable for failure. Finally, the understanding of reliability of a single green roof module under different scenarios can support holistic testing of system reliability.

  13. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  14. Mitral valve replacement in patients under 65 years of age: mechanical or biological valves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, David C; Heinisch, Paul Philipp; Winkler, Bernhard; Englberger, Lars; Carrel, Thierry P

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy regarding the optimal choice of prosthetic valves in patients less than 65 years of age requiring mitral valve replacement (MVR). Recently, trends for valve replacement are moving towards biological prosthesis also in younger patients, which is justified by the fact that a later valve-in-valve procedure is feasible in the case of degeneration of the tissue valve. This strategy is increasingly recommended in aortic valve surgery but is questionable for MVR. The purpose of this review is to evaluate current guidelines and analyse evidence for biological MVR in patients under 65 years. There are differences between guidelines of the American Heart Association and those of the European Society of Cardiology concerning the choice of prostheses in patients undergoing MVR. Although the European Society of Cardiology recommends a mechanical mitral valve in patients under 65 years of age, the American Heart Association does not provide detailed advice for these patients. Mitral valve replacement with biological valves in patients under 65 years is associated with higher rates of reoperation due to structural valve deterioration. In addition, several studies showed a decreased survival after biological MVR. Evidence for biological MVR in patients less than 65 years without comorbidities or contraindication for oral anticoagulation does not exist. Recommendations for patients less than 65 years of age should not be blurred by current 'en-vogue' methods for promising but not yet proven valve-in-valve strategies.

  15. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Johansson, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.

  16. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  17. New constraints on the gas age-ice age difference along the EPICA ice cores, 0–50 kyr

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    J. Chappellaz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas is trapped in polar ice sheets at ~50–120 m below the surface and is therefore younger than the surrounding ice. Firn densification models are used to evaluate this ice age-gas age differenceage in the past. However, such models need to be validated by data, in particular for periods colder than present day on the East Antarctic plateau. Here we bring new constraints to test a firn densification model applied to the EPICA Dome C (EDC site for the last 50 kyr, by linking the EDC ice core to the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML ice core, both in the ice phase (using volcanic horizons and in the gas phase (using rapid methane variations. We also use the structured 10Be peak, occurring 41 kyr before present (BP and due to the low geomagnetic field associated with the Laschamp event, to experimentally estimate the Δage during this event. Our results seem to reveal an overestimate of the Δage by the firn densification model during the last glacial period at EDC. Tests with different accumulation rates and temperature scenarios do not entirely resolve this discrepancy. Although the exact reasons for the Δage overestimate at the two EPICA sites remain unknown at this stage, we conclude that current densification model simulations have deficits under glacial climatic conditions. Whatever the cause of the Δage overestimate, our finding suggests that the phase relationship between CO2 and EDC temperature previously inferred for the start of the last deglaciation (lag of CO2 by 800±600 yr seems to be overestimated.

  18. Investigating Gender Differences under Time Pressure in Financial Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixin; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben

    2017-01-01

    There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR) as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU) and rank-dependent utility (RDU) models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.

  19. Features of electroretinogram on rat under different color stimulation

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    Qing-Lin Cao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To research the feature of normal SD rat and retinal cone dysfunction(RCDrat electroretinogram(ERGunder different color stimulation and to explore its possible diagnostic value. METHODS: Six male SD rats and six RCD rats were used, all of which were mature rats. They were stimulated by red, white, blue and green light and the ERG was recorded. The wavelength of red, green and blue light were 625nm, 525nm and 470nm respectively and the white light was mixed by three color light.RESULTS: The response of ERG in normal SD rat under green and blue light stimulation were stronger than under red and white stimulation. The dark-adapted ERG of RCD rat responsed to color stimulation was similar to the ERG of normal SD rat, but the amplitude under each color stimulation was lower than that of normal SD rat. Light-adapted ERG response was hardly detected waveform.CONCLUSION: Rat is sensitive to blue and green light, which can be used as a suggested light stimulation in the ERG recording. The ERG of RCD rat is not specific for color stimulation, and at present we could not use color ERG as a diagnostic indicator.

  20. Changes on P availability under different soil management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parada, A.M; Pino, I; Rouanet, J.L; Nario, A; Videla, X; Albornoz, M.P

    2003-01-01

    The volcanic ash soils in the IX Region has a high P retention capacity and due to the high cost of fertilizers in the agricultural production, it's necessary to realize researches in order to study the availability of nutrients in soils to optimize their efficiency. A trial was carried out under two management systems: no tillage without burning crop residues (NT-B) and no tillage burning crop residues (NT+B), during three years with two crop rotation; Lupine-wheat-oat (S1)and Wheat-lupine-wheat (S2). The objective of this experiment was to evaluate and predict the influence of the management system used over the bioavailable P through time. It was used conventional and isotopic techniques (Fardeau, 1997). At the beginning of the experiment, the exchangeable isotopic values showed a low bioavailable P in the soil under both tillage management system. At the end of the experiment, the soil presented a positive behavior under the NT-B system, shoving a high value for the bioavailable P, whilst the P retention capacity tend to decrease. With this system it was observed a P redistribution in different pools, with a better available P for the crops through the time, which doesn't observed in the other system wit burning residues (author)

  1. Investigating Gender Differences under Time Pressure in Financial Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant gender imbalance on financial trading floors. This motivated us to investigate gender differences in financial risk taking under pressure. We used a well-established approach from behavior economics to analyze a series of risky monetary choices by male and female participants with and without time pressure. We also used second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and face width-to-height ratio (fWHR as correlates of pre-natal exposure to testosterone. We constructed a structural model and estimated the participants' risk attitudes and probability perceptions via maximum likelihood estimation under both expected utility (EU and rank-dependent utility (RDU models. In line with existing research, we found that male participants are less risk averse and that the gender gap in risk attitudes increases under moderate time pressure. We found that female participants with lower 2D:4D ratios and higher fWHR are less risk averse in RDU estimates. Males with lower 2D:4D ratios were less risk averse in EU estimations, but more risk averse using RDU estimates. We also observe that men whose ratios indicate a greater prenatal exposure to testosterone exhibit a greater optimism and overestimation of small probabilities of success.

  2. Biologically Driven Differences in Decomposition Dynamics Under Changing Ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, S.

    2010-12-01

    Predicting the effects of environmental changes on soil organic matter dynamics remains difficult. Here I explore the possibility that differences in decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics are due in part to links between litter decomposition processes, changes in litter chemistry, and variation in decomposer communities. I explored these relationships under three types of ecosystem changes: 1) N enrichment of forest ecosystems; 2) elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in forest ecosystems; and 3) agricultural land-use intensification. My overarching hypothesis was that litter mass loss and litter chemistry would vary under different environmental conditions, and those differences would correlate with ecosystem-specific variations in decomposer community structure and function. In three separate field experiments, I found strong evidence that decomposer communities influenced the chemistry of decomposing litter. In a related laboratory study I found that the presence of the oribatid mite Scheloribates moestus Banks (Acari: Oribatida) can substantially change litter decomposition dynamics and the molecular chemistry of decomposing litter. Most current conceptual models estimate changes in litter chemistry over the course of decomposition from initial litter chemistry and the extent of mass loss. These models suggest consistent and predictable changes in the chemical structure of organic matter during decomposition and do not explicitly consider the potential effects of variations in decomposer community structure on decomposition. In contrast, my results show that differences in decomposer communities lead to changes in litter chemistry during decomposition. Accurately predicting management effects on litter chemistry. and thus also soil organic matter dynamics, through time may require accounting for the degree to which variations in decomposer community composition influence organic matter chemistry.

  3. Age-related differences in brain activity in the subsequent memory paradigm: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2014-09-01

    Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related differences in the neural correlates of episodic encoding. Only studies using the subsequent memory paradigm were included. We found age-related under-recruitment of occipital and fusiform cortex, but over-recruitment in a set of regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri, anterior medial frontal gyrus, precuneus and left inferior parietal lobe. We demonstrate that all of the regions consistently over-recruited by older adults during successful encoding exhibit either direct overlap, or occur in close vicinity to regions consistently involved in unsuccessful encoding in young adults. We discuss the possibility that this overall pattern of age-related differences represents an age-related shift in focus: away from perceptual details, and toward evaluative and personal thoughts and feelings during memory tasks. We discuss whether these age-related differences in brain activation benefit performance in older adults, and additional considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age

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    Néstor Pacenza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%. Most of the patients (83.7% showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6% had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45%. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5% had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases.

  5. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

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    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for

  6. Age differences in the neuroelectric adaptation to meaningful sounds.

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    Ada W S Leung

    Full Text Available Much of what we know regarding the effect of stimulus repetition on neuroelectric adaptation comes from studies using artificially produced pure tones or harmonic complex sounds. Little is known about the neural processes associated with the representation of everyday sounds and how these may be affected by aging. In this study, we used real life, meaningful sounds presented at various azimuth positions and found that auditory evoked responses peaking at about 100 and 180 ms after sound onset decreased in amplitude with stimulus repetition. This neural adaptation was greater in young than in older adults and was more pronounced when the same sound was repeated at the same location. Moreover, the P2 waves showed differential patterns of domain-specific adaptation when location and identity was repeated among young adults. Background noise decreased ERP amplitudes and modulated the magnitude of repetition effects on both the N1 and P2 amplitude, and the effects were comparable in young and older adults. These findings reveal an age-related difference in the neural processes associated with adaptation to meaningful sounds, which may relate to older adults' difficulty in ignoring task-irrelevant stimuli.

  7. Perception of smile esthetics by laypeople of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphadungporn, Chompunuch; Chamnannidiadha, Niramol

    2017-12-01

    Age is a factor affecting smile esthetics. Three variables of smile esthetics associated with the maxillary anterior teeth and age-related changes have recently received considerable attention: (i) the incisal edge position of the maxillary central incisors, (ii) the maxillary gingival display, and (iii) the presence of a black triangle between the maxillary central incisors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age on smile esthetic perception based on these three variables in a group of Thai laypeople. The smiles were constructed from a photograph of a female smile. Smile photographs were altered in various increments using three variables: the incisal edge position of the maxillary incisors, gingival display, and a black triangle between the maxillary central incisors. The photographs were shown to a group of 240 Thai laypeople. The subjects were divided into two groups: a younger group, 15-29 years old (n = 120) and an older group, 36-52 years old (n = 120). Each subject was asked to score the attractiveness of each smile separately using a visual analog scale. Smile attractiveness scores concerning the incisal edge positions of the maxillary central incisors were similar between the two groups. However, upper lip coverage was rated as unattractive by the younger group. A gingival display of 0 and 2 mm was rated as most attractive by the younger group. Upper lip coverage and gingival display of 0 and 2 mm were considered attractive by the older group. Excessive gingival display (6 mm) was scored as unattractive by both groups. A black triangle ranging from 1 to 2.5 mm between the maxillary central incisors was scored differently between the two groups. The older group was more tolerant of the black triangle size. Age impacts smile perception based on maxillary gingival display and the presence of a black triangle between the maxillary central incisors, but not of the incisal edge position of the maxillary central incisors. Due to

  8. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

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    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  9. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Performance of NiTi endodontic instrument under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Yahata, Yoshio; Ebihara, Arata; Atmeh, Amre R; Bakhsh, Turki; Suda, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test nickel titanium (NiTi) instrument performance under different surrounding temperatures. Twenty-four superelastic NiTi instruments with a conical shape comprising a 0.30-mm-diameter tip and 0.06 taper were equally divided into 3 groups according to the temperature employed. Using a specially designed cyclic fatigue testing apparatus, each instrument was deflected to give a curvature 10 mm in radius and a 30° angle. This position was kept as the instrument was immersed in a continuous flow of water under a temperature of 10, 37, or 50 °C for 20 s to calculate the deflecting load (DL). In the same position, the instrument was then allowed to rotate at 300 rpm to fracture, and the working time was converted to the number of cycles to fracture (NCF). The statistical significance was set at p = 0.05. The mean DL (in N) and NCF (in cycles) of the groups at 10, 37, and 50 °C were 10.16 ± 1.36 and 135.50 ± 31.48, 13.50 ± 0.92 and 89.20 ± 16.44, and 14.70 ± 1.21 and 65.50 ± 15.90, respectively. The group at 10 °C had significantly the lowest DL that favorably resulted in the highest NCF. Within the limitations of this study, the surrounding temperature influences the cyclic fatigue resistance and DL of the superelastic NiTi instruments. Lower temperatures are found to favorably decrease the DL and extend the lifetime of the superelastic NiTi instrument. Further NiTi instrument failure studies should be performed under simulated body temperature.

  11. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  13. Turbulent boundary layer under the control of different schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Z. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2017-06-01

    This work explores experimentally the control of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate based on wall perturbation generated by piezo-ceramic actuators. Different schemes are investigated, including the feed-forward, the feedback, and the combined feed-forward and feedback strategies, with a view to suppressing the near-wall high-speed events and hence reducing skin friction drag. While the strategies may achieve a local maximum drag reduction slightly less than their counterpart of the open-loop control, the corresponding duty cycles are substantially reduced when compared with that of the open-loop control. The results suggest a good potential to cut down the input energy under these control strategies. The fluctuating velocity, spectra, Taylor microscale and mean energy dissipation are measured across the boundary layer with and without control and, based on the measurements, the flow mechanism behind the control is proposed.

  14. Retention Study of Flavonoids Under Different Chromatographic Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior of selected flavonoids from their different subgroups (flavonols, flavanones, flavones and isoflavones) in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Chromatographic measurements were made on two different HILIC columns: cross-linked DIOL (Luna HILIC) and zwitterionic sulfoalkylbetaine (SeQuant ZIC-HILIC). Separation parameters such as the content of acetonitrile and pH of an eluent were studied. On the ZIC column, the retention factors of flavonoids increased with decreasing water content in the mobile phase. The increase in pH of the aqueous component mainly affects the polarity of the analytes. DIOL stationary phase shows more or less apparent dual retention mechanism, HILIC at the acetonitrile (ACN) content ≥75% and reversed phase (RP) with lower content of organic modifier. In the presence of ammonium acetate in the mobile phase, the retention of flavonoids onto the DIOL column increases without change in the selectivity of the separations. The similar effect, but considerably smaller was observed for aglycones on the ZIC column. The retention of studied glycosides (hesperidin, rutin) decreases in the presence of salt in the mobile phase. The significantly higher mass spectrometry sensitivity was observed under HILIC conditions in comparison with the most often used RP LC due to much higher content of ACN in the mobile phase. Finally, under optimal chromatographic conditions, the method was validated and applied for the determination of flavonoids in chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) infusion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  16. Age differences in autobiographical memories of negative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Adriel; Hayslip, Bert; Banks, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether older adults recollect autobiographical memories of negative events so as to minimize unpleasant emotions to a greater extent than do younger adults. A sample of healthy older adults (N = 126) and younger adults (N = 119) completed the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and a measure of PTSD symptoms in response to their most negative recalled event. Results supported the hypothesis that older adults rated their negative memories as having: 1) less of a sense of traveling back to the time the event occurred, 2) less associated visceral emotional reactions, 3) fewer associated negative emotions, and 4) fewer PTSD symptoms, all relative to younger adults. In addition, older adults exhibited higher ratings of belief in accuracy, higher ratings that the memory comes as a coherent story, and more associated positive emotions, again all relative to younger adults. After controlling for differences between the types of events younger and older adults reported and how long ago the event occurred, the above age differences remained statistically significant, though the effect sizes were attenuated in some cases. These results are consistent in their support for the positivity effect, and suggest that older adults modify their recollections of negative events in a manner that is emotionally adaptive for them.

  17. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  18. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, and CO(NH 2 ) 2 -N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO 3 -N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  19. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO3-N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  20. Optimal Tuned Mass Damper for Nonlinear Structure under Different Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shakeri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is no closed-form formula for designing TMD (Tuned Mass Damper for nonlinear structures, some researchers have proposed numerical optimization procedures such as a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal values of TMD parameters for nonlinear structures. These methods are based on determining the optimal values of TMD parameters to minimize the maximum response (e.g. inter story drift of the controlled structure subjected to a specific earthquake record. Therefore, the performance of TMD that has been designed using a specific record strongly depends on the characteristics of the earthquake record. By changing the characteristics of the input earthquake record, the efficiency of TMD is changed and in some cases, it is possible that the response of the controlled structure is increased. To overcome the shortcomings of the previous researches, in this paper, an efficient method for designing optimal TMD on nonlinear structures is proposed, in which the effect of different ground motion records is considered in the design procedure. In the proposed method, the optimal value of the TMD parameters are determined so that the average maximum response (e.g. inter story drift resulting from different records in the controlled structure is minimized. To illustrate the procedure of the propose method, the method is used to design optimal TMD for a sample structure. The results of numerical simulations show that the average maximum response of controlled structure resulting from different records is reduced significantly. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed method for designing optimal TMD under different earthquakes is effective.

  1. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…

  2. Internal migration and regional differences of population aging: An empirical study of 287 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Xu, Ping; Li, Fen; Song, Peipei

    2018-04-02

    In addition to birth and death, migration is also an important factor that determines the level of population aging in different regions, especially under the current context of low fertility and low mortality in China. Drawing upon data from the fifth and sixth national population census of 287 prefecture-level cities in China, this study explored the spatial patterns of population aging and its trends from 2000 to 2010 in China. We further examined how the large-scale internal migration was related to the spatial differences and the changes of aging by using multivariate quantitative models. Findings showed that the percentage of elder cities (i.e. proportion of individuals aged 65 and above to total population is higher than 7%) increased from 50% to 90% in the total 287 cities within the decade. We also found that regional imbalances of population aging have changed since 2000 in China. The gap of aging level between East zone and the other three zones (i.e. West, Central, and North-east) has considerably narrowed down. In 2000, Eastern region had the greatest number (65) of and the largest proportion (74.7%) of elder cities among all four regions. By 2010, the proportion (87.4%) of elder cities in the eastern region was slightly lower than Central (91.4%), Western (88.2%) and North-east sectors (91.2%). Results from multivariate quantitative models showed that the regional differences of population aging appear to be affected much more by the large-scale internal migration with clear age selectivity and orientation preference than by the impact of fertility and mortality. Population aging is expected to continue in China, which will in turn exacerbate regional imbalances. Policies and implications are discussed to face the challenges that the divergent aging population may present in China.

  3. Vineyard microclimate and yield under different plastic covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcman, Ester; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; Conceição, Marco Antônio Fonseca; Couto, Hilton Thadeu Zarate

    2017-12-01

    The use of plastic cover in vineyards minimizes effects of adverse weather conditions. The northwest of São Paulo State is one of the largest grape producing regions in Brazil; however, few studies investigate the effects of different plastic covers on vineyards in this region. This study compared the effect of black shading screen (BSS) and braided polypropylene film (BPF) on BRS Morena vineyard microclimate, grown on an overhead trellis system in the northwestern São Paulo. The experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012-2014). BSS allowed superior incoming solar radiation (SR) transmissivity, resulting in higher net radiation (Rn), and higher ratio between photosynthetically active (PAR) and SR. No differences were observed between the average air temperatures (T) and relative humidity (RH) of covered environments (BPF and BSS) and outside condition (automatic weather station-AWS), due to high air circulation, despite wind speed (WS) reduction caused by plastic covers. BPF provided better conditions for vineyard growth with higher fruit yield than vineyard under BSS regarding the number of shoots with bunches per plant, bunch and stem weights, longitudinal diameter of berries, quantity of fertile buds per shoot, and yield per shoot and per plant. BPF covers also influenced leaf size and growth speed of plants in vineyards.

  4. Dust growth under different plasma conditions in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chuchu; Matthews, Lorin; Carballido, Augusto; Hyde, Truell

    2017-10-01

    Coagulation of dust aggregates plays an important role in the formation of planets and the evolution of protoplanetary disks. As cosmic dust becomes charged in the radiative plasma environment, the trajectories of colliding dust grains can be altered by the electrostatic force acting between them, affecting their coagulation probability. This study compares the dust growth in protoplanetary disks with different turbulence strengths and different plasma conditions, i.e. the ratio of free electrons to free ions. A Monte Carlo approach with a simple kernel based on the radius of the grains is used to choose potential colliding pairs and calculate the elapsed time between collisions. The actual collision outcome is determined using a detailed model of the collision which takes into account the aggregate morphology, trajectory, orientation, and all forces acting on the colliding grains. A statistical analysis of the collision outcomes is used to determine collision probability as well as the physical characteristics of the resulting aggregates for both charged and uncharged grains. Preliminary results show that charged aggregates tend to be more porous than neutral particles, and more highly charged particles experience less restructuring as a result of gentler collisions. In regions with weak turbulence, both the collision rate and the number of bouncing collisions are lower for highly charged grains, and the probability of hit-and-stick collisions leading to aggregate growth is a balance of the collision and bouncing rates. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1414523.

  5. Neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S

    2014-08-29

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition--hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  8. Differences of accommodative responses between two eyes under binocular viewing condition mediated by polarizing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Qing Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18~38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.

  9. Sensorimotor integration in dyslexic children under different sensory stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, André R; Razuk, Milena; de Freitas, Paulo B; Barela, José A

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexic children, besides difficulties in mastering literacy, also show poor postural control that might be related to how sensory cues coming from different sensory channels are integrated into proper motor activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sensory information and body sway, with visual and somatosensory information manipulated independent and concurrently, in dyslexic children. Thirty dyslexic and 30 non-dyslexic children were asked to stand as still as possible inside of a moving room either with eyes closed or open and either lightly touching a moveable surface or not for 60 seconds under five experimental conditions: (1) no vision and no touch; (2) moving room; (3) moving bar; (4) moving room and stationary touch; and (5) stationary room and moving bar. Body sway magnitude and the relationship between room/bar movement and body sway were examined. Results showed that dyslexic children swayed more than non-dyslexic children in all sensory condition. Moreover, in those trials with conflicting vision and touch manipulation, dyslexic children swayed less coherent with the stimulus manipulation compared to non-dyslexic children. Finally, dyslexic children showed higher body sway variability and applied higher force while touching the bar compared to non-dyslexic children. Based upon these results, we can suggest that dyslexic children are able to use visual and somatosensory information to control their posture and use the same underlying neural control processes as non-dyslexic children. However, dyslexic children show poorer performance and more variability while relating visual and somatosensory information and motor action even during a task that does not require an active cognitive and motor involvement. Further, in sensory conflict conditions, dyslexic children showed less coherent and more variable body sway. These results suggest that dyslexic children have difficulties in multisensory integration because

  10. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones' contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15-34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones' local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0-2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones' increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature.

  11. Contribution of honeybee drones of different age to colonial thermoregulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In addition to honeybee workers, drones also contribute to colonial thermoregulation. We show the drones’ contribution to thermoregulation at 5 different experimental temperatures ranging from 15–34 °C. The frequency and the degree of endothermy depended on the drones’ local ambient temperature and age. Location on brood or non-brood areas had no influence. The frequency of endothermic drones and the intensity of endothermy increased with decreasing temperature. 30% of drones of 8 days and older heated their thorax by more than 1 °C above the abdomen. The youngest drones (0–2 days) did not exceed this level of endothermy. Though young drones were less often engaged in active heat production, their contribution to brood warming was not insignificant because their abundance on the brood nest was 3.5 times higher than that of the oldest drones (≥13 days). Results suggest that the stimulus for the drones’ increased frequency of heating at low experimental temperatures was their low local ambient air and/or comb temperature. PMID:22140282

  12. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  13. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  14. Spectrin and Other Membrane-Skeletal Components in Human Red Blood Cells of Different Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Ciana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Old human red blood cells (RBCs have a reduced surface area with respect to young RBCs. If this decrease occurred through the release of vesicles similar to the spectrin-free vesicles that are shed in vitro under different experimental conditions or during storage, there would be no decrease of membrane-skeleton, but only of lipid bilayer surface area, during RBC ageing in vivo. However, we observed a decrease in spectrin and other membrane-skeletal proteins in old RBCs. Because RBCs contain components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and other hydrolytic systems for protein degradation, we asked whether increased membrane-skeleton fragments could be detected in older RBCs. Methods: Four different anti-spectrin antibodies and an antibody anti-ubiquitin conjugates were used to analyse, by Western blotting, fragments of spectrin and other proteins in RBCs of different age separated in density gradients and characterized for their protein 4.1a/4.1b ratio as a cell age parameter. Results: spectrin fragments do exist in RBCs of all ages, they represent a minute fraction of all spectrin, are membrane-bound and not cytoplasmic and do not increase with cell age. Besides spectrin, other membrane-skeletal components decrease with cell age. Conclusion: Observed results challenge the commonly accepted view that decrease in cell membrane throughout RBC life in vivo occurs via the release of spectrin-free vesicles.

  15. Spectrin and Other Membrane-Skeletal Components in Human Red Blood Cells of Different Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Old human red blood cells (RBCs) have a reduced surface area with respect to young RBCs. If this decrease occurred through the release of vesicles similar to the spectrin-free vesicles that are shed in vitro under different experimental conditions or during storage, there would be no decrease of membrane-skeleton, but only of lipid bilayer surface area, during RBC ageing in vivo. However, we observed a decrease in spectrin and other membrane-skeletal proteins in old RBCs. Because RBCs contain components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and other hydrolytic systems for protein degradation, we asked whether increased membrane-skeleton fragments could be detected in older RBCs. Four different anti-spectrin antibodies and an antibody anti-ubiquitin conjugates were used to analyse, by Western blotting, fragments of spectrin and other proteins in RBCs of different age separated in density gradients and characterized for their protein 4.1a/4.1b ratio as a cell age parameter. spectrin fragments do exist in RBCs of all ages, they represent a minute fraction of all spectrin, are membrane-bound and not cytoplasmic and do not increase with cell age. Besides spectrin, other membrane-skeletal components decrease with cell age. Observed results challenge the commonly accepted view that decrease in cell membrane throughout RBC life in vivo occurs via the release of spectrin-free vesicles. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; End, Albert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS) to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment) and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment). Faces matching the observers’ own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e., the face inversion effect (FIE), was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one’s own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness. PMID:25136308

  17. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment. Faces matching the observers’ own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e. the face inversion effect, was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one’s own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness.

  18. CO2 EFFLUX IN VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Cantu Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinations of CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-water content in vertisols were monitored at least twice a week between July 2001 and January 2002. At each sampling date, two daily measurements (at 08:00 and 14:00 h local time, named as morning and afternoon, respectively were carried out. A dynamic closed chamber with a portable system EGM employing a infrared gas analyzer (IRGA and a soil chamber (SRC-1 were used to assess soil CO2 efflux throughout the experimental period from vertisols under different land uses in northeastern Mexico: Pasture (Dichanthium annulatum, Leucaena leucocephala in an alley cropping system, a native and undisturbed shrubland plot, a Eucalyptus microtheca plantation, and a Sorghum bicolor field. Results showed for the Eucalyptus and Pasture plots a highly significant and positive linear relationship between morning and afternoon soil respiration rate and soil temperature, while no significant relationship was found between soil temperature and soil respiration for the Leucaena, Sorghum nor the Shrubland plots. Soil temperature alone explained 68% of the variation in the CO2 efflux rate in Eucalyptus and 33% in Pasture. During the study period, average morning soil respiration rates for all land uses ranged from 0.7 (October to 8.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 (August, while afternoon soil respiration rates ranged from 0.6 to 14.4 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates showed the following decreasing CO2 efflux order among the five investigated land uses: Pasture>Shrubland>Leucaena>Eucalyptus>Sorghum; thus, the pasture plot showed the highest average morning and afternoon soil respiration rates; 3.5 and 5.0 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, the Sorghum plot showed the lowest average morning (1.9 and afternoon (2.5 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 soil respiration rates. The Pasture and Shrubland, which are common livestock management practices in this region, contribute to more CO2 emissions

  19. Maternal Dietary Diversity and Growth of Children Under 24 Months of Age in Rural Dodoma, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Megan; Sudfeld, Christopher; Ismail, Abbas; Vuai, Said; Ntwenya, Julius; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2018-01-01

    To identify predictors of maternal dietary diversity in rural Dodoma, Tanzania and assess its association with child growth outcomes. A cross-sectional survey of 361 mothers with children under 24 months of age was conducted in 5 villages in rural Dodoma, Tanzania. Maternal diets were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and dietary diversity was categorized using Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) guidelines. Child anthropometric measures were taken to calculate height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ). Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the association between maternal dietary diversity and children's growth outcomes. About 40% of mothers did not consume a diverse diet (MDD-W diversity was associated with significantly greater child WHZ (mean difference = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.78; P = .01), WAZ (mean difference = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .01), and reduced risk of wasting (odds ratio = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.66; P = .01). Greater maternal dietary diversity was associated with improved child WHZ and WAZ outcomes. Sustainable interventions to increase maternal dietary diversity may improve WHZ and WAZ in young children in similar settings.

  20. Spectrin and Other Membrane-Skeletal Components in Human Red Blood Cells of Different Age

    OpenAIRE

    Annarita Ciana; Cesare Achilli; Giampaolo Minetti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Old human red blood cells (RBCs) have a reduced surface area with respect to young RBCs. If this decrease occurred through the release of vesicles similar to the spectrin-free vesicles that are shed in vitro under different experimental conditions or during storage, there would be no decrease of membrane-skeleton, but only of lipid bilayer surface area, during RBC ageing in vivo. However, we observed a decrease in spectrin and other membrane-skeletal proteins in old RBCs. Because ...

  1. Comparison of visual acuity estimates using three different letter charts under two ambient room illuminations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ai-Hong; Norazman, Fatin Nur Najwa; Buari, Noor Halilah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Visual acuity is an essential estimate to assess ability of the visual system and is used as an indicator of ocular health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the consistency of acuity estimates from three different clinical visual acuity charts under two levels of ambient room illumination. Materials and Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 and 23 years old (7 males, 23 females), with their spherical refractive error rangi...

  2. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (..., such as childhood socio-economic characteristics—a confounder we hypothesized would exaggerate the young maternal age–adverse outcomes association but mask the older maternal age–adverse outcome association. Results There was a U-shaped association of maternal age with risk of preterm birth (lowest risk age 24......–30 years) and SGA (lowest risk age 26–30 years) in cohort analyses. In analyses with sister control, there was a J-shaped association of maternal age with preterm birth, with a monotonic increase in risk across the maternal age range from 24 years of maternal age. For SGA, risk increased across the age...

  3. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Serotonin 2C receptor contributes to gender differences in stress-induced hypophagia in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Sadakane, Chiharu; Nahata, Miwa; Saegusa, Yayoi; Nakagawa, Koji; Okubo, Naoto; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    The combination of depression and anorexia may influence morbidity and progressive physical disability in the elderly. Gender differences exist in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation following stress exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in feeding behavior under novelty stress in aged mice. Food intake measurement, immunohistochemical assessment, and mRNA expression analysis were conducted to investigate the role of serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT(2C)R) and its relationship with ghrelin in stress-induced suppression of feeding behavior in aged mice. After exposure to novelty stress, a 21-fold increase in plasma corticosterone and remarkable suppression of food intake were observed in aged male mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT(2C)R agonist suppressed food intake in aged male mice. Novelty stress induced a 7-fold increase in 5-HT(2C)R and c-Fos co-expressing cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in aged male mice but caused no change in aged female mice. Plasma acylated ghrelin levels decreased in stressed aged male mice and administration of the 5-HT(2C)R antagonist inhibited this decrease. The 5-HT(2C)R antagonist also reversed the suppression of food intake in estrogen receptor α agonist-treated aged male mice. Therefore, conspicuously suppressed feeding behavior in novelty stress-exposed aged male mice may be mediated by 5-HT(2C)R hypersensitivity, leading to hypoghrelinemia. The hypersensitivity may partly be due to estrogen receptor activation in aged male mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  6. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  7. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  8. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors...

  9. Intermittent exotropia surgery: results in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaho, Dayane Cristine; Wang, Serena Xiaohong; Weakley, David Robert

    2017-01-01

    To report the outcomes in patients undergoing surgical correction of intermittent exotropia and to compare the age at surgery to motor and sensory success. This was a retrospective cohort study. The results of patients with intermittent exotropia treated with surgery over a 4-year period were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on age at first surgery (groups. One hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated, with 67 and 51 patients undergoing surgery before and after the age of 4 years, respectively. The mean age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.6 years. The reoperation rate for the patients who underwent surgery before 4 years of age was 48% versus 42% for the ones who underwent surgery after this age (p=0.93). Postoperative stereopsis showed an inverse linear association with age at surgery (page, and may even present better motor results than older patients. Postoperative stereoacuity in younger children revealed to be worse than in older children; however, this result is unlikely to be due to inadequate age for surgery, but rather, immaturity for performing the stereopsis test.

  10. THE DIFFERENCES OF DRIVING BEHAVIOR AMONG DIFFERENT DRIVER AGE GROUPS AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian John LU, Ph.D., P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the population of older drivers has substantially increased across the United States. Older drivers are a group of special interest because of their potential age-related deficiencies. It is essential to understand their driving behavior and adjust the conditions of roadway systems according to their requirements. Likewise, driving behavior of older drivers needs to be considered in order to adequately estimate capacities at intersections. In the past few years, research projects were performed by the University of South Florida to analyze the differences of driving behavior among different driver age groups. Typically, the driving behavior of older drivers was evaluated by analyzing their start-up lost time and saturation headway at signalized intersections as compared to young and mid-age driver groups. Research results were based on data collected from signalized intersections with different land-use types. These intersections are located in west and central Florida where the elderly population has been increasing rapidly in recent years. From the results it was found that the presence of older drivers significantly reduced intersection capacity at all study sites because of their higher lost times and lower saturation flow rates. Therefore, driving behavior of older drivers should be considered in designing intersections located in places with a significant older driver population. In the research, models were developed to predict start-up lost time and saturation headway values generated by older drivers. Then, the variation in capacities with an increasing percentage of older drivers in the traffic stream was modeled. Finally, adjustment factors for different percentages of older drivers were developed to adjust intersection capacity. These factors are believed to account for the presence of older drivers in the traffic stream. The adjustment factors may be used in capacity analysis and design procedures for

  11. Prevalence of Depression among Undergraduate Students: Gender and Age Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ghaedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most typical disease affecting many different factors of humanity. University students may be at increased risk of depression owing to the pressure and stress they encounter. Therefore, the purpose of this study is comparing the level of depression among male and female athletes and non-athletes undergraduate student of private university in Esfahan, Iran. The participants in this research are composed of 400 male and female athletes as well as no-athletes Iranian undergraduate students. The Beck depression test (BDI was employed to measure the degree of depression. T-test was used to evaluate the distinction between athletes and non-athletes at P≤0.05. The ANOVA was conducted to examine whether there was a relationship between level of depression among non-athletes and athletes. The result showed that the prevalence rate of depression among non-athlete male undergraduate students is significantly higher than that of athlete male students. The results also presented that level of depression among female students is much more frequent compared to males. This can be due to the fatigue and lack of energy that are more frequent among female in comparison to the male students. Physical activity was negatively related to the level of depression by severity among male and female undergraduate students. However, there is no distinct relationship between physical activity and level of depression according to the age of athlete and nonathlete male and female undergraduate students. This study has essential implications for clinical psychology due to the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of depression.

  12. Physical quality of an oxisol under different uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ocian Bastos Mota

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a soil induces changes in the physical properties according to the management, tillage intensity and type of crop. The objective of this work was to measure the alterations of some of the soil physical properties and evaluate the physical quality by the S index, an indicator proposed by Dexter (2004, comparing the land uses: eucalyptus plantations at different ages, grazing pasture, annual crops, and an area of preserved secondary vegetation with an area of preserved native forest (National Forest Araripe - NFA as control. The study was carried out on an Oxisol on the Fazenda Redenção, in Jardim, State of Ceará, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications in the layers 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m. The soil was analyzed for the following physical properties: bulk density, particle density, total pore volume, micro and macroporosity, soil water retention curves and water availability. Based on the S index, the hypothesis that the use of a soil deteriorates the physical quality was accepted. Clearly, native forest (NFA was the land use with the best conditions in all physical properties studied, followed closely by the area reforested with 20 year-old eucalyptus. The use as grazing pasture affected the soil physical conditions most, especially in the surface layer (0-0.1 m, as evidenced by increased bulk density and a substantial reduction in soil porosity, mainly in macroporosity. Microporosity was not influenced by any of the uses and in any layer studied.

  13. Evolution of male life histories and age-dependent sexual signals under female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel J. Adamson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection theory models evolution of sexual signals and preferences using simple life histories. However, life-history models predict that males benefit from increasing sexual investment approaching old age, producing age-dependent sexual traits. Age-dependent traits require time and energy to grow, and will not fully mature before individuals enter mating competition. Early evolutionary stages pose several problems for these traits. Age-dependent traits suffer from strong viability selection and gain little benefit from mate choice when rare. Few males will grow large traits, and they will rarely encounter choosy females. The evolutionary origins of age-dependent traits therefore remain unclear. I used numerical simulations to analyze evolution of preferences, condition (viability and traits in an age-structured population. Traits in the model depended on age and condition (“good genes” in a population with no genetic drift. I asked (1 if age-dependent indicator traits and their preferences can originate depending on the strength of selection and the size of the trait; (2 which mode of development (age-dependent versus age-independent eventually predominates when both modes occur in the population; and (3 if age-independent traits can invade a population with age-dependent traits. Age-dependent traits evolve under weaker selection and at smaller sizes than age-independent traits. This result held in isolation and when the types co-occur. Evolution of age-independent traits depends only on trait size, whereas evolution of age-dependent traits depends on both strength of selection and growth rate. Invasion of age-independence into populations with established traits followed a similar pattern with age-dependence predominating at small trait sizes. I suggest that reduced adult mortality facilitates sexual selection by favoring the evolution of age-dependent sexual signals under weak selection.

  14. Study of apparent diffusion coefficient value in breasts of different ages and different menstrual phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ping; Wang Yafei; Huang Hao; Liu Qinfang; Chen Yerong; Tan Jishan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the differences of ADC values in breasts of women of different ages and different menstrual phases, so as to direct the choice of the examination time of MR DWI. Methods: The breasts of 65 healthy volunteers were scanned with the routine MRI plain scan and DWI in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. DWI was conducted with single shot echo planar imaging technique and b value were 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . The women were divided into three groups: Group 1 (aged 20 to 29 years, 21 cases), Group 2 (aged 30 to 39, 21 cases), and Group 3 (aged 40 to 49, 23 cases). The ADC values of all 130 breasts at nipple level in the different phases were measured. The ADC values in the three age groups and in the different menstrual phases were compared using ANOVA. Results: The mean ADC values of Group 1 were (2.14±0.14) × 10 -3 , (2.03±0.18) × 10 -3 and (2.10±0.19) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast, and (2.08±0.17) × 10 -3 . (2.02±0.16) × 10 -3 and (2.09±0.17) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. They were slightly higher than Group 3, which were (2.02±0.27) × 10 -3 (1.97±0.25) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast and (1.99±0.29) × 10 -3 , (1.93±0.26) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.28) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast. The mean ADC values of Group 2 [left breast: ( 1.94 + 0. 25) × 10-3, (1.91±0.21) × 10 -3 and (1.97±0.21) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; right breast: (1.97±0.26) × 10 -3 , (1.89± 0.25) × 10 -3 and (1.96±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s] were the lowest among the three age groups. There were significant differences in different menstrual phases (F=23.600, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean ADC values of breasts decrease markedly in the proliferative phase. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the breast ADC values should be considered in the evaluation of breast diseases with DWI. (authors)

  15. Age-related differences in sleep-based memory consolidation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Li, Hui-Jie; Guo, Yu-Hua; Peng, Peng; Lei, Xu; Yu, Jing

    2017-03-01

    A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation. Our results showed a significant overall sleep-based beneficial effect in young adults but not in older adults. However, further analyses suggested that the age differences were mainly manifested in sleep-based declarative memory consolidation but not in procedural memory consolidation. We discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the age-related degradation in sleep-based memory consolidation. Further research is needed to determine the crucial components for sleep-related memory consolidation in older adults such as age-related changes in neurobiological and cardiovascular functions, which may play an important role in this context and have the potential to delineate the interrelationships between age-related changes in sleep and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  17. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  18. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  19. Haematology of the west African dwarf sheep under two different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematological parameters of the West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep under intensive and extensive management systems in Nigeria were determined. The intensively reared animals showed higher (P<0.001) Packed Cell Volume haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume (P<0.01) than those under ...

  20. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  1. Dissipation of oxytetracycline in soils under different redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jigeng; Ying Guangguo; Zhou Lijun; Liu Shan; Zhao Jianliang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline in soils under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil followed first-order reaction kinetics and its dissipation rates decreased with increasing concentration. Oxytetracycline dissipated faster in soil under aerobic conditions than under anoxic conditions. The half-lives for oxytetracycline in soil under aerobic conditions ranged between 29 and 56 days for non-sterile treatments and 99-120 days for sterile treatments, while under anoxic conditions the half-lives of oxytetracycline ranged between 43 and 62 days in the non-sterile soil and between 69 and 104 days in the sterile soil. This suggests microbes can degrade oxytetracycline in agricultural soil. Abiotic factors such as strong sorption onto soil components also played a role in the dissipation of oxytetracycline in soil. - Oxytetracycline dissipation in soils is influenced by redox conditions and soil properties.

  2. Individual Differences, Aging, and IQ in Two-Choice Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in perfor...

  3. Accelerated aging test of solar mirrors: Comparison of different UV chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenel, Coralie; Gardette, Jean-Luc; Therias, Sandrine; Disdier, Angela; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare three accelerated aging chambers with different lamps and irradiance levels: Suntest XXL+ and Sepap 12/24 from ATLAS MTS and UV5X from AMC/AMTC. Five kinds of solar mirrors were tested: thin and thick monolithic glass, laminated glass, aluminum and a glass mirror stick on a composite polymer substrate. All samples were aged under irradiation with a temperature set onto 70 °C. Temperatures were measured directly onto samples in addition to the chamber value. Temperature was kept constant and equal in each device in order to get the same acceleration factor due to temperature for all aging. This allowed comparing the effect of irradiation only. Specular reflectance was measured at several intervals during aging, and silver and paints surfaces were monitored by optical microscopy. This study is included in the framework of the STAGE-STE European project. One of the objectives is to establish a standard for CSP mirrors accelerated aging tests. Results of aging are needed to understand which tests are relevant to each available technology of mirror. Furthermore, a standard aimed to be applied in any device which can reach required conditions, so influence of these devices has to be known to ensure the reproducibility of aging between chambers and laboratories.

  4. Are HIV-Infected Older Adults Aging Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Stephen E; Havlik, Richard

    With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative. Certainly, biological processes that correlate with aging occur earlier in the older adult HIV population. Clinical manifestations of these biological processes are age-associated illnesses occurring in greater numbers (multimorbidity), but they are not accelerated. Specifically cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and renal disease are more common with other comorbidities less certain. Management of this elevated risk for developing multimorbidity is a major concern for patients and their health care teams. The medical system must respond to the evolving needs of this aging and growing older adult population who will dominate the epidemic. Adopting a more holistic approach to their health care management is needed to achieve optimal health and well-being in the HIV-infected older adult. Geriatric care principles best embody this approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Computerized assessment of age differences in memory beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Lineweaver, Tara T; Hines, Jarrod C

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs about memory play a role in older adults' concerns about aging and can influence their performance on memory tasks. Visual analog scales can capture beliefs about how aging affects memory in general (the General Beliefs About Memory Instrument [GBMI]) and one's own memory (the Personal Beliefs About Memory Instrument [PBMI]). Data were combined across four cross-sectional studies of adults who had completed the two measures, contrasting traditional paper-and-pencil versions of the questionnaires with newer computerized versions that use a computer mouse for visual analog scaling. This scaling method is easy to use and automates scoring of graphic rating scale responses. Adults of all ages produced GBMI responses reflecting their belief that memory declines with advancing age. Older adults' PBMI responses indicated that they perceived their memory ability more negatively than those of young adults and middle-aged adults. Adults of all ages were able to use the computerized questionnaires without difficulty, making these measures suitable for use in adult developmental research.

  6. Growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice under the effect of water activity and ascospore age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zimmermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (a w and ascospore age (I on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (a w (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90 and ascospore age (I (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days. Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ, maximum specific growth rate (µmax and maximum diameter reached by the colony (λ were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter. Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05. The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing a w from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and λ values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products' shelf life determination.

  7. Aging on a different scale - chronological versus pathology-related aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, J.P.; Jonker, M.J.; Vijg, J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.; Breit, T.M.; van Steeg, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades the elderly population will increase dramatically, demanding appropriate solutions in health care and aging research focusing on healthy aging to prevent high burdens and costs in health care. For this, research targeting tissue-specific and individual aging is paramount to make

  8. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  9. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F.; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  10. Patterns of age-associated degeneration differ in shoulder muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam eRaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC. The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography in subjects without (N=294 and with (N=109 RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  11. Patterns of Age-Associated Degeneration Differ in Shoulder Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Yotam; Henseler, Jan F; Kolk, Arjen; Riaz, Muhammad; van der Zwaal, Peer; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Raz, Vered

    2015-01-01

    Shoulder complaints are common in the elderly and hamper daily functioning. These complaints are often caused by tears in the muscle-tendon units of the rotator cuff (RC). The four RC muscles stabilize the shoulder joint. While some RC muscles are frequently torn in shoulder complaints others remain intact. The pathological changes in RC muscles are poorly understood. We investigated changes in RC muscle pathology combining radiological and histological procedures. We measured cross sectional area (CSA) and fatty infiltration from Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthrography (MRA) in subjects without (N = 294) and with (N = 109) RC-tears. Normalized muscle CSA of the four RC muscles and the deltoid shoulder muscle were compared and age-associated patterns of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration were constructed. We identified two distinct age-associated patterns: in the supraspinatus and subscapularis RC muscles CSAs continuously declined throughout adulthood, whereas in the infraspinatus and deltoid reduced CSA was prominent from midlife onwards. In the teres minor, CSA was unchanged with age. Most importantly, age-associated patterns were highly similar between subjects without RC tear and those with RC-tears. This suggests that extensive RC muscle atrophy during aging could contribute to RC pathology. We compared muscle pathology between torn infraspinatus and non-torn teres minor and the deltoid in two patients with a massive RC-tear. In the torn infraspinatus we found pronounced fatty droplets, an increase in extracellular collagen-1, a loss of myosin heavy chain-1 expression in myofibers and an increase in Pax7-positive cells. However, the adjacent intact teres minor and deltoid exhibited healthy muscle features. This suggests that satellite cells and the extracellular matrix may contribute to extensive muscle fibrosis in torn RC. We suggest that torn RC muscles display hallmarks of muscle aging whereas the teres minor could represent an aging

  12. Experimental study of infrared filaments under different initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirell, Daniel Joseph

    field that gives birth to multiphoton and avalanche ionization), (b) conical emission/supercontinuum generation, and (c) emitted THz radiation. The aim of all of this research is to gain a better understanding of filamentation so that we may learn how to control them for the applications of: (a) laser-induced lightning, (b) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, (c) LIDAR, (d) medical imaging and many more. In this dissertation we will focus on an experimental study of filamentation in air produced by 780 nm radiation, pulsewidths of 200 fs, and energies pulse of 9 mJ/pulse. We have used an aerodynamic window + vacuum system to study the difference between focusing filament forming pulses down initially in vacuum conditions to that where it is allowed to focus in atmosphere. Described herein is a new way to use an off-the-shelf, inexpensive and robust 1064 nm mirror to observe the beam profile and its evolution in the filament as well as the filaments spectral properties. In addition, experiments to test for the plasma have been conducted. The results of these experiments indicate filament sizes of 200mum, in contrast to the commonly reported value of 100pm. Filaments of this size exist over a length of approximately a meter which is 8 times longer than the associated Rayleigh range for such a spot size with a clear enhancement in filament persistence with the use of the aerodynamic window. In addition the appearance of newly generated "bluer" frequencies that is present under atmospheric focusing is ail but eliminated through an initial focusing of the beam in vacuum conditions. Plasma densities of 1016 e -/cm3 were measured using plasma interferometry.

  13. Under Age 65 Disability Diagnoses of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Census Area, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Under Age 65 Disability Diagnoses of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Census Area (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 38...

  14. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  15. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged

  16. The gender difference in the brain FDG distribution with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Jinguji, Megumi; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakajo, M.; Tateno, T.; Jinnouchi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the change in brain fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution with aging. Subjects were 85 men and 116 women who had no mental abnormality and no evidence of cancer in the whole body FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) study for cancer checkup. The brain data were extracted from whole body data, and stratified according to the age: 30-39 (M: 10, F: 18), 40-49 (M: 11, F: 14), 50-59 (M: 10, F: 27), 60-64 (M: 11, F: 13), 65-69 (M: 11, F: 11), 70-74 (M: 11, F: 10), 75-79 (M: 13, F: 11), over 80 (M: 8, F: 12) years. Forties or more male and female stratified age groups were compared with each gender 30's age data using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)2. In the man, the FDG activity of the bilateral temporal and frontal lobes decreased and the decreased domains were expanded with aging. But in the females, the decreased domains were complicated in 40-69 years old. Dynamic changes of sex hormones in the individual female menopause may affect the complicated results in the females. Further studies are needed to confirm it. (author)

  17. Exploring the link between cognitive abilities and speech recognition in the elderly under different listening conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuesse, Theresa; Steenken, Rike; Neher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    , and it has been suggested that differences in cognitive abilities may also be important. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between performance in cognitive tasks and speech recognition under different listening conditions in older adults with either age appropriate hearing...... or hearing-impairment. To that end, speech recognition threshold (SRT) measurements were performed under several masking conditions that varied along the perceptual dimensions of dip listening, spatial separation, and informational masking. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was administered....... In repeated linear regression analyses, composite scores of cognitive test outcomes (evaluated using PCA) were included to predict SRTs. These associations were different for the two groups. When hearing thresholds were controlled for, composed cognitive factors were significantly associated with the SRTs...

  18. MODELING OF THE BEHAVIOUR REOLOGICHESKIH TEL UNDER DIFFERENT LAW NAGRUZHENIYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bendyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Offered model of the behaviour reologicheskogo bodies (the viscous-elasticity of the materia, designs or systems under controlling influence of the load, acting on given law for some time.

  19. Biodegradation of NSO-compounds under different redox-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, S.; Arvin, E.; Broholm, K.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the potential of groundwater microorganisms to degrade selected heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur, or oxygen (NSO-compounds) under four redox-conditions over a period of 846 days. Eight compounds (pyrrole, 1-methylp...... together with the long lag periods and the low degradation rates under aerobic conditions suggest that NSO-compounds might persist in groundwater at creosote-contaminated sites. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  20. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  1. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  2. Neural markers of individual and age differences in TVA attention capacity parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris

    2013-01-01

    to investigate neural underpinnings of age-related changes in attentional capacities, the ERP markers of individual differences in processing speed and storage capacity were validated also in the older group. Furthermore, additional components were related to performance exclusively in elderly: Anterior N1...... with K-values only in the older group. Our findings specify age-related reorganization of attentional brain networks underlying decline and reserve and furthermore show that the distinctiveness of both functions is preserved (or even increased) in older age....... amplitudes were reduced for slower older (relative to younger and faster older) participants and correlated with C-values only in the older group. High-storage capacity older (relative to younger and low-storage capacity older participants) obtained a stronger right-central positivity, which correlated...

  3. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...

  4. Preschoolers' Beliefs about Sex and Age Differences in Emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, Mariss; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assesses beliefs of 32 male and 35 female middle-class preschool children about the frequency and intensity with which girls, boys, women, and men experience anger, sadness, and happiness. Children's beliefs are complex; they vary as a function of the target person's age and sex and of the specific emotion. (SLD)

  5. Overcrowding, age and gender differences in the manifestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria have a hard time procuring adequate accommodation. Hence, they are usually left with the option of having to share a room with many people resulting in over-crowded hostels. This study sought to examine the effect of over-crowding, age and gender on the state anxiety levels ...

  6. What Are the Age Differences in Visual Sensory Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Donald W.; Schieber, Frank

    1981-01-01

    Elderly subjects demonstrated significantly greater levels of persistence. Contrast relationship of the target stimulus and its background did not interact with age. Although the data were consistent with a hypothesis of increased persistence of stimuli in the senescent nervous system, problems in the direct measurement technique are evident.…

  7. Determination of parathormone by RIA in different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhaieg, M.O.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, I.A.; Refaat, M.A.; Elgohary, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Using RIA technique for determination of the carboxyl-terminal fragments of serum parthiroid hormone (PTH), a significant rise of serum PTH was observed with age increase in 119 normal subjects, (62 Male and 57 Female) ranging from 30 to 83 years. This significant rise in serum PTH may explain the pathogenesis of senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis

  8. Age-related differences in muscular capacity among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the age-related changes in muscular capacity in a working population, and to investigate whether these changes are dependent on sports participation. Methods: Data were used from the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress and health (n = 1,800). At

  9. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  10. Emotional target cues eliminate age differences in prospective memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Henry, J.D.; Rendell, P.G.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cue saliency is known to influence prospective memory performance, whereby perceptually or conceptually distinct cues facilitate remembering and attenuate adult age-related deficits. The present study investigated whether similar benefits for older adults are also seen for emotional valence. A total

  11. Stereotypes of age differences in personality traits: Universal and accurate?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, W.; McCrae, R.R.; De Fruyt, F.; Jussim, L.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Sutin, A.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, M.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J.-P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, M.; Knežević, G.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2012), s. 1050-1066 ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : aging * stereotypes * cross - cultural Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.877, year: 2012

  12. Stereotypes of age differences in personality traits: Universal and accurate?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, W.; McCrae, R.R.; De Fruyt, F.; Jussim, L.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Sutin, A.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, M.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J.-P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, M.; Knežević, G.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2012), s. 1050-1066 ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : aging * stereotypes * cross-cultural Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.877, year: 2012

  13. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI, using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo, and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil, on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups.

  14. Maximum bite force analysis in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups.

  15. Peer relationships: Differences considering intellectual abilities and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems with peers are more common among children with intellectual disabilities (ID than typical development (TD children. As a lack of research in this field states the heterogeneity of the samples in relation to the level of disability and age, which is important for the ability to plan preventive programs and targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intellectual status and age with peer relationships. The study included 206 students aged 12 to 18 years, of which 76 with mild ID and 130 TD. Peer relationships were measured by Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (compromise, problem solving, yielding, avoidance and domination and by The Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaires, subscale Problems with peers, form for teachers. The main findings showed that students with mild ID have more problems with peers than TD students. Unlike TD students, students with mild IO at secondary school more often yielding and avoidance conflicts. At later age dominance is less frequent in both groups of students, and problem solving and compromise are statistically more frequent in students with mild ID group than in TD peers group. It was concluded that negative social experience of young people with mild ID simultaneously motivate to constructive and destructive ways of resolving conflicts.

  16. Different Underlying Neurocognitive Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, D.; Finzi, A.; Benassi, M.; Bolzani, R.; Facoetti, A.; Giovagnoli, S.; Ruffino, M.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of several specific neurocognitive functions in developmental dyslexia (DD). The performances of 60 dyslexic children and 65 age-matched normally reading children were compared on tests of phonological abilities, visual processing, selective and sustained attention, implicit learning, and executive…

  17. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  18. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  19. Mechanisms underlying the production of false memories for famous people's names in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Guyard, Anne; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that the occurrence of false memories increases with aging, but the results remain inconsistent concerning Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the production of false memories are still unclear. Using an experimental episodic memory test with material based on the names of famous people in a procedure derived from the DRM paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 803-814], we examined correct and false recall and recognition in 30 young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 30 patients with AD. Moreover, we evaluated the relationships between false memory performance, correct episodic memory performance, and a set of neuropsychological assessments evaluating the semantic memory and executive functions. The results clearly indicated that correct recall and recognition performance decreased with the subjects' age, but it decreased even more with AD. In addition, semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with age but not with dementia. On the contrary, non-semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with AD. Finally, the regression analyses showed that executive functions mediated related false memories and episodic memory mediated related and unrelated false memories in aging. Moreover, executive functions predicted related and unrelated false memories in AD, and episodic and semantic memory predicted semantically related and unrelated false memories in AD. In conclusion, the results obtained are consistent with the current constructive models of memory suggesting that false memory creation depends on different cognitive functions and, consequently, that the impairments of these functions influence the production of false memories.

  20. Regulation of growth and nutrient uptake under different transpiration regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, del F.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the extent to which air humidity affects the regulation of nutrient demand, an experiment with tomato plants was carried out under fully controlled climate conditions. Treatments consisted of three levels of relative air humidity (RH): 50%, 70% (control) and 95%, corresponding to 1.32,

  1. Evaluation of four improved soybean varieties under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... The number of weeds per 1 m x 1 m guardant significantly varied among intercropping ... ability of soybean varieties in weed management under ..... Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 124-131. Singh JN, Negi PS, Tripathi SK (1973). Study on the intercropping of soybean with maize and jower. India J. Agron. 18: 75-78.

  2. Strategic and semi-strategic voting under different electoral systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Strategic voting is often associated with plurality systems. This paper argues that strategic considerations also play a role in elections held under other electoral systems. Strategic considerations take various forms, such as which party (or candidate) receives a majority or plurality, which

  3. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot explants obtained from ...

  4. Investigating the Nature of GxE Interaction under Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement(CIMMYT) conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions. Data sets for this study were from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trials (ILHT) conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) countries from 2008 to 2011. Several trials,.

  5. Impact of climate change on sorghum production under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fertilisation and application of 40, 30 kg P ha-1) were the scenarios analysed using climate change (CCD) and historical (HD) weather data to simulate sorghum yield. Comparing grain yield under the two weather conditions, there was a 20% reduction in grain yield as a result of climate change when no fertiliser was ...

  6. Storage of pineapple fruits under different conditions: implication on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at Abeokuta to investigate the effects of storage conditions popularly used in Abeokuta metropolis on freshly harvested pineapple fruits. The pineapple fruits were harvested from a farmer's field and stored for 40 days under three conditions: refridgeration (mean temperature 10 0 C), Ambient ...

  7. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity on stem yield and ...

  8. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  9. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Brasileiro De Ciencia Do Solo, 25., Viçosa,. Resumos expandidos. Viçosa, Sbcsufv, 4v. il. p. 1.351-1.353. De Lacerda CF, Cambraia J, Oliva MA, Ruiz HA, Prisco JT (2003). Solute accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress, Environ.

  10. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Soil temperature is one of the important variables in spatial prediction of soil energy balance in a solar greenhouse. ... temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop ... pertains to the soil itself (thermal properties, moisture content, type of soil, ...

  11. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  12. Serum Sodium Changes in Fluoxetine Users at Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Talaeizadeh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Fluoxetine, a widely used antidepressant, can affect the serum sodium level. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in the serum sodium level of depressive patients taking fluoxetine according to age. "n Methods:This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 126 patients with depression, dividing the patients into two age groups of 15 to 35 years, and above 55 years, who referred to psychiatric clinics of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Serum sodium level was measured prior to fluoxetine therapy and at the first and third week after; adverse symptoms were recorded. Serum sodium level, hyponatremia, and other adverse effects were compared between the two age groups. Results: There was a significant decrease in serum sodium levels in the older patients at the first and third week after the therapy; but the serum sodium levels decreased only after the third week of therapy in the younger patients (p < 0.05. Serum sodium level was significantly lower in older than in younger patients at the third week of the therapy (140.8±2.26 vs. 135.2±2.06; p < 0.05, and hyponatremia was detected only in the older patients after the first and third week of therapy, 4.7% and 15.8%, respectively. Conclusions: Using fluoxetine can decrease serum sodium level, which is more frequent, more severe, and more clinically manifested in older than younger patients. Monitoring serum sodium level is recommended in early weeks of fluoxetine therapy especially for patients older than 55 years of age.

  13. [Dynamics of health and aging rate of patients of different age and sex in the treatment of moderate multiple pathologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakotnykh, V S; Gavrilov, I V; Egorin, K V; Meshchaninov, V N; Borovkova, T A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents results of investigation of the dynamics of health status of patients of different age and sex, with several non-serious diseases, in the course of their treatment in the hospital, as well as the determination of their biological age before and after the course of treatment. The clear differences in the number of diseases, their nature, duration of the treatment and its effectiveness depending on age and sex were revealed. However, at the age of older than 60 years these differences gradually disappearing. Multiple, although non-serious, pathology has a negative impact on the indicators of the biological age of men in the calendar age of 20-39 years and women in the calendar age of 20-39 and older than 60 years, but the rejuvenating effect of the treatment is extremely low. In a number of cases, in the process of treatment of multiple pathologies the indicators of initially reduced biological age get even higher and adapt to the indicators of the calendar age. The authors explain this from the position of the disturbed by the treatment adaptation of the organism to easy disease, as well as the opportunity of reviewing the biological age significantly reduced in relation to the calendar age as a pathological phenomenon similar to significantly increased biological age.

  14. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm -2 at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced damages

  15. Thermal shock behaviour of different tungsten grades under varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, Oliver Marius

    2012-07-19

    Thermonuclear fusion power plants are a promising option to ensure the energy supply for future generations, but in many fields of research enormous challenges have to be faced. A major step on the way to the prototype fusion reactor DEMO will be ITER which is build in Cadarache, southern France. One of the most critical issues is the field of in-vessel materials and components, in particular the plasma facing materials (PFM). PFMs that will be used in a device like ITER have to withstand severe environmental conditions in terms of steady state and transient thermal loads as well as high particle fluxes such as hydrogen, helium and neutrons. Candidate wall materials are beryllium, tungsten and carbon based materials like CFC (carbon fibre composite). Tungsten is the most promising material for an application in the divertor region with very severe loading conditions and it will most probably also be used as PFM for DEMO. Hence, this work focuses on the investigation of the thermal shock response of different tungsten grades in order to understand the damage mechanisms and to identify material parameters which influence this behaviour under ITER and DEMO relevant operation conditions. Therefore the microstructure and the mechanical and thermal properties of five industrially manufactured tungsten grades were characterised. All five tungsten grades were exposed to transient thermal events with very high power densities of up to 1.27 GWm{sup -2} at varying base temperatures between RT and 600 C in the electron beam device JUDITH 1. The pulse numbers were limited to a maximum of 1000 in order to avoid immoderate workload on the test facility and to have enough time to cover a wide range of loading conditions. The results of this damage mapping enable to define different damage and cracking thresholds for the investigated tungsten grades and to identify certain material parameters which influence the location of these thresholds and the distinction of the induced

  16. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  17. Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Sara M; Pfaff, Donald W

    2014-08-01

    The male predominance of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting, and the hypothetical heterochromatin sink are reviewed. These mechanisms likely contribute to etiology, instead of being simply causative to ASD. Environments, both internal and external, also play important roles in ASD's etiology. Early exposure to androgenic hormones and early maternal immune activation comprise environmental factors affecting sex-specific susceptibility to ASD. The gene-environment interactions underlying ASD, suggested here, implicate early prenatal stress as being especially detrimental to boys with a vulnerable genotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerodynamic performance of wind turbine under different yaw angles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yali; Zuo, Hongmei; Yang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    reduced. When the yaw angle is within 30°, the relative error of axial load coefficients is in the range of ±5% and the relative error of tangential load coefficients is in the range of ±15%. CFD method is higher than BEM (blade element momentum) method in forecasting accuracy of dynamic load calculation......A typical dynamic characteristic of horizontal axis wind turbine shows up under yaw condition. Prediction accuracy is low for momentum-blade element theory and related engineering prediction model. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dynamic load characteristics, the whole wind turbine......×10-6 m to ensure the first dimensionless size near the wall Y+load on the airfoil in the 60% section of blades, which respectively are 6 572 451 and 2 961 385. The aerodynamic performance of models under rated condition...

  19. Performance of different strains of Pleurotus species under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. citrinopileatus strain PCB did not produce any fruiting bodies during the period of study. Significant differences (P<0.05) in yield of the different species of mushrooms were recorded. Keywords: Mushrooms, flushes, biological efficiency. J Food Tech in Africa (2002) 7, 98-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfta.v7i3.19240.

  20. Age differences in visual-auditory self-motion perception during a simulated driving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRamkhalawansingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that visual-auditory cue integration may change as a function of age such that integration is heightened among older adults. Our goal was to determine whether these changes in multisensory integration are also observed in the context of self-motion perception under realistic task constraints. Thus, we developed a simulated driving paradigm in which we provided older and younger adults with visual motion cues (i.e. optic flow and systematically manipulated the presence or absence of congruent auditory cues to self-motion (i.e. engine, tire, and wind sounds. Results demonstrated that the presence or absence of congruent auditory input had different effects on older and younger adults. Both age groups demonstrated a reduction in speed variability when auditory cues were present compared to when they were absent, but older adults demonstrated a proportionally greater reduction in speed variability under combined sensory conditions. These results are consistent with evidence indicating that multisensory integration is heightened in older adults. Importantly, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that age differences in multisensory integration may generalize from simple stimulus detection tasks to the integration of the more complex and dynamic visual and auditory cues that are experienced during self-motion.

  1. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  2. Validity of Weight Estimation Models in Pigs Reared under Different Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvelous Sungirai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the relationship between linear body measurements and live weight in Landrace and Large White pigs reared under different management conditions in Zimbabwe. Data was collected for body length, heart girth, and live weight in 358 pigs reared under intensive commercial conditions. The stepwise multiple linear regression method was done to develop a model using a random selection of 202 records of pigs. The model showed that age, body length, and heart girth were useful predictors of live weight in these pigs with significantly high positive correlations observed. The model was internally validated using records of the remaining 156 pigs and there was a significantly high positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The model was then externally validated using 40 market age pigs reared under communal conditions and there was a significantly low positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The results of the study show that while linear measurements can be useful in predicting pig weights the appropriateness of the model is also influenced by the management of the pigs. Models can only be applicable to pigs reared under similar conditions of management.

  3. Emotional Sphere in Elderly People: Age and Regional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagidaeva A.B.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the negative aspects of the emotional sphere in elderly man: depression and loneliness. Empirical research was carried out in Moscow and Grozny involving elderly people living in families and in geriatric centers (201 subjects, as well as with middle-aged people (132 subjects. We used the following methods: Zung differential diagnosis of depressive states inventory in adaptation by T.I. Balachova and D. Russell and M. Ferguson Loneliness scale (UKL in adaptation by N.E. Vodopyanova. It is shown that at the present stage of development of society, middle-aged people already have quite high level of depression and pronounced sense of loneliness. We confirmed the hypothesis that the preservation of the negative aspects of the emotional sphere in elderly people is less dependent on the conditions of life at the micro level (family or gerontology center and more dependent from the living conditions at the macro level (socio-economic situation in the region. In Grozny, a city of more complex socio-economic situation, negative emotional states are more pronounced than in Moscow.

  4. Age and Sex Effects on the Active Stiffness of Vastus Intermedius under Isometric Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, a novel technique was proposed to quantify the relationship between the muscle stiffness and its nonfatigue contraction intensity. The method extended the measured range of isometric contraction to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC using an ultrasonic shear wave measurement setup. Yet, it has not been revealed how this relationship could be affected by factors like age or sex. To clarify these questions, vastus intermedius (VI stiffness of 40 healthy subjects was assessed under 11 step levels of isometric contraction. The subjects were divided into four groups: young males, young females, elderly males, and elderly females (n=10 for each. In a relaxed state, no significant difference was observed between the male and female subjects (p=0.156 nor between the young and elderly subjects (p=0.221. However, when performing isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of males was found to be significantly higher than that of females at the same level (p<0.001, and that of the young was higher than the elderly (p<0.001. Meanwhile, for two knee joint angles used, the stiffness measured at a 90° knee joint angle was always significantly larger than that measured at 60° (p<0.001. Recognizing the active muscle stiffness of VI contributes to body stability, and these results may provide insight into the age and sex bias in musculoskeletal studies, such as those on fall risks.

  5. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  6. Torque and power outputs on different subjects during manual wheelchair propulsion under different conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Kim, Youngho

    2012-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users are at a high risk of pain and injuries to the upper extremities due to mechanical inefficiency of wheelchair propulsion motion. The kinetic analysis of the upper extremities during manual wheelchair propulsion in various conditions needed to be investigated. We developed and calibrated a wheelchair dynamometer for measuring kinetic parameters during propulsion. We utilized the dynamometer to investigate and compare the propulsion torque and power values of experienced and novice users under four different conditions. Experienced wheelchair users generated lower torques with more power than novice users and reacted alertly and sensitively to changing conditions. We expect that these basic methods and results may help to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion.

  7. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  8. [The morphological changes of Hassall corpuscles of the different maturity in vertebrate animals and human in different stages of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchinskij, V Ja

    With the use of methods of light microscopy we produce comparison morphological investigation of Hassall corpuscles of different maturity in animals and human with age difference. It was arranged that quantity and sizes of Hassall corpuscles in different stages of age depend on organization level, belonging to a vital form, shape and age of animal. On the base of our investigation we can make resume about functional role of Hassall corpuscles.

  9. Age-Related Differences in the Brain Areas outside the Classical Language Areas among Adults Using Category Decision Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Jae Jun; Lee, Joo Hwa; Lee, Hui Joong; Yi, Sang Doe; Chang, Hyuk Won; Berl, Madison M.; Gaillard, William D.; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-01-01

    Older adults perform much like younger adults on language. This similar level of performance, however, may come about through different underlying brain processes. In the present study, we evaluated age-related differences in the brain areas outside the typical language areas among adults using a category decision task. Our results showed that…

  10. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  11. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  12. Compressive behavior of laminated neoprene bridge bearing pads under thermal aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Xie; Zhang, Yannian; Shan, Chunhong

    2017-10-01

    The present study was conducted to obtain a better understanding of the variation rule of mechanical properties of laminated neoprene bridge bearing pads under thermal aging condition using compression tests. A total of 5 specimens were processed in a high-temperature chamber. After that, the specimens were tested subjected to axial load. The parameter mainly considered time of thermal aging processing for specimens. The results of compression tests show that the specimens after thermal aging processing are more probably brittle failure than the standard specimen. Moreover, the exposure of steel plate, cracks and other failure phenomena are more serious than the standard specimen. The compressive capacity, ultimate compressive strength, compressive elastic modulus of the laminated neoprene bridge bearing pads decreased dramatically with the increasing in the aging time of thermal aging processing. The attenuation trends of ultimate compressive strength, compressive elastic modulus of laminated neoprene bridge bearing pads under thermal aging condition accord with power function. The attenuation models are acquired by regressing data of experiment with the least square method. The attenuation models conform to reality well which shows that this model is applicable and has vast prospect in assessing the performance of laminated neoprene bridge bearing pads under thermal aging condition.

  13. Diurnal variations in blood phenylalanine of PKU infants under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Margreet; Hoeksma, Marieke; Sauer, Pieter J J; Modderman, Pim; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, diurnal fluctuations of blood phenylalanine (Phe) are different from healthy individuals. Until now this pattern has been studied in PKU patients over one year of age. The aim of this observational study was to investigate diurnal patterns in PKU infants under one year of age receiving both the natural protein and Phe-free formula at the same time or in an alternating feeding scheme. In 7 PKU infants (aged 3-8 months), diurnal variations in blood Phe concentrations were recorded: on day A they received natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding; on day B they received these in an alternating feeding scheme. The number of feedings, total protein, and energy intake was similar on both study days. Blood samples were taken before each feeding. The means (± SD) of the difference between the individual minimum and maximum blood Phe concentrations were 81(± 50) μmol/L and 104(± 26) μmol/L on days A and B, respectively (n.s.). Fifty and 30% of the samples were below target range for age (120 μmol/L), while only 3% and 6% were above target range (360 μmol/L) on days A and B respectively (n.s.). Both feeding regimes, i.e. the natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding or alternating, resulted in comparable diurnal fluctuations of blood Phe concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational analysis of frp composite under different temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, P.; Manigandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Composite material strength depends on the stiffness of fiber and the resin which is used for reinforcement. The strength of the laminate can be increased by applying good manufacturing practices. The strength is directly depending on the property of resin. The property of the any compound subjected to changed when they exposed to the temperature. This paper investigates the strength of laminate when they subjected to different temperature gradient of resin while manufacturing. The resin is preheated before adding hardener with them. These types of laminate reinforced with resin at different levels of temperature 20c, 40c, and 60c. These different temperature resin are used for reinforcement and the specimen tested. The comparative results are made to find how the stiffness of laminate changes with respect to the thermal property of resin. The results are helpful to obtain high strength laminate.

  15. Intermittent vibration protects aged muscle from mechanical and oxidative damage under prolonged compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sing Wan; Cheung, Brian Chun Ho; Pang, Bruce Tak Keung; Kwong, Ateline; Chung, Anna; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Mak, Arthur Fut Tak

    2017-04-11

    Deep tissue pressure ulcers, a serious clinical challenge originating in the muscle layer, are hardly detectable at the beginning. The challenge apparently occurs in aged subjects more frequently. As the ulcer propagates to the skin surface, it becomes very difficult to manage and can lead to fatal complications. Preventive measures are thus highly desirable. Although the complex pathological mechanisms have not been fully understood, prolonged and excessive physical challenges and oxidative stress are believed to be involved in the ulcer development. Previous reports have demonstrated that oxidative stress could compromise the mechanical properties of muscle cells, making them easier to be damaged when physical challenges are introduced. In this study, we used senescence accelerated (SAMP8) mice and its control breed (SAMR1) to examine the protective effects of intermittent vibration on aged and control muscle tissues during prolonged epidermal compression under 100mmHg for 6h. Results showed that an application of 35Hz, 0.25g intermittent vibration during compression decreased the compression-induced muscle breakdown in SAMP8 mice, as indicated histologically in terms of number of interstitial nuclei. The fact that no significant difference in muscle damage could be established in the corresponding groups in SAMR1 mice suggests that SAMR1 mice could better accommodate the compression insult than SAMP8 mice. Compression-induced oxidative damage was successfully curbed using intermittent vibration in SAMP8 mice, as indicated by 8-OHdG. A possible explanation is that the anti-oxidative defense could be maintained with intermittent vibration during compression. This was supported by the expression level of PGC-1-alpha, catalase, Gpx-1 and SOD1. Our data suggested intermittent vibration could serve as a preventive measure for deep tissue ulcer, particularly in aged subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of superficial microhardness in dental enamel with different eruptive ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Geller Palti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the superficial microhardness of enamel in teeth at different posteruptive ages (before eruption in the oral cavity, 2-3 years after eruption, 4-10 years after eruption and more than 10 years after eruption. The study sample was composed of 134 specimens of human enamel. One fragment of each tooth was obtained from the flattest central portion of the crown to produce specimens with 3 x 3 mm. The enamel blocks were minimally flattened out and polished in order to obtain a flat surface parallel to the base, which is fundamental for microhardness testing. Microhardness was measured with a microhardness tester and a Knoop diamond indenter, under a static load of 25 g applied for 5 seconds. Comparison between the superficial microhardness obtained for the different groups was performed by analysis of Student's t test. The results demonstrated that superficial microhardness values have a tendency to increase over the years, with statistically significant difference only between unerupted enamel and that with more than 10 years after eruption. According to the present conditions and methodology, it was concluded that there were differences between the superficial micro-hardness of specimens at different eruptive ages, revealing an increasing mineralization. However, this difference was significant only between unerupted specimens and those with more than 10 years after eruption.

  17. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  18. Microbial destruction of chitin in soils under different moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2009-07-01

    The most favorable moisture conditions for the microbial destruction of chitin in soils are close to the total water capacity. The water content has the most pronounced effect on chitin destruction in soils in comparison with other studied substrates. It was found using gas-chromatographic and luminescent-microscopic methods that the maximum specific activity of the respiration of the chitinolytic community was at a rather low redox potential with the soil moisture close to the total water capacity. The range of moisture values under which the most intense microbial transformation of chitin occurred was wider in clayey and clay loamy soils as compared with sandy ones. The increase was observed due to the contribution of mycelial bacteria and actinomycetes in the chitinolytic complex as the soil moisture increased.

  19. Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... Gluck ME, Geliebter A. Racial/ethnic differences in body image and eating behaviours. Eat Behav. 2002;3:143–151. 9. O'Dea JA, Abraham S. Improving the body image, eating attitudes and behaviours of young male and female adolescents: a new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem.

  20. The Moderating Effects of Age and Education on Gender Differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual differences in gender role perceptions have been described copiously in the psychological literature. The effects of education and gender have been established cross-culturally. The joint effects of education and gender have not however been discussed adequately, especially among African populations where ...

  1. Age Differences in the Variance of Personality Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mottus, R.; Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kööts-Ausmees, L.; Realo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-11 ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : variance * individual differences * personality * five- factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 3.707, year: 2016

  2. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  3. Age Differences in the Variance of Personality Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mottus, R.; Allik, J.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kööts-Ausmees, L.; Realo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-11 ISSN 0890-2070 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : variance * individual differences * personality * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.707, year: 2016

  4. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  5. Quantification of the soil-water balance under different veld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The monthly herbage production, water-use efficiency (WUE: above-ground phytomass production per unit of evapotranspiration), surface runoff and soil loss were determined on grassland in three different ecological conditions, viz. poor, moderate and good, over a four year (1995/1996 to 1998/1999) period. In addition ...

  6. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Two harvesting dates (flowering and physiological maturity) were assigned to the sub-subplots. Each sub-subplot consisted of 3 rows 3 m long and 0.4 m apart. The inter- row space was 0.1 m. Plant growth and ... different at 5% level, using Duncan multiple rang test. amount of sucrose, glucose and fructose ...

  7. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  8. Iron nutrition in Indian women at different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhail, A.P.; Bothwell, T.H.; Torrance, J.D.; Derman, D.P.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Charlton, R.W. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine); Mayet, F.G.H. (Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-06-20

    The iron status of 320 Indian women living in Chatsworth, Durban, who had volunteered for iron absorption studies, was assessed using a number of measurements. These included radio-iron absorption, the transferrin saturation, the serum ferritin concentration and the haemoglobin concentration. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin concentration smaller than 12 g/dl, with two or more abnormal measurements of iron status) was 14,4%. A further 26% had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l) and 8,4% also had evidence of iron-deficient erythropoiesis (serum ferritin smaller than 12..mu..g/l and transferrin saturation below 16%). A profile of iron status based on the cumulative frequency distribution of iron stores showed that the sample with calculated median iron stores of 150 mg and lower and upper 10 percentiles of -355 mg and 655 mg respectively, was significantly more iron deficient than a sample of women studied in Washington State, USA. Of interest was the observation that all measurements of iron status were better in the older age groups, presumably as a result of the cessation of menstruation. In addition, there was evidence that the duration of menstruation, as volunteered in a brief history, had a significant effect on several measurements of iron status. This was particularly true of the serum ferritin concentration and radio-iron absorption, both of which reflect the size of the iron stores.

  9. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  10. Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D.; Oberson, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic P (Po) mineralization plays an important role in soil P cycling. Quantitative information on the release of available inorganic P (Pi) by this process is difficult to obtain because any mineralized Pi gets rapidly sorbed. We applied a new approach to quantify basal soil Po mineralization, based on 33PO4 isotopic dilution during 10 days of incubation, in soils differing in microbiological activity. The soils originated from a 20 years old field experiment, including a conventional...

  11. Contractual Wages and the Wage Cushion under Different Bargaining Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rute Cardoso; Pedro Portugal

    2005-01-01

    How does a typically European bargaining system, with collective bargaining and national minimum wage, coexist with low unemployment and high wage flexibility? A unique data set on workers, firms, and collective bargaining contracts in Portugal is used to analyze the determinants of both the contractual wage and the wage cushion (difference between contractual and actual wages). The results indicate that the wage cushion stretches the returns to worker and firm attributes, whereas it shrinks ...

  12. Evaluation of Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithms under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Mangeruga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an algorithm that performs well in different environmental conditions. We have selected some algorithms from the state of the art and we have employed them to enhance a dataset of images produced in various underwater sites, representing different environmental and illumination conditions. These enhanced images have been evaluated through some quantitative metrics. By analysing the results of these metrics, we tried to understand which of the selected algorithms performed better than the others. Another purpose of our research was to establish if a quantitative metric was enough to judge the behaviour of an underwater image enhancement algorithm. We aim to demonstrate that, even if the metrics can provide an indicative estimation of image quality, they could lead to inconsistent or erroneous evaluations.

  13. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  14. Age Differences in Self-Referencing: Evidence for Common and Distinct Encoding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Angela H.; Sokal, Rebecca; Coleman, Jennifer A.; Gotthilf, Gina; Grewal, Lauren; Rosa, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Although engagement of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) underlies self-referencing of information for younger and older adults, the region has not consistently been implicated across age groups for the encoding of self-referenced information. We sought to determine whether making judgments about others as well as the self influenced findings in the previous study. During an fMRI session, younger and older adults encoded adjectives using only a self-reference task. For items later remembered compared to those later forgotten, both age groups robustly recruited medial prefrontal cortex, indicating common neural regions support encoding across younger and older adults when participants make only self-reference judgments. Focal age differences emerged in regions related to emotional processing and cognitive control, though these differences are more limited than in tasks in which judgments also are made about others. We conclude that making judgments about another person differently affects the ways that younger and older adults make judgments about the self, with results of a follow-up behavioral study supporting this interpretation. PMID:25223905

  15. Effect of different aging methods on the mechanical behavior of multi-layered ceramic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Márcia; de Araújo, Maico D; Fukushima, Karen A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Griggs, Jason A; Della Bona, Álvaro; Cesar, Paulo F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of two aging methods (mechanical cycling and autoclave) on the mechanical behavior of veneer and framework ceramic specimens with different configurations (monolithic, two and three-layers). Three ceramics used as framework for fixed dental prostheses (YZ-Vita In-Ceram YZ; IZ-Vita In-Ceram Zirconia; AL-Vita In-Ceram AL) and two veneering porcelains (VM7 and VM9) were studied. Bar-shaped specimens were produced in three different designs: monolithic, two layers (porcelain-framework) and three layers (porcelain-framework-porcelain). Specimens were tested for three-point flexural strength at 1MPa/s in 37°C artificial saliva. Three different experimental conditions were evaluated (n=10): control; mechanical cycling (2Hz, 37°C artificial saliva); and autoclave aging (134°C, 2 bars, 5h). Bi-layered specimens were tested in both conditions: with porcelain or framework ceramic under tension. Fracture surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Results were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Only for AL group, mechanical cycling and autoclave aging significantly decreased the flexural strength values in comparison to the control (paging methods evaluated also had no effect on strength (p≥0.05). Total and partial failure modes were identified. Mechanical cycling and autoclave aging protocols had no effect on the flexural strength values and failure behavior of YZ and IZ ceramic structures. Yet, AL monolithic structures showed a significant decrease in flexural strength with any of the aging methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Characteristics of nutrition in persons of older age groups in areas with different patterns of longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Iu G; Kozlovskaia, S G; Semes'ko, T M

    1991-01-01

    The study of actual nutrition in old-aged subjects (60-74, 75-89 and 90 years and older) in the regions with varying levels of long-living has revealed different types of nutrition depending on the climatic and geographical zones. The character of nutrition of old-aged in varying regions permits a suggestion on the relation of long-living with low energy requirements that are formed under the influence of ecological conditions (high temperature and humidity of the air in Abkhazia) and determined genetically (Azerbaijan, Ukraine). Alteration of nutrition type according to the environmental requirements (as adaptation to high temperature), decreased energy value of food approaching the nutrition type of the indigenous population (for example, the Azerbaijans and Russians living in Azerbaijan) do not ensure long-living.

  17. Age differences in summarizing descriptive and procedural texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J D; Kemper, S

    1993-01-01

    This study compared young and older adults' summaries of expository texts under the hypothesis that older adults would be more experienced, hence more accurate, at summarizing texts. Two types of expository texts were used: procedural and descriptive texts. The texts were read by a panel of judges who wrote summaries of each text and identified the central ideas of each text; the judges' summaries were used to prepare lists of the central ideas of each text and to write standard summaries of each text. The participants read four texts, two orally and two silently, and then wrote summaries, which were limited to 50 words. Words-per-minute reading times were collected and the summaries were scored on two measures of content, how many ideas were reproduced from the original texts and the proportion of central ideas that were reproduced, and two measures of length, the number of sentences and the number of words. Although the older adults read more slowly than the young adults, the older adults reproduced more total and central ideas than the young ideas.

  18. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  20. Height increment of understorey Norway spruces under different tree canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Laiho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Stands having advance regeneration of spruce are logical places to start continuous cover forestry (CCF in fertile and mesic boreal forests. However, the development of advance regeneration is poorly known. Methods This study used regression analysis to model the height increment of spruce understorey as a function of seedling height, site characteristics and canopy structure. Results An admixture of pine and birch in the main canopy improves the height increment of understorey. When the stand basal area is 20 m2ha-1 height increment is twice as fast under pine and birch canopies, as compared to spruce. Height increment of understorey spruce increases with increasing seedling height. Between-stand and within-stand residual variation in the height increment of understorey spruces is high. The increment of 1/6 fastest-growing seedlings is at least 50% greater than the average. Conclusions The results of this study help forest managers to regulate the density and species composition of the stand, so as to obtain a sufficient height development of the understorey. In pure and almost pure spruce stands, the stand basal area should be low for a good height increment of the understorey.

  1. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  2. Skin wound healing in different aged Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Evelina; Malagoli, Davide; Franchini, Antonella

    2013-08-01

    Xenopus froglets can perfectly heal skin wounds without scarring. To explore whether this capacity is maintained as development proceeds, we examined the cellular responses during the repair of skin injury in 8- and 15-month-old Xenopus laevis. The morphology and sequence of healing phases (i.e., inflammation, new tissue formation, and remodeling) were independent of age, while the timing was delayed in older frogs. At the beginning of postinjury, wound re-epithelialization occurred in form of a thin epithelium followed by a multilayered epidermis containing cells with apoptotic patterns and keratinocytes stained by anti-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) antibody. The inflammatory response, early activated by recruitment of blood cells immunoreactive to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, iNOS, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, persisted over time. The dermis repaired by a granulation tissue with extensive angiogenesis, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and anti-α-SMA positive myofibroblasts. As the healing progressed, wounded areas displayed vascular regression, decrease in cellularity, and rearrangement of provisional matrix. The epidermis restored to a prewound morphology while granulation tissue was replaced by a fibrous tissue in a scar-like pattern. The quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated an up-regulated expression of Xenopus suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (XSOCS-3) and Xenopus transforming growth factor-β2 (XTGF-β2) soon after wounding and peak levels were detected when granulation tissue was well developed with a large number of inflammatory cells. The findings indicate that X. laevis skin wound healing occurred by a combination of regeneration (in epidermis) and repair (in dermis) and, in contrast to froglet scarless wound healing, the growth to a more mature adult stage is associated with a decrease in regenerative capacity with scar-like tissue formation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Western Arctic Temperature Sensitivity Varies under Different Mean States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W.; Russell, J. M.; Morrill, C.; Longo, W. M.; Giblin, A. E.; Holland-Stergar, P.; Hu, A.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere on earth. Predictions of future change, however, are hindered by uncertainty in the mechanisms that underpin Arctic amplification. Data from Beringia (Alaska and Eastern Siberia) are particularly inconclusive with regards to both glacial-interglacial climate change as well as the presence or absence of abrupt climate change events such as the Younger Dryas. Here we investigate temperature change in Beringia from the last glacial maximum (LGM) to present using a unique 30 kyr lacustrine record of leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δDwax) from Northern Alaska. We evaluate our results in the context of PMIP3 climate simulations as well as sensitivity tests of the effects of sea level and Bering Strait closure on Arctic Alaskan climate. The amplitude of LGM cooling in Alaska (-3.2 °C relative to pre-industrial) is smaller than other parts of North America and areas proximal to LGM ice sheets, but similar to Arctic Asia and Europe. This suggests that the local feedbacks (vegetation, etc.) had limited impacts on regional temperatures during the last ice-age, and suggests most of the Arctic exhibited similar responses to global climate boundary conditions. Deglacial warming was superimposed by a series of rapid warming events that encompass most of the temperature increase. These events are largely synchronous with abrupt events in the North Atlantic, but are amplified, muted, or even reversed in comparison depending on the mean climate state. For example, we observe warming during Heinrich 1 and during the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge, which are associated with cooling in the North Atlantic. Climate modeling suggests that opening of the Bering Strait controlled the amplitude and sign of millennial-scale temperature changes across the glacial termination.

  4. Blood-brain barrier and cerebral blood flow: Age differences in hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya Oxana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal stroke is similar to the stroke that occurs in adults and produces a significant morbidity and long-term neurologic and cognitive deficits. There are important differences in the factors, clinical events and outcomes associated with the stroke in infants and adults. However, mechanisms underlying age differences in the stroke development remain largely unknown. Therefore, treatment guidelines for neonatal stroke must extrapolate from the adult data that is often not suitable for children. The new information about differences between neonatal and adult stroke is essential for identification of significant areas for future treatment and effective prevention of neonatal stroke. Here, we studied the development of stress-induced hemorrhagic stroke and possible mechanisms underlying these processes in newborn and adult rats. Using histological methods and magnetic resonance imaging, we found age differences in the type of intracranial hemorrhages. Newborn rats demonstrated small superficial bleedings in the cortex while adult rats had more severe deep bleedings in the cerebellum. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, we found higher stress-reactivity of the sagittal sinus to deleterious effects of stress in newborn vs. adult rats suggesting that the cerebral veins are more vulnerable to negative stress factors in neonatal vs. adult brain in rats. However, adult but not newborn rats demonstrated the stroke-induced breakdown of blood brain barrier (BBB permeability. The one of possible mechanisms underlying the higher resistance to stress-related stroke injures of cerebral vessels in newborn rats compared with adult animals is the greater expression of two main tight junction proteins of BBB (occludin and claudin-5 in neonatal vs. mature brain in rats.

  5. Interaction of Buried Pipeline with Soil Under Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magura Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas pipelines pass through different topographies. Their stress level is influenced not only by gas pressure, but also by the adjacent soil, the thickness of any covering layers, and soil movements (sinking, landslides. The stress level may be unevenly spread over a pipe due to these causes. When evaluating experimental measurements, errors may occur. The value of the resistance reserve of steel can be adjusted by a detailed analysis of any loading. This reserve can be used in the assessment of a pipeline’s actual state or in reconstructions. A detailed analysis of such loading and its comparison with the simple theory of elasticity is shown in this article.

  6. Thermophilic Anaerobic Digester Performance Under Different Feed-Loading Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardiere, John; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Domaschko, Max; Chatfield, Mark

    The effect of feed-loading frequency on digester performance was studied on a thermophilic anaerobic digester with a working volume of 27.43 m3. The digester was fed 0.93 m3 of chicken-litter slurry/d, containing 50.9 g/L chemical oxygen demand. The treatments were loading frequencies of 1, 2, 6, and 12 times/d. The hourly pH, biogas production, and methane percent of the biogas were less stable at lower feed frequencies. There was no statistical difference among treatments in methanogenic activity. The feed-loading frequency of six times per day treatment provided the greatest biogas production.

  7. Alzheimer's Disease as Subcellular `Cancer' --- The Scale-Invariant Principles Underlying the Mechanisms of Aging ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.

    1996-01-01

    with self-organization, has been thought to underlie `creative' aspects of biological phenomena such as the origin of life, adaptive evolution of viruses, immune recognition and brain function. It therefore must be surprising to find that the same principles will also underlie `non-creative' aspects, for example, the development of cancer and the aging of complex organisms. Although self-organization has extensively been studied in nonliving things such as chemical reactions and laser physics, it is undoubtedly true that the similar sources of the order are available to living things at different levels and scales. Several paradigm shifts are, however, required to realize how the general principles of natural selection can be extensible to non-DNA molecules which do not possess the intrinsic nature of self-reproduction. One of them is, from the traditional, genetic inheritance view that DNA (or RNA) molecules are the ultimate unit of heritable variations and natural selection at any organization level, to the epigenetic (nongenetic) inheritance view that any non-DNA molecule can be the target of heritable variations and molecular selection to accumulate in certain biochemical environment. Because they are all enriched with a β-sheet content, ready to mostly interact with one another, different denatured proteins like β-amyloid, PHF and prions can individually undergo self-templating or self-aggregating processes out of gene control. Other paradigm shifts requisite for a break-through in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders will be discussed. As it is based on the scale-invariant principles, the present theory also predicts plausible mechanisms underlying quite different classes of disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), atherosclerosis, senile cataract and many other symptoms of aging. The present theory, thus, provides the consistent and comprehensive account to the origin of aging by means of natural selection and self-organization.

  8. Teachers’ Emotional Expression in Interaction with Students of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Prosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an integral part of “classroom life” and are experienced in teacher-student interactions quite often (Hosotani & Imai-Matsumura, 2011. The present study focuses on teachers’ emotions in classrooms. Its purpose is to establish which emotions are expressed by teachers in their interactions with students, the triggering situations of the two most frequent emotions, and their level of intensity and suitability. Teachers’ emotions were observed by students of primary education during their practical experience work, in grades one to five. They used a scheme constructed for observing different aspects of emotions. The observations of 108 teachers in 93 primary schools from various Slovenian regions were gathered. The results show that primary school teachers express various pleasant and unpleasant emotions, with unpleasant emotions prevailing. The average frequency of teachers’ emotion expression decreased from grade one to five. Anger was the most frequently expressed emotion (N = 261, followed by joy (N = 151. Teachers’ anger and joy were triggered in different situations: anger predominantly when students lacked discipline and joy predominantly in situations of students’ academic achievement. The intensity of expressed anger and joy was moderate in all five grades, while the assessed suitability of these two emotions was high.

  9. Deoxynivalenol occurrence in Serbian maize under different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajić Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence in maize samples originating from two harvest seasons in Serbia. The key differences between harvest seasons were weather conditions, specifically the humidity. The samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection, after clean-up on SPE columns. In samples from 2014, DON was found in 82 (100.0% samples with the average content of 2.517 mg/kg (ranged from 0.368 to 11.343 mg/kg. Two samples exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. However, analyzing larger number of samples (163 from 2015 harvest season, DON was present in 51 (31.3% samples in significantly lower concentrations (average of 0.662 mg/kg, ranged from 0.106 to 2.628 mg/kg. None of the samples from 2015 exceeded maximum level permitted by EU regulations. The data on DON presence in Serbian maize were in relation to the different weather conditions that prevailed during the two harvest seasons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172042

  10. The Emotional Blink: Adult Age Differences in Visual Attention to Emotional Information

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Linda K.; Rokke, Paul D.; Stark, Atiana C.; Saville, Alyson L.; Allen, Jaryn L.; Bagne, Angela G.

    2008-01-01

    To assess age differences in attention-emotion interactions, younger adults (ages 18–33 yrs) and older adults (ages 60–80 yrs) identified target words in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The second of two target words was neutral or emotional in content (positive in Experiment 1, negative in Experiment 2). In general, the ability to identify targets from a word stream declined with age. Age differences specific to the attentional blink were greatly reduced when baseline detecti...

  11. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2012-11-14

    exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this.

  12. Participation and Life Satisfaction in Aged People with Spinal Cord Injury : Does Age at Onset Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Marcel W M; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on outcomes in samples of elderly people with SCI and the impact of the age at onset of SCI is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study levels of participation and life satisfaction in individuals with SCI aged 65 years or older and to analyze differences in participation

  13. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  14. Sustaining forest landscape connectivity under different land cover change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, L.; Rodriguez-Freire, M.; Mateo-Sanchez, M. C.; Estreguil, C.; Saura, S.

    2012-11-01

    Managing forest landscapes to sustain functional connectivity is considered one of the key strategies to counteract the negative effects of climate and human-induced changes in forest species pools. With this objective, we evaluated whether a robust network of forest connecting elements can be identified so that it remains efficient when facing different types of potential land cover changes that may affect forest habitat networks and ecological fluxes. For this purpose we considered changes both in the forested areas and in the non-forest intervening landscape matrix. We combined some of the most recent developments in graph theory with models of land cover permeability and least-cost analysis through the forest landscape. We focused on a case of study covering the habitat of a forest dwelling bird (nuthatch, Sitta europaea) in the region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seven land-use change scenarios were analysed for their effects on connecting forest elements (patches and links): one was the simplest case in which the landscape is represented as a binary forest/non-forest pattern (and where matrix heterogeneity is disregarded), four scenarios in which forest lands were converted to other cover types (to scrubland due to wildfires, to extensive and intensive agriculture, and to urban areas), and two scenarios that only involved changes in the non-forested matrix (re naturalization and intensification). Our results show that while the network of connecting elements for the species was very robust to the conversion of the forest habitat patches to different cover types, the different change scenarios in the landscape matrix could more significantly weaken its long-term validity and effectiveness. This is particularly the case when most of the key connectivity providers for the nuthatch are located outside the protected areas or public forests in Galicia, where biodiversity-friendly measures might be more easily implemented. We discuss how the methodology can be applied to

  15. Analysis of ADU structure obtained under different precipitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramella, Jose L.; Esteban, Adolfo; Mendez De Leo, Lucia P.; Sassone, Ariel; Novara, Oscar E.; Boero, Norma L.; Leyva, Ana G.

    1999-01-01

    ADU is the nominal name for ammonium poly uranate. It is a very complex compound of polymeric structure, which may have, according to precipitation conditions, different chemical composition and crystallographic structure. ADU is used as uranium oxide precursor in the manufacture of fuel elements. In former papers it was proved that if ultrasound is applied during precipitation and digestion the characteristics of the final product (U 3 O 8 UO 2 ) improve. By studying ADU thermal decomposition obtained by ultrasonic application, it was intended to obtain its composition. Therefore, differential thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed. Samples were taken from special points and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and scanning. An experiment was also designed to identify the products released during heating. Results and conclusions obtained are presented in this work. (author)

  16. Tribological Behavior of Journal Bearing Material under Different Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear behavior of journal bearing material has been investigated using pin on disc wear tester with three different lubricating oils i.e. synthetic lubricating oil (SAE20W40, chemically modified rapeseed oil (CMRO, chemically modified rapeseed oil with Nano CuO. Wear tests were carried out at maximum load of 200 N and sliding speeds of 2 – 10 m/s. The results showed that the friction and wear behavior of the journal bearing material have changed according to the sliding conditions and lubricating oils. The journal bearing material has a lower friction coefficient for CMRO with Nano CuO than other two oils. Higher wear of journal bearing material was observed in SAE 20W40 and CMRO. Worn surfaces of the journal bearing material with three lubricating oils were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM and wear mechanisms were discussed.

  17. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  18. MEAN INFILTRATION SPEED IN A VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martínez Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  19. Duração do aleitamento materno em menores de dois anos de idade em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil: há diferenças entre os grupos sociais? Breast feeding duration in children under two years of age in Itupeva, São Paulo, Brazil: are there differences among social groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a duração do aleitamento materno (AM total e os determinantes associados à sua interrupção segundo perfis de reprodução social das famílias (formas de trabalhar e viver, fundamentados na teoria da determinação social do processo saúde-doença. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal conduzido em uma amostra de 261 crianças menores de dois anos, residentes em Itupeva, São Paulo, Brasil. A partir de uma base teórico-metodológica-operacional compuseramse três grupos sociais homogêneos (GSH segundo semelhantes formas de trabalhar e de viver. A duração do AM total foi estimada com a técnica de tábuas de vida. O teste de Wilcoxon foi empregado para identificar associação entre as variáveis categóricas na análise bivariada. Para análise múltipla, as variáveis associadas com a duração mediana do AM (pOBJECTIVE: based on the theory of social determination of the health-disease process, the objective of this study was to know the duration of overall breast feeding and the factors associated with its interruption, according to the social reproduction profiles of the families (ways of living and working. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional study carried out with a representative sample of 261 children under two years of age, living in Itupeva city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. From a theoretical-methodologicaloperational basis, three social homogeneous groups (GSH were established, according to similar conditions of working and living. Overall breast feeding duration was calculated from survival tables. Variables with p<0.20 in bivariate Wilcoxon test were then introduced in multiple Cox Regression model in order to find associated aspects to the breast feeding duration. RESULTS: the breast feeding duration medians of the 3 GSH were 6.7 months, 7.1 months and 9.9 months, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.31. The multivariate analysis showed that the sequence of birth (p=0.018, pacifier use (p<0.001 and bottle

  20. [Road traffic deaths in children under the age of five in Colombia, 2005-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia Patricia; Misnaza, Sandra Patricia; Prieto, Franklyn Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic deaths have increased during the past years worldwide. During 2007, the mortality due to road traffic accidents in children under the age of five was 11.7 per 100,000 in Colombia. To describe the trend of road traffic deaths in children under the age of five in Colombia from 2005 to 2009. We conducted a cross - sectional study of death certificates in children under the age of five as registered in the official vital statistics records from 2005 to 2009 (ICD-10, codes V000-V999). We made a descriptive analysis, calculated mortality rates based on projections by the National Administrative Statistics Department and we established risk levels by provinces and municipalities (percentiles), as well as by conglomerates using Excel ® , PASW statistics18 ® and EpiInfo ® for the maps. All in all, 713 road traffic deaths occurred from 2005 to 2009 in children under the age of five corresponding to 0.8% of total deaths in that age group. The total number of road traffic deaths decreased from 2005 (159 deaths) to 2009 (136 deaths). The mean national death rate due to road traffic accidents was 3.3 per 100,000 with a higher rate among one to four year-old children (3.5/100,000) compared to children under the age of one (2.6/100,000). The highest prevalence of road traffic deaths was observed in January (9.7%) and July (10.6%). The provinces with the highest road traffic death rate were Meta, Boyacá, Arauca, Norte de Santander and Cundinamarca. Children were the group mostly affected by the event, which increased during school holidays and was more pronounced in tourist and commercial areas.

  1. Semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Rudá; Vincentiis, Silvia; Rzezak, Patricia; Valente, Kette D

    2013-05-01

    The few studies addressing semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in children showed that this group differs from adults, considering the classical signs described. Our study with systematic assessment provides a direct comparison of the classical signs of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) in children and adults in order to establish the usefulness of the most important signs described for adults in children. Video-EEG recordings of patients with PNESs from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Twenty-five signs were selected as the most prevalent in literature, and their presence was evaluated. Events were categorized as either of the following: catatonic, major motor, minor motor, and subjective (Griffith et al., 2007 [11]). One hundred and fifteen patients were included; 63.5% were adults, 73.2% were females, and 14.4% had epilepsy. Adults presented more ictal eye closure (p=0.006), convulsions lasting >2 min (psemiological categories, major motor activity was the main feature in adults, and minor motor activity was more prevalent among children (52.9% and 38.1%, respectively; p=0.01). Our data showed that research about the distinct ictal features of PNESs, such as minor motor events that are more typical in children, is likely to be useful in promoting earlier recognition of PNESs in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The transmission characteristics of indoor particles under different ventilation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, ventilation is an important method for removing indoor particles. This study applies the parameter of attenuation index to analyze the effect of the removal of indoor particles in the two typical ventilation strategies called ceiling exhaust and slit exhaust strategy. Experiment was conducted in a chamber and riboflavin particles were used as the indoor particles source, instantaneous microbial detection (IMD used to measure the particulate concentration. Conclusions can be found that air exchange rate is an important factor affecting the indoor particle concentration distribution. In the process of indoor free settling(air exchange rate is 0 h-1, the deposition rate were 0.086 h-1, 0.122 h-1, 0.173 h-1 for the particles of 0.5–1.0 μm, 1.0–3.0μm and 3.0–5.0 μm. When the air exchange rate increased to 2.5 h-1, the differences in the attenuation index is significant. There was also a significant linear relationship between air exchange rate and attenuation index. Furthermore, the effect of the slit exhaust strategy on the removal of coarse particles is more remarkable as the increasing air exchange rate.

  3. Behavior of neutrons under different thicknesses of moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar R, A.; Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    Neutrons occur naturally, regardless of whether they are obtained as a by-product of other reactions or intentionally, mainly as a by-product of the interaction of cosmic rays with the nuclei of the atmosphere, and in anthropogenic or artificial form with neutron generators, nuclear reactors, radioisotope sources, etc. Due to their high radiobiological efficiency is important measure them in order to estimate the effective dose in occupationally exposed personnel and the public in general. This dose depends on the amount of neutrons and their energy; in order to reduce neutron energy, light materials based on H, D, C, Be are used which moderate and thermalize them. The objective of this work was to determine the behavior of monoenergetic sources of neutrons in their transport within polyethylene of different thicknesses. The study was carried out using Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNP5, where 23 monoenergetic sources of I E(-9) were used at 20 MeV by influencing the neutrons on various polyethylene surfaces whose thickness was varied from 5.08 to 30.48 cm and the total neutron flux was estimated, as well as its spectrum when crossing the various thicknesses used in the study. (Author)

  4. Kalanchoe crop development under different levels of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cibele Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance in the floriculture sector, irrigation management of kalanchoe is characterized by empiricism, being necessary further studies on the use of water by this crop. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the several effects of irrigation levels on the growth of kalanchoe crop conducted in greenhouse in the municipality of Alegrete, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in a 7 x 15 m protected environment. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments (irrigation levels corresponding to 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the pot water retention capacity - PC and four repetitions, totaling sixteen plots. The crop cycle was 224 days after transplanting and the applied average depths were: 451.82; 367.38; 282.94; 198.51 mm for treatments: 100; 80; 60 and 40% of PC, respectively. Canopy area and number of leaves per plant were evaluated over the crop cycle. In the end of the cycle, the canopy diameter, number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per plant were evaluated. No significant differences were found only to the canopy area, by the F test. Irrigation water depths between 40 and 70% of the pot capacity were more appropriate for the crop growth in the study region. The cultivar presented the best development at irrigation levels below the maximum vessel water retention capacity, that is, it is resistant to drought.

  5. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  6. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  7. Radioautographic measurement of electron-induced epidermal kinetic effects in different aged rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, E.V.; Burns, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously shown that the ability of rat epidermal cells to repair electron-induced DNA damage decreases as a function of age. The present investigation was performed to examine the relationship between this finding and sensitivity of epidermal cells to the cytotoxic effects of the radiation. Male CD rats at ages 2, 28, 100, 200, 420, and 728 days were injected with [ 3 H]-thymidine [( 3 H]Thd) at a dose of 2 mu Ci/g body weight. One hour later, the rats were anesthetized and the dorsal skin irradiated with various doses of 0.8 meV electrons at a dose rate of 660 rads/min. At 24 h after irradiation, radioautographs were made of a sheet of epidermis that was separated by trypsinization from the underlying dermis. Labeled cells were scored either as singlets or doublets (adjacent labeled cells). The percent labeled cells and percent labeled cells as doublets were determined. The estimated labeling index (the proportion of cells labeled by a single exposure to [ 3 H]Thd) of the epidermal basal layer decreased as a function of age. The slope of the semilog plot of the percent labeled cells as doublets as a function of electron dose indicates that the Do value decreases with increasing age. The results show, however, that the greatest difference in sensitivity occurs between 2-day (neonatal) and 28-day (pubescent) animals and again between 420-day (adult) and 728-day (senescent) animals

  8. [Prevalence of malnutrition in Tarahumara children under 5 years of age in the municipality of Guachochi, Chihuahua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monárrez, J; Martínez, H

    2000-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of malnutrition among Tarahumara children under 5 years of age in the municipality of Guachochi, Chihuahua, Mexico. During the summer of 1996, we interviewed a representative sample of 450 children from 62 communities, stratified by size of population. The sample represents 12.2% of the total number of Tarahumaras in the municipality. For each of three anthropometric indices (weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age), we calculated the Z-score in reference to NCHS population values. Results are presented as means and standard deviations as well as prevalence of malnutrition at different cut-off-points, stratified by age, sex, and size of the community. Prevalence figures of malnutrition (Tarahumara children reaches its peak during the second year of life (12-23 months old), affecting boys more than girls. This information may be useful for planning and targeting nutrition intervention programs for this underprivileged indigenous group.

  9. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  10. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrous Oxides Ozone Destructiveness Under Different Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R.; McDermid, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance as well as a key component of the nitrogen cascade. While emissions scenarios indicating the range of N2O's potential future contributions to radiative forcing are widely available, the impact of these emissions scenarios on future stratospheric ozone depletion is less clear. This is because N2O's ozone destructiveness is partially dependent on tropospheric warming, which affects ozone depletion rates in the stratosphere. Consequently, in order to understand the possible range of stratospheric ozone depletion that N2O could cause over the 21st century, it is important to decouple the greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and compare different emissions trajectories for individual substances (e.g. business-as-usual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions versus low emissions of N2O). This study is the first to follow such an approach, running a series of experiments using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE2 atmospheric sub-model. We anticipate our results to show that stratospheric ozone depletion will be highest in a scenario where CO2 emissions reductions are prioritized over N2O reductions, as this would constrain ozone recovery while doing little to limit stratospheric NOx levels (the breakdown product of N2O that destroys stratospheric ozone). This could not only delay the recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer, but might also prevent a return to pre-1980 global average ozone concentrations, a key goal of the international ozone regime. Accordingly, we think this will highlight the importance of reducing emissions of all major greenhouse gas emissions, including N2O, and not just a singular policy focus on CO2.

  12. A strategy for clone selection under different production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legmann, Rachel; Benoit, Brian; Fedechko, Ronald W; Deppeler, Cynthia L; Srinivasan, Sriram; Robins, Russell H; McCormick, Ellen L; Ferrick, David A; Rodgers, Seth T; Russo, A Peter

    2011-01-01

    Top performing clones have failed at the manufacturing scale while the true best performer may have been rejected early in the screening process. Therefore, the ability to screen multiple clones in complex fed-batch processes using multiple process variations can be used to assess robustness and to identify critical factors. This dynamic ranking of clones' strategy requires the execution of many parallel experiments than traditional approaches. Therefore, this approach is best suited for micro-bioreactor models which can perform hundreds of experiments quickly and efficiently. In this study, a fully monitored and controlled small scale platform was used to screen eight CHO clones producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody across several process variations, including different feeding strategies, temperature shifts and pH control profiles. The first screen utilized 240 micro-bioreactors were run for two weeks for this assessment of the scale-down model as a high-throughput tool for clone evaluation. The richness of the outcome data enable to clearly identify the best and worst clone as well as process in term of maximum monoclonal antibody titer. The follow-up comparison study utilized 180 micro-bioreactors in a full factorial design and a subset of 12 clone/process combinations was selected to be run parallel in duplicate shake flasks. Good correlation between the micro-bioreactor predictions and those made in shake flasks with a Pearson correlation value of 0.94. The results also demonstrate that this micro-scale system can perform clone screening and process optimization for gaining significant titer improvements simultaneously. This dynamic ranking strategy can support better choices of production clones. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  13. The number and biomass of microorganisms in ancient buried and recent chernozems under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, L. M.; Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Lomakin, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The size, number, and biomass of bacteria and microscopic fungi were studied in chernozems of different land uses (forest, fallow, pasture, and cropland), in paleosols under mounds of different ages in the territories adjacent to the background recent chernozems; and in the cultural layer of an ancient settlement of the Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, and Early Middle Age (4100-1050 years ago). The method of cascade filtration revealed that bacterial cells had a diameter from 0.1 to 1.85 μm; their average volume varied from 0.2 to 1.1 μm3. Large bacterial cells predominated in the soils of natural biocenoses; fine cells were dominants in the arable soils and their ancient analogues. The bacterial biomass counted by the method of cascade filtration was first found to be 10-380 times greater than that determined by luminescence microscopy. The maximal bacterial biomass (350-700 μg/g) was found in the soils of the birch forest edge (~80-year-old) and under the 80-year-old fallow. In the soils of the 15-20 year-old fallows and pastures, the bacterial biomass was 110-180 μg/g; in the arable soils and soils under the mounds, it was 80-130 and 30-130 μg/g, respectively. The same sequence was recorded in soils for the content of fungal mycelium and spores, which predominated over the bacterial mass. With the increasing age of the buried paleosols from 1100 to 3900 years, the share of the biomass of fungal spores increased in the total fungal and total microbial biomasses. In the cultural layer of the Berezovaya Luka (Altai region) settlement that had been functioning about 4000 years ago, the maximal biomass and number of fungal spores and the average biomass of bacteria and fungal mycelium comparable to that in the studied soils were revealed. In this cultural layer, the organic matter content was low (Corg, 0.4%), and the content of available phosphorus was high (P2O5, 17 mg/g). These facts attest to the significant saturation of this layer with microbial cenoses 4000

  14. Differences in the Household Composition of Elders by Age, Gender, and Area of Residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Raymond T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined age, gender, and area-of-residence differences in household type and generational composition. Majority of elders lived in some form of family household; most prevalent were two-person, married-couple-only households at ages 65-79, one-person households at ages 80-89, and 2-generation households at ages 90+. Overall, elders were more…

  15. The composition of secondary amorphous phases under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B. H. N.; Dehouck, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns measured by the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover demonstrate that amorphous phases are major components ( 15-60 wt%) of all rock and soil samples in Gale Crater. The nature of these phases is not well understood and could be any combination of primary (e.g., glass) and secondary (e.g., silica, ferrihydrite) phases. Secondary amorphous phases are frequently found as weathering products in soils on Earth, but these materials remain poorly characterized. Here we study a diverse suite of terrestrial samples including: sediments from recently de-glaciated volcanoes (Oregon), modern volcanic soils (Hawaii), and volcanic paleosols (Oregon) in order to determine how formation environment, climate, and diagenesis affect the abundance and composition of amorphous phases. We combine bulk XRD mineralogy with bulk chemical compositions (XRF) to calculate the abundance and bulk composition of the amorphous materials in our samples. We then utilize scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to study the composition of individual amorphous phases at the micrometer scale. XRD analyses of 8 samples thus far indicate that the abundance of amorphous phases are: modern soils (20-80 %) > paleosols (15-40 %) > glacial samples (15-30 %). Initial calculations suggest that the amorphous components consist primarily of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO and Fe2O3, with minor amounts of other oxides (e.g., MgO, CaO, Na2O). Compared to their respective crystalline counterparts, calculations indicate bulk amorphous components enriched in SiO2 for the glacial sample, and depleted in SiO2 for the modern soil and paleosol samples. STEM analyses reveal that the amorphous components consist of a number of different phases. Of the two samples analyzed using STEM thus far, the secondary amorphous phases have compositions with varying ratios of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, and Fe-oxides, consistent with mass

  16. A novel working memory task for preschoolers: sensitivity to age differences from 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Ainsley M; Dempsey, Erin E; Smith, Isabel M; Garon, Nancy

    2017-05-31

    Working memory (WM) plays an important role in children's learning and is linked to later academic and occupational success. Understanding the early development of WM can provide critical clues regarding the underlying structure of executive functions and how they change over the life span. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) investigate age differences in the development of three components of WM (retrieval, substitution, transformation) on a novel preschool WM measure and (2) explore whether findings are consistent with the hierarchical model of WM development by examining perseverative and non-perseverative WM errors. Perseverative errors were hypothesized to be more strongly associated with problems substituting and transforming a representation held in mind, whereas non-perseverative errors were hypothesized to be associated with problems maintaining a representation in mind. Participants were 64 children ranging in age from 3.0 to 5.6 years. The results provide evidence for the sensitivity of the WM task to age differences from 3 to 5 years and support for the hierarchical model of WM development.

  17. Examining interference of different cognitive tasks on voluntary balance control in aging and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Subramaniam, Savitha; Varghese, Rini

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the effect of semantic and working memory tasks when each was concurrently performed with a voluntary balance task to evaluate the differences in the resulting cognitive-motor interference (CMI) between healthy aging and aging with stroke. Older stroke survivors (n = 10), older healthy (n = 10) and young adults (n = 10) performed the limits of stability, balance test under single task (ST) and dual task (DT) with two different cognitive tasks, word list generation (WLG) and counting backwards (CB). Cognitive ability was evaluated by recording the number of words and digits counted while sitting (ST) and during balance tasks (DT). The balance and cognitive costs were computed using [(ST-DT)/ST] × 100 for all the variables. Across groups, the balance cost was significantly higher for the older stroke survivors group in the CB condition than older healthy (p aging and stroke impact both semantic and working memory. Stroke-related cognitive deficits may further significantly decrease working memory function.

  18. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine some demographic factors that might be associated with rotavirus diarrhea among children in Kaduna State. From September 2013-August 2014, 401 diarrheic stool samples were collected from children under 5 years of age in Kaduna State, Nigeria and analyzed for RV antigen using ELISA.

  19. Comparative study of modified polypropylene nanocomposites under environment and accelerated ageing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Luiz Gustavo Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of degradation mechanism action on the polymer nanocomposites in face of weathering (UV light, heat, acid rain, among others), is the key for development of new additives and new applications. In this work the nanocomposite synthesis was carried in molten state, using twin-screw extruder. The polymer matrix was the HMS-PP (high melt polypropylene) synthesized by gamma irradiation and the nanometric inorganic component was the montmorillonite clay. For better compatibilization between the matrix and clay, it were used maleic anhydride as coupling agent. For environment and in oven accelerated aging assays, the dumbbell samples were prepared under hot pressing. The characterization of clay addition effects and aging effects on the nanocomposites, required the use of techniques of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TGA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Xray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and mechanical properties. Samples with 0.1; 1; 3; 5; 10 % of clay were tested. The sample with 5% of clay showed better stability on the environmental assay and accelerated aging in oven assay. On the other hand, the sample with higher percent of clay (10%), was more degraded under on environmental aging than under accelerated aging in stove. In this case, became more resistant until 56 days of assay. On the studied concentrations (less than ≤ 3%) of clay, it can be seen an equilibrium between barrier effect and metallic ions action accelerating the degradative process. (author)

  20. Age differences in conscious versus subconscious social perception: the influence of face age and valence on gaze following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rendell, Peter G; Bennetts, Rachel J; Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted

    2014-09-01

    Gaze following is the primary means of establishing joint attention with others and is subject to age-related decline. In addition, young but not older adults experience an own-age bias in gaze following. The current research assessed the effects of subconscious processing on these age-related differences. Participants responded to targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the direction of gaze displayed in supraliminal and subliminal images of young and older faces. These faces displayed either neutral (Study 1) or happy and fearful (Study 2) expressions. In Studies 1 and 2, both age groups demonstrated gaze-directed attention by responding faster to targets that were congruent as opposed to incongruent with gaze-cues. In Study 1, subliminal stimuli did not attenuate the age-related decline in gaze-cuing, but did result in an own-age bias among older participants. In Study 2, gaze-cuing was reduced for older relative to young adults in response to supraliminal stimuli, and this could not be attributed to reduced visual acuity or age group differences in the perceived emotional intensity of the gaze-cue faces. Moreover, there were no age differences in gaze-cuing when responding to subliminal faces that were emotionally arousing. In addition, older adults demonstrated an own-age bias for both conscious and subconscious gaze-cuing when faces expressed happiness but not fear. We discuss growing evidence for age-related preservation of subconscious relative to conscious social perception, as well as an interaction between face age and valence in social perception. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying lifespan and age-related effects of dietary restriction and the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Cesar L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2017-11-05

    Aging constitutes the central risk factor for major diseases including many forms of cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. The aging process is characterized by both global and tissue-specific changes in gene expression across taxonomically diverse species. While aging has historically been thought to entail cell-autonomous, even stochastic changes, recent evidence suggests that modulation of this process can be hierarchal, wherein manipulations of nutrient-sensing neurons (e.g., in the hypothalamus) produce peripheral effects that may modulate the aging process itself. The most robust intervention extending lifespan, plausibly impinging on the aging process, involves different modalities of dietary restriction (DR). Lifespan extension by DR is associated with broad protection against diseases (natural and engineered). Here we review potential epigenetic processes that may link lifespan to age-related diseases, particularly in the context of DR and (other) ketogenic diets, focusing on brain and hypothalamic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A survey of undernutrition in children under three years of age in rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Leilei; Ren, Lin; Yan, Hong

    2014-02-05

    Childhood undernutrition adversely impacts child health and is one of China's largest health burdens. However, there is limited information on the current rate of childhood undernutrition in rural Western China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of childhood undernutrition and explore its association with socio-economic characteristics in Western China. A total of 13,532 children of 0 ~ 36 months of age were recruited as subjects from 45 counties and 10 provinces in Western China with a 3-stage probability proportion to size sampling. The composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) was used to assess the childhood undernutrition. The association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood undernutrition was analyzed using a two-level logistic regression. Based on CIAF, the prevalence of undernutrition among children under three years of age in rural Western China in 2005 was 21.7%. The two-level logistic analysis presented a large difference in undernutrition among the 10 provinces with the highest odds ratio in Guizhou (OR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.50, 3.08). Older children had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. As compared to girls, boys were more likely to be undernourished (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.39). The likelihood of undernutrition was lower in subjects of Han ethnicity as opposed to subjects of minority ethnicities (OR 0.77, 95%CI: 0.65, 0.90). In addition, the education levels of the mother as well as wealth index were both negatively associated with childhood undernutrition. Childhood undernutrition still remains a large health challenge in rural Western China. This study has important policy implications for the Chinese government to improve childhood undernutrition in the surveyed areas.

  3. Participation and Life Satisfaction in Aged People with Spinal Cord Injury: Does Age at Onset Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Marcel W M; Reinhardt, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have reported on outcomes in samples of elderly people with SCI and the impact of the age at onset of SCI is unclear. To study levels of participation and life satisfaction in individuals with SCI aged 65 years or older and to analyze differences in participation and life satisfaction scores between individuals injured before or after 50 years of age. This cross-sectional survey included 128 individuals with SCI who were at least 65 years old. Age at onset was dichotomized as scale of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation-Participation, and life satisfaction was measured with 5 items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated form. Participants who were injured before 50 years of age showed similar levels of functional status and numbers of secondary health conditions but higher participation and life satisfaction scores compared to participants injured at older age. In the multiple regression analysis of participation, lower current age, higher education, and having paraplegia were significant independent determinants of increased participation (explained variance, 25.7%). In the regression analysis of life satisfaction, lower age at onset and higher education were significant independent determinants of higher life satisfaction (explained variance, 15.3%). Lower age at onset was associated with better participation and life satisfaction. This study did not reveal indications for worsening participation or life satisfaction due to an accelerated aging effect in this sample of persons with SCI.

  4. [Use of health service to children under five years of age in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Horta, Bernardo L; Gomes, Gildo; Shehadeh, Imad; Chitolina, Juliana; Rangel, Liliani; Saraiva, Alessandra O; Oliveira, Aline K

    2002-01-01

    To identify the main determinants of health services utilization by children under five years of age, a population-based study using systematic sampling was conducted in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Twelve previously trained interviewers applied a standardized home questionnaire to mothers in order to obtain data on living conditions, medical consultations, and hospitalization for children under five years of age. Among 514 children covered by the study, 50% had required consultation with a physician in the previous three months and 11% had been hospitalized in the previous twelve months. Acute respiratory infection was responsible for almost two-thirds of the consultations and half of the hospitalizations. After adjusting the analysis for several confounders, the most important determinants were children's age, father's schooling, and type of home construction. Identification of these factors can contribute to adequate planning of future health interventions and to reach children in the community who need but have not received health care.

  5. Study of mortality risk factors for children under age 5 in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hosani, H A; Brebner, J; Bener, A B; Norman, J N

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were not positively correlated with neonate, infant or age under 5 mortality. Among sociocultural and economic risk factors, maternal lack of formal education and low monthly income were significantly associated with child death. Consanguinity was significantly associated with under 5 and infant but not neonatal mortality. Gestation <37 weeks was highly associated with mortality among all ages. Strengthening health care programmes and emphasizing the need to identify high risk groups should be priorities.

  6. Contribution of the D-Serine-dependent pathway to the cellular mechanisms underlying cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Rouaud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An association between age-related memory impairments and changes in functional plasticity in the aging brain has been under intense study within the last decade. In this article, we show that an impaired activation of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDA-R by its agonist D-serine contributes to deficits of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of memory-impaired aged rats. Supplementation with exogenous D-serine prevents the age-related deficits of isolated NMDA-R-dependent synaptic potentials as well as those of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation and synaptic depotentiation. Endogenous levels of D-serine are reduced in the hippocampus with aging, that correlates with a weaker expression of serine racemase synthesizing the amino acid. On the contrary, the affinity of D-serine binding to NMDA-R is not affected by aging. These results point to a critical role for the D-serine-dependent pathway in the functional alterations of the brain underlying memory impairment and provide key information in the search for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of memory deficits in the elderly.

  7. Aging and Variability of Individual Differences: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social, Psychological, and Physiological Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, George L.; Douglass, Elizabeth B.

    This paper explores the relationship between age and individual differences. Two hypotheses were tested through the use of repeated measures of functioning in terms of social, psychological, and physiological parameters: (1) individual differences do not decrease with age, and (2) individuals tend to maintain the same rank in relation to age peers…

  8. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  9. Epidemiology of haemonchosis in sheep and goats under different managemental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fiaz Qamar

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies were undertaken at slaughterhouses, livestock farms and veterinary hospitals under the different climatic conditions existing in Punjab province. Infection rate of haemonchosis was 35.44, 38.04 and 36.83 per cent, respectively in slaughtered sheep and goats, sheep and goats at livestock farms and at veterinary hospitals. Overall the highest (43.69% seasonal prevalence in all types of sheep and Goats was recorded during summer; followed by autumn (38.46%, spring (37.12%, while the lowest (28.79% was recorded during winter. It was noticed that animals of either sex are equally affected. A higher infection rate was recorded in animals below 9 months than above 9 months of age and did not show any significant difference. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 413-417

  10. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  11. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. [Social reproduction of families with children under the age of 7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Luisa Dolores Ortega; de Oliveira, Ida Maria Vianna; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Biagolini, Rosângela E M; Minagawa, Aurea Tamami

    2005-09-01

    Through a casual-stratified-proportional sample, this study characterized the social reproduction profiles of 80 families with children under age 7 living within the area of assistance of the University of São Paulo's Hospital Universitário. The profiles were constructed using a theoretical-methodological-operational basis that predefined 3 homogeneous social groups. Of the total sample, 36.1 percent of the families showed the most precarious ways of reproduction in both production and consumption; 48.2 percent seemed to struggle for integration in social life; and 15.7 percent fulfilled the qualifications for their adequate integration in social production, seemed to be protected from irregular work, showing a differentiated pattem of consumption and of collective representation and betterpossibilities to use the geo-social space. The results demonstrated that the methodology employed is adequate for the characterization of the social reproduction profiles, highlighting the fact that the social groups that comprise a society have different working and living conditions, and that each of them is exposed to specific patterns of strength and proneness to diseases.

  13. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  14. Produção e composição químico-bromatológica do capim-furachão (Panicum repens L. sob adubação e diferentes idades de corte Production and chemical composition of furachão grass (Panicum repens L. under fertilization and different cutting ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Silva Aguiar

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca (MS e a composição químico-bromatológica do capim-furachão (Panicum repens L. em diferentes idades de corte (15, 30, 45, 60 e 75 dias, na presença e ausência de adubação. Para as análises de produção e composição química, utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, em um fatorial 5 x 2 (cinco idades de corte e dois níveis de adubação, com três repetições. A adubação proporcionou aumento na produção e redução nos teores de MS. Os teores de proteína bruta (PB foram reduzidos com o avanço da idade da gramínea. Aos 60 dias, encontraram-se produções de 541,87 kg/ha de PB e 5343,92 kg/ha de MS e teores médios de FDN e FDA de 69,70 e 34,25% na MS, respectivamente. As idades de corte influíram nos teores de FDN e FDA, mas a adubação não influenciou os teores de FDN. Os teores de Ca não diferiram na presença ou ausência de adubação, com média de 0,13% na MS, e aumentaram com a idade de corte. Os teores de P diminuíram com o avanço da idade da gramínea, sendo o maior valor 0,22% na MS, na condição sem adubo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the dry matter (DM yield and chemical composition of furachão grass (Panicum repens L. at different cutting ages (15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days, with and without fertilization. For the yield analysis and chemical aanalysis composition, a completely randomized block design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (cutting ages and fertilization levels, with three replicates, was used. Fertilization increased DM produced and reduction in the DM contents. The crude protein (CP contents decreased as the cutting ages increased. At 60 days, productions of 541,87 kg/ha CP and 5343.92 kg/ha DM and average neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents of 69.7 and basis 34.25% in DM respectively were observed. The cutting ages affected the NDF and ADF average contents, but fertilization

  15. Influence of the silica fillers on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various studies were carried out on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations. In all cases, pure polymers were studied. The aim of our work managed by the CEA and the CNRS consists on studying the part of fillers and particularly the part of silica on ageing process under electron beam irradiations. Because of their wide use in industrial applications and especially in nuclear environment, the DGEBA-TETA resins (Diglycidylether of Bisphenol A - Triethylenetetramine) were chosen. Those epoxy resins are difficult to analyse because of their insolubility. Some pure and nano-metric silica filled chemical models which chemical structure very close to the one the DGEBA/TETA resin were synthesized and analysed with classical methods in organic chemistry. A major phenomenon of rupture of the C-O and C-N chemical bonds with creation of phenolic extremities, methylketone extremities, of primary and tertiary amines and notably enamine functions were revealed by the analyses. The quantitative 1 H and 13 C NMR analyses revealed the screen effect due to the silica and the reactions between the chemical species created by the irradiations and the silica surface. Thermic and thermodynamic analyses of the different epoxy resins in function of the irradiation dose and of the kind of silica showed the decrease of the glass transition temperature, of the relaxation temperature and of the crosslink density confirming the major phenomenon of bond ruptures during irradiations. With silica, the decrease of the crosslink density is slowed. This phenomenon can be explained with interactions between the nano-metric silica surface and the epoxy resin offsetting the effect of the chain rupture on the resin mechanical properties. The 13 C solid state NMR analyses confirmed the choice of the chemical models and permitted to detect the chemical species created by the irradiations. The analyse of the polarization transfers with 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed the stiffening of the nano

  16. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  17. What's age got to do with it? Partner age difference, power, intimate partner violence, and sexual risk in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.

  18. Bond strength between stell-concrete and between concretes with different ages in structural rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. DORIA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn inspections of buildings, it is common to find structures that, well before reaching its useful life longer require repairs and reinforcements. This study examined the bond strength between concrete of different ages and between steel and concrete, focusing on the recovery of reinforced concrete structures. To analyze the bond between concrete of different ages, trials with specimens receiving three different types of treatments at the interface between the concrete were performed: brushing; brushing and mortar equal to concrete of substrate and brushing and epoxy layer. Indirect tensile tests and oblique and vertical shear tests at the interface were made . The bond stress between steel and concrete was evaluated by pull out test under the conditions of the bar inserted in the still fresh concrete and when inserted in the hardened concrete with epoxy. Results showed increased bond strength by indirect tensile stress of 15% and 37%; 4% and 12% for the adherence test by oblique shear, and 108% and 178%, for the testing of vertical shear, respectively, for the specimens whose interfaces have received, in addition to brushing, layer of mortar and epoxy bridge, compared to those who received only brushing. Insignificant loss (about 0.52% of bond stress was noticed for pull out test of steel bar when compared with test results of the specimens that had steel bar inserted in the concrete in the hardened state with epoxy adhesion bridge, with those who had inserted steel bar in fresh concrete.

  19. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Y; Salam, Rehana A; Khan, Farhan R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-11-09

    Vitamin D is a micronutrient important for bone growth and immune function. Deficiency can lead to rickets and has been linked to various infections, including respiratory infections. The evidence on the effects of supplementation on infections in children has not been assessed systematically. To evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in preventing pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB), diarrhoea, and malaria in children under five years of age. This includes high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; http://www.who.int/ictrp/en/) , ClinicalTrials.gov and the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/) up to 16 June 2016. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated preventive supplementation of vitamin D (versus placebo or no intervention) in children under five years of age. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias of included trials. Four trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 3198 children under five years of age, and were conducted in Afghanistan, Spain, and the USA. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied widely in these populations (range: 73.1% in Afghanistan, 10 to 12% in USA, and 6.2% in Spain). The included trials evaluated mortality (two trials), pneumonia incidence (two trials), diarrhoea incidence (two trials), hospitalization (two trials), and mean serum vitamin D concentrations (four trials).We do not know whether vitamin D supplementation impacts on all-cause mortality because this outcome was underpowered due to few events (risk ratio (RR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 3.74; one trial, 3046 participants, low quality evidence).For pneumonia, episodes of 'radiologically confirmed' first or

  20. Bypass iliac-mesenteric-cava inpatients under two years of age. Case report and literature review

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    Villanueva López Noé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the treatment of portal hypertension in pediatric patients, some type of porto-systemic shunt is indicated, which is an unusual surgical procedure in patients under two years of age, due to the low incidence of this disease at this age and the increase in the number of complications. Objective: We present our experience and results with this procedure in patients under two years of age seen in the Hepatobiliopancreatic general surgery service at Instituto Nacional de PediatríaDiscussion: The causes of portal hypertension in children are varied. Among the extrahepatic causes, the most common is cavernomatous portal degeneration. Children with portal hypertension under two years have severe symptoms such as recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia; others have hypersplenism data. In many cases medical management is useless and a surgical procedure require such as a portosystemic shunt in order to decrease the size of varicose esophageal veins and prevent bleeding that threatens the patient’s life. Conclusion: The iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt in patients under two years is a feasible alternative that improves the clinical status of the patient, reducing the risk of bleeding. However long-term studies are needed to determine the outcome of these patients. Keywords: Iliac-mesenteric-caval shunt, portal hypertension.

  1. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Children Under Five years of age in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional status of children is one of the major predictors of child survival. However, malnutrition is a major public health problem in most of the developing countries and occurs prominently among under-five children. In context of Nepal, nearly 37% children are suffering from underweight, 41% from stunting and 11% are suffering from wasting. These children are at a substantially greater risk of severe acute malnutrition and death. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of children under five years of age and to find the factors associated with malnutrition. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dolakha and Kavre districts of Nepal for assessing the nutritional status of under-five children and associated factors. A total of 243 under five children were included from two purposively selected village development committees (VDCs) i.e. one from each district. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22 Version and ENA Software Version 2011 were used for analyzing the data. Result Out of 243 children, according to WHO based on weight for height assessment, 17 (7.0%) were wasted, in height for age analysis, 97 (39.9%) were stunted and in weight for age assessment, 46 (18.9%) were underweight. Conclusion In the study population, there is high prevalence of malnutrition, especially stunting among under-five. Taking into account weight, height, age, and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements of malnourished children more than threefifths of them were found below -2SD and nearly one-fourths below -3SD which needs intervention.

  2. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  3. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  5. Intention to Remain at Work Until Legal Retirement Age: A Comparative Analysis Among Different Age Subgroups of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hellemans

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an empirical contribution to the intention to remain at work until legal retirement age among different age subgroups of employees. Three groups of antecedents are analyzed: health condition, professional competence, and psychosocial work conditions, among two age groups of employees: 40- to 49-year-old employees and employees 50 years of age or older. The participants are employees from the service industry who are subject to annual control by occupational medicine (n = 280. They completed the VOW/QFT (Vragenlijst Over Werkbaarheid / Questionnaire sur les Facultés de Travail, a self-report questionnaire measuring several dimensions to understand the intention to remain at work. Hierarchical regression analyses tested the hypotheses. Results show there is clearly distinctive process between employees who were 40–49 years old and those over 50 in the explanation of intention to work until the lawful retirement age. Among the first group, perceived health and increase in abilities explained the intention to remain (psychosocial aspects were not an incremental explanation; among the second, it was the possibility of participation that motivated them to work. Implications concern the management of age and career: These are not the same factors that explain the intention to remain at different stages of the career. This research clarifies the respective roles of health, professional competence, and work conditions to understand the intention to remain by studying their incremental explanations and distinguishing two subgroups of age.

  6. Age-dependent differences of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability between young- and adult-age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Jang; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The effect of exercise, which increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves memory function, is well documented, however, differences in the effect of exercise on young children and adults are not yet known. In the present study, age-dependent differences of treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability between young- and adult-age rats were investigated. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 6 weeks. Radial 8-arm maze test was conducted for the determination of spatial learning ability. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. Western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was performed. In the present study, the number of errors in the young-age rats was effectively decreased by treadmill exercise. Hippocampal neurogenesis was more active in the young-age rats than in the adult-age rats. BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus was greater in the adult-age rats than in the young-age rats. The results of this study showed that adults have excellent spatial learning abilities than children, but the improvement of exercise-induced spatial learning ability through neurogenesis is better in children.

  7. Age related differences in mechanical demands imposed on the lower back by manual material handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Iman; Vazirian, Milad; Croft, Emily; Nussbaum, Maury A; Bazrgari, Babak

    2016-04-11

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) increases with age, yet the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this remains unclear. To explore the role of biomechanical factors, we investigated age-related differences in lower-back biomechanics during sagittally-symmetric simulated manual material handling tasks. For each task, trunk kinematics and mechanical demand on the lower back were examined, from among 60 participants within five equal-sized and gender-balanced age groups spanning from 20 to 70 years old. The tasks involved lowering a 4.5 kg load from an upright standing posture to both knee height and a fixed height and then lifting the load back to the initial upright posture. During these tasks, segmental body kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected using wireless inertial measurement units and a force platform. Overall, older participants completed the tasks with larger pelvic rotation and smaller lumbar flexion. Such adopted trunk kinematics resulted in larger peak shearing demand at the lower back in older vs. younger participants. These results suggest that older individuals may be at a higher risk for developing lower back pain when completing similar manual material handling tasks, consistent with epidemiological evidence for higher risks of occupational low back pain among this cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreangels M Mbizah

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i counting cementum annuli (ii pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height (iv tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio (v tooth weight and (vi skull measurements (length, width and height. A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6-24 months; 25-60 months and > 60 months, with a McFadden's Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  9. Oxygen consumption in EPDM irradiated under different oxygen pressures and at different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, N.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Ramillon, J.-M.; Balanzat, E.

    2005-01-01

    We conceived a novel set-up for measuring the radiochemical yields of oxygen consumption in polymers. The measurement is based on a sampling of the gas mixture with a mass spectrometer, before and after irradiation. We irradiated an ethylene, propylene and 1,4-hexadiene terpolymer (EPDM) with 1 MeV electron and 10.75 MeV/A carbon beams. Samples were irradiated under oxygen within a wide range of pressure (5-200 mbar). The yields under C irradiation are four times smaller than the yields under electron irradiation. This shows that radiooxidation is very sensitive to the linear energy transfer of the projectiles and hence to the heterogeneity of the energy deposition. The oxygen consumption yields do not vary significantly in the range of pressure investigated; even at 5 mbar, the kinetics is still governed by the bimolecular recombination of peroxy radicals

  10. Patterns of Age-Related Cognitive Differences in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Patrick S; Klinger, Laura G; Klinger, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about age-related cognitive differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, given the overlap in cognitive impairments in ASD to those seen in typical aging, it is possible that adults with ASD will face even greater cognitive difficulties as they age. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine age-related cognitive differences in adults with ASD and age and IQ-matched adults with typical development (age range 30-67 years). Results indicated that both age and diagnosis were related to poorer cognitive performance. However, adults with ASD exhibited pronounced age effects on measures related to executive functioning compared to adults with typical development, suggesting that aging in ASD may disproportionately affect specific cognitive processes.

  11. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  12. Behaviour and failure of C-Mn steel in presence of ageing under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotteau Schroeder, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    As carbon-manganese (C-Mn) steels are largely used in various mechanical applications, and more particularly in secondary circuit pipes of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWR), this research thesis reports the behaviour and failure modelling of such a steel within a large temperature domain (between 20 and 350 deg C). Tensile tests have been performed on smooth samples and on notches axisymmetric samples, and tear tests have been performed on CT samples. The model of Es trin Kubin-McCormick which takes ageing under strain into account has been used to simulate most of the effects of ageing under strain: negative sensitivity of flow stress to strain rate, Luders bands, PLC effect, modification of tensile mechanical properties, so on. The model is applied to the considered samples. In order to predict the failure of notched specimens, a failure local approach has been applied [fr

  13. Experimental research on the structural characteristics of high organic soft soil in different deposition ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Lin, Guo-he

    2018-03-01

    High organic soft soil, which is distributed at Ji Lin province in China, has been studied by a lot of scholars. In the paper, structural characteristics with different deposition ages have been researched by experimental tests. Firstly, the characteristics of deposition age, degree of decompositon, high-pressure consolidation and microstructure have been measured by a series of tests. Secondly, structural strengths which were deposited in different ages, have been carried out to test the significant differences of stress-strain relations between remoulded and undisturbed high organic soft soil samples. Results showed that high organic soft soil which is deposited at different ages will influence its structural characteristics.

  14. Sex and age differences in head acceleration during purposeful soccer heading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccese, Jaclyn B; Buckley, Thomas A; Tierney, Ryan T; Rose, William C; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2018-01-01

    Differences in head-neck segment mass, purposeful heading technique, and cervical strength and stiffness may contribute to differences in head accelerations across sex and age. The purpose of this study was to compare head acceleration across sex and age (youth [12-14 years old], high school and collegiate) during purposeful soccer heading. One-hundred soccer players (42 male, 58 female, 17.1 ± 3.5 years, 168.5 ± 20.3 cm, 61.5 ± 13.7 kg) completed 12 controlled soccer headers at an initial ball velocity of 11.2 m/s. Linear and rotational accelerations were measured using a triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope and were transformed to the head centre-of-mass. A MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate main effect for sex (Pillai's Trace = .165, F(2,91) = 11.868, p accelerations were higher in females (40.9 ± 13.3 g; 3279 ± 1065 rad/s 2 ) than males (27.6 ± 8.5 g, 2219 ± 823 rad/s 2 ). These data suggest that under controlled soccer heading conditions, females may be exposed to higher head accelerations than males.

  15. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Constructing Success and Failure: Age Differences in Perceptions and Explanations of Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas O.; Levesque, Maurice J.

    1993-01-01

    Examined age differences in attributions for self-reported successes and failures in important and daily situations. Attributions and affects were collected from 61 young, 21 middle-aged, and 15 older adults. Middle-aged and older adults were more likely than young adults to attribute failure to external causes and to describe more social than…

  17. Population biology of intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n=133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n= 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates

  18. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in middleaged and old-aged people at different age and sex at Nanchang city and to establish the normal reference value. Methods: Excluding coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, 422 patients, above 30 years old were divided into the normal and the control groups based on whether the dangerous factors of atherosclerosis existed or not. Then each group was divided into 5 sub-groups according to age and sex and IMT of carotid artery measurement was perfrmed with ultrasound. Results: Means of IMT of carotid artery becomes higher as the age became older. IMT got predominant thick only when the age was more than 40 in male and 50 in female. Means of IMT is little higher than that in female,but there was no statistical difference between male and female group at age below 39 or above 50. Means of IMT in the control groups were higher than that in the normal groups and the differences was predominant. The ages older, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries wider, and became more predominant wide as the age was more than 50. Compared with female groups, the inner diameters of common carotid arteries of male groups were wider than those in the female groups'. The incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was higher as the age became older, but the atherosclerosis plaques was not observed in population below 39 years old. In the population above 40 years old, the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques was 5. 06% in the normal groups and 20. 60% in the control groups. No statistic differences exited in the incidence rate of carotid atherosclerosis plaques between the male and female groups. Carotid artery stenosis were observed i. e. five arteries were found in three control patients, and the stenosis degree exceed 50% of the diameter of artery. Conclusions: The IMT of common carotid arteries in the people at age of 40 and above 40 in the

  19. Envelhecimento fisiológico de tubérculos de batata produzidos durante o outono e a primavera e armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Physiological aging of potato tubers produced during fall and spring growing seasons and stored under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento adequado dos tubérculos é muito importante para manter o equilíbrio da oferta de batata no mercado e para a obtenção de tubérculos-semente em adequado estádio fisiológico no momento do plantio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenagem no envelhecimento fisiológico de tubérculos de três clones de batata produzidos durante o outono e a primavera. O experimento foi desenvolvido em um fatorial de três clones (Asterix, SMIJ461-1 e SMINIA793101-3 por quatro temperaturas de armazenamento (4, 8, 12 e 25 ºC e duas épocas de plantio (outono e primavera no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As avaliações foram em intervalos de 30 dias, do início até os 180 dias de armazenamento. O armazenamento refrigerado prolongou a dormência dos tubérculos, reduzindo o número de brotos e evitando o apodrecimento; as temperaturas de 4 e 8 ºC impediram a brotação dos tubérculos produzidos no outono. A perda de massa fresca e a respiração dos tubérculos aumentaram com o tempo e a temperatura de armazenamento. A época de plantio altera o comportamento fisiológico dos tubérculos durante o armazenamento. O armazenamento à baixa temperatura (4 e 8 ºC é eficaz para retardar o envelhecimento fisiológico.Adequate tuber storage is necessary to maintain a good availability of potato tubers in the market and to get seeds with adequate physiological age at planting. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of different storage temperatures on tuber physiological aging of three potato clones produced during fall and spring growing seasons. The experiment was carried out as factorial of three clones (Asterix, SMIJ461-1 and SMINIA793101-3 by four storage temperatures (4, 8, 12 and 25 ºC and two growing seasons (fall and spring in a random design with four replications. At 30-day intervals, tubers were evaluated from the beginning

  20. Performance comparison of four lithium–ion battery technologies under calendar aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddahech, Akram; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work depicts the calendar aging results of four Li-ion battery technologies. The differences in the chemistry of Li-ion batteries was studied and revealed that cathodes containing manganese are more sensitive to state-of-charge and temperature increase than lithium–iron-phosphate or lithium–nickel–cobalt–aluminum batteries. The first step in presenting the differences in technology of the Li-ion battery is through the study of the battery voltage evolution versus the amount of charge at various states of health. This study revealed a significant increase in resistance on lithium–nickel–manganese–cobalt and lithium–manganese-oxide cells; a result which was confirmed through impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, a study of the comparison of the different types of Li-ion batteries was undertaken, based on the analysis of the evolution of energy efficiency with respect to aging. - Highlights: • Calendar aging results of four Li-ion battery technologies are presented. • High temperature and/or the increased state-of-charge accelerated battery aging. • We analyzed the evolution of energy efficiency with respect to aging. • Cathodes with manganese are more sensitive to SOC and temperature increase

  1. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  2. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; O'Brien, Kate M; Wyse, Rebecca J; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Tzelepis, Flora; James, Erica L; Bartlem, Kate M; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Robson, Emma; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-01-25

    Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase to identify eligible trials on 25 September 2017. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses and two clinical trial registers in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. We included 55 trials with 154 trial arms and 11,108 participants. Thirty-three trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child

  3. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  4. Surface and interface properties of carbon fiber composites under cyclical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xinying; Wang, Rongguo; Liu, Wenbo; Jiang, Long

    2011-10-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced BMI composites have been subjected to combination accelerated aging comprising a hygrothermal process, a thermal-oxidative process, and a freezing process in order to simulate their responses under complicated service environments. This cyclical condition, including the freezing process, has not been investigated by other researchers so far. The effects of this combination accelerated aging on the mechanical properties have been characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDXA, XRD, and moisture-uptake determination. The results indicated that combination accelerated aging had great effects on the mechanical properties of the composite, the network structure of the BMI matrix, and the moisture uptake by the composite. After a third cycle of accelerated aging, moisture reached the center layer of the composite and as a result led to an obvious decrease in ILSS due to deterioration of the carbon fiber-BMI interface. Sufficient moisture absorption on the composite surface made the network structure of the BMI matrix more open, which facilitated stress relaxation and the creation of micro-cracks, with a consequent obvious decrease in flexural strength. With increasing number of combined-action accelerated aging cycles, ever more moisture was absorbed during each hygrothermal process due to the plasticizing effect of water, and micro-cracks propagated as a result of internal stresses caused by the hygrothermal process, the thermal-oxidative process, and the freezing process of each cycle. XRD analysis indicated that moisture penetrated through the amorphous region of the BMI matrix.

  5. Towards a better monitoring of seed ageing under ex situ seed conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Ahmed, Zaheer; Diederichsen, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Long-term conservation of 7.4 million ex situ seed accessions held in agricultural genebanks and botanic gardens worldwide is a challenging mission for human food security and ecosystem services. Recent advances in seed biology and genomics may have opened new opportunities for effective management of seed germplasm under long-term storage. Here, we review the current development of tools for assessing seed ageing and research advances in seed biology and genomics, with a focus on exploring their potential as better tools for monitoring of seed ageing. Seed ageing is found to be associated with the changes reflected in reactive oxygen species and mitochondria-triggered programmed cell deaths, expression of antioxidative genes and DNA and protein repair genes, chromosome telomere lengths, epigenetic regulation of related genes (microRNA and methylation) and altered organelle and nuclear genomes. Among these changes, the signals from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes may show the most promise for use in the development of tools to predict seed ageing. Non-destructive and non-invasive analyses of stored seeds through calorimetry or imaging techniques are also promising. It is clear that research into developing advanced tools for monitoring seed ageing to supplement traditional germination tests will be fruitful for effective conservation of ex situ seed germplasm.

  6. Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Danielly Vieira; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; Ferreira, Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2016-09-05

    The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures.

  7. A world of difference? Domain-specific views on aging in China, the US, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Peggy; Kornadt, Anna E; Hess, Thomas M; Fung, Helene H; Rothermund, Klaus

    2018-03-22

    Research on cross-national differences in views on aging has often focused on a comparison between Asian and Western countries. However, the results are mixed showing either more positive views in Asia, no difference at all, or even more positive views in Western countries. A potential moderator of country differences that might explain some of the heterogeneity is the fact that views on aging differ in their content and valence depending on life domains such as health versus family relations. Therefore, our aim was to systematically address domain-specific views on aging in a cross-national study, also considering that cross-national differences are age group-specific. We examined differences in views on aging between China, the United States, and Germany in eight life domains using samples with a broad age range. For most of the domains, cross-national differences indicated more negative views on aging in China compared with the Western countries and more positive views among the American compared with the German participants. Intriguingly, the differences between China and the United States or Germany were absent or even reversed in the domains friends, personality, and finances. Cross-national differences also varied by age group. Our results show that explanations of cross-national differences in views of aging probably do not apply uniformly across all life domains or age groups. They underline the importance of acknowledging the domain-specific nature of views on aging in cross-national research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the

  9. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  10. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  11. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  12. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  13. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  14. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  15. Age Differences Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Friendship at University: Implications for Transition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and (b) this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an…

  16. The Employment Expectations of Different Age Cohorts: Is Generation Y Really that Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuren, Gerry; Anderson, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    If the existence of Generation Y is a viable explanation of employment behaviour, as is asserted in the burgeoning literature, then people between 18 and 33 (born between 1977 and 1992) will have markedly different approaches to work when compared with Generation X (1962 and 1976) and the Baby Boomers (1946 to 1961). This article reviews the…

  17. Individual differences in children's emotion understanding: Effects of age and language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; Lawson, J.: Harris, P.; Rosnay, M. de

    2003-01-01

    Over the last two decades, it has been established that children's emotion understanding changes as they develop. Recent studies have also begun to address individual differences in children's emotion understanding. The first goal of this study was to examine the development of these individual...... differences across a wide age range with a test assessing nine different components of emotion understanding. The second goal was to examine the relation between language ability and individual differences in emotion understanding. Eighty children ranging in age from 4 to 11 years were tested. Children...... displayed a clear improvement with age in both their emotion understanding and language ability. In each age group, there were clear individual differences in emotion understanding and language ability. Age and language ability together explained 72% of emotion understanding variance; 20% of this variance...

  18. The Under Age Marriage Phenomenon (Case Research in People of Cempaka Banjarbaru South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marriage becames a milestone for man to build a family life as husband and wife. To construct an idealized family, the Law number 1 in 1974 set a minimum age limit19 years for becoming husband and 16 years for becoming wife. But in practice there are many people who get married under the age limit. This qualitative study revealed the phenomenon of underage married in Cempaka community Banjarbaru District of South Kalimantan.Some factors that drive them to get married are determinist on religious understanding, the abundance of the natural wealth, lack of awareness of education, tolerance of deviation rules, development of social media technology, and the familiarity of the pattern of Cempaka. Motives that drive parents to marry their children off under the age of, among others, is to maintain that children do deviate their association from religious teaching, to hide their shame if their daughter was already pregnant before marriage, and economic motives to help to enlighten the burden on families.

  19. Different Perspectives on Technology Acceptance: The Role of Technology Type and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Katrin; Ziefle, Martina

    Although eHealth technologies offer an enormous potential to improve healthcare, the knowledge about key determinants of acceptance for eHealth technology is restricted. While the underlying technology of eHealth technologies and Information and Communication technology (ICT) is quite similar, utilization contexts and using motives are quite different. In order to explore the role of technology type on acceptance, we contrasted central application characteristics of both technology types using the scenario technique. A questionnaire was administered (n = 104) measuring individual variables (age, gender) and attitudes regarding an eHealth application (blood sugar meter) in contrast to an ICT device (Personal Digital Assistant, PDA). Older users basically approved the utilization of health-related technologies and perceived lower usability barriers. In addition, we identified main utilization motives of eHealth technology and technology-specific acceptance patterns, especially regarding issues of data safety in the eHealth context. Effects of age and gender in acceptance ratings suggest a differential perspective on eHealth acceptance. Finally, practical interventions were derived in order to support eHealth device design and to promote acceptance of eHealth technology.

  20. Clinicopathological and imaging features of breast cancer in Korean Women under 40 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Mi Jung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Eun Kyu; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the clinicopathological and imaging features of mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in Korean women under 40 years of age according to molecular subtypes. We included 183 breast cancers in 176 consecutive women under 40 years old who had been diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2012 and November 2014. The patients' clinical and pathologic records were available as electronic medical records. A retrospective review of the pre-operative imaging studies was performed with 177 mammographies, 183 ultrasonographies, and 178 MRIs. Eighty-six percent (158/183) of lesions were symptomatic, with masses (147/183) as the most common presentation. Eighty percent (22/25) of the asymptomatic lesions were diagnosed via screening ultrasonography. The luminal A subtype was the most common (n = 79, 43%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched subtype showed indistinct margins on mammography (p = 0.006), the triple negative subtype depicted a posterior enhancement on ultrasonography (p < 0.001) and rim enhancement on MRI (p < 0.001). Breast cancers in Korean women under 40 years of age are commonly presented with a palpable mass, and luminal A is the most common molecular subtype. In our study, the imaging and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer in younger women were similar to those previously reported for older patients.