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Sample records for underlying actin cytoskeleton

  1. Actin cytoskeleton mediates BMP2-Smad signaling via calponin 1 in preosteoblast under simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Hongyu; Yang, Chao; Li, Kai; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Honghui; Liu, Yue; Ding, Bai; Tan, Yingjun; Yuan, Ming; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan

    2017-07-01

    Microgravity influences the activity of osteoblast, induces actin microfilament disruption and leads to bone loss during spaceflight. Mechanical stress such as gravity, regulates cell function, response and differentiation through dynamic cytoskeleton changes, but the mechanotransduction mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Previous, we demonstrated actin microfilament mediated osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity (SMG). Here, we explored a potential molecular and its detailed mechanism of actin cytoskeleton functioning on BMP2-Smad signaling in MC3T3-E1 under SMG. Results showed that the actin microfilament-disrupting agent, cytochalasin B (CB), reduced BMP2-induced activation, translocation of Smad1/5/8 and Runx2 expression. SMG also inhibited BMP2-Smad signaling, which was rescued by actin cytoskeleton stabilizing agent, Jasplakinolide (JAS). Furthermore, we found that siRNA mediated knockdown of calponin 1 (CNN1), an actin binding protein, markedly promoted BMP2-Smad signaling and abolished both inhibition of CB, SMG on BMP2-Smad signaling and the rescue action of JAS. Overexpression of CNN1 inhibited the p-Smad induced by BMP2. Bidirectional Co-IP experiments demonstrated CNN1 could interacted with Smad or p-Smad protein. Furthermore, CB or SMG decreased the phosphorylated CNN1 and increased its interaction with Smad or p-Smad. Combined with the phosphorylation of CNN1 inhibites its actin binding activity, these results indicate that actin cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibites BMP2 signaling via blocking of Smad by dephosphorylated CNN1 in osteoblast cells. Thus, we provide new important insights into the mechanism of mechanotransduction under SMG condition, which probably contribute to bone formation decrease induced by SMG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in Arabidopsis roots under stress and during gravitropic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhvanov, Gregory; Medvedev, Sergei; Suslov, Dmitry; Demidchik, Vadim

    Among environmental factors, gravity vector is the only one which is constant in direction and accompanies the whole plant ontogenesis. That said, gravity vector can be considered as an essential factor for correct development of plants. Gravitropism is a plant growth response against changing its position relative to the gravity vector. It is well estableshed that gravitropism is directed by auxin redistribution across the gravistimulated organ. In addition to auxin, actin cytoskeleton was shown to be involved in gravitropism at different stages: gravity perception, signal transduction and gravitropic bending formation. However, the relationship between IAA and actin is still under discussion. In this work we studied rearrangements of actin cytoskeleton during root gravitropic response. Actin microfilaments were visualized in vivo in GFP-fABD2 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and their angle distribution was acquired from MicroFilament Analyzer software. The curvature of actin microfilaments in root elongation zone was shown to be increased within 30-60 min of gravistimulation, the fraction of axially oriented microfilaments decreased with a concomitant increase in the fraction of oblique and transversally oriented microfilaments. In particular, the fraction of transversally oriented microfilaments (i.e. parallel to the gravity vector) increased 3-5 times. Under 10 min of sub-lethal salt stress impact, actin microfilament orientations widened from an initial axial orientation to a set of peaks at 15(°) , 45(°) and 90(°) . We conclude that the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements observed are associated with the regulation of basic mechanisms of cell extension growth by which the gravitropic bending is formed. Having common stress-related features, gravity-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is slower but results in higher number of g-vector-parallel microfilaments when compared to salt stress-induced rearrangement. Also, differences in gravistimulated root

  3. GPCRs and actin-cytoskeleton dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; González-Espinosa, Claudia; Espinosa-Riquer, Zyanya P; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of physiological processes regulated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling are accomplished by the participation of active rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. In general, it is common that a cross talk occurs among networks of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments in order to reach specific cell responses. In particular, actin-cytoskeleton dynamics regulate processes such as cell shape, cell division, cell motility, and cell polarization, among others. This chapter describes the current knowledge about the regulation of actin-cytoskeleton dynamic by diverse GPCR signaling pathways, and also includes some protocols combining immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy for the visualization of the different rearrangements of the actin-cytoskeleton. We report how both the S1P-GPCR/G12/13/Rho/ROCK and glucagon-GPCR/Gs/cAMP axes induce differential actin-cytoskeleton rearrangements in epithelial cells. We also show that specific actin-binding molecules, like phalloidin and LifeAct, are very useful to analyze F-actin reorganization by confocal microscopy, and also that both molecules show similar results in fixed cells, whereas the anti-actin antibody is useful to detect both the G- and F-actin, as well as their compartmentalization. Thus, it is highly recommended to utilize different approaches to investigate the regulation of actin dynamics by GPCR signaling, with the aim to get a better picture of the phenomenon under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  5. The roles of the actin cytoskeleton in fear memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eLamprecht

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation and storage of fear memory is needed to adapt behavior and avoid danger during subsequent fearful events. However, fear memory may also play a significant role in stress and anxiety disorders. When fear becomes disproportionate to that necessary to cope with a given stimulus, or begins to occur in inappropriate situations, a fear or anxiety disorder exists. Thus, the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning fear memory may shed light on the formation of memory and on anxiety and stress related disorders. Evidence indicates that fear learning leads to changes in neuronal synaptic transmission and morphology in brain areas underlying fear memory formation including the amygdala and hippocampus. The actin cytoskeleton has been shown to participate in these key neuronal processes. Recent findings show that the actin cytoskeleton is needed for fear memory formation and extinction. Moreover, the actin cytoskeleton is involved in synaptic plasticity and in neuronal morphogenesis in brain areas that mediate fear memory. The actin cytoskeleton may therefore mediate between synaptic transmission during fear learning and long-term cellular alterations mandatory for fear memory formation.

  6. Force Transmission in the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The ability of cells to sense and generate mechanical forces is essential to numerous aspects of their physiology, including adhesion, migration, division and differentiation. To a large degree, cellular tension is regulated by the transmission of myosin II-generated forces through the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton. While transmission of myosin-generated stresses from the molecular to cellular length scale is well understood in the context of highly organized sarcomeres found in striated muscle, non-muscle and smooth muscle cells contain a wide variety of bundles and networks lacking sarcomeric organization. I will describe the in vitro and in vivo approaches we use to study force transmission in such disordered actomyosin assemblies. Our in vivo results are showing that highly organized stress fibers contribute surprisingly little to the overall extent of cellular tension as compared to disordered actomyosin meshworks. Our in vitro results are demonstrating the mechanisms of symmetry breaking in disordered actomyosin bundles that facilitate the formation of contractile bundles with well-defined ``contractile elements.'' These results provide insight into the self-organization of actomyosin cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells that regulate and maintain cellular tension.

  7. NHERF1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization through modulation of α-actinin-4 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Licui; Zheng, Junfang; Wang, Qiqi; Song, Ran; Liu, Hua; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Si, Yang; Jiang, Wenguo; He, Junqi

    2016-02-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins, yet the molecular mechanism that regulates its organization and remodeling remains elusive. In this study, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-1 loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments reveal that polymerized actin cytoskeleton (F-actin) in HeLa cells is disorganized by NHERF1, whereas actin protein expression levels exhibit no detectable change. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying actin cytoskeleton disorganization by NHERF1, a combined 2-dimensional electrophoresis-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry approach was used to screen for proteins regulated by NHERF1 in HeLa cells. α-Actinin-4, an actin cross-linking protein, was identified. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed the α-actinin-4 carboxyl-terminal region specifically interacted with the NHERF1 postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens-1 domain. The NHERF1/α-actinin-4 interaction increased α-actinin-4 ubiquitination and decreased its expression levels, resulting in actin cytoskeleton disassembly. Our study identified α-actinin-4 as a novel NHERF1 interaction partner and provided new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton by NHERF1. © FASEB.

  8. Human muscle LIM protein dimerizes along the actin cytoskeleton and cross-links actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Céline; Moreau, Flora; Moes, Michèle; Luthold, Carole; Dieterle, Monika; Goretti, Emeline; Neumann, Katrin; Steinmetz, André; Thomas, Clément

    2014-08-01

    The muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein playing important roles in the regulation of myocyte remodeling and adaptation to hypertrophic stimuli. Missense mutations in human MLP or its ablation in transgenic mice promotes cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The exact function(s) of MLP in the cytoplasmic compartment and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that MLP autonomously binds to, stabilizes, and bundles actin filaments (AFs) independently of calcium and pH. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we have shown how MLP cross-links actin filaments into both unipolar and mixed-polarity bundles. Quantitative analysis of the actin cytoskeleton configuration confirmed that MLP substantially promotes actin bundling in live myoblasts. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays revealed MLP self-association. Remarkably, BiFC complexes mostly localize along actin filament-rich structures, such as stress fibers and sarcomeres, supporting a functional link between MLP self-association and actin cross-linking. Finally, we have demonstrated that MLP self-associates through its N-terminal LIM domain, whereas it binds to AFs through its C-terminal LIM domain. Together our data support that MLP contributes to the maintenance of cardiomyocyte cytoarchitecture by a mechanism involving its self-association and actin filament cross-linking. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The actin cytoskeleton organization and disorganization properties of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marco A; Arzápalo-Castañeda, Georgina; Castillo-Medina, Raúl Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton organization in symbiotic marine dinoflagellates is largely undescribed; most likely, due to their intense pigment autofluorescence and cell walls that block fluorescent probe access. Using a freeze-fracture and fixation procedure, we observed the actin cytoskeleton of Symbiodinium kawagutii cultured in vitro with fluorescently labeled phalloidin and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies specific for actin. The cytoskeleton appeared as an organized network with interconnected cortical and cytoplasmic thick filaments, along with some intertwined fine filaments. It showed a grid-type, reticular pattern organized in a lattice-like structure within the cell and throughout the cytoplasm. This organization was similar when the observations were done with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin or anti-actin, although the latter showed a more evenly distributed fluorescence characteristic of nonpolymerized actin. The network organization collapsed upon treatment with latrunculin, resulting in bright foci and diffuse fluorescence. A similar effect was obtained upon butanedione monoxime treatment, except that no bright foci were observed. We have been able to successfully visualize the actin cytoskeleton of S. kawagutii cells using fluorescence-based procedures. This is the first report on the visualization of the organization of the actin cytoskeleton under various conditions in these walled, highly autofluorescent cells.

  10. F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization is associated with hepatic stellate cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUI, XIAODONG; ZHANG, XIAOYUN; YIN, QINGLING; MENG, AIXIA; SU, SHAOJUAN; JING, XU; LI, HONG; GUAN, XIUMEI; LI, XIN; LIU, SHUNMEI; CHENG, MIN

    2014-01-01

    The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Previous studies have indicated that the acquisition of certain properties by activated HSCs is highly dependent on the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct evidence showing that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is responsible for HSC activation is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cytoskeletal reorganization during HSC activation and to clarify the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 cells were treated either with the F-actin stabilizer jasplakinolide (Jas) or the depolymerizer cytochalasin D (Cyto D). The actin cytoskeleton was evaluated via assessment of stress fiber formation. Furthermore, the activation properties of HSCs, including proliferation, adhesion, migration and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen 1, were investigated in vitro. The results showed that Jas and Cyto D affected the actin distribution in HSC-T6 cells. Treatment with Jas resulted in thick actin bundles and a patchy appearance in the cytoplasm in HSC-T6 cells. In parallel, polymerization of actin microfilaments induced by Jas upregulated the expression of α-SMA and collagen 1, and also enhanced the migration and adhesion properties of HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, the activation of HSC-T6 cells induced by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton is associated with HSC activation and that the p38 MAPK pathway is involved in this process. The inhibition of F-actin reorganization may thus be a potential key factor or molecular target for the control of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. PMID:24626324

  11. F‑actin cytoskeleton reorganization is associated with hepatic stellate cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yin, Qingling; Meng, Aixia; Su, Shaojuan; Jing, Xu; Li, Hong; Guan, Xiumei; Li, Xin; Liu, Shunmei; Cheng, Min

    2014-05-01

    The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Previous studies have indicated that the acquisition of certain properties by activated HSCs is highly dependent on the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct evidence showing that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is responsible for HSC activation is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cytoskeletal reorganization during HSC activation and to clarify the underlying mechanism. HSC-T6 cells were treated either with the F-actin stabilizer jasplakinolide (Jas) or the depolymerizer cytochalasin D (Cyto D). The actin cytoskeleton was evaluated via assessment of stress fiber formation. Furthermore, the activation properties of HSCs, including proliferation, adhesion, migration and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen 1, were investigated in vitro. The results showed that Jas and Cyto D affected the actin distribution in HSC-T6 cells. Treatment with Jas resulted in thick actin bundles and a patchy appearance in the cytoplasm in HSC-T6 cells. In parallel, polymerization of actin microfilaments induced by Jas upregulated the expression of α-SMA and collagen 1, and also enhanced the migration and adhesion properties of HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, the activation of HSC-T6 cells induced by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton is associated with HSC activation and that the p38 MAPK pathway is involved in this process. The inhibition of F-actin reorganization may thus be a potential key factor or molecular target for the control of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis.

  12. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, J.; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014) ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1654 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Actin * Cytoskeleton * Pathogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25482795

  13. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  14. All-Round Manipulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina Stella, Alberto; Turville, Stuart

    2018-02-05

    While significant progress has been made in terms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy, treatment does not represent a cure and remains inaccessible to many people living with HIV. Continued mechanistic research into the viral life cycle and its intersection with many aspects of cellular biology are not only fundamental in the continued fight against HIV, but also provide many key observations of the workings of our immune system. Decades of HIV research have testified to the integral role of the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and spreading the infection. Here, we review how the virus uses different strategies to manipulate cellular actin networks and increase the efficiency of various stages of its life cycle. While some HIV proteins seem able to bind to actin filaments directly, subversion of the cytoskeleton occurs indirectly by exploiting the power of actin regulatory proteins, which are corrupted at multiple levels. Furthermore, this manipulation is not restricted to a discrete class of proteins, but rather extends throughout all layers of the cytoskeleton. We discuss prominent examples of actin regulators that are exploited, neutralized or hijacked by the virus, and address how their coordinated deregulation can lead to changes in cellular behavior that promote viral spreading.

  15. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  16. How cellular membrane properties are affected by the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemière, J; Valentino, F; Campillo, C; Sykes, C

    2016-11-01

    Lipid membranes define the boundaries of living cells and intracellular compartments. The dynamic remodelling of these membranes by the cytoskeleton, a very dynamic structure made of active biopolymers, is crucial in many biological processes such as motility or division. In this review, we present some aspects of cellular membranes and how they are affected by the presence of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that, in parallel with the direct study of membranes and cytoskeleton in vivo, biomimetic in vitro systems allow reconstitution of biological processes in a controlled environment. In particular, we show that liposomes, or giant unilamellar vesicles, encapsulating a reconstituted actin network polymerizing at their membrane are suitable models of living cells and can be used to decipher the relative contributions of membrane and actin on the mechanical properties of the cellular interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Differential sensitivity to detergents of actin cytoskeleton from nerve endings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubí, Roger; Matas, Lluís A; Pou, Marta; Aguilera, José; Gil, Carles

    2013-11-01

    Detergent-resistant membranes (DRM), an experimental model used to study lipid rafts, are typically extracted from cells by means of detergent treatment and subsequent ultracentrifugation in density gradients, Triton X-100 being the detergent of choice in most of the works. Since lipid rafts are membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol, depletion of this component causes solubilization of DRM with detergent. In previous works from our group, the lack of effect of cholesterol depletion on DRM solubilization with Triton X-100 was detected in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to explore reasons for this observation, analyzing the possible role of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the use of an alternative detergent, Brij 98, to overcome the insensitivity to Triton X-100 of cholesterol-depleted DRM. Brij 98 yields Brij-DRM that are highly dependent on cholesterol, since marker proteins (Flotillin-1 and Thy-1), as well as actin, appear solubilized after MCD treatment. Pretreatment with Latrunculin A results in a significant increase in Flotillin-1, Thy-1 and actin solubilization by Triton X-100 after cholesterol depletion. Studies with transmission electron microscopy show that combined treatment with MCD and Latrunculin A leads to a significant increase in solubilization of DRM with Triton X-100. Thus, Triton-DRM resistance to cholesterol depletion can be explained, at least partially, thanks to the scaffolding action of the actin cytoskeleton, without discarding differential effects of Brij 98 and Triton X-100 on specific membrane components. In conclusion, the detergent of choice is important when events that depend on the actin cytoskeleton are going to be studied. © 2013.

  18. Probing cytoplasmic organization and the actin cytoskeleton of plant cells with optical tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    In interphase plant cells, the actin cytoskeleton is essential for intracellular transport and organization. To fully understand how the actin cytoskeleton functions as the structural basis for cytoplasmic organization, both molecular and physical aspects of the actin organization have to be

  19. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  20. Connecdenn 3/DENND1C binds actin linking Rab35 activation to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marat, Andrea L; Ioannou, Maria S; McPherson, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab35 regulates endosomal membrane trafficking but also recruits effectors that modulate actin assembly and organization. Differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells (DENN)-domain proteins are a newly identified class of Rab guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that are grouped into eight families, each activating a common Rab. The members of one family, connecdenn 1-3/DENND1A-C, are all GEFs for Rab35. Why Rab35 requires multiple GEFs is unknown. We demonstrate that connecdenn 3 uses a unique C-terminal motif, a feature not found in connecdenn 1 or 2, to directly bind actin. This interaction couples Rab35 activation to the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in dramatic changes in cell shape, notably the formation of protrusive membrane extensions. These alterations are specific to Rab35 activated by connecdenn 3 and require both the actin-binding motif and N-terminal DENN domain, which harbors the GEF activity. It was previously demonstrated that activated Rab35 recruits the actin-bundling protein fascin to actin, but the relevant GEF for this activity was unknown. We demonstrate that connecdenn 3 and Rab35 colocalize with fascin and actin filaments, suggesting that connecdenn 3 is the relevant GEF. Thus, whereas connecdenn 1 and 2 activate Rab35 for endosomal trafficking, connecdenn 3 uniquely activates Rab35 for its role in actin regulation.

  1. T cell antigen receptor activation and actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sudha; Curado, Silvia; Mayya, Viveka

    2013-01-01

    T cells constitute a crucial arm of the adaptive immune system and their optimal function is required for a healthy immune response. After the initial step of T cell-receptor (TCR) triggering by antigenic peptide complexes on antigen presenting cell (APC), the T cell exhibits extensive cytoskeletal remodeling. This cytoskeletal remodeling leads to formation of an “immunological synapse” [1] characterized by regulated clustering, segregation and movement of receptors at the interface. Synapse formation regulates T cell activation and response to antigenic peptides and proceeds via feedback between actin cytoskeleton and TCR signaling. Actin polymerization participates in various events during the synapse formation, maturation, and eventually its disassembly. There is increasing knowledge about the actin effectors that couple TCR activation to actin rearrangements [2, 3], and how defects in these effectors translate into impairment of T cell activation. In this review we aim to summarize and integrate parts of what is currently known about this feedback process. In addition, in light of recent advancements in our understanding of TCR triggering and translocation at the synapse, we speculate on the organizational and functional diversity of microfilament architecture in the T cell. PMID:23680625

  2. Aspects of plant cell growth and the actin cytoskeleton : lessons from root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de N.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The main topic the thesis addresses is the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the growth process of plant cells. Plant growth implies a combination of cell division and cell expansion. The cytoskeleton, which exists of microtubules and actin filaments, plays a major role in both processes.

  3. Inhibition of FSS-induced actin cytoskeleton reorganization by silencing LIMK2 gene increases the mechanosensitivity of primary osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Tan, Shuyi; Shen, Yun; Chen, Rui; Wu, Changjing; Xu, Yajuan; Song, Zijun; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical stimulation plays an important role in bone cell metabolic activity. However, bone cells lose their mechanosensitivity upon continuous mechanical stimulation (desensitization) and they can recover the sensitivity with insertion of appropriate rest period into the mechanical loading profiles. The concrete molecular mechanism behind the regulation of cell mechanosensitivity still remains unclear. As one kind of mechanosensitive cell to react to the mechanical stimulation, osteoblasts respond to fluid shear stress (FSS) with actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and the remodeling of actin cytoskeleton is closely associated with the alteration of cell mechanosensitivity. In order to find out whether inhibiting the actin cytoskeleton reorganization by silencing LIM-kinase 2 (LIMK2) gene would increase the mechanosensitivity of primary osteoblasts, we attenuated the formation of actin stress fiber under FSS in a more specific way: inhibiting the LIMK2 expression by RNA interference. We found that inhibition of LIMK2 expression by RNA interference attenuated the formation of FSS-induced actin stress fiber, and simultaneously maintained the integrity of actin cytoskeleton in primary osteoblasts. We confirmed that the decreased actin cytoskeleton reorganization in response to LIMK2 inhibition during FSS increased the mechanosensitivity of the osteoblasts, based on the increased c-Fos and COX-2 expression as well as the enhanced proliferative activity in response to FSS. These data suggest that osteoblasts can increase their mechanosensitivity under continuous mechanical stimulation by reducing the actin stress fiber formation through inhibiting the LIMK2 expression. This study provides us with a new and more specific method to regulate the osteoblast mechanosensitivity, and also a new therapeutic target to cure bone related diseases, which is of importance in maintaining bone mass and promoting osteogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DeActs : genetically encoded tools for perturbing the actin cytoskeleton in single cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harterink, Martin; Santos Esteves da Silva, Marta; Will, Lena; Turan, Julia; Ibrahim, Adiljan; Lang, Alexander E; Van Battum, Eljo Y; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Kapitein, Lukas C; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Barres, Ben A; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Zuchero, J Bradley

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for many fundamental biological processes, but tools for directly manipulating actin dynamics are limited to cell-permeable drugs that preclude single-cell perturbations. Here we describe DeActs, genetically encoded actin-modifying polypeptides, which effectively

  5. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  6. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  7. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

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    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  8. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Serapio-Palacios, Antonio; Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology. PMID:23509714

  9. Actin cytoskeleton and small heat shock proteins: how do they interact?

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    Mounier, Nicole; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Actin and small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous and multifaceted proteins that exist in 2 reversible forms, monomers and multimers, ie, the microfilament of the cytoskeleton and oligomers of the sHsps, generally, supposed to be in a spherical and hollow form. Two situations are described in the literature, where the properties of actin are modulated by sHsps; the actin polymerization is inhibited in vitro by some sHsps acting as capping proteins, and the actin cytoskeleton is protected by some sHsps against the disruption induced by various stressful conditions. We propose that a direct actin-sHsp interaction occurs to inhibit actin polymerization and to participate in the in vivo regulation of actin filament dynamics. Protection of the actin cytoskeleton would result from an F-actin–sHsp interaction in which microfilaments would be coated by small oligomers of phosphorylated sHsps. Both proteins share common structural motives suggesting direct binding sites, but they remain to be demonstrated. Some sHsps would behave with the actin cytoskeleton as actin-binding proteins capable of either capping a microfilament when present as a nonphosphorylated monomer or stabilizing and protecting the microfilament when organized in small, phosphorylated oligomers. PMID:12380684

  10. Hijacking host cell highways: manipulation of the host actin cytoskeleton by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

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    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems. A subset of effectors contains eukaryotic-like motifs that mimic host proteins to exploit signaling and modify specific cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. Cytoskeletal rearrangement promotes numerous events that are beneficial to the pathogen, including internalization of bacteria, subversion of cell intrinsic immunity, structural support for bacteria-containing vacuoles, altered vesicular trafficking, actin-dependent bacterial movement, and pathogen dissemination. This review highlights a diverse group of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that manipulate the host cytoskeleton to thrive within eukaryotic cells and discusses underlying molecular mechanisms that promote these dynamic host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Letrozole regulates actin cytoskeleton polymerization dynamics in a SRC-1 dependent manner in the hippocampus of mice.

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    Zhao, Yangang; Yu, Yanlan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Li; Qiu, Linli; Zhao, Jikai; Liu, Mengying; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2017-03-01

    In the hippocampus, local estrogens (E 2 ) derived from testosterone that is catalyzed by aromatase play important roles in the regulation of hippocampal neural plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The actin cytoskeleton contributes greatly to hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, whether it is regulated by local E 2 and the related mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first examined the postnatal developmental profiles of hippocampal aromatase and specific proteins responsible for actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Then we used aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) to block local E 2 synthesis and examined the changes of these proteins and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), the predominant coactivator for steroid nuclear receptors. Finally, SRC-1 specific RNA interference was used to examine the effects of SRC-1 on the expression of these actin remodeling proteins. The results showed a V-type profile for aromatase and increased profiles for actin cytoskeleton proteins in both male and female hippocampus without obvious sex differences. LET treatment dramatically decreased the F-actin/G-actin ratio, the expression of Rictor, phospho-AKT (ser473), Profilin-1, phospho-Cofilin (Ser3), and SRC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that LET induced downregulation of these proteins could be reversed by E 2 , and E 2 induced increase of these proteins were significantly suppressed by SRC-1 shRNA interference. These results for the first time clearly demonstrated that local E 2 inhibition could induce aberrant actin polymerization; they also showed an important role of SRC-1 in the mediation of local E 2 action on hippocampal synaptic plasticity by regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

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    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  13. Novel Regulation of Ski Protein Stability and Endosomal Sorting by Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Hepatocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R.; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A.; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration. PMID:25561741

  14. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) affects actin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerman Edis, Bilge; Varol, Başak; Hacıosmanoğlu, Ebru; Ünlü, Ayhan; Bektaş, Muhammet

    2017-10-01

    CRM197, cross-reacting material 197, is a mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx). CRM197 is used in pharmacology as a carrier protein. It has been recently shown that CRM197 causes breakdown in actin filaments. In order to show intracellular localization of CRM197 and visualize cell structure via actin cytoskeleton, endothelial cells were cultured and subjected to CRM197 in vitro. To address the interaction between CRM197 and actin both experimental and theoretical studies were carried out. Colocalization of CRM197 with actin filaments was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Following 24-hour incubation, the loss of cell-cell contact between cells was prominent. CRM197 was shown to bind to G-actin by gel filtration chromatography, and this binding was confirmed by Western blot analysis of eluted samples obtained following chromatography. Based on crystal structure, docked model of CRM197-actin complex was generated. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that Lys42, Cys218, Cys233 of CRM197 interacts with Gly197, Arg62 and Ser60 of G-actin, respectively. CRM197 binding to G-actin, colocalization of CRM197 with actin filament, and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement resulting in the loss of cell-cell contact show that actin comes into sight as target molecule for CRM197.

  16. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads.

  17. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes S-nitrosylation and oxidation of actin affecting cytoskeleton and peroxisomal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, M; Pazmiño, D M; Sparkes, I; Rochetti, A; Hawes, C; Romero-Puertas, M C; Sandalio, L M

    2014-09-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. In this work, the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of this herbicide are studied by analysing in Arabidopsis plants the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and their effect on cytoskeleton structure and peroxisome dynamics. 2,4-D (23 mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·(-), whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. The herbicide promotes disturbances on the actin cytoskeleton structure as a result of post-translational modification of actin by oxidation and S-nitrosylation, which could disturb actin polymerization, as suggested by the reduction of the F-actin/G-actin ratio. These effects were reduced by EDTA, and the reduction of ROS production in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in xanthine dehydrogenase (Atxdh) gave rise to a reduction in actin oxidation. Also, 2,4-D alters the dynamics of the peroxisome, slowing the speed and shortening the distances by which these organelles are displaced. It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. These structural changes in turn appear to be responsible for the leaf epinasty. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. A receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-independent necrotic death under the control of protein phosphatase PP2A that involves the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and the action of cofilin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasella, Andrea; Blangy, Anne; Brancolini, Claudio

    2014-09-12

    Cell death by necrosis is emerging not merely as a passive phenomenon but as a cell-regulated process. Here, by using different necrotic triggers, we prove the existence of two distinct necrotic pathways. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generator 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone elicits necrosis characterized by the involvement of RIP1 and Drp1. However, G5, a non-selective isopeptidase inhibitor, triggers a distinct necrotic pathway that depends on the protein phosphatase PP2A and the actin cytoskeleton. PP2A catalytic subunit is stabilized by G5 treatment, and its activity is increased. Furthermore, PP2Ac accumulates into the cytoplasm during necrosis similarly to HMGB1. We have also defined in the actin-binding protein cofilin-1 a link between PP2A, actin cytoskeleton, and necrotic death. Cofilin-1-severing/depolymerization activity is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of serine 3. PP2A contributes to the dephosphorylation of serine 3 elicited by G5. Finally, a cofilin mutant that mimics phosphorylated Ser-3 can partially rescue necrosis in response to G5. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of Retinoschisin Secretion in Weri-Rb1 Cells by the F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Eiko; Gribanova, Yekaterina E.; Farber, Debora B.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process. PMID:21738583

  2. Regulation of retinoschisin secretion in Weri-Rb1 cells by the F-actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko Kitamura

    Full Text Available Retinoschisin is encoded by the gene responsible for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS, an early onset macular degeneration that results in a splitting of the inner layers of the retina and severe loss in vision. Retinoschisin is predominantly expressed and secreted from photoreceptor cells as a homo-oligomer protein; it then associates with the surface of retinal cells and maintains the retina cellular architecture. Many missense mutations in the XLRS1 gene are known to cause intracellular retention of retinoschisin, indicating that the secretion process of the protein is a critical step for its normal function in the retina. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoschisin's secretion remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the secretion of retinoschisin by treating Weri-Rb1 cells, which are known to secrete retinoschisin, with cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, Y-27632, and dibutyryl cGMP. Our results show that cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide inhibit retinoschisin secretion, whereas Y-27632 and dibutyryl cGMP enhance secretion causing F-actin alterations. We also demonstrate that high concentrations of taxol, which hyperpolymerizes microtubules, inhibit retinoschisin secretion. Our data suggest that retinoschisin secretion is regulated by the F-actin cytoskeleton, that cGMP or inhibition of ROCK alters F-actin structure enhancing the secretion, and that the microtubule cytoskeleton is also involved in this process.

  3. Effect of low pH on organization of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motizuki, M; Yokota, S; Tsurugi, K

    2008-02-01

    Cell growth in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated how the cell regulates the distribution of actin in response to low pH conditions, focusing on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Hog1 and Slt2. Changing the extracellular pH from 6.0 to 3.0 caused a transient depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin cables were no longer visible, and actin patches appeared randomly distributed after 30 min at pH 3.0. The deletion strain hog1Delta did not show this low-pH phenotype, suggesting that Hog1 is involved in depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to low-pH stress. Yeast cells incubated at pH 3.0 also showed markedly increased endocytosis compared with the control at neutral pH, as indicated by the uptake of Lucifer Yellow (LY). Both the hog1Delta and slt2Delta mutants took up LY into the vacuole to a similar extent as the wild-type strain. In addition, cells grown at pH 3.0 showed a 2-fold increase in phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels, as did the hog1Delta or slt2Delta cells. Efficient uptake of LY and actin repolarization at pH 3.0 might therefore require activation of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  4. Sirtuin1 Maintains Actin Cytoskeleton by Deacetylation of Cortactin in Injured Podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motonishi, Shuta; Wada, Takehiko; Ishimoto, Yu; Ohse, Takamoto; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kubota, Naoto; Shimizu, Akira; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the renoprotective effect of sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a deacetylase that contributes to cellular regulation. However, the pathophysiologic role of SIRT1 in podocytes remains unclear. Here, we investigated the function of SIRT1 in podocytes. We first established podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (SIRT1pod−/−) mice. We then induced glomerular disease by nephrotoxic serum injection. The increase in urinary albumin excretion and BUN and the severity of glomerular injury were all significantly greater in SIRT1pod−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence showed a significant decrease in podocyte-specific proteins in SIRT1pod−/− mice, and electron microscopy showed marked exacerbation of podocyte injury, including actin cytoskeleton derangement in SIRT1pod−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Protamine sulfate-induced podocyte injury was also exacerbated by podocyte-specific SIRT1 deficiency. In vitro, actin cytoskeleton derangement in H2O2-treated podocytes became prominent when the cells were pretreated with SIRT1 inhibitors. Conversely, this H2O2-induced derangement was ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. Furthermore, SIRT1 activation deacetylated the actin-binding and -polymerizing protein cortactin in the nucleus and facilitated deacetylated cortactin localization in the cytoplasm. Cortactin knockdown or inhibition of the nuclear export of cortactin induced actin cytoskeleton derangement and dissociation of cortactin from F-actin, suggesting the necessity of cytoplasmic cortactin for maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton. Taken together, these findings indicate that SIRT1 protects podocytes and prevents glomerular injury by deacetylating cortactin and thereby, maintaining actin cytoskeleton integrity. PMID:25424328

  5. Cell Elasticity Is Regulated by the Tropomyosin Isoform Composition of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Iman; Heu, Celine; Cheng, Hong; Freittag, Hannah; Desouza, Melissa; Stehn, Justine R.; Bryce, Nicole S.; Whan, Renee M.; Hardeman, Edna C.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm), in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to a multi-gene family that form a co-polymer with actin filaments and differentially regulate actin filament stability, function and organization. Tpm isoform expression is highly regulated and together with the ability to sort to specific intracellular sites, result in the generation of distinct Tpm isoform-containing actin filament populations. Nanomechanical measurements conducted with an Atomic Force Microscope using indentation in Peak Force Tapping in indentation/ramping mode, demonstrated that Tpm impacts on cell stiffness and the observed effect occurred in a Tpm isoform-specific manner. Quantitative analysis of the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin) pool conducted both biochemically and with the use of a linear detection algorithm to evaluate actin structures revealed that an altered F-actin pool does not absolutely predict changes in cell stiffness. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II revealed that intracellular tension generated by myosin II is required for the observed increase in cell stiffness. Lastly, we show that the observed increase in cell stiffness is partially recapitulated in vivo as detected in epididymal fat pads isolated from a Tpm3.1 transgenic mouse line. Together these data are consistent with a role for Tpm in regulating cell stiffness via the generation of specific populations of Tpm isoform-containing actin filaments. PMID:25978408

  6. Cell elasticity is regulated by the tropomyosin isoform composition of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Jalilian

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm, in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to a multi-gene family that form a co-polymer with actin filaments and differentially regulate actin filament stability, function and organization. Tpm isoform expression is highly regulated and together with the ability to sort to specific intracellular sites, result in the generation of distinct Tpm isoform-containing actin filament populations. Nanomechanical measurements conducted with an Atomic Force Microscope using indentation in Peak Force Tapping in indentation/ramping mode, demonstrated that Tpm impacts on cell stiffness and the observed effect occurred in a Tpm isoform-specific manner. Quantitative analysis of the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin pool conducted both biochemically and with the use of a linear detection algorithm to evaluate actin structures revealed that an altered F-actin pool does not absolutely predict changes in cell stiffness. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II revealed that intracellular tension generated by myosin II is required for the observed increase in cell stiffness. Lastly, we show that the observed increase in cell stiffness is partially recapitulated in vivo as detected in epididymal fat pads isolated from a Tpm3.1 transgenic mouse line. Together these data are consistent with a role for Tpm in regulating cell stiffness via the generation of specific populations of Tpm isoform-containing actin filaments.

  7. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmel Frédéric

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion Our

  8. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Mehlen, André; Vetter, Guillaume; Yatskou, Mikalai; Muller, Arnaud; Chalmel, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Friederich, Evelyne; Vallar, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Background The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in supporting and regulating numerous cellular processes. Mutations or alterations in the expression levels affecting the actin cytoskeleton system or related regulatory mechanisms are often associated with complex diseases such as cancer. Understanding how qualitative or quantitative changes in expression of the set of actin cytoskeleton genes are integrated to control actin dynamics and organisation is currently a challenge and should provide insights in identifying potential targets for drug discovery. Here we report the development of a dedicated microarray, the Actichip, containing 60-mer oligonucleotide probes for 327 genes selected for transcriptome analysis of the human actin cytoskeleton. Results Genomic data and sequence analysis features were retrieved from GenBank and stored in an integrative database called Actinome. From these data, probes were designed using a home-made program (CADO4MI) allowing sequence refinement and improved probe specificity by combining the complementary information recovered from the UniGene and RefSeq databases. Actichip performance was analysed by hybridisation with RNAs extracted from epithelial MCF-7 cells and human skeletal muscle. Using thoroughly standardised procedures, we obtained microarray images with excellent quality resulting in high data reproducibility. Actichip displayed a large dynamic range extending over three logs with a limit of sensitivity between one and ten copies of transcript per cell. The array allowed accurate detection of small changes in gene expression and reliable classification of samples based on the expression profiles of tissue-specific genes. When compared to two other oligonucleotide microarray platforms, Actichip showed similar sensitivity and concordant expression ratios. Moreover, Actichip was able to discriminate the highly similar actin isoforms whereas the two other platforms did not. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that

  9. Role of actin cytoskeleton at multiple levels of T cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huranová, Martina; Štěpánek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 585-596 ISSN 2372-0301 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09208Y Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : T cell * actin * cytoskeleton * TCR * signal transduction * antigen recognition * antigen affinity threshold * immunological synapse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Auxin transport inhibitors impair vesicle motility and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in diverse eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Grigoriev, Ilya; Fischer, Rainer; Tominaga, Motoki; Robinson, David G; Hasek, Jirí; Paciorek, Tomasz; Petrásek, Jan; Seifertová, Daniela; Tejos, Ricardo; Meisel, Lee A; Zazímalová, Eva; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Ueda, Takashi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Akhmanova, Anna; Brock, Roland; Spang, Anne; Friml, Jirí

    2008-03-18

    Many aspects of plant development, including patterning and tropisms, are largely dependent on the asymmetric distribution of the plant signaling molecule auxin. Auxin transport inhibitors (ATIs), which interfere with directional auxin transport, have been essential tools in formulating this concept. However, despite the use of ATIs in plant research for many decades, the mechanism of ATI action has remained largely elusive. Using real-time live-cell microscopy, we show here that prominent ATIs such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 2-(1-pyrenoyl) benzoic acid (PBA) inhibit vesicle trafficking in plant, yeast, and mammalian cells. Effects on micropinocytosis, rab5-labeled endosomal motility at the periphery of HeLa cells and on fibroblast mobility indicate that ATIs influence actin cytoskeleton. Visualization of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in plants, yeast, and mammalian cells show that ATIs stabilize actin. Conversely, stabilizing actin by chemical or genetic means interferes with endocytosis, vesicle motility, auxin transport, and plant development, including auxin transport-dependent processes. Our results show that a class of ATIs act as actin stabilizers and advocate that actin-dependent trafficking of auxin transport components participates in the mechanism of auxin transport. These studies also provide an example of how the common eukaryotic process of actin-based vesicle motility can fulfill a plant-specific physiological role.

  11. Actin cytoskeleton contributes to the elastic modulus of embryonic tendon during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L; Hockaday, Laura A; Marturano, Joseph E; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J; Kuo, Catherine K

    2015-06-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Plant Actin Cytoskeleton Responds to Signals from Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L.; Shimono, Masaki; Li, Jiejie; Chang, Jeff H.; Day, Brad; Staiger, Christopher J.; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2013-04-04

    Plants are constantly exposed to a large and diverse array of microbes; however, most plants are immune to the majority of potential invaders and susceptible to only a small subset of pathogens. The cytoskeleton comprises a dynamic intracellular framework that responds rapidly to biotic stresses and supports numerous fundamental cellular processes including vesicle trafficking, endocytosis and the spatial distribution of organelles and protein complexes. For years, the actin cytoskeleton has been assumed to play a role in plant innate immunity against fungi and oomycetes, based largely on static images and pharmacological studies. To date, however, there is little evidence that the host-cell actin cytoskeleton participates in responses to phytopathogenic bacteria. Here, we quantified the spatiotemporal changes in host-cell cytoskeletal architecture during the immune response to pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Two distinct changes to host cytoskeletal arrays were observed that correspond to distinct phases of plant-bacterial interactions i.e. the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) during pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and perturbations by effector proteins during effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). We demonstrate that an immediate increase in actin filament abundance is a conserved and novel component of PTI. Notably, treatment of leaves with a MAMP peptide mimic was sufficient to elicit a rapid change in actin organization in epidermal cells, and this actin response required the host-cell MAMP receptor kinase complex, including FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1. Finally, we found that actin polymerization is necessary for the increase in actin filament density and that blocking this increase with the actin-disrupting drug latrunculin B leads to enhanced susceptibility of host plants to pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.

  13. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP 2 and PIP 3 to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  14. Organization of cytoskeleton during differentiation of gravisensitive root sites under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, G. V.; Kordyum, E. L.

    Key role in cell gravisensing is attributed to the actin cytoskeleton which acts as a mediator in signaling reactions, including graviperception. Despite of increased attention to the actin cytoskeleton, major gaps in our understanding of its functioning in plant gravisensing still remain. To fill these gaps, we propose a novel approach focused on the investigation of actin involvement in the development of columella cells and cells in the transition zone of roots submitted to clinorotation. Both statocytes and cells in the transition zone represent the postmitotic cells which take origin in root meristems and are specified into graviperceptive (root cap) and gravireacting (transition zone) root tissues. The aim of the research was to investigate and compare the microfilament arrangements in root cap statocytes and peripheral root tissues (epidermis and cortex cells) in the transition zone and to find out how the actin cytoskeleton is involved in their specification under clinostat conditions. So far, our experiments have shown that under clinorotation the cytoplasmic microfilament network in the cortex cells in the transition zone is significantly enhanced. It is suggested that more abundant cytoplasmic microfilaments could strengthen the cortical actin cytoskeleton arranged parallel with the cortical microtubules, which are found to be partially disorganized in this area. Due to microtubule disorganization, the functioning of cellulose-synthesizing machinery and proper deposition of cell wall might be affected and could cause the alterations in the growth mode. But, in our case growth of the cells in the transition zone under clinorotation was rather stable. Due to our opinion, general stability of cell growth under clinorotation is promoted by mutual functional interrelation between actin and tubulin cytoskeletons. It is suggested that a strengthened cortical actin cytoskeleton restricts the cell growth instead of disorganized microtubules.

  15. The actin-like MreB cytoskeleton organizes viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Espín, Daniel; Daniel, Richard; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Carballido-López, Rut; Castilla-Llorente, Virginia; Errington, Jeff; Meijer, Wilfried J J; Salas, Margarita

    2009-08-11

    Little is known about the organization or proteins involved in membrane-associated replication of prokaryotic genomes. Here we show that the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton of the distantly related bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is required for efficient viral DNA replication. Detailed analyses of B. subtilis phage ϕ29 showed that the MreB cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in organizing phage DNA replication at the membrane. Thus, phage double-stranded DNA and components of the ϕ29 replication machinery localize in peripheral helix-like structures in a cytoskeleton-dependent way. Importantly, we show that MreB interacts directly with the ϕ29 membrane-protein p16.7, responsible for attaching viral DNA at the cell membrane. Altogether, the results reveal another function for the MreB cytoskeleton and describe a mechanism by which viral DNA replication is organized at the bacterial membrane.

  16. Control of the actin cytoskeleton in plant cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, P.J.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Deeks, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the

  17. Amiloride-insensitive sodium channels are directly regulated by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in human lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarikova, Anastasia V; Tsaplina, Olga A; Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Vladislav I; Morachevskaya, Elena A; Negulyaev, Yuri A

    2015-05-22

    Sodium influx mediated by ion channels of plasma membrane underlies fundamental physiological processes in cells of blood origin. However, little is known about the single channel activity and regulatory mechanisms of sodium-specific channels in native cells. In the present work, we used different modes of patch clamp technique to examine ion channels involved in Na-transporting pathway in U937 human lymphoma cells. The activity of native non-voltage-gated sodium (NVGS) channels with unitary conductance of 10 pS was revealed in cell-attached, inside-out and whole-cell configurations. NVGS channel activity is directly controlled by submembranous actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, an activation of sodium channels in U937 cells in response to microfilament disassembly was demonstrated on single-channel and integral current level. Inside-out experiments showed that filament assembly on cytoplasmic membrane surface caused fast inactivation of the channels. Biophysical characteristics of NVGS channels in U937 cells were similar to that of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). However, we found that amiloride, a known inhibitor of DEG/ENaC, did not block NVGS channels in U937 cells. Whole-cell current measurements revealed no amiloride-sensitive component of membrane current. Our data show that cortical actin structures represent the main factor that controls the activity of amiloride-insensitive ENaC-like channels in human lymphoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The CPEB3 Protein Is a Functional Prion that Interacts with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S. Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouse cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3 is a translational regulator implicated in long-term memory maintenance. Invertebrate orthologs of CPEB3 in Aplysia and Drosophila are functional prions that are physiologically active in the aggregated state. To determine if this principle applies to the mammalian CPEB3, we expressed it in yeast and found that it forms heritable aggregates that are the hallmark of known prions. In addition, we confirm in the mouse the importance of CPEB3’s prion formation for CPEB3 function. Interestingly, deletion analysis of the CPEB3 prion domain uncovered a tripartite organization: two aggregation-promoting domains surround a regulatory module that affects interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. In all, our data provide direct evidence that CPEB3 is a functional prion in the mammalian brain and underline the potential importance of an actin/CPEB3 feedback loop for the synaptic plasticity underlying the persistence of long-term memory.

  19. The EH-domain-containing protein Pan1 is required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H Y; Cai, M

    1996-09-01

    Normal cell growth and division in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involve dramatic and frequent changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Previous studies have suggested that the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in accordance with cell cycle progression is controlled, directly or indirectly, by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. Here we report that by isolating rapid-death mutants in the background of the Start-deficient cdc28-4 mutation, the essential yeast gene PAN1, previously thought to encode the yeast poly(A) nuclease, is identified as a new factor required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that at restrictive temperature, the pan1 mutant exhibited abnormal bud growth, failed to maintain a proper distribution of the actin cytoskeleton, was unable to reorganize actin the cytoskeleton during cell cycle, and was defective in cytokinesis. The mutant also displayed a random pattern of budding even at permissive temperature. Ectopic expression of PAN1 by the GAL promoter caused abnormal distribution of the actin cytoskeleton when a single-copy vector was used. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the Pan1 protein colocalized with the cortical actin patches, suggesting that it may be a filamentous actin-binding protein. The Pan1 protein contains an EF-hand calcium-binding domain, a putative Src homology 3 (SH3)-binding domain, a region similar to the actin cytoskeleton assembly control protein Sla1, and two repeats of a newly identified protein motif known as the EH domain. These findings suggest that Pan1, recently recognized as not responsible for the poly(A) nuclease activity (A. B. Sachs and J. A. Deardorff, erratum, Cell 83:1059, 1995; R. Boeck, S. Tarun, Jr., M. Rieger, J. A. Deardorff, S. Muller-Auer, and A. B. Sachs, J. Biol. Chem. 271:432-438, 1996), plays an important role in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in S. cerevisiae.

  20. Mutual regulation of plant phospholipase D and the actin cytoskeleton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleskot, Roman; Potocký, Martin; Pejchar, Přemysl; Linek, J.; Bezvoda, R.; Martinec, Jan; Valentová, O.; Novotná, Z.; Žárský, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2010), s. 494-507 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110916; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA ČR GA522/05/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : phospholipase D * actin * signaling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 6.948, year: 2010

  1. Retinoids and glucocorticoids have opposite effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in hippocampal HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélène, Roumes; Julie, Brossaud; Aloïs, Lemelletier; Marie-Pierre, Moisan; Véronique, Pallet; Anabelle, Redonnet; Jean-Benoît, Corcuff

    2016-02-01

    A chronic excess of glucocorticoids elicits deleterious effects in the hippocampus. Conversely, retinoic acid plays a major role in aging brain plasticity. As synaptic plasticity depends on mechanisms related to cell morphology, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid and glucocorticoids in the remodelling of the HT22 neurons actin cytoskeleton. Cells exhibited a significantly more elongated shape with retinoic acid and a rounder shape with dexamethasone; retinoic acid reversed the effects of dexamethasone. Actin expression and abundance were unchanged by retinoic acid or dexamethasone but F-actin organization was dramatically modified. Indeed, retinoic acid and dexamethasone increased (70 ± 7% and 176 ± 5%) cortical actin while retinoic acid suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (90 ± 6%). Retinoic acid decreased (-22 ± 9%) and dexamethasone increased (134 ± 16%) actin stress fibres. Retinoic acid also suppressed the effect of dexamethasone (-21 ± 7%). Spectrin is a key protein in the actin network remodelling. Its abundance was decreased by retinoic acid and increased by dexamethasone (-21 ± 11% and 52 ± 10%). However, retinoic acid did not modify the effect of dexamethasone (48 ± 7%). Calpain activity on spectrin was increased by retinoic acid and decreased by dexamethasone (26 ± 14% and -57 ± 5%); retinoic acid mildly but significantly modified the effect of dexamethasone (-44 ± 7%). The calpain inhibitor calpeptin suppressed the effects of retinoic acid and dexamethasone on cell shape and actin stress fibres remodelling but did not modify the effects on cortical actin. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone have a dramatic but mainly opposite effect on actin cytoskeleton remodelling. These effects originate, at least partly, from calpain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) Dynamics, Role of Actin-, and Microtubule-Based Cytoskeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Tang, Elizabeth I; Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2018-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons. We focus on the role of two actin nucleation protein complexes, namely, the Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex and formin 1 (or the formin 1/spire 1 complex) known to induce actin nucleation, respectively, by conferring plasticity to actin cytoskeleton. We also focus on the MT plus (+)-end tracking protein (+TIP) EB1 (end-binding protein 1) which is known to confer MT stabilization. Furthermore, we discuss in particular how the interactions of these proteins modulate BTB dynamics during spermatogenesis. These findings also yield a novel hypothetical concept regarding the molecular mechanism that modulates BTB function.

  3. The Actin Cytoskeleton Is Involved in Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)-Induced Ret Translocation into Lipid Rafts in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Song, Haijing; Mu, Peipei; Xu, Ming; Liu, Chaoxia; Wang, Ying; Qin, Yingsong; Sun, Shen; Gao, Jin; Wang, Ting; Gao, Dianshuai

    2017-09-07

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a potential therapeutic factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), exerts its biological effects through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. The redistribution of Ret into lipid rafts substantially influences Ret signaling, but the mechanisms underlying Ret translocation remain unclear. The purpose of our study was to further explore the signaling mechanisms of GDNF and to determine whether the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the GDNF-induced Ret translocation into lipid rafts. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to separate and visualize lipid rafts, co-immunoprecipitation to analyze protein-protein interactions, and latrunculin B (Lat B) and jasplakinolide (Jas) to disrupt and enhance the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. The results showed that Ret translocated into lipid rafts and coimmunoprecipitated with actin in response to GDNF treatment. After Lat B or Jas treatment, the Ret-F-actin association induced by GDNF was impaired or enhanced respectively and then the levels of Ret translocated into lipid rafts were correspondingly inhibited or promoted. These data indicate that actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling are integral to GDNF-induced cell signaling in dopaminergic cells and define a new role of the actin cytoskeleton in promoting Ret redistribution into lipid rafts.

  4. The Actin Cytoskeleton Is Involved in Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF-Induced Ret Translocation into Lipid Rafts in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potential therapeutic factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD, exerts its biological effects through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. The redistribution of Ret into lipid rafts substantially influences Ret signaling, but the mechanisms underlying Ret translocation remain unclear. The purpose of our study was to further explore the signaling mechanisms of GDNF and to determine whether the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the GDNF-induced Ret translocation into lipid rafts. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to separate and visualize lipid rafts, co-immunoprecipitation to analyze protein-protein interactions, and latrunculin B (Lat B and jasplakinolide (Jas to disrupt and enhance the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. The results showed that Ret translocated into lipid rafts and coimmunoprecipitated with actin in response to GDNF treatment. After Lat B or Jas treatment, the Ret–F-actin association induced by GDNF was impaired or enhanced respectively and then the levels of Ret translocated into lipid rafts were correspondingly inhibited or promoted. These data indicate that actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling are integral to GDNF-induced cell signaling in dopaminergic cells and define a new role of the actin cytoskeleton in promoting Ret redistribution into lipid rafts.

  5. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  6. Guanine nucleotides in the meiotic maturation of starfish oocytes: regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and of Ca(2+ signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Kyozuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Starfish oocytes are arrested at the first prophase of meiosis until they are stimulated by 1-methyladenine (1-MA. The two most immediate responses to the maturation-inducing hormone are the quick release of intracellular Ca(2+ and the accelerated changes of the actin cytoskeleton in the cortex. Compared with the later events of oocyte maturation such as germinal vesicle breakdown, the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events involving Ca(2+ signaling and actin changes are poorly understood. Herein, we have studied the roles of G-proteins in the early stage of meiotic maturation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By microinjecting starfish oocytes with nonhydrolyzable nucleotides that stabilize either active (GTPgammaS or inactive (GDPbetaS forms of G-proteins, we have demonstrated that: i GTPgammaS induces Ca(2+ release that mimics the effect of 1-MA; ii GDPbetaS completely blocks 1-MA-induced Ca(2+; iii GDPbetaS has little effect on the amplitude of the Ca(2+ peak, but significantly expedites the initial Ca(2+ waves induced by InsP(3 photoactivation, iv GDPbetaS induces unexpectedly striking modification of the cortical actin networks, suggesting a link between the cytoskeletal change and the modulation of the Ca(2+ release kinetics; v alteration of cortical actin networks with jasplakinolide, GDPbetaS, or actinase E, all led to significant changes of 1-MA-induced Ca(2+ signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results indicate that G-proteins are implicated in the early events of meiotic maturation and support our previous proposal that the dynamic change of the actin cytoskeleton may play a regulatory role in modulating intracellular Ca(2+ release.

  7. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  8. Roles of the actin cytoskeleton and an actin-binding protein in wheat resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaohe; Ma, Qing; Hao, Xinyuan; Li, Hongli

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating resistance mechanisms of plant cells against pathogens is essential to develop novel strategies of disease control. The actin cytoskeleton was found intimately involved in plant defense. In order to reveal how actin would be involved in the interaction between wheat and the stripe rust Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, prior to fungal inoculation, wheat leaves were treated with cytochalasin A, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. Our results showed reduced incidence of hypersensitive cell death and delayed accumulation of H(2)O(2) in wheat leaves treated with cytochalasin A compared to the control. We also found that the TaPRO profilin gene exhibited significantly different expression levels in host leaves when comparing compatible and incompatible interactions. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression transcript of TaPRO was lower at each time point in incompatible interactions when compared to compatible ones, and the largest difference between the two interactions occurred at 12 h post-inoculation. Both pharmacological and gene expression results collectively support the notion that the compromise of the actin microfilament is linked to the compatible interaction between the stripe rust fungus and the leaves of its wheat host.

  9. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  10. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina; Heldin, Johan; Kreuger, Johan; Aspenström, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  11. The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and directed cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Magdalena; Reis, Katarina [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Heldin, Johan [Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala SE-751 22 Uppsala (Sweden); Kreuger, Johan [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Aspenström, Pontus, E-mail: pontus.aspenstrom@ki.se [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    RhoD belongs to the Rho GTPases, a protein family responsible for the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and, consequently, many cellular processes like cell migration, cell division and vesicle trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that the actin cytoskeleton is dynamically regulated by increased or decreased protein levels of RhoD. Ectopic expression of RhoD has previously been shown to give an intertwined weave of actin filaments. We show that this RhoD-dependent effect is detected in several cell types and results in a less dynamic actin filament system. In contrast, RhoD depletion leads to increased actin filament-containing structures, such as cortical actin, stress fibers and edge ruffles. Moreover, vital cellular functions such as cell migration and proliferation are defective when RhoD is silenced. Taken together, we present data suggesting that RhoD is an important component in the control of actin dynamics and directed cell migration. - Highlights: • Increased RhoD expression leads to loss of actin structures, e.g. stress fibers and gives rise to decreased actin dynamics. • RhoD knockdown induces various actin-containing structures such as edge ruffles, stress fibers and cortical actin, in a cell-type specific manner. • RhoD induces specific actin rearrangements depending on its subcellular localization. • RhoD knockdown has effects on cellular processes, such as directed cell migration and proliferation.

  12. Cell swelling activates cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels: a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Nanna K; Pedersen, Stine F; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2003-01-01

    -induced activation of hIK channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D (CD), in concentrations that caused depolymerization of F-actin filaments, indicating a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in modulation of hIK by changes in cell volume. In conclusion, hIK and rSK3 channels are activated by cell swelling...... and inhibited by shrinkage. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in the swelling-induced activation of hIK channels is suggested....

  13. Arsenic trioxide preferentially induces nonapoptotic cell deaths as well as actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the CHO AA8 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Izdebska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO, As2O3 has been investigated for many years. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of ATO are still not fully understood, but seem to depend on cell types, dosage, and duration of exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement during the cell death process induced by arsenic trioxide in the CHO AA8 cells. A better understanding the mechanisms of ATO-action is likely to lead to more rational use of this drug either as monotherapies or in combination with other anticancer agents.Material and methods: The effect of ATO on actin cytoskeleton was studied in Chinese Hamster Ovary AA8 cell line. Actin was visualized by fluorescence microscopy and phalloidin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations in the CHO AA8 cells were evaluated by using light and electron microscope, respectively. For quantitative measurement of cell death, Annexin V-Alexa Fluor® 488 and Propidium Iodide assay was performed. The vital staining of CHO AA8 cells with acridine orange was applied to detect the development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs.Results: The performed experiments revealed a dose-dependent decrease in the cell survival. The morphological and ultrastructural features acquired by the cells after ATO-treatment were considered as typical for autophagy and mitotic cell death. As was shown by acridine orange staining, arsenic trioxide treatment increased red fluorescence signals in dose-dependent manner, indicating the development of AVOs, a hallmark of autophagy. Low level of apoptosis was induced in the ATO-treated CHO AA8 cells. Furthermore, the rearrangement of actin filaments associated with cell death process was also detected.Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that arsenic trioxide preferentially induces nonapoptotic cell deaths, autophagy and mitotic cell death, in p53

  14. Simulated Microgravity Alters Actin Cytoskeleton and Integrin-Mediated Focal Adhesions of Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovic, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cytoskeletal alterations occur in several cell types including lymphocytes, glial cells, and osteoblasts, during spaceflight and under simulated microgravity (SMG) (3, 4). One potential mechanism for cytoskeletal gravisensitivity is disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin interactions. Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell-matrix interaction composed of integrins and the diversity of focal adhesion-associated cytoplasmic proteins including vinculin, talin, α-actinin, and actin filaments (4, 5). Integrins produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMG on F-actin cytoskeleton structure, vinculin focal adhesions, expression of some integrin subtypes and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs). Simulated microgravity was produced by 3D-clinostat (Dutch Space, Netherlands). Staining of actin fibers with TRITC-phalloidin showed reorganization even after 30 minutes of simulated microgravity. The increasing of cells number with abnormal F-actin was observed after subsequent terms of 3D-clinorotation (6, 24, 48, 120 hours). Randomization of gravity vector altered dimensional structure of stress fibers and resulted in remodeling of actin fibers inside the cells. In addition, we observed vinculin redistribution inside the cells after 6 hours and prolonged terms of clinorotation. Tubulin fibers in a contrast with F-actin and vinculin didn't show any reorganization even after long 3Dclinorotation (120 hours). The expression of integrin α2 increased 1,5-6-fold in clinorotated hMSCs. Also we observed decrease in number of VCAM-1-positive cells and changes in expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that SMG leads to microfilament and adhesion alterations of hMSCs most probably associated with involvement of some integrin subtypes.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction regulates the actin cytoskeleton through the downregulation of WAVE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Ueno, M; Liu, D; Masuya, D; Nakano, J; Yokomise, H; Nakagawa, T; Miyake, M

    2006-10-19

    Motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) is involved in cell motility. We studied the change in the actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of actin-related protein (Arp) 2 and Arp3 and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family according to MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction into HT1080 cells. The frequency of cells with lamellipodia was significantly lower in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells than in control HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction affected the subcellular localization of Arp2 and Arp3 proteins. Furthermore, MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction induced a downregulation of WAVE2 expression (PMRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody inhibited downregulation of WAVE2 in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction. Furthermore, downregulation of WAVE2 by transfection of WAVE2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) mimicked the morphological effects of MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction and suppressed cell motility. However, transfection of each siRNA for Wnt1, Wnt2b1 or Wnt5a did not affect WAVE2 expression. Transfection of WAVE2-specific siRNA also did not affect expressions of these Wnts. These results indicate that MRP-1/CD9 regulates the actin cytoskeleton by downregulating of the WAVE2, through the Wnt-independent signal pathway.

  17. Antiepileptic teratogen valproic acid (VPA) modulates organisation and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmod, P S; Skladchikova, G; Kawa, A

    1999-01-01

    for the VPA mediated inhibition of motility. In addition it is shown that the actomyosin cytoskeleton of VPA-treated cells was capable of contraction upon exposure to ATP, indicating that the reduced motility of VPA-treated cells was not caused by an inhibition of actomyosin contraction. On the other hand...... state. These findings indicate that VPA affects cell morphology and motility through interference with the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton.......The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) and teratogenic VPA analogues have been demonstrated to inhibit cell motility and affect cell morphology. We here show that disruption of microtubules or of microfilaments by exposure to nocodazole or cytochalasin D had different effects on morphology...

  18. Actin cytoskeleton regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition in metastatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells.

  19. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis

  20. Effect of cooling (4°C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in buffalo spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Sai

    2016-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is broadly utilized as a part of the bovine reproducing industry, a large portion of the spermatozoa does not survive and the majority of those that do survive experience various molecular and physiological changes that influence their fertilizing capacity. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of cooling (4 °C) and cryopreservation on cytoskeleton actin, tyrosine phosphorylation and quality of buffalo spermatozoa, and to determine the similarity between in vitro capacitation and cryopreservation induced capacitation like changes. To achieve this, Western blot was used to examine the changes in actin expression and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas changes in actin polymerization, localization of actin and protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation and cryopreservation were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence technique. Localization studies revealed that the actin localized to flagella and acrosome membrane regions and following, capacitation it migrated towards the acrosome region of sperm. Time dependent increase in actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation was observed during in vitro capacitation. The cooling phase (4 °C) and cryopreservation processes resulted in the loss/damage of cytoskeleton actin. In addition, we performed the actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in cooled and cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa. Interestingly, cooling and cryopreservation induces actin polymerization and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which were similar to in vitro capacitation (cryo-capacitation). These changes showed 1.3 folds reduction in the sperm quality parameters which includes motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, our findings indicate that cooling and cryopreservation damages the cytoskeleton actin and also induces capacitation like changes such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation and actin polymerization. This could be one of the

  1. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoping; Yang Lusheng; Huang Qunce; Qin Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implantation significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for continuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam implantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  2. Actin cytoskeleton and organelle movement in the sporangiophore of the zygomycete Phycomyces blakesleeanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolig, F; Moch, J; Schneider, A; Galland, P

    2014-01-01

    Growth, photo- and gravitropism of sporangiophores of the zygomycete Phycomyces blakesleeanus occur within the apical growing zone, a cylindrical structure (diameter about 100 μm) that reaches about 1.5-2.5 mm below the tip and has growth rates up to 50 μm·min(-1) . To better understand morphogenesis and growth of the giant aerial hypha, we investigated with confocal microscopy and inhibitors the actin cytoskeleton and by in-vivo particle tracking the associated organelle movement. We found stage-1 sporangiophores (without sporangium) possess an actin cytoskeleton with polar zonation. (i) In the apex, abundant microfilaments without preferential orientation entangled numerous nuclei as well as a conspicious complex of some 200 lipid globules. Microfilament patches (≈ 1.6-μm diameter) are clustered in the tip and were found in the apical cortex, whereas short, curved microfilament bundles (≈ 2.3-μm long) prevailed in the subapex. (ii) In a transition zone downwards to the shaft, the microfilaments rearranged into a dense mat of longitudinal microfilaments that was parallel close to the periphery but more random towards the cell centre. Numerous microfilament patches were found near the cortex (≈ 10/100 μm(2) ); their number decreased rapidly in the subcortex. In contrast, the short, curved microfilament bundles were found only in the subcortex. (iii) The basal shaft segment of the sporangiophore (with central vacuole) exhibited bidirectional particle movement over long distances (velocity ≈ 2 μm·s(-1) ) along massive longitudinal, subcortical microfilament cables. The zonation of the cytoskeleton density correlated well with the local growth rates at the tip of the sporangiophore, and appears thus as a structural prerequisite for growth and bending. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in Helicobacter pylori-induced migration and invasive growth of gastric epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieder Gabriele

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a significant hallmark of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells leading to cell migration and invasive growth. Considering the cellular mechanisms, the type IV secretion system (T4SS and the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA of H. pylori are well-studied initiators of distinct signal transduction pathways in host cells targeting kinases, adaptor proteins, GTPases, actin binding and other proteins involved in the regulation of the actin lattice. In this review, we summarize recent findings of how H. pylori functionally interacts with the complex signaling network that controls the actin cytoskeleton of motile and invasive gastric epithelial cells.

  4. Effects of low-energy argon ion implantation on the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during maize pollen germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F; Zhu, S W; Wu, L J; Cheng, B J

    2010-04-27

    The relationship between pollen germination and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination is a central theme in plant reproductive biology research. Maize (Zea mays) pollen grains were implanted with 30 keV argon ion (Ar(+)) beams at doses ranging from 0.78 x 10(15) to 13 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). The effects of low-energy ion implantation on pollen germination viability and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination were studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maize pollen germination rate increased remarkably with Ar(+) dose, in the range from 3.9 x 10(15) to 6.5 x 10(15) ions/cm(2); the germination rate peaked at an Ar(+) dose of 5.2 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). When the implantation dose exceeded 7.8 x 10(15) ions/cm(2), the rate of pollen germination decreased sharply. The actin filaments assembled in pollen grains implanted with 5.2 x 10(15) ions/cm(2) Ar(+) much earlier than in controls. The actin filaments organized as longer parallel bundles and extended into the emerging pollen tube in treated pollen grains, while they formed random and loose fine bundles and were gathered at the pollen aperture in the control. The reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen implanted with 9.1 x 10(15) ions/cm(2) Ar(+) was slower than in controls. There was a positive correlation between pollen germination and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination. Ion implantation into pollen did not cause changes in the polarization of actin filaments and organelle dynamics in the pollen tubes. The effects of Ar(+) implantation on pollen germination could be mediated by changes in the polymerization and rearrangement of actin polymers.

  5. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  6. Androgens Regulate T47D Cells Motility and Invasion through Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montt-Guevara, Maria Magdalena; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Giretti, Maria Silvia; Giannini, Andrea; Mannella, Paolo; Russo, Eleonora; Genazzani, Alessandro David; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in approximately 70 to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple-negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodeling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER), while the non-aromatizable androgen - DHT - only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer and, eventually, to develop new strategies for breast cancer treatment.

  7. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kiss, John Z.

    2002-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is hypothesized to play a major role in gravity perception and transduction mechanisms in roots of plants. To determine whether actin microfilaments (MFs) are involved in these processes in stem-like organs, we studied gravitropism in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls. Latrunculin B (Lat-B) treatment of hypocotyls caused depolymerization of actin MFs in endodermal cells and a significant reduction of hypocotyl growth rates. Actin MFs in Lat-B-treated inflorescence stems also were disrupted, but growth rates were not affected. Despite disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in these two organs, Lat-B-treated stems and hypocotyls exhibited a promotion of gravitropic curvature in response to reorientation. In contrast, Lat-B reduced gravitropic curvature in roots but also reduced the growth rate. Thus, in contrast to prevailing hypotheses, our results suggest that actin MFs are not a necessary component of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate a prominent actin MF network in endodermal cells in the putative gravity-perceiving cells in stems.

  8. Recruitment Kinetics of Tropomyosin Tpm3.1 to Actin Filament Bundles in the Cytoskeleton Is Independent of Actin Filament Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaduray, Mark A; Masedunskas, Andrius; Bryce, Nicole S; Lucas, Christine A; Warren, Sean C; Timpson, Paul; Stear, Jeffrey H; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that is involved in virtually every cellular process. Most actin filaments in metazoa exist as a co-polymer of actin and tropomyosin (Tpm) and the function of an actin filament is primarily defined by the specific Tpm isoform associated with it. However, there is little information on the interdependence of these co-polymers during filament assembly and disassembly. We addressed this by investigating the recovery kinetics of fluorescently tagged isoform Tpm3.1 into actin filament bundles using FRAP analysis in cell culture and in vivo in rats using intracellular intravital microscopy, in the presence or absence of the actin-targeting drug jasplakinolide. The mobile fraction of Tpm3.1 is between 50% and 70% depending on whether the tag is at the C- or N-terminus and whether the analysis is in vivo or in cultured cells. We find that the continuous dynamic exchange of Tpm3.1 is not significantly impacted by jasplakinolide, unlike tagged actin. We conclude that tagged Tpm3.1 may be able to undergo exchange in actin filament bundles largely independent of the assembly and turnover of actin.

  9. Maintenance of asymmetric cellular localization of an auxin transport protein through interaction with the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein complex is controlled and the significance of this polar distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that asymmetries in the auxin efflux carrier may be established through localized secretion of Golgi vesicles, whereas an attachment of a subunit of the efflux carrier to the actin cytoskeleton may maintain this localization. In addition, the idea that this localization of the efflux carrier may control both the polarity of auxin movement and more globally regulate developmental polarity is explored. Finally, evidence indicating that the gravity vector controls auxin transport polarity is summarized and possible mechanisms for the environmentally induced changes in auxin transport polarity are discussed.

  10. Effects of Noninhibitory Serpin Maspin on the Actin Cytoskeleton: A Quantitative Image Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, Mohammed; Ravenhill, Lorna; Srisukkham, Worawut; Hossain, Alamgir; Fall, Charles; Ellis, Vincent; Bass, Rosemary

    2016-04-01

    Recent developments in quantitative image analysis allow us to interrogate confocal microscopy images to answer biological questions. Clumped and layered cell nuclei and cytoplasm in confocal images challenges the ability to identify subcellular compartments. To date, there is no perfect image analysis method to identify cytoskeletal changes in confocal images. Here, we present a multidisciplinary study where an image analysis model was developed to allow quantitative measurements of changes in the cytoskeleton of cells with different maspin exposure. Maspin, a noninhibitory serpin influences cell migration, adhesion, invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis in ways that are consistent with its identification as a tumor metastasis suppressor. Using different cell types, we tested the hypothesis that reduction in cell migration by maspin would be reflected in the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton. A hybrid marker-controlled watershed segmentation technique was used to segment the nuclei, cytoplasm, and ruffling regions before measuring cytoskeletal changes. This was informed by immunohistochemical staining of cells transfected stably or transiently with maspin proteins, or with added bioactive peptides or protein. Image analysis results showed that the effects of maspin were mirrored by effects on cell architecture, in a way that could be described quantitatively.

  11. Unveiling interactions among mitochondria, caspase-like proteases, and the actin cytoskeleton during plant programmed cell death (PCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E N Lord

    Full Text Available Aponogeton madagascariensis produces perforations over its leaf surface via programmed cell death (PCD. PCD begins between longitudinal and transverse veins at the center of spaces regarded as areoles, and continues outward, stopping several cells from these veins. The gradient of PCD that exists within a single areole of leaves in an early stage of development was used as a model to investigate cellular dynamics during PCD. Mitochondria have interactions with a family of proteases known as caspases, and the actin cytoskeleton during metazoan PCD; less is known regarding these interactions during plant PCD. This study employed the actin stain Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, the actin depolymerizer Latrunculin B (Lat B, a synthetic caspase peptide substrate and corresponding specific inhibitors, as well as the mitochondrial pore inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA to analyze the role of these cellular constituents during PCD. Results depicted that YVADase (caspase-1 activity is higher during the very early stages of perforation formation, followed by the bundling and subsequent breakdown of actin. Actin depolymerization using Lat B caused no change in YVADase activity. In vivo inhibition of YVADase activity prevented PCD and actin breakdown, therefore substantiating actin as a likely substrate for caspase-like proteases (CLPs. The mitochondrial pore inhibitor CsA significantly decreased YVADase activity, and prevented both PCD and actin breakdown; therefore suggesting the mitochondria as a possible trigger for CLPs during PCD in the lace plant. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study using either caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK or CsA, following which the actin cytoskeleton was examined. Overall, our findings suggest the mitochondria as a possible upstream activator of YVADase activity and implicate these proteases as potential initiators of actin breakdown during perforation formation via PCD in the lace plant.

  12. Actin Microfilament Organization in the Transition Zone of Arabidopsis-ABD2-GFP Roots Under Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina

    2012-12-01

    Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana-ABD2-GFP were grown under slow clinorotation (2 rpm) and treated with actin and tubulin disrupting drugs in order to characterize the role of actin microfilaments in cell growth and gravisensing. Changes in microfilament organization and cell parameters have shown that the transition root zone (TZ) is rather sensitive to microfilament disruption in control plants. It is assumed that under clinorotation, organization of actin cytoskeleton in the TZ is coordinated in a different way than in the control. Organization of microfilaments depends upon organization of microtubules and clinorotation does not influence this interrelation significantly.

  13. Ethanol increases p190RhoGAP activity, leading to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Javier; Egea, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    We previously reported that cells chronically exposed to ethanol show alterations in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in primary cultures of newborn rat astrocytes, a well-established in vitro model for foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These alterations were attributed to a decrease in the cellular levels of active RhoA (RhoA-GTP), which in turn was produced by an increase in the total RhoGAP activity. We here provide evidence that p190RhoGAPs are the main factors responsible for such increase. Thus, in astrocytes chronically exposed to ethanol we observe: (i) an increase in p190A- and p190B-associated RhoGAP activity; (ii) a higher binding of p190A and p190B to RhoA-GTP; (iii) a higher p120RasGAP-p190A RhoGAP complex formation; and (iv) the recruitment of both p190RhoGAPs to the plasma membrane. The simultaneous silencing of both p190 isoforms prevents the actin rearrangements and the total RhoGAP activity increase triggered both by ethanol. Therefore, our data directly points p190RhoGAPs as ethanol-exposure molecular targets on glial cells of the CNS. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Disrupting the cortical actin cytoskeleton points to two distinct mechanisms of yeast [PSI+] prion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Shaun H.; Tuite, Mick F.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian and fungal prions arise de novo; however, the mechanism is poorly understood in molecular terms. One strong possibility is that oxidative damage to the non-prion form of a protein may be an important trigger influencing the formation of its heritable prion conformation. We have examined the oxidative stress-induced formation of the yeast [PSI+] prion, which is the altered conformation of the Sup35 translation termination factor. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP) and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins which associate with Sup35 in a tsa1 tsa2 antioxidant mutant to address the mechanism by which Sup35 forms the [PSI+] prion during oxidative stress conditions. This analysis identified several components of the cortical actin cytoskeleton including the Abp1 actin nucleation promoting factor, and we show that deletion of the ABP1 gene abrogates oxidant-induced [PSI+] prion formation. The frequency of spontaneous [PSI+] prion formation can be increased by overexpression of Sup35 since the excess Sup35 increases the probability of forming prion seeds. In contrast to oxidant-induced [PSI+] prion formation, overexpression-induced [PSI+] prion formation was only modestly affected in an abp1 mutant. Furthermore, treating yeast cells with latrunculin A to disrupt the formation of actin cables and patches abrogated oxidant-induced, but not overexpression-induced [PSI+] prion formation, suggesting a mechanistic difference in prion formation. [PIN+], the prion form of Rnq1, localizes to the IPOD (insoluble protein deposit) and is thought to influence the aggregation of other proteins. We show Sup35 becomes oxidized and aggregates during oxidative stress conditions, but does not co-localize with Rnq1 in an abp1 mutant which may account for the reduced frequency of [PSI+] prion formation. PMID:28369054

  15. Reorganization of actin cytoskeleton at the growing end of the cleavage furrow of Xenopus egg during cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T; Mabuchi, I

    2001-01-01

    We studied reorganization of actin-myosin cytoskeleton at the growing ends of the cleavage furrow of Xenopus eggs in order to understand how the contractile ring is formed during cytokinesis. Reorganization of F-actin structures during the furrow formation was demonstrated by rhodamine-phalloidin staining of the cleavage furrow and by time-lapse scanning with laser scanning microscopy of F-actin structures in the cleavage furrow of live eggs to which rhodamine-G-actin had been injected. Actin filaments assemble to form small clusters that we call 'F-actin patches' at the growing end of the furrow. In live recordings, we observed emergence and rapid growth of F-actin patches in the furrow region. These patches then align in tandem, elongate and fuse with each other to form short F-actin bundles. The short bundles then form long F-actin bundles that compose the contractile ring. During the furrow formation, a cortical movement towards the division plane occurs at the growing ends of the furrow, as shown by monitoring wheatgerm agglutinin-conjugated fluorescent beads attached to the egg surface. As a result, wheatgerm agglutinin-binding sites accumulate and form 'bleb-like' structures on the surface of the furrow region. The F-actin patch forms and grows underneath this structure. The slope of F-actin accumulation in the interior region of the furrow exceeds that of accumulation of the cortex transported by the cortical movement. In addition, rhodamine-G-actin microinjected at the growing end is immediately incorporated into the F-actin patches. These data, together with the rapid growth of F-actin patches in the live image, suggest that actin polymerization occurs in the contractile ring formation. Distribution of myosin II in the cleavage furrow was also examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Myosin II assembles as spots at the growing end underneath the bleb-like structure. It was suggested that myosin is transported and accumulates as spots by way of the

  16. Fucus as a Model System to Study the Role of Auxin Transport and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Gravity Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, Gloria K.

    2003-01-01

    The overarching goal of this proposal was to examine the mechanisms for the cellular asymmetry in auxin transport proteins. As auxin transport polarity changes in response to reorientation of algal and plant cells relative to the gravity vector, it was critical to ask how auxin transport polarity is established and how this transport polarity may change in response to gravity stimulation. The experiments conducted with this NASA grant fell into two categories. The first area of experimentation was to explore the biochemical interactions between an auxin transport protein and the actin cytoskeleton. These experiments used biochemical techniques, including actin affinity chromatography, to demonstrate that one auxin transport protein interacts with the actin cytoskeleton. The second line of experiments examined whether in the initially symmetrical single celled embryos of Fucus distichus, whether auxin regulates development and whether gravity is a cue to control the morphogenesis of these embryos and whether gravi-morphogenesis is auxin dependent. Results in these two areas are summarized separately below. As a result of this funding, in combination with results from other investigators, we have strong evidence for an important role for the actin cytoskeleton in both establishing and change auxin transport polarity. It is also clear that Fucus distichus embryos are auxin responsive and gravity controls their morphogenesis.

  17. Ultra-fast optical manipulation of single proteins binding to the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Marco; Gardini, Lucia; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-02-01

    In the last decade, forces and mechanical stresses acting on biological systems are emerging as regulatory factors essential for cell life. Emerging evidences indicate that factors such as applied forces or the rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) determine the shape and function of cells and organisms1. Classically, the regulation of biological systems is described through a series of biochemical signals and enzymatic reactions, which direct the processes and cell fate. However, mechanotransduction, i.e. the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical and biomolecular signals, is at the basis of many biological processes fundamental for the development and differentiation of cells, for their correct function and for the development of pathologies. We recently developed an in vitro system that allows the investigation of force-dependence of the interaction of proteins binding the actin cytoskeleton, at the single molecule level. Our system displays a delay of only ~10 μs between formation of the molecular bond and application of the force and is capable of detecting interactions as short as 100 μs. Our assay allows direct measurements of load-dependence of lifetimes of single molecular bonds and conformational changes of single proteins and molecular motors. We demonstrate our technique on molecular motors, using myosin II from fast skeletal muscle and on protein-DNA interaction, specifically on Lactose repressor (LacI). The apparatus is stabilized to less than 1 nm with both passive and active stabilization, allowing resolving specific binding regions along the actin filament and DNA molecule. Our technique extends single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to molecular complexes that have been inaccessible up to now, opening new perspectives for the investigation of the effects of forces on biological processes.

  18. TGF1-Induced Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs Is Mediated by Changes to the Actin Cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Almalki, Sami

    2018-01-01

    TGFβis a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs) is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGFβ1 prior to induction......MSC cultures using DNA microarrays. In total, 1932 genes were upregulated, and 1298 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that TGFβl treatment was associated with an enrichment of genes in the skeletal and extracellular matrix categories and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton....... To investigate further, we examined the actin cytoskeleton following treatment with TGFβ1 and/or cytochalasin D. Interestingly, cytochalasin D treatment of hMSCs enhanced adipogenic differentiation but inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Global gene expression profiling revealed a significant enrichment...

  19. NADPH oxidase complex-derived reactive oxygen species, the actin cytoskeleton, and rho GTPases in cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Thompson, Kerry; Hynes, Ailish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Rho GTPases are historically known to be central regulators of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. This affects many processes including cell migration. In addition, members of the Rac subfamily are known to be involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through...... mediating cytoskeletal reorganization. Critical Issues: The role of the actin cytoskeleton in providing a scaffold for components of the Nox complex needs to be examined in the light of these new advances. During cell migration, Rho GTPases, ROS, and cytoskeletal organization appear to function as a complex...... the regulation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. This review focuses on relationships between Nox-regulated ROS, Rho GTPases, and cytoskeletal reorganization, in the context of cell migration. Recent Advances: It has become clear that ROS participate in the regulation of certain Rho GTPase family members, thus...

  20. Palytoxins and cytoskeleton: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, M Carmen; Ares, Isabel R; Cagide, Eva; Espiña, Begoña; Vilariño, Natalia; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-03-01

    Cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure essential for a wide variety of normal cellular processes, including the maintenance of cell shape and morphology, volume regulation, membrane dynamics and signal transduction. Cytoskeleton is organized into microtubules, actin meshwork and intermediate filaments. Actin has been identified as a major target for destruction during apoptosis and is also important under pathological conditions such as cancers. Several natural compounds actively modulate actin organization by specific signaling cascades being useful tools to study cytoskeleton dynamics. Palytoxin is a large bioactive compound, first isolated from zoanthids, with a complex structure and different analogs such as ostreocin-D or ovatoxin-a. This toxin has been identified as a potent tumor promoter and cytotoxic molecule, which leads to actin filament distortion and triggers cell death or apoptosis. In this review we report the findings on the involvement of palytoxin and analogues modulating the actin cytoskeleton within different cellular models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dual effect of F-actin targeted carrier combined with antimitotic drug on aggressive colorectal cancer cytoskeleton: Allying dissimilar cell cytoskeleton disrupting mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranejoo, Shahrouz; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Pachenari, Mohammad; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Cheng, Wenlong; Hourigan, Kerry

    2016-11-20

    A recent approach to colon cancer therapy is to employ selective drugs with specific extra/intracellular sites of action. Alteration of cytoskeletal protein reorganization and, subsequently, to cellular biomechanical behaviour during cancer progression highly affects the cancer cell progress. Hence, cytoskeleton targeted drugs are an important class of cancer therapy agents. We have studied viscoelastic alteration of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW48, after treatment with a drug delivery system comprising chitosan as the carrier and albendazole as the microtubule-targeting agent (MTA). For the first time, we have evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of the cell line, using the micropipette aspiration (MA) method after treatment with drug delivery systems. Surprisingly, employing a chitosan-albendazole pair, in comparison with both neat materials, resulted in more significant change in the viscoelastic parameters of cells, including the elastic constants (K 1 and K 2 ) and the coefficient of viscosity (μ). This difference was more pronounced for cancer cells after 48h of the treatment. Microtubule and actin microfilament (F-actin) contents in the cell line were studied by immunofluorescent staining. Good agreement was observed between the mechanical characteristics results and microtubule/F-actin contents of the treated SW48 cell line, which declined after treatment. The results showed that chitosan affected F-actin more, while MTA was more effective for microtubules. Toxicity studies were performed against two cancer cell lines (SW48 and MCF10CA1h) and compared to normal cells, MCF10A. The results showed cancer selectiveness, safety of formulation, and enhanced anticancer efficacy of the CS/ABZ conjugate. This study suggests that employing such a suitable pair of drug-carriers with dissimilar sites of action, thus allying the different cell cytoskeleton disrupting mechanisms, may provide a more efficient cancer therapy approach. Copyright

  2. Estrogen and Resveratrol Regulate Rac and Cdc42 Signaling to the Actin Cytoskeleton of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Azios

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen and structurally related molecules play critical roles in breast cancer. We reported that resveratrol (50 µM, an estrogen-like phytosterol from grapes, acts in an antiestrogenic manner in breast cancer cells to reduce cell migration and to induce a global and sustained extension of actin structures called filopodia. Herein, we report that resveratrol-induced filopodia formation is time-dependent and concentration-dependent. In contrast to resveratrol at 50 µM, resveratrol at 5 µM acts in a manner similar to estrogen by increasing lamellipodia, as well as cell migration and invasion. Because Rho GTPases regulate the extension of actin structures, we investigated a role for Rac and Cdc42 in estrogen and resveratrol signaling. Our results demonstrate that 50 µM resveratrol decreases Rac and Cdc42 activity, whereas estrogen and 5 µM resveratrol increase Rac activity in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing dominant-negative Cdc42 or dominantnegative Rac retain filopodia response to 50 µM resveratrol. Lamellipodia response to 5 µM resveratrol, estrogen, or epidermal growth factor is inhibited in cells expressing dominant-negative Rac, indicating that Rac regulates estrogen and resveratrol (5 µM signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. These results indicate that signaling to the actin cytoskeleton by low and high concentrations of resveratrol may be differentially regulated by Rac and Cdc42.

  3. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.

  4. EFFECTS OF ESTETROL ON MIGRATION AND INVASION IN T47-D BREAST CANCER CELLS THROUGH THE ACTIN CYTOSKELETON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia eGiretti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estetrol (E4 is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2 on T47-D estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, redistribution of actin fibers towards the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, a inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr558, which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of ERα. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring estrogen receptor modulator in the breast.

  5. Adenosine A1 receptors promote vasa vasorum endothelial cell barrier integrity via Gi and Akt-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaramappa Nagavedi Umapathy

    Full Text Available In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp neonatal calves.We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs. However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  6. Adenosine A1 Receptors Promote Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cell Barrier Integrity via Gi and Akt-Dependent Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddaramappa Umapathy, Nagavedi; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Fatteh, Nooreen; Burns, Nana; Lucas, Rudolf; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Verin, Alexander D.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.

    2013-01-01

    Background In a neonatal model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, a dramatic pulmonary artery adventitial thickening, accumulation of inflammatory cells in the adventitial compartment, and angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum microcirculatory network are observed. These pathophysiological responses suggest that rapidly proliferating vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVEC) may exhibit increased permeability for circulating blood cells and macromolecules. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain unexplored. Some reports implicated extracellular adenosine in the regulation of vascular permeability under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions. Thus, we aimed to determine the role of adenosine in barrier regulation of VVEC isolated from the pulmonary arteries of normoxic (VVEC-Co) or chronically hypoxic (VVEC-Hyp) neonatal calves. Principal Findings We demonstrate via a transendothelial electrical resistance measurement that exogenous adenosine significantly enhanced the barrier function in VVEC-Co and, to a lesser extent, in VVEC-Hyp. Our data from a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction show that both VVEC-Co and VVEC-Hyp express all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), with the highest expression level of A1 receptors (A1Rs). However, A1R expression was significantly lower in VVEC-Hyp compared to VVEC-Co. By using an A1R-specific agonist/antagonist and siRNA, we demonstrate that A1Rs are mostly responsible for adenosine-induced enhancement in barrier function. Adenosine-induced barrier integrity enhancement was attenuated by pretreatment of VVEC with pertussis toxin and GSK690693 or LY294002, suggesting the involvement of Gi proteins and the PI3K-Akt pathway. Moreover, we reveal a critical role of actin cytoskeleton in VVEC barrier regulation by using specific inhibitors of actin and microtubule polymerization. Further, we show that adenosine pretreatment blocked the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF

  7. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma m...

  8. Extra-nuclear signaling of progesterone receptor to breast cancer cell movement and invasion through the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Fu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone plays a role in breast cancer development and progression but the effects on breast cancer cell movement or invasion have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigate the actions of natural progesterone and of the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and on breast cancer cell movement and invasion. In particular, we characterize the nongenomic signaling cascades implicated in these actions. T47-D breast cancer cells display enhanced horizontal migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices in the presence of both progestins. Exposure to the hormones triggers a rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles required for cell movement, which are dependent on the rapid phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory protein moesin. The extra-cellular small GTPase RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK-2 cascade plays central role in progesterone- and MPA-induced moesin activation, cell migration and invasion. In the presence of progesterone, progesterone receptor A (PRA interacts with the G protein G alpha(13, while MPA drives PR to interact with tyrosine kinase c-Src and to activate phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, leading to the activation of RhoA/ROCK-2. In conclusion, our findings manifest that progesterone and MPA promote breast cancer cell movement via rapid actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which are mediated by moesin activation. These events are triggered by RhoA/ROCK-2 cascade through partially differing pathways by the two compounds. These results provide original mechanistic explanations for the effects of progestins on breast cancer progression and highlight potential targets to treat endocrine-sensitive breast cancers.

  9. Observation of cytoskeleton dynamics in Arabidopsis-GFP-MAP4, -GFP-ABD2 plants under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina

    With the aim to investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on the cytoskeleton arrangement and plant cell growth we observed Arabidopsis thaliana transfected with GFP- MAP4 and GFP-ABD2 under clinorotation (2 rpm). This allowed us to visualize the tubulin microtubules and actin microfilaments in live cells and helped to follow the dynamics of cytoskeleton rearrangements in simulated microgravity. Ability to investigate the changes in live plant cells opens the wide perspectives for onboard research. We applied the pharmacological approach and investigated the behavior of microtubules when the microfilaments were disrupted and vice versa. Measurements of cell parameters in the distal elongation zone of plant root showed the slight discoordination of growth in cells with damaged actin microfilament. It is suggested that mutual structural interrelations of the cytoskeleton elements is essential for growth coordination in plant root. Clinorotation experiments revealed that root cell growth is less dependent upon the mutual co-alignment between the cytoskeleton elements. In this connection, we assume the involvement of cytoskeleton in the mechanism of growth restriction which is hidden under constant g-vector and is unmasked in simulated microgravity.

  10. Phosphorylation Regulates Interaction of 210-kDa Myosin Light Chain Kinase N-terminal Domain with Actin Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilitkevich, E L; Khapchaev, A Y; Kudryashov, D S; Nikashin, A V; Schavocky, J P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Shirinsky, V P

    2015-10-01

    High molecular weight myosin light chain kinase (MLCK210) is a multifunctional protein involved in myosin II activation and integration of cytoskeletal components in cells. MLCK210 possesses actin-binding regions both in the central part of the molecule and in its N-terminal tail domain. In HeLa cells, mitotic protein kinase Aurora B was suggested to phosphorylate MLCK210 N-terminal tail at serine residues (Dulyaninova, N. G., and Bresnick, A. R. (2004) Exp. Cell Res., 299, 303-314), but the functional significance of the phosphorylation was not established. We report here that in vitro, the N-terminal actin-binding domain of MLCK210 is located within residues 27-157 (N27-157, avian MLCK210 sequence) and is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Aurora B at serine residues 140/149 leading to a decrease in N27-157 binding to actin. The same residues are phosphorylated in a PKA-dependent manner in transfected HeLa cells. Further, in transfected cells, phosphomimetic mutants of N27-157 showed reduced association with the detergent-stable cytoskeleton, whereas in vitro, the single S149D mutation reduced N27-157 association with F-actin to a similar extent as that achieved by N27-157 phosphorylation. Altogether, our results indicate that phosphorylation of MLCK210 at distinct serine residues, mainly at S149, attenuates the interaction of MLCK210 N-terminus with the actin cytoskeleton and might serve to regulate MLCK210 microfilament cross-linking activity in cells.

  11. The roles and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, intermediate filaments and microtubules in smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dale D; Gerlach, Brennan D

    2017-04-08

    Smooth muscle cell migration has been implicated in the development of respiratory and cardiovascular systems; and airway/vascular remodeling. Cell migration is a polarized cellular process involving a protrusive cell front and a retracting trailing rear. There are three cytoskeletal systems in mammalian cells: the actin cytoskeleton, the intermediate filament network, and microtubules; all of which regulate all or part of the migrated process. The dynamic actin cytoskeleton spatially and temporally regulates protrusion, adhesions, contraction, and retraction from the cell front to the rear. c-Abl tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in regulating actin dynamics and migration of airway smooth muscle cells and nonmuscle cells. Recent studies suggest that intermediate filaments undergo reorganization during migration, which coordinates focal adhesion dynamics, cell contraction, and nucleus rigidity. In particular, vimentin intermediate filaments undergo phosphorylation and reorientation in smooth muscle cells, which may regulate cell contraction and focal adhesion assembly/disassembly. Motile cells are characterized by a front-rear polarization of the microtubule framework, which regulates all essential processes leading to cell migration through its role in cell mechanics, intracellular trafficking, and signaling. This review recapitulates our current knowledge how the three cytoskeletal systems spatially and temporally modulate the migratory properties of cells. We also summarize the potential role of migration-associated biomolecules in lung and vascular diseases.

  12. The actin cytoskeleton in root hairs: all is fine at the tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous actin forms characteristic bundles in plant cells that facilitate cytoplasmic streaming. In contrast, networks of actin exhibiting fast turnover are found especially near sites of rapid cell expansion. These networks may serve various functions including delivering and retaining vesicles

  13. ADAM12 induces actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix reorganization during early adipocyte differentiation by regulating beta1 integrin function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; Sundberg, Christina; Kveiborg, Marie

    2003-01-01

    . Moreover, ADAM12-expressing cells were more prone to apoptosis, which could be prevented by treating the cells with beta1-activating antibodies. A reduced and re-organized fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix accompanied these changes. In addition, beta1 integrin was more readily extracted with Triton X......-100 from cells overexpressing ADAM12 than from control cells. Collectively, these results show that surface expression of ADAM12 impairs the function of beta1 integrins and, consequently, alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. These events may be necessary...

  14. Disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton and monolayer barrier integrity induced by PAF and the protective effect of ITF on intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-fen; Xu, Cheng; Mao, Zhi-Qin; Teng, Xu; Ma, Li; Sun, Mei

    2011-02-01

    To explore whether platelet-activating factor (PAF) can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier directly and is associated with structural alterations of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton, and to observe the protective effect of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), we establish an intestinal epithelia barrier model using Caco-2 cells in vitro. Transepithelial electrical resistance and unidirectional flux of lucifer yellow were measured to evaluate barrier permeability; immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry were applied to observe morphological alterations and to quantify proteins of the F-actin cytoskeleton: the tight junction marker ZO-1 and Claudin-1 were observed using immunofluorescent staining. PAF significantly increased paracellular permeability, at the same time, F-actin and tight junction proteins were disrupted. It was thought that ITF could reverse the high permeability by restoring normal F-actin, ZO-1 and Claudin-1 structures. These results collectively demonstrated that PAF plays an important role in the regulation of mucosal permeability and the effects of PAF are correlated with structural alterations of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton and of tight junctions. ITF can protect intestinal epithelium against PAF-induced disruption by restricting the rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton and of tight junctions.

  15. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Ellis Dutch, Rebecca; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmic tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger.

  16. A mechanical-biochemical feedback loop regulates remodeling in the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Matthew R; Smith, Mark A; Blankman, Elizabeth; Chapin, Laura M; Balcioglu, Hayri E; Wang, Shuyuan; Beckerle, Mary C; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2014-12-09

    Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. How mechanical and biochemical signaling cooperate to orchestrate complex remodeling tasks has not been elucidated. Here, we studied remodeling of contractile actomyosin stress fibers. When fibers spontaneously fractured, they recoiled and disassembled actin synchronously. The disassembly rate was accelerated more than twofold above the resting value, but only when contraction increased the actin density to a threshold value following a time delay. A mathematical model explained this as originating in the increased overlap of actin filaments produced by myosin II-driven contraction. Above a threshold overlap, this mechanical signal is transduced into accelerated disassembly by a mechanism that may sense overlap directly or through associated elastic stresses. This biochemical response lowers the actin density, overlap, and stresses. The model showed that this feedback mechanism, together with rapid stress transmission along the actin bundle, spatiotemporally synchronizes actin disassembly and fiber contraction. Similar actin remodeling kinetics occurred in expanding or contracting intact stress fibers but over much longer timescales. The model accurately described these kinetics, with an almost identical value of the threshold overlap that accelerates disassembly. Finally, we measured resting stress fibers, for which the model predicts constant actin overlap that balances disassembly and assembly. The overlap was indeed regulated, with a value close to that predicted. Our results suggest that coordinated mechanical and biochemical signaling enables extended actomyosin assemblies to adapt dynamically to the mechanical stresses they convey and direct their own remodeling.

  17. TrkB-T1 regulates the RhoA signaling and actin cytoskeleton in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, Koji; Homma, Koichi J.; Hirai, Hirohisa; Nakamura, Shun; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the truncated TrkB receptor, T1, has been reported to be involved in the control of cell morphology via the regulation of Rho proteins, through which T1 binds Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI) 1 and dissociates it in a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent manner. However, it is unclear whether T1 signaling regulates the downstream of Rho signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we investigated this question using C6 rat glioma cells, which express T1 endogenously. Rho GDI1 was dissociated from T1 in a BDNF-dependent manner, which also causes decreases in the activities of Rho-signaling molecules such as RhoA, Rho-associated kinase, p21-activated kinase, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase1/2. Moreover, BDNF treatment resulted in the disappearance of stress fibers in the cells treated with lysophosphatidic acid, an activator of RhoA, and in morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, a competitive assay with cyan fluorescent protein fusion proteins of T1-specific sequences reduced the effects of BDNF. These results suggest that T1 regulates the Rho-signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton

  18. The actin cytoskeleton is a suppressor of the endogenous skewing behaviour of Arabidopsis primary roots in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, J; Liao, F; Sparks, J A; Tang, Y; Blancaflor, E B

    2014-01-01

    Before plants can be effectively utilised as a component of enclosed life-support systems for space exploration, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which they develop in microgravity. Using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware on board the second to the last flight of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-131 mission), we studied how microgravity impacts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ground-based studies showed that the actin cytoskeleton negatively regulates root gravity responses on Earth, leading us to hypothesise that actin might also be an important modulator of root growth behaviour in space. We investigated how microgravity impacted root growth of wild type (ecotype Columbia) and a mutant (act2-3) disrupted in a root-expressed vegetative actin isoform (ACTIN2). Roots of etiolated wild-type and act2-3 seedlings grown in space skewed vigorously toward the left, which was unexpected given the reduced directional cue provided by gravity. The left-handed directional root growth in space was more pronounced in act2-3 mutants than wild type. To quantify differences in root orientation of these two genotypes in space, we developed an algorithm where single root images were converted into binary images using computational edge detection methods. Binary images were processed with Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), and histogram and entropy were used to determine spectral distribution, such that high entropy values corresponded to roots that deviated more strongly from linear orientation whereas low entropy values represented straight roots. We found that act2-3 roots had a statistically stronger skewing/coiling response than wild-type roots, but such differences were not apparent on Earth. Ultrastructural studies revealed that newly developed cell walls of space-grown act2-3 roots were more severely disrupted compared to space-grown wild type, and ground control wild-type and act2-3 roots. Collectively, our results provide

  19. Rotavirus infection of cells in culture induces activation of RhoA and changes in the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Zambrano

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection induces an increase in [Ca(2+](cyto, which in turn may affect the distribution of the cytoskeleton proteins in the infected cell. Changes in microfilaments, including the formation of stress fibers, were observed starting at 0.5 h.p.i. using fluorescent phalloidin. Western blot analysis indicated that RhoA is activated between 0.5 and 1 h.p.i. Neither the phosphorylation of RhoA nor the formation of stress fibers were observed in cells infected with virions pre-treated with an anti-VP5* non-neutralizing mAb, suggesting that RhoA activation is stimulated by the interaction of the virus with integrins forming the cell receptor complex. In addition, the structure of the tubulin cytoskeleton was also studied. Alterations of the microtubules were evident starting at 3 h.p.i. and by 7 h.p.i. when microtubules were markedly displaced toward the periphery of the cell cytoplasm. Loading of rotavirus-infected cells with either a Ca(2+ chelator (BAPTA or transfection with siRNAs to silence NSP4, reversed the changes observed in both the microfilaments and microtubules distribution, but not the appearance of stress fibers. These results indicate that alterations in the distribution of actin microfilaments are initiated early during infection by the activation of RhoA, and that latter changes in the Ca(2+ homeostasis promoted by NSP4 during infection may be responsible for other alterations in the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Candidate Wolbachia pipientis Type IV Effector That Interacts with the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy B. Sheehan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria live as intracellular symbionts, causing persistent infections within insects. One extraordinarily common infection is that of Wolbachia pipientis, which infects 40% of insect species and induces reproductive effects. The bacteria are passed from generation to generation both vertically (through the oocyte and horizontally (by environmental transmission. Maintenance of the infection within Drosophila melanogaster is sensitive to the regulation of actin, as Wolbachia inefficiently colonizes strains hemizygous for the profilin or villin genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that Wolbachia must depend on the host actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we identify and characterize a Wolbachia protein (WD0830 that is predicted to be secreted by the bacterial parasite. Expression of WD0830 in a model eukaryote (the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces a growth defect associated with the appearance of aberrant, filamentous structures which colocalize with rhodamine-phalloidin-stained actin. Purified WD0830 bundles actin in vitro and cosediments with actin filaments, suggesting a direct interaction of the two proteins. We characterized the expression of WD0830 throughout Drosophila development and found it to be upregulated in third-instar larvae, peaking in early pupation, during the critical formation of adult tissues, including the reproductive system. In transgenic flies, heterologously expressed WD0830 localizes to the developing oocyte. Additionally, overexpression of WD0830 results in increased Wolbachia titers in whole flies, in stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and in embryos, compared to controls, suggesting that the protein may facilitate Wolbachia’s replication or transmission. Therefore, this candidate secreted effector may play a role in Wolbachia’s infection of and persistence within host niches.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 23 gene transcription depends on actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajol, Abul; Honisch, Sabina; Zhang, Bingbing; Schmidt, Sebastian; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud; Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Föller, Michael

    2016-03-01

    FGF23 regulates renal phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. Loss of FGF23 results in massive calcification and rapid aging. FGF23 production is stimulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and NFκB signaling. Here, we report that treatment of UMR106 osteoblast-like cells with 1,25(OH)2D3, inducing Fgf23 transcription, resulted in actin polymerization which was blocked by NFκB inhibitor wogonin. Interestingly, 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Fgf23 gene transcription was abolished by the actin microfilament-disrupting agent cytochalasin B, as well as by the inhibition of actin-regulating Rac1/PAK1 signaling. Our results provide strong evidence that actin redistribution regulated by the Rac1/PAK1 pathway participates in 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Fgf23 gene transcription. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Rab11 and actin cytoskeleton participate in Giardia lamblia encystation, guiding the specific vesicles to the cyst wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Castillo-Romero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia passes through two stages during its life cycle, the trophozoite and the cyst. Cyst formation involves the synthesis of cyst wall proteins (CWPs and the transport of CWPs into encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Active vesicular trafficking is essential for encystation, but the molecular machinery driving vesicular trafficking remains unknown. The Rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to several intracellular compartments through their association with cytoskeletal motor proteins.In this study, we found a relationship between Rab11 and the actin cytoskeleton in CWP1 transport. Confocal microscopy showed Rab11 was distributed throughout the entire trophozoite, while in cysts it was translocated to the periphery of the cell, where it colocalized with ESVs and microfilaments. Encystation was also accompanied by changes in rab11 mRNA expression. To evaluate the role of microfilaments in encystation, the cells were treated with latrunculin A. Scanning electron microscopy showed this treatment resulted in morphological damages to encysted parasites. The intensity of fluorescence-labeled Rab11 and CWP1 in ESVs and cyst walls was reduced, and rab11 and cwp1 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Furthermore, knocking down Rab11 with a hammerhead ribozyme resulted in an up to 80% down-regulation of rab11 mRNA. Although this knockdown did not appear lethal for trophozoites and did not affect cwp1 expression during the encystation, confocal images showed CWP1 was redistributed throughout the cytosol.Our results indicate that Rab11 participates in the early and late encystation stages by regulating CWP1 localization and the actin-mediated transport of ESVs towards the periphery. In addition, alterations in the dynamics of actin affected rab11 and cwp1 expression. Our results provide new information about the molecules involved in Giardia encystation and suggest that Rab11 and actin may be useful as novel pharmacological targets.

  3. Convergent regulation of skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels by dystrophin, the actin cytoskeleton, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry D.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2005-03-01

    The skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1), which is responsible for initiating muscle contraction, is regulated by phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a voltage-dependent manner that requires direct physical association between the channel and the kinase mediated through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The role of the actin cytoskeleton in channel regulation was investigated in skeletal myocytes cultured from wild-type mice, mdx mice that lack the cytoskeletal linkage protein dystrophin, and a skeletal muscle cell line, 129 CB3. Voltage dependence of channel activation was shifted positively, and potentiation was greatly diminished in mdx myocytes and in 129 CB3 cells treated with the microfilament stabilizer phalloidin. Voltage-dependent potentiation by strong depolarizing prepulses was reduced in mdx myocytes but could be restored by positively shifting the stimulus potentials to compensate for the positive shift in the voltage dependence of gating. Inclusion of PKA in the pipette caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation and restored voltage-dependent potentiation in mdx myocytes. These results show that skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel activity and voltage-dependent potentiation are controlled by PKA and microfilaments in a convergent manner. Regulation of Ca2+ channel activity by hormones and neurotransmitters that use the PKA signal transduction pathway may interact in a critical way with the cytoskeleton and may be impaired by deletion of dystrophin, contributing to abnormal regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in dystrophic muscle.

  4. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells

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    Bhanu Neupane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy provides a new opportunity to study fine sub-cellular structures and highly dynamic cellular processes, which are challenging to observe using conventional optical microscopy. Using actin as an example, we explored the feasibility of using a continuous wave (CW-STED microscope to study the fine structure and dynamics in fixed and live cells. Actin plays an important role in cellular processes, whose functioning involves dynamic formation and reorganization of fine structures of actin filaments. Frequently used confocal fluorescence and STED microscopy dyes were employed to image fixed PC-12 cells (dyed with phalloidin- fluorescein isothiocyante and live rat chondrosarcoma cells (RCS transfected with actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP. Compared to conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, CW-STED microscopy shows improved spatial resolution in both fixed and live cells. We were able to monitor cell morphology changes continuously; however, the number of repetitive analyses were limited primarily by the dyes used in these experiments and could be improved with the use of dyes less susceptible to photobleaching. In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed.

  5. Impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles after acute perturbation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shupliakov, Oleg; Bloom, Ona; Gustafsson, Jenny S

    2002-01-01

    at the site of synaptic vesicle recycling, the endocytic zone. Compounds interfering with actin function, including phalloidin, the catalytic subunit of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin, and N-ethylmaleimide-treated myosin S1 fragments were microinjected into the axon. In unstimulated, phalloidin-injected axons...

  6. Cell swelling activates cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels: a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Nanna K; Pedersen, Stine F; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2003-01-01

    -induced activation of hIK channels was strongly inhibited by cytochalasin D (CD), in concentrations that caused depolymerization of F-actin filaments, indicating a role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in modulation of hIK by changes in cell volume. In conclusion, hIK and rSK3 channels are activated by cell swelling......Cloned Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels of intermediate (hIK) or small (rSK3) conductance were expressed in HEK 293 cells, and channel activity was monitored using whole-cell patch clamp. hIK and rSK3 currents already activated by intracellular calcium were further increased by 95% and 125......%, respectively, upon exposure of the cells to a 33% decrease in extracellular osmolarity. hIK and rSK3 currents were inhibited by 46% and 32%, respectively, by a 50% increase in extracellular osmolarity. Cell swelling and channel activation were not associated with detectable increases in [Ca(2+)](i), evidenced...

  7. Engineering amount of cell-cell contact demonstrates biphasic proliferative regulation through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Darren S.; Liu, Wendy F.; Shen, Colette J.; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Nelson, Celeste M.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cell-cell contact via VE-cadherin plays an important role in regulating numerous cell functions, including proliferation. However, using different experimental approaches to manipulate cell-cell contact, investigators have observed both inhibition and stimulation of proliferation depending on the adhesive context. In this study, we used micropatterned wells combined with active positioning of cells by dielectrophoresis in order to investigate whether the number of contacting neighbors affected the proliferative response. Varying cell-cell contact resulted in a biphasic effect on proliferation; one contacting neighbor increased proliferation, while two or more neighboring cells partially inhibited this increase. We also observed that cell-cell contact increased the formation of actin stress fibers, and that expression of dominant negative RhoA (RhoN19) blocked the contact-mediated increase in stress fibers and proliferation. Furthermore, examination of heterotypic pairs of untreated cells in contact with RhoN19-expressing cells revealed that intracellular, but not intercellular, tension is required for the contact-mediated stimulation of proliferation. Moreover, engagement of VE-cadherin with cadherin-coated beads was sufficient to stimulate proliferation in the absence of actual cell-cell contact. In all, these results demonstrate that cell-cell contact signals through VE-cadherin, RhoA, and intracellular tension in the actin cytoskeleton to regulate proliferation

  8. CADM1 controls actin cytoskeleton assembly and regulates extracellular matrix adhesion in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.

  9. Physical guidance of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration dynamics in epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Campanello, Leonard; Hourwitz, Matt J.; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    Many cell types have been shown to exhibit contact guidance, in which cells sense and follow the texture of their environment. Contact guidance can lead to persistent directional migration that does not require the coordinated spatial and temporal cues required for guidance cues such as chemical concentration (i.e. chemotaxis). Actin polymerization has been shown to be guided by topographical features (esotaxis) in Dictyostelium discoideum cells, leading to guided cell migration. In this work, we show that actin dynamics are also guided by nanotopography in epithelial MCF10A cells despite large differences in the normal migration behavior of these two cell types. The existence of esotaxis and guided migration across phyla suggests that cytoskeletal dynamics play an important role in texture sensing and directional cell migration.

  10. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Appakkudal R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. Results In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N (~120 kDa inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.

  11. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...... monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Knockdown of UCH-L1 reduced the uptake of both bacteria, while expression of the catalytically active enzyme promoted efficient internalization in the UCH-L1-negative HeLa cell line. The entry of L. monocytogenes involves binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase Met, which...... of downstream ERK1/2- and AKT-dependent signalling in response to the natural ligand Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). The regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics was further confirmed by the induction of actin stress fibres in HeLa expressing the active enzyme but not the catalytic mutant UCH-L1(C90S...

  12. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton in vertical and graviresponding primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether actin microfilament (MF) organization is correlated with differential elongation, primary roots of Zea mays cv Merit maintained vertically or reoriented horizontally for 15 to 120 min were stained with rhodamine phalloidin and examined with a confocal microscope. Root curvature was measured with a computer-controlled video digitizer. In vertical roots bundles of MFs in the elongation and maturation zone were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of cells. MFs in the vascular parenchyma cells were more abundant than in the cortex and epidermis. Epidermal and proendodermal cells in the meristematic region contained transverse cortical MFs. The organization of MFs of graviresponding roots was similar to that of vertical roots. Application of cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D resulted in extensive disruption of MFs in the cortex and epidermis, but only partially affected MFs in the stele. Despite the cytochalasin B-induced depolymerization of MFs, gravicurvature exceeded that of controls. In contrast, the auxin transport inhibitor N-1 naphthylphthalamic acid suppressed root curvature but had no observable effect on the integrity of the MFs. The data indicate that MFs may not be involved in the graviresponse of maize roots.

  13. Clarin-1, encoded by the Usher Syndrome III causative gene, forms a membranous microdomain: possible role of clarin-1 in organizing the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Zhou, Yun; Hajkova, Dagmar; Miyagi, Masaru; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Geng, Ruishuang; Alagramam, Kumar N; Isosomppi, Juha; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Flannery, John G; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2009-07-10

    Clarin-1 is the protein product encoded by the gene mutated in Usher syndrome III. Although the molecular function of clarin-1 is unknown, its primary structure predicts four transmembrane domains similar to a large family of membrane proteins that include tetraspanins. Here we investigated the role of clarin-1 by using heterologous expression and in vivo model systems. When expressed in HEK293 cells, clarin-1 localized to the plasma membrane and concentrated in low density compartments distinct from lipid rafts. Clarin-1 reorganized actin filament structures and induced lamellipodia. This actin-reorganizing function was absent in the modified protein encoded by the most prevalent North American Usher syndrome III mutation, the N48K form of clarin-1 deficient in N-linked glycosylation. Proteomics analyses revealed a number of clarin-1-interacting proteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, focal adhesions, cell migration, tight junctions, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with the hypothesized role of clarin-1 in actin organization, F-actin-enriched stereocilia of auditory hair cells evidenced structural disorganization in Clrn1(-/-) mice. These observations suggest a possible role for clarin-1 in the regulation and homeostasis of actin filaments, and link clarin-1 to the interactive network of Usher syndrome gene products.

  14. The actin cytoskeleton modulates the activation of iNKT cells by segregating CD1d nanoclusters on antigen-presenting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Manzo, Carlo; Salio, Mariolina; Aichinger, Michael C.; Oddone, Anna; Lakadamyali, Melike; Shepherd, Dawn; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells recognize endogenous and exogenous lipid antigens presented in the context of CD1d molecules. The ability of iNKT cells to recognize endogenous antigens represents a distinct immune recognition strategy, which underscores the constitutive memory phenotype of iNKT cells and their activation during inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms regulating such “tonic” activation of iNKT cells remain unclear. Here, we show that the spatiotemporal distribution of CD1d molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) modulates activation of iNKT cells. By using superresolution microscopy, we show that CD1d molecules form nanoclusters at the cell surface of APCs, and their size and density are constrained by the actin cytoskeleton. Dual-color single-particle tracking revealed that diffusing CD1d nanoclusters are actively arrested by the actin cytoskeleton, preventing their further coalescence. Formation of larger nanoclusters occurs in the absence of interactions between CD1d cytosolic tail and the actin cytoskeleton and correlates with enhanced iNKT cell activation. Importantly and consistently with iNKT cell activation during inflammatory conditions, exposure of APCs to the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist R848 increases nanocluster density and iNKT cell activation. Overall, these results define a previously unidentified mechanism that modulates iNKT cell autoreactivity based on the tight control by the APC cytoskeleton of the sizes and densities of endogenous antigen-loaded CD1d nanoclusters. PMID:26798067

  15. Actin cytoskeleton-dependent Rab GTPase-regulated angiotensin type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Sun, Yuansheng; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic regulation of the cellular trafficking of human angiotensin (Ang) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cellular trafficking of AT1R-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (AT1R-EGFP) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells by determining the change in donor lifetime (AT1R-EGFP) in the presence or absence of acceptor(s) using fluorescence lifetime imaging-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy. The average lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in our donor-alone samples was ~2.33 ns. The basal state lifetime was shortened slightly in the presence of Rab5 (2.01+/-0.10 ns) or Rab7 (2.11+/-0.11 ns) labeled with Alexa 555, as the acceptor fluorophore. A 5-min Ang II treatment markedly shortened the lifetime of AT1R-EGFP in the presence of Rab5-Alexa 555 (1.78+/-0.31 ns) but was affected minimally in the presence of Rab7-Alexa 555 (2.09+/-0.37 ns). A 30-min Ang II treatment further decreased the AT1R-EGFP lifetime in the presence of both Rab5- and Rab7-Alexa 555. Latrunculin A but not nocodazole pretreatment blocked the ability of Ang II to shorten the AT1R-EGFP lifetime. The occurrence of FRET between AT1R-EGFP (donor) and LAMP1-Alexa 555 (acceptor) with Ang II stimulation was impaired by photobleaching the acceptor. These studies demonstrate that Ang II-induced AT1R lysosomal degradation through its association with LAMP1 is regulated by Rab5/7 via mechanisms that are dependent on intact actin cytoskeletons.

  16. Lecithin Prevents Cortical Cytoskeleton Reorganization in Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers under Short-Term Gravitational Disuse.

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    Irina V Ogneva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prevent the cortical cytoskeleton reorganization of rat soleus muscle fibers under short-term gravitational disuse. Once a day, we injected the right soleus muscle with 0.5 ml lecithin at a concentration of 200 mg/ml and the left soleus muscle with a diluted solution in an equal volume for 3 days prior to the experiment. To simulate microgravity conditions in rats, an anti-orthostatic suspension was used according to the Ilyin-Novikov method modified by Morey-Holton et al. for 6 hours. The following groups of soleus muscle tissues were examined: "C", "C+L", "HS", and "HS+L". The transversal stiffness of rat soleus muscle fibers after 6 hours of suspension did not differ from that of the control group for the corresponding legs; there were no differences between the groups without lecithin «C» and «HS» or between the groups with lecithin "C+L" and "HS+L". However, lecithin treatment for three days resulted in an increase in cell stiffness; in the "C+L" group, cell stiffness was significantly higher by 22.7% (p < 0.05 compared with that of group "C". The mRNA content of genes encoding beta- and gamma-actin and beta-tubulin did not significantly differ before and after suspension in the corresponding groups. However, there was a significant increase in the mRNA content of these genes after lecithin treatment: the beta-actin and gamma-actin mRNA content in group "C+L" increased by 200% compared with that of group "C", and beta-tubulin increased by 100% (as well as the mRNA content of tubulin-binding proteins Ckap5, Tcp1, Cct5 and Cct7. In addition, desmin mRNA content remained unchanged in all of the experimental groups. As a result of the lecithin injections, there was a redistribution of the mRNA content of genes encoding actin monomer- and filament-binding proteins in the direction of increasing actin polymerization and filament stability; the mRNA content of Arpc3 and Lcp1 increased by 3- and 5-fold, respectively

  17. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell.

  18. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S., E-mail: djuzenova_t@ukw.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Fiedler, Vanessa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Memmel, Simon [Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Universität Würzburg, Biozentrum Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Krohne, Georg [Elektronenmikroskopie, Biozentrum, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Zimmermann, Heiko [Hauptabteilung Biophysik and Kryotechnologie, Fraunhofer-Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Lehrstuhl für Molekulare und Zelluläre Biotechnologie/Nanotechnologie, Universität des Saarlandes, Ensheimer Strasse 48, 66386 St. Ingbert (Germany); Scholz, Claus-Jürgen [Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  19. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed

  20. Cellular contractility and substrate elasticity: a numerical investigation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, William; Deshpande, Vikram S; McMeeking, Robert M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Numerous experimental studies have established that cells can sense the stiffness of underlying substrates and have quantified the effect of substrate stiffness on stress fibre formation, focal adhesion area, cell traction, and cell shape. In order to capture such behaviour, the current study couples a mixed mode thermodynamic and mechanical framework that predicts focal adhesion formation and growth with a material model that predicts stress fibre formation, contractility, and dissociation in a fully 3D implementation. Simulations reveal that SF contractility plays a critical role in the substrate-dependent response of cells. Compliant substrates do not provide sufficient tension for stress fibre persistence, causing dissociation of stress fibres and lower focal adhesion formation. In contrast, cells on stiffer substrates are predicted to contain large amounts of dominant stress fibres. Different levels of cellular contractility representative of different cell phenotypes are found to alter the range of substrate stiffness that cause the most significant changes in stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. Furthermore, stress fibre and focal adhesion formation evolve as a cell spreads on a substrate and leading to the formation of bands of fibres leading from the cell periphery over the nucleus. Inhibiting the formation of FAs during cell spreading is found to limit stress fibre formation. The predictions of this mutually dependent material-interface framework are strongly supported by experimental observations of cells adhered to elastic substrates and offer insight into the inter-dependent biomechanical processes regulating stress fibre and focal adhesion formation.

  1. Pelota interacts with HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX and the resulting protein complexes are associated with the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyer-Fender Sigrid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelota (PELO is an evolutionary conserved protein, which has been reported to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Recent studies revealed the essential role of PELO in the No-Go mRNA decay, by which mRNA with translational stall are endonucleotically cleaved and degraded. Further, PELO-deficient mice die early during gastrulation due to defects in cell proliferation and/or differentiation. Results We show here that PELO is associated with actin microfilaments of mammalian cells. Overexpression of human PELO in Hep2G cells had prominent effect on cell growth, cytoskeleton organization and cell spreading. To find proteins interacting with PELO, full-length human PELO cDNA was used as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening assay. Partial sequences of HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX protein were identified as PELO-interacting partners from the screening. The interactions between PELO and HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX were confirmed in vitro by GST pull-down assays and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the PELO interaction domain was mapped to residues 268-385 containing the c-terminal and acidic tail domain. By bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay (BiFC, we found that protein complexes resulting from the interactions between PELO and either HAX1, EIF3G or SRPX were mainly localized to cytoskeletal filaments. Conclusion We could show that PELO is subcellularly localized at the actin cytoskeleton, interacts with HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX proteins and that this interaction occurs at the cytoskeleton. Binding of PELO to cytoskeleton-associated proteins may facilitate PELO to detect and degrade aberrant mRNAs, at which the ribosome is stalled during translation.

  2. Proteomic profiling in Drosophila reveals potential Dube3a regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and neuronal homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jensen

    Full Text Available The molecular defects associated with Angelman syndrome (AS and 15q duplication autism are directly correlated to expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein UBE3A. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster to screen for the targets of this ubiquitin ligase under conditions of both decreased (as in AS or increased (as in dup(15 levels of the fly Dube3a or human UBE3A proteins. Using liquid phase isoelectric focusing of proteins from whole fly head extracts we identified a total of 50 proteins that show changes in protein, and in some cases transcriptional levels, when Dube3a fluctuates. We analyzed head extracts from cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane fractions for Dube3a regulated proteins. Our results indicate that Dube3a is involved in the regulation of cellular functions related to ATP synthesis/metabolism, actin cytoskeletal integrity, both catabolism and carbohydrate metabolism as well as nervous system development and function. Sixty-two percent of the proteins were >50% identical to homologous human proteins and 8 have previously be shown to be ubiquitinated in the fly nervous system. Eight proteins may be regulated by Dube3a at the transcript level through the transcriptional co-activation function of Dube3a. We investigated one autism-associated protein, ATPα, and found that it can be ubiquitinated in a Dube3a dependent manner. We also found that Dube3a mutants have significantly less filamentous actin than wild type larvae consistent with the identification of actin targets regulated by Dube3a. The identification of UBE3A targets is the first step in unraveling the molecular etiology of AS and duplication 15q autism.

  3. Synergistic effect of signaling from receptors of soluble platelet agonists and outside-in signaling in formation of a stable fibrinogen-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus formation in the injured vessel wall is a highly complex process involving various blood-born components that go through specific temporal and spatial changes as observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Platelets bind transiently to the developing thrombus and may either become stably incorporated into or disengage from the thrombus. The aim of the present study was to reveal the processes involved in the formation of a stable thrombus. Platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets were studied by the aggregometer. The aggregate stability was challenged by eptifibatide. Platelet Triton-insoluble fraction was prepared and the actin and αIIb content in the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Maximal actin polymerization is achieved 1min after platelet activation while maximal αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton association requires 5 to 10min of activation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet-to-platelet bridging. Thus, actin polymerization is dependent on platelet activation and requires neither αIIbβ3 integrin occupation nor platelet aggregation. Formation of a stable aggregate requires platelet activation for more than 1min, complete increase in actin cytoskeleton fraction and partial association of αIIbβ3 with the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct αIIbβ3 activation is not sufficient for cytoskeleton complex formation. Thus, stable αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interaction, representing stable aggregate, is achieved after more than 1min agonist activation, involving inside-out and outside-in signaling but not after direct integrin activation, involving only outside-in signaling. Formation of a stable fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex is the result of the combined effect of platelet stimulation by soluble agonists, activation of αIIbβ3, fibrinogen binding and platelet-to-platelet bridging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The stressed cytoskeleton: How actin dynamics can shape stress-related consequences on synaptic plasticity and complex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Masana, Mercè; Rust, Marco B; Müller, Marianne B

    2016-03-01

    Stress alters synaptic plasticity but the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which environmental stimuli modulate synaptic function remain to be elucidated. Actin filaments are the major structural component of synapses and their rearrangements by actin-binding proteins (ABPs) are critical for fine-tuning synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that some ABPs are specifically regulated by stress and stress-related effectors such as glucocorticoids and corticotropin releasing hormone. ABPs may thus be central in stress-induced perturbations at the level of synaptic plasticity, leading to impairments in behavioral domains including cognitive performance and social behavior. Identified stress-responsive ABPs include: tumor suppressor down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1), ADF/cofilin, LIMK1, caldesmon and myosin VI. Here we discuss how stress may impact synaptic plasticity through specific effects on these ABPs and how these adaptations might modulate complex behavior, predisposing individuals at genetic risk for the development of mental dysfunctions. We argue that a precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress-associated changes in synaptic function could stimulate the development of innovative treatment strategies against stress-related mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1–4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. PMID:27226579

  7. EZH2-mediated α-actin methylation needs lncRNA TUG1, and promotes the cortex cytoskeleton formation in VSMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Kong, Peng; Zhang, Fan; Shu, Ya-Nan; Nie, Xi; Dong, Li-Hua; Lin, Yan-Ling; Xie, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Jian; Han, Mei

    2017-06-15

    Recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in vascular homeostasis and pathophysiological conditions development. But still very few literatures elucidate the regulatory mechanism of non-coding RNAs in this biological process. Here we identified lncRNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and got 4612bp nucleotide sequence. The expression level of TUG1 RNA was increased in synthetic VSMCs by real-time PCR analysis. Meanwhile, the expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) (TUG1 binding protein) increased in cytoplasm of VSMCs under the same conditions. Immunofluoresce analysis displayed the colocalization of EZH2 with α-actin in cytoplasm and F-actin in cell edge ruffles. This leads us to hypothesize the existence of cytoplasmic TUG1/EZH2/α-actin complex. Using RNA pull down assay, we found that TUG1 interacted with both EZH2 and α-actin. Disruption of TUG1 abolished the interaction of EZH2 with α-actin, and accelerated depolymerization of F-actin in VSMCs. Based on EZH2 methyltransferase activity and the potential methylation sites in α-actin structure, we revealed that α-actin was lysine-methylated. Furthermore, the methylation of α-actin was inhibited by knockdown of TUG1. In conclusion, these findings partly suggested that EZH2-mediated methylation of α-actin may be dependent on TUG1, and thereby promotes cortex F-actin polymerization in synthetic VSMCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cell Type-specific β2-Adrenergic Receptor Clusters Identified Using Photoactivated Localization Microscopy Are Not Lipid Raft Related, but Depend on Actin Cytoskeleton Integrity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, Marco; Annibale, Paolo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of optical super-resolution techniques allow both a 10-fold increase in resolution as well as an increased ability to quantify the number of labeled molecules visualized in the fluorescence measurement. By using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and an experimental approach based on the systematic comparison with a nonclustering peptide as a negative control, we found that the prototypical G protein-coupled receptor β2-adrenergic receptor is partially preassociated in nanoscale-sized clusters only in the cardiomyocytes, such as H9C2 cells, but not in other cell lines, such as HeLa and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO). The addition of the agonist for very short times or the addition of the inverse agonist did not significantly affect the organization of receptor assembly. To investigate the mechanism governing cluster formation, we altered plasma membrane properties with cholesterol removal and actin microfilament disruption. Although cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and it is supposed to be enriched in the lipid rafts, its sequestration and removal did not affect receptor clustering, whereas the inhibition of actin polymerization did decrease the number of clusters. Our findings are therefore consistent with a model in which β2 receptor clustering is influenced by the actin cytoskeleton, but it does not rely on lipid raft integrity, thus ruling out the possibility that cell type-specific β2 receptor clustering is associated with the raft. PMID:22442147

  9. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and l...

  10. Axonal Actin Transport Driven By Metastable Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Nilaj; Ganguly, Archan; Roy, Subhojit; Jung, Peter

    Actin is one of the key constituents of the neuronal cytoskeleton and is responsible for driving important cellular processes like axon elongation. Axonal actin is synthesized in the cell body and transported at rates of 0.25 - 3 mm/day, as shown by in-vivo pulse-chase radiolabelling studies. However, the underlying transport mechanisms are unknown. Recent experiments in cultured neurons have revealed a dynamic network of metastable actin filaments (actin trails). Actin trails seem to originate from focal actin hotspots which colocalize with stationary endosomes. Interestingly, the number of actin trails extending anterogradely is higher than the ones extending retrogradely. We hypothesize that the bulk axonal transport of actin originates from this directional asymmetry of the number of actin trails. To test this, we constructed a computational model of actin trail growth and simulated the pulse-chase experiment. In our model, local, metastable trails, which grow with their barbed ends anchored to the hotspots, drive the bulk anterograde transport. Our results indicate that the observed bias of the nucleation probabilities and the elongation rate of actin trails are sufficient to drive the bulk transport of actin at rates that agree with in-vivo pulse chase experiments.

  11. Natural transformation occurs independently of the essential actin-like MreB cytoskeleton in Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Attaiech, Laetitia; Charpentier, Xavier

    2015-11-03

    Natural transformation is the process by which bacteria can actively take up and integrate exogenous DNA thereby providing a source of genetic diversity. Under specific growth conditions the coordinated expression of several genes--a situation referred to as "competence"--allows bacteria to assemble a highly processive and dedicated system that can import high molecular weight DNA. Within the cell these large imported DNA molecules are protected from degradation and brought to the chromosome for recombination. Here, we report elevated expression of mreB during competence in the Gram-negative pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Interestingly a similar observation had previously been reported in the distantly-related Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis. MreB is often viewed as the bacterial actin homolog contributing to bacterial morphogenesis by coordinating peptidoglycan-synthesising complexes. In addition MreB is increasingly found to be involved in a growing number of processes including chromosome segregation and motor-driven motility. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we examined the possible role of MreB during natural transformation in L. pneumophila. Our data show that natural transformation does not require MreB dynamics and exclude a direct role of MreB filaments in the transport of foreign DNA and its recombination in the chromosome.

  12. Proteomic profiling of fibroblasts reveals a modulating effect of extracellular calumenin on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Hansen, Gry Aune; Vorum, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    cytoskeleton and is involved in cytokinesis. Labeling of S phase fibroblasts with bromo-2'deoxy-uridine indicates that calumenin added to the medium also modulates the cell cycle. Our study thus indicates that calumenin possesses a paracrine role on the cells in its vicinity and therefore may be involved...

  13. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and p21rho-family GTPases in the pathogenesis of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D. Godbold

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that infection with the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills more than 50,000 people a year. Central to the pathogenesis of this organism is its ability to directly lyse host cells and cause tissue destruction. Amebic lesions show evidence of cell lysis, tissue necrosis, and damage to the extracellular matrix. The specific molecular mechanisms by which these events are initiated, transmitted, and effected are just beginning to be uncovered. In this article we review what is known about host cell adherence and contact-dependent cytolysis. We cover the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and small GTP-binding proteins of the p21rho-family in the process of cell killing and phagocytosis, and also look at how amebic interactions with molecules of the extracellular matrix contribute to its cytopathic effects.

  14. Involvement of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in insulin- and contraction-stimulated intracellular signaling and glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke

    to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Blood glucose is taken up into skeletal muscle when glucose transporters move to the muscle cell surface. In muscle cells this process depends on the protein Rac1. Glucose uptake into skeletal muscle can also occur via insulin-independent mechanisms, such as during muscle...... understood. The aim of the current PhD was therefore to investigate the involvement of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle. The central findings of this PhD thesis was that Rac1 was activated by both insulin...... and muscle contraction in mouse and human skeletal muscle. Most importantly, Rac1 was involved in the regulation of both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Interestingly, Rac1 signaling was defective in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant obese and T2D human subjects as well as in obese...

  15. Involvement of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in insulin- and contraction-stimulated intracellular signaling and glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke

    Type 2 Diabetes affects ~10 % of western adults and is associated with poor organ sensitivity to insulin that is secreted following a meal. Insulin resistance, particularly in the liver, fat, and skeletal muscle, is a key event in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and contributes to hyperinsuli......Type 2 Diabetes affects ~10 % of western adults and is associated with poor organ sensitivity to insulin that is secreted following a meal. Insulin resistance, particularly in the liver, fat, and skeletal muscle, is a key event in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes and contributes...... understood. The aim of the current PhD was therefore to investigate the involvement of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in mature skeletal muscle. The central findings of this PhD thesis was that Rac1 was activated by both insulin...

  16. Hyperosmotic stress induces Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase-mediated cofilin phosphorylation in tubular cells: key role in the osmotically triggered F-actin response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirone, Ana C P; Speight, Pam; Zulys, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress induces cytoskeleton reorganization and a net increase in cellular F-actin, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. While de novo F-actin polymerization likely contributes to the actin response, the role of F-actin severing is unknown. To address this proble...

  17. The Cell Surface Structure of Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is Regulated by the Actin Cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mi Young; Chaudhary, Amit; Seaman, Steven; Dunty, Jill; Stevens, Janine; Elzarrad, Mohammed K.; Frankel, Arthur E.; St. Croix, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5’s ability to distinguish different forms of cell-surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding p...

  18. Cellular prion protein is required for neuritogenesis: fine-tuning of multiple signaling pathways involved in focal adhesions and actin cytoskeleton dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleaume-Butaux A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aurélie Alleaume-Butaux,1,2 Caroline Dakowski,1,2 Mathéa Pietri,1,2 Sophie Mouillet-Richard,1,2 Jean-Marie Launay,3,4 Odile Kellermann,1,2 Benoit Schneider1,2 1INSERM, UMR-S 747, 2Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR-S 747, 3Public Hospital of Paris, Department of Biochemistry, INSERM UMR-S 942, Lariboisière Hospital, Paris, France; 4Pharma Research Department, Hoffmann La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Neuritogenesis is a dynamic phenomenon associated with neuronal differentiation that allows a rather spherical neuronal stem cell to develop dendrites and axon, a prerequisite for the integration and transmission of signals. The acquisition of neuronal polarity occurs in three steps: (1 neurite sprouting, which consists of the formation of buds emerging from the postmitotic neuronal soma; (2 neurite outgrowth, which represents the conversion of buds into neurites, their elongation and evolution into axon or dendrites; and (3 the stability and plasticity of neuronal polarity. In neuronal stem cells, remodeling and activation of focal adhesions (FAs associated with deep modifications of the actin cytoskeleton is a prerequisite for neurite sprouting and subsequent neurite outgrowth. A multiple set of growth factors and interactors located in the extracellular matrix and the plasma membrane orchestrate neuritogenesis by acting on intracellular signaling effectors, notably small G proteins such as RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42, which are involved in actin turnover and the dynamics of FAs. The cellular prion protein (PrPC, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored membrane protein mainly known for its role in a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases, has emerged as a central player in neuritogenesis. Here, we review the contribution of PrPC to neuronal polarization and detail the current knowledge on the signaling pathways fine-tuned by PrPC to promote neurite sprouting, outgrowth, and maintenance. We emphasize that Pr

  19. Actin microfilament mediates osteoblast Cbfa1 responsiveness to BMP2 under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Dai

    Full Text Available Microgravity decreases osteoblastic activity, induces actin microfilament disruption and inhibits the responsiveness of osteoblast to cytokines, but the mechanisms remains enigmatic. The F-actin cytoskeleton has previously been implicated in manifold changes of cell shape, function and signaling observed under microgravity. Here we investigate the involvement of microfilament in mediating the effects of microgravity and BMP2 induction on Cbfa1 activity. For this purpose we constructed a fluorescent reporter cell line (OSE-MG63 of Cbfa1 activity by stably transfecting MG63 cells with a reporter consisting of six tandem copies of OSE2 and a minimal mOG2 promoter upstream of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The fluorescence intensity of OSE-MG63 showed responsiveness to bone-related cytokines (IGF-I, vitamin D3 and BMP2 and presented an accordant tendency with alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Using OSE-MG63 reporter fluorescence, we performed a semi-quantitative analysis of Cbfa1 activity after treatment with simulated microgravity, microfilament-disrupting agent (cytochalasin B, CB, microfilament-stabilizing agent (Jasplakinolide, JAS or any combination thereof. In parallel, ALP activity, DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2 (ChIP, F-actin structure (immunofluorescence and EGFP mRNA expression (RT-qPCR were analyzed. Simulated microgravity inhibited Cbfa1 activity, affected the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to cytokine BMP2, and caused a thinning and dispersed distribution of microfilament. Under normal gravity, CB significantly attenuated BMP2 induction to Cbfa1 activity as well as DNA binding activity of Cbfa1 to OSE2. The addition of JAS reversed the inhibitory effects of microgravity on the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the microfilament organization by CB or simulated microgravity attenuates the responsiveness of Cbfa1 to BMP2. A stabilization of the microfilament organization by JAS reverses

  20. Tumor suppressors TSC1 and TSC2 differentially modulate actin cytoskeleton and motility of mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Goncharova

    Full Text Available TSC1 and TSC2 mutations cause neoplasms in rare disease pulmonary LAM and neuronal pathfinding in hamartoma syndrome TSC. The specific roles of TSC1 and TSC2 in actin remodeling and the modulation of cell motility, however, are not well understood. Previously, we demonstrated that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate the activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, stress fiber formation and cell adhesion in a reciprocal manner. Here, we show that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have decreased migration compared to littermate-derived Tsc1(+/+ MEFs. Migration of Tsc1(-/- MEFs with re-expressed TSC1 was comparable to Tsc1(+/+ MEF migration. In contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed an increased migration compared to Tsc2(+/+ MEFs that were abrogated by TSC2 re-expression. Depletion of TSC1 and TSC2 using specific siRNAs in wild type MEFs and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts also showed that TSC1 loss attenuates cell migration while TSC2 loss promotes cell migration. Morphological and immunochemical analysis demonstrated that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have a thin protracted shape with a few stress fibers; in contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed a rounded morphology and abundant stress fibers. Expression of TSC1 in either Tsc1(-/- or Tsc2(-/- MEFs promoted stress fiber formation, while TSC2 re-expression induced stress fiber disassembly and the formation of cortical actin. To assess the mechanism(s by which TSC2 loss promotes actin re-arrangement and cell migration, we explored the role of known downstream effectors of TSC2, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Increased migration of Tsc2(-/- MEFs is inhibited by siRNA mTOR and siRNA Rictor, but not siRNA Raptor. siRNA mTOR or siRNA Rictor promoted stress fiber disassembly in TSC2-null cells, while siRNA Raptor had little effect. Overexpression of kinase-dead mTOR induced actin stress fiber disassembly and suppressed TSC2-deficient cell migration. Our data demonstrate that TSC1 and TSC2 differentially regulate actin stress fiber formation and cell migration, and that only TSC2 loss promotes

  1. Yersinia outer protein YopE affects the actin cytoskeleton in Dictyostelium discoideum through targeting of multiple Rho family GTPases

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vlahou, Georgia

    2009-07-14

    Abstract Background All human pathogenic Yersinia species share a virulence-associated type III secretion system that translocates Yersinia effector proteins into host cells to counteract infection-induced signaling responses and prevent phagocytosis. Dictyostelium discoideum has been recently used to study the effects of bacterial virulence factors produced by internalized pathogens. In this study we explored the potential of Dictyostelium as model organism for analyzing the effects of ectopically expressed Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). Results The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis virulence factors YopE, YopH, YopM and YopJ were expressed de novo within Dictyostelium and their effects on growth in axenic medium and on bacterial lawns were analyzed. No severe effect was observed for YopH, YopJ and YopM, but expression of YopE, which is a GTPase activating protein for Rho GTPases, was found to be highly detrimental. GFP-tagged YopE expressing cells had less conspicuous cortical actin accumulation and decreased amounts of F-actin. The actin polymerization response upon cAMP stimulation was impaired, although chemotaxis was unaffected. YopE also caused reduced uptake of yeast particles. These alterations are probably due to impaired Rac1 activation. We also found that YopE predominantly associates with intracellular membranes including the Golgi apparatus and inhibits the function of moderately overexpressed RacH. Conclusion The phenotype elicited by YopE in Dictyostelium can be explained, at least in part, by inactivation of one or more Rho family GTPases. It further demonstrates that the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as an efficient and easy-to-handle model organism in order to analyze the function of a translocated GAP protein of a human pathogen.

  2. Actin-cytoskeleton polymerization differentially controls the stability of Ski and SnoN co-repressors in normal but not in transformed hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligaris, Cassandre; Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; Ríos-López, Diana G; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Ski and SnoN proteins function as transcriptional co-repressors in the TGF-β pathway. They regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and their aberrant expression results in altered TGF-β signalling, malignant transformation, and alterations in cell proliferation. We carried out a comparative characterization of the endogenous Ski and SnoN protein regulation by TGF-β, cell adhesion disruption and actin-cytoskeleton rearrangements between normal and transformed hepatocytes; we also analyzed Ski and SnoN protein stability, subcellular localization, and how their protein levels impact the TGF-β/Smad-driven gene transcription. Ski and SnoN protein levels are lower in normal hepatocytes than in hepatoma cells. They exhibit a very short half-life and a nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution in normal hepatocytes opposed to a high stability and restricted nuclear localization in hepatoma cells. Interestingly, while normal cells exhibit a transient TGF-β-induced gene expression, the hepatoma cells are characterized by a strong and sustained TGF-β-induced gene expression. A novel finding is that Ski and SnoN stability is differentially regulated by cell adhesion and cytoskeleton rearrangements in the normal hepatocytes. The inhibition of protein turnover down-regulated both Ski and SnoN co-repressors impacting the kinetic of expression of TGF-β-target genes. Normal regulatory mechanisms controlling Ski and SnoN stability, subcellular localization and expression are altered in hepatocarcinoma cells. This work provides evidence that Ski and SnoN protein regulation is far more complex in normal than in transformed cells, since many of the normal regulatory mechanisms are lost in transformed cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Lipid Rafts in the Localization and Function of the ABCC1 Transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Kok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are known to be important factors in multidrug resistance of tumor cells. Lipid rafts have been implicated in their localization in the plasma membrane, where they function as drug efflux pumps. This specific localization in rafts may support the activity of ABC/Abc transporters. This raises questions regarding the nature and composition of the lipid rafts that harbor ABC/Abc transporters and the dependence of ABC/Abc transporters—concerning their localization and activity—on lipid raft constituents. Here we review our work of the past 10 years aimed at evaluating whether ABC/Abc transporters are dependent on a particular membrane environment for their function. What is the nature of this membrane environment and which of the lipid raft constituents are important for this dependency? It turns out that cortical actin is of major importance for stabilizing the localization and function of the ABC/Abc transporter, provided it is localized in an actin-dependent subtype of lipid rafts, as is the case for human ABCC1/multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1 and rodent Abcc1/Mrp1 but not human ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (PGP. On the other hand, sphingolipids do not appear to be modulators of ABCC1/MRP1 (or Abcc1/Mrp1, even though they are coregulated during drug resistance development.

  4. The tumor suppressor CDX2 opposes pro-metastatic biomechanical modifications of colon cancer cells through organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platet, Nadine; Hinkel, Isabelle; Richert, Ludovic; Murdamoothoo, Devadarssen; Moufok-Sadoun, Ahlam; Vanier, Marie; Lavalle, Philippe; Gaiddon, Christian; Vautier, Dominique; Freund, Jean-Noel; Gross, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    The vast majority of cancer deaths are caused by the formation of metastases rather than the primary tumor itself. Despite this clinical importance, the molecular and cellular events that support the dissemination of cancer cells are not yet fully unraveled. We have previously shown that CDX2, a homeotic transcription factor essential for gut development, acts as a colon-specific tumor suppressor and opposes metastasis. Here, using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, and immunofluorescence techniques, we further investigated the mechanisms promoted by CDX2 that might antagonize tumor cell dissemination. We found that CDX2 expression regulates the transcription of RHO GEFs, thereby activating RHO signaling cascades that lead to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and enhanced adherent junctions. Accordingly, we observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that colon cancer cells expressing CDX2 are less deformable, a feature that has been shown to correlate with poor metastatic potential. Thus, this study illustrates how the loss of expression of a transcription factor during colon cancer progression modifies the biomechanical characteristics of tumor cells and hence facilitates invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of PGE(2) and PGI(2) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells by actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, S. J.; Norvell, S. M.; Ponik, S. M.; Pavalko, F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Disruption of microfilaments in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with cytochalasin D (cytD) or latrunculin A (latA) resulted in a 3.3- to 5.7-fold increase in total synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and a 3.4- to 6.5-fold increase in prostacyclin (PGI(2)) compared with control cells. Disruption of the microtubule network with nocodazole or colchicine increased synthesis of PGE(2) 1.7- to 1.9-fold and PGI(2) 1.9- to 2.0-fold compared with control cells. Interestingly, however, increased release of PGE(2) and PGI(2) from HUVEC into the media occurred only when microfilaments were disrupted. CytD treatment resulted in 6.7-fold more PGE(2) and 3.8-fold more PGI(2) released from HUVEC compared with control cells; latA treatment resulted in 17.7-fold more PGE(2) and 11.2-fold more PGI(2) released compared with control cells. Both increased synthesis and release of prostaglandins in response to all drug treatments were completely inhibited by NS-398, a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Disruption of either microfilaments using cytD or latA or of microtubules using nocodazole or colchicine resulted in a significant increase in COX-2 protein levels, suggesting that the increased synthesis of prostaglandins in response to drug treatments may result from increased activity of COX-2. These results, together with studies demonstrating a vasoprotective role for prostaglandins, suggest that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintenance of endothelial barrier function by regulating prostaglandin synthesis and release from HUVEC.

  6. Deregulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in response to phorbol ester by the mutant protein kinase C gamma that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Seki, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Adachi, Naoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Saito, Naoaki; Sakai, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. γPKC is a neuron-specific member of the classical PKCs and is activated and translocated to subcellular regions as a result of various stimuli, including diacylglycerol synthesis, increased intracellular Ca(2+) and phorbol esters. We investigated whether SCA14 mutations affect the γPKC-related functions by stimulating HeLa cells with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylpholbol 13-acetate), a type of phorbol ester. Wild-type (WT) γPKC-GFP was translocated to the plasma membrane within 10 min of TPA stimulation, followed by its perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage, in a PKC kinase activity- and microtubule-dependent manner. On the other hand, although SCA14 mutant γPKC-GFP exhibited a similar translocation to the plasma membrane, the subsequent perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage were significantly impaired in response to TPA. Translocated WT γPKC colocalized with F-actin and formed large vesicular structures in the perinuclear region. The uptake of FITC-dextran, a marker of macropinocytosis, was promoted by TPA stimulation in cells expressing WT γPKC, and FITC-dextran was surrounded by γPKC-positive vesicles. Moreover, TPA induced the phosphorylation of MARCKS, which is a membrane-substrate of PKC, resulting in the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS to the perinuclear region, suggesting that TPA induces macropinocytosis via γPKC activation. However, TPA failed to activate macropinocytosis and trigger the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS in cells expressing the SCA14 mutant γPKC. These findings suggest that γPKC is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in HeLa cells, while SCA14 mutant γPKC fails to regulate these processes due to its reduced kinase activity at the plasma membrane. This property might be involved in pathogenesis

  7. Deregulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in response to phorbol ester by the mutant protein kinase C gamma that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro eYamamoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. γPKC is a neuron-specific member of the classical PKCs and is activated and translocated to subcellular regions as a result of various stimuli, including diacylglycerol synthesis, increased intracellular Ca2+ and phorbol esters. We investigated whether SCA14 mutations affect the γPKC-related functions by stimulating HeLa cells with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylpholbol 13-acetate, a type of phorbol ester. Wild-type (WT γPKC-GFP was translocated to the plasma membrane within 10 min of TPA stimulation, followed by its perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage, in a PKC kinase activity- and microtubule-dependent manner. On the other hand, although SCA14 mutant γPKC-GFP exhibited a similar translocation to the plasma membrane, the subsequent perinuclear translocation and cell shrinkage were significantly impaired in response to TPA. Translocated WT γPKC colocalized with F-actin and formed large vesicular structures in the perinuclear region. The uptake of FITC-dextran, a marker of macropinocytosis, was promoted by TPA stimulation in cells expressing WT γPKC, and FITC-dextran was surrounded by γPKC-positive vesicles. Moreover, TPA induced the phosphorylation of MARCKS, which is a membrane-substrate of PKC, resulting in the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS to the perinuclear region, suggesting that TPA induces macropinocytosis via γPKC activation. However, TPA failed to activate macropinocytosis and trigger the translocation of phosphorylated MARCKS in cells expressing the SCA14 mutant γPKC. These findings suggest that γPKC is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and macropinocytosis in HeLa cells, while SCA14 mutant γPKC fails to regulate these processes due to its reduced kinase activity at the plasma membrane. This property might be involved in

  8. Alkaline pH induces IRR-mediated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in a pancreatic beta cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, Igor E; Popova, Nadezhda V; Serova, Oxana V; Zhenilo, Svetlana V; Regoli, Marì; Bertelli, Eugenio; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Secretion of mildly alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5) juice to intestines is one of the key functions of the pancreas. Recent reports indicate that the pancreatic duct system containing the alkaline juice may adjoin the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets. We have previously identified the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) that is expressed in islets as a sensor of mildly alkaline extracellular media. In this study, we show that those islet cells that are in contact with the excretory ducts are also IRR-expressing cells. We further analyzed the effects of alkaline media on pancreatic beta cell line MIN6. Activation of endogenous IRR but not of the insulin receptor was detected that could be inhibited with linsitinib. The IRR autophosphorylation correlated with pH-dependent linsitinib-sensitive activation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), the primary adaptor in the insulin signaling pathway. However, in contrast with insulin stimulation, no protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) phosphorylation was detected as a result of alkali treatment. We observed overexpression of several early response genes (EGR2, IER2, FOSB, EGR1 and NPAS4) upon alkali treatment of MIN6 cells but those were IRR-independent. The alkaline medium but not insulin also triggered actin cytoskeleton remodeling that was blocked by pre-incubation with linsitinib. We propose that the activation of IRR by alkali might be part of a local loop of signaling between the exocrine and endocrine parts of the pancreas where alkalinization of the juice facilitate insulin release that increases the volume of secreted juice to control its pH and bicabonate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Actin and microtubule cytoskeleton interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášek, Jan; Schwarzerová, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2009), s. 728-734 ISSN 1369-5266 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/06/1030; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : KINESIN-RELATED PROTEIN * TOBACCO BY-2 CELLS * HIGHER-PLANT CELLS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 10.333, year: 2009

  10. The Cytoskeleton and Force Response Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip Goodwin

    2003-01-01

    The long term aim of this project was to define the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the physical forces experienced at 1g and missing in microgravity. Identification and characterization of the elements of the cells force response mechanism could provide pathways and molecules to serve as targets for pharmacological intervention to mitigate the pathologic effects of microgravity. Mechanical forces experienced by the organism can be transmitted to cells through molecules that allow cells to bind to the extracellular matrix and through other types of molecules which bind cells to each other. These molecules are coupled in large complexes of proteins to structural elements such as the actin cytoskeleton that give the cell the ability to sense, resist and respond to force. Application of small forces to tissue culture cells causes local elevation of intracellular calcium through stretch activated ion channels, increased tyrosine phosphorylation and a restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton. Using collagen coated iron oxide beads and strong magnets, we can apply different levels of force to cells in culture. We have found that force application causes the cells to polymerize actin at the site of mechanical deformation and unexpectedly, to depolymerize actin across the rest of the cell. Observations of GFP- actin expressing cells demonstrate that actin accumulates at the site of deformation within the first five minutes of force application and is maintained for many tens of minutes after force is removed. Consistent with the reinforcement of the cytoskeletal structures underlying the integrin-bead interaction, force also alters the motion of bound magnetic beads. This effect is seen following the removal of the magnetic field, and is only partially ablated by actin disruption with cytochalsin B. While actin is polymerizing locally at the site of force application, force also stimulates a global reduction in actin filament content within the cells. We have

  11. Different effects of aluminum on the actin cytoskeleton and brefeldin A-sensitive vesicle recycling in root apex cells of two maize varieties differing in root elongation rate and aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenós, Montse; Corrales, Isabel; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Illés, Peter; Baluska, Frantisek; Barceló, Juan

    2009-03-01

    A relationship between aluminum (Al) toxicity, endocytosis, endosomes and vesicle recycling in the root transition zone has recently been demonstrated. Here the importance of filamentous actin (F-actin)-based vesicle trafficking for Al tolerance has been investigating in maize varieties differing in their Al sensitivities. More Al was internalized into root tip cells of the Al-sensitive variety 16x36 than in the Al-tolerant variety Cateto. The actin cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking were primary targets for Al toxicity in the root tips of the sensitive variety. Visualization of boron-cross-linked rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII)-containing brefeldin A (BFA) compartments revealed that Al inhibited the formation of these compartments, especially in variety 16x36. The time sequence of Al effects on pectin recycling matches the growth effects of Al in this sensitive variety. These results support the hypothesis that Al binding to pectin-rich cell walls can contribute to reversible inhibition of root elongation. Al-induced alterations on F-actin were most evident in the central part of the transition zone of Al-sensitive 16x36, where Al was localized inside the nucleoli. In relation to this observation, a role for symplastic Al in both irreversible growth inhibition and amelioration of BFA-induced inhibition of root elongation is discussed.

  12. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cytoskeleton: an open-label intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone; Willers, Janina; Riecker, Sabine; Möller, Katharina; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2015-02-14

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) show beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive functions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Because of the fact that cytoskeleton dynamics affect almost every cellular process, the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics could be a new pathway by which n-3 PUFAs exert their effects on cellular level. A 12-week open-label intervention study with 12 healthy men was conducted to determine the effects of 2.7 g/d n-3 PUFA on changes in mRNA expression of cytoskeleton-associated genes by quantitative real-time PCR in whole blood. Furthermore, the actin content in red blood cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence imaging. N-3 PUFA supplementation resulted in a significant down-regulation of cytoskeleton-associated genes, in particular three GTPases (RAC1, RHOA, CDC42), three kinases (ROCK1, PAK2, LIMK), two Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASL, WASF2) as well as actin related protein 2/3 complex (ARPC2, ARPC3) and cofilin (CFL1). Variability in F-actin content between subjects was high; reduced actin content was only reduced within group evaluation. Reduced cytoskeleton-associated gene expression after n-3 PUFA supplementation suggests that regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics might be an additional way by which n-3 PUFAs exert their cellular effects. Concerning F-actin, this analysis did not reveal unmistakable results impeding a generalized conclusion.

  13. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Pedersen, Line Hjortshøj; Byg, Luise

    2010-01-01

    Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin d...... dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton....

  14. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modeling demonstrate a bi-phasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibers, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity. PMID:26109233

  15. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  16. Cell-scale dynamic recycling and cortical flow of the actin–myosin cytoskeleton for rapid cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiko Yumura

    2012-11-01

    Actin and myosin II play major roles in cell migration. Whereas pseudopod extension by actin polymerization has been intensively researched, less attention has been paid to how the rest of the actin cytoskeleton such as the actin cortex contributes to cell migration. In this study, cortical actin and myosin II filaments were simultaneously observed in migrating Dictyostelium cells under total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The cortical actin and myosin II filaments remained stationary with respect to the substratum as the cells advanced. However, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and direct observation of filaments showed that they rapidly turned over. When the cells were detached from the substratum, the actin and myosin filaments displayed a vigorous retrograde flow. Thus, when the cells migrate on the substratum, the cortical cytoskeleton firmly holds the substratum to generate the motive force instead. The present studies also demonstrate how myosin II localizes to the rear region of the migrating cells. The observed dynamic turnover of actin and myosin II filaments contributes to the recycling of their subunits across the whole cell and enables rapid reorganization of the cytoskeleton.

  17. Substituted 2-hydroxy-N-(arylalkyl)benzamide sensitizes cancer cells to metabolic stress by disrupting actin cytoskeleton and inhibiting autophagic flux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pachnikova, G.; Uldrijan, S.; Imramovský, A.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Slaninová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, DEC (2016), s. 70-78 ISSN 0887-2333 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : hepatocellular-carcinoma cells * sorafenib * apoptosis * death * maturation * membrane * melanoma * Actin * Autophagy * Melanoma * Metabolic stress * Sorafenib * Substituted 2-hydroxy-N-(arylalkyl)benzamide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.866, year: 2016

  18. Cytoskeleton and Morphogenesis in Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    KATSAROS, CHRISTOS; KARYOPHYLLIS, DEMOSTHENES; GALATIS, BASIL

    2006-01-01

    • Background Morphogenesis on a cellular level includes processes in which cytoskeleton and cell wall expansion are strongly involved. In brown algal zygotes, microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) participate in polarity axis fixation, cell division and tip growth. Brown algal vegetative cells lack a cortical MT cytoskeleton, and are characterized by centriole-bearing centrosomes, which function as microtubule organizing centres.

  19. Actin microfilaments participate in the regulation of the COL1A1 promoter activity in ROS17/2.8 cells under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui; Ding, Bai; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionMicrogravity is thought to decrease osteoblastic activity and induce osteoporosis during spaceflight, but the mechanisms, particularly the attendant changes in gene expression, are not well understood. It is suspected that the cytoskeletal system is involved in the manifold changes of cell shape, function, and signaling under microgravity conditions. MethodsWe constructed cell lines stably transfected with pJI36EGFP and pJI23EGFP, which contained a 3.6 and a 2.3 kb fragment, respectively, of the α1(I) collagen gene (COL1A1) promoter fused with the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter gene. We then developed a semi-quantitative analysis of EGFP fluorescence intensity to evaluate the effects of clinorotation and/or cytochalasin B on the activity of the COL1A1 promoter. Simultaneously, we assessed the collagen type I protein content versus total protein content in clinorotated or control osteoblasts, using immunocytochemistry and the Bradford method, respectively. ResultsThe fluorescence intensity analysis revealed that the expression of COL1A1-EGFP increased in GFP-ROS cells clinorotated for 24 or 48 h, as compared with stationary control cultures. We observed a similar trend in collagen type I content, as assessed by immunocytochemistry. We found that the osteoblast microfilaments tended to disassemble and show a reduction in stress fibers under space flight and clinorotation. Treatment with cytochalasin B in normal gravity resulted in a dose-dependent increase of EGFP fluorescence intensity, indicating that disruption of the actin system was associated with increased activity of the COL1A1 promoter. ConclusionOur study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin B and real or simulated microgravity conditions led to altered COL1A1 promoter activity. Together, these results suggest that actin may participate in the regulation of the COL1A1 promoter activity under microgravity conditions.

  20. A Robust Actin Filaments Image Analysis Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchel Alioscha-Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamical protein network that plays a central role in numerous cellular physiological processes, and is traditionally divided into three components according to its chemical composition, i.e. actin, tubulin and intermediate filament cytoskeletons. Understanding the cytoskeleton dynamics is of prime importance to unveil mechanisms involved in cell adaptation to any stress type. Fluorescence imaging of cytoskeleton structures allows analyzing the impact of mechanical stimulation in the cytoskeleton, but it also imposes additional challenges in the image processing stage, such as the presence of imaging-related artifacts and heavy blurring introduced by (high-throughput automated scans. However, although there exists a considerable number of image-based analytical tools to address the image processing and analysis, most of them are unfit to cope with the aforementioned challenges. Filamentous structures in images can be considered as a piecewise composition of quasi-straight segments (at least in some finer or coarser scale. Based on this observation, we propose a three-steps actin filaments extraction methodology: (i first the input image is decomposed into a 'cartoon' part corresponding to the filament structures in the image, and a noise/texture part, (ii on the 'cartoon' image, we apply a multi-scale line detector coupled with a (iii quasi-straight filaments merging algorithm for fiber extraction. The proposed robust actin filaments image analysis framework allows extracting individual filaments in the presence of noise, artifacts and heavy blurring. Moreover, it provides numerous parameters such as filaments orientation, position and length, useful for further analysis. Cell image decomposition is relatively under-exploited in biological images processing, and our study shows the benefits it provides when addressing such tasks. Experimental validation was conducted using publicly available datasets, and in

  1. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  2. Spatial and temporal dynamics of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, integrins, and actin cytoskeleton as probed with fluorescence-based imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Aleem [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systematic spatial and temporal fluctuations are a fundamental part of any biological process. For example, lateral diffusion of membrane proteins is one of the key mechanisms in their cellular function. Lateral diffusion governs how membrane proteins interact with intracellular, transmembrane, and extracellular components to achieve their function. Herein, fluorescence-based techniques are used to elucidate the dynamics of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and integrin membrane proteins. RAGE is a transmembrane protein that is being used as a biomarker for various diseases. RAGE dependent signaling in numerous pathological conditions is well studied. However, RAGE lateral diffusion in the cell membrane is poorly understood. For this purpose, effect of cholesterol, cytoskeleton dynamics, and presence of ligand on RAGE lateral diffusion is investigated.

  3. ACTIN-DIRECTED TOXIN. ACD toxin-produced actin oligomers poison formin-controlled actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, David B; Kudryashova, Elena; Grinevich, Dmitry O; Suarez, Cristian; Winkelman, Jonathan D; Birukov, Konstantin G; Kotha, Sainath R; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Kovar, David R; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2015-07-31

    The actin cross-linking domain (ACD) is an actin-specific toxin produced by several pathogens, including life-threatening spp. of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. Actin cross-linking by ACD is thought to lead to slow cytoskeleton failure owing to a gradual sequestration of actin in the form of nonfunctional oligomers. Here, we found that ACD converted cytoplasmic actin into highly toxic oligomers that potently "poisoned" the ability of major actin assembly proteins, formins, to sustain actin polymerization. Thus, ACD can target the most abundant cellular protein by using actin oligomers as secondary toxins to efficiently subvert cellular functions of actin while functioning at very low doses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The role of actin networks in cellular mechanosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azatov, Mikheil

    Physical processes play an important role in many biological phenomena, such as wound healing, organ development, and tumor metastasis. During these processes, cells constantly interact with and adapt to their environment by exerting forces to mechanically probe the features of their surroundings and generating appropriate biochemical responses. The mechanisms underlying how cells sense the physical properties of their environment are not well understood. In this thesis, I present my studies to investigate cellular responses to the stiffness and topography of the environment. In order to sense the physical properties of their environment, cells dynamically reorganize the structure of their actin cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of biopolymers, altering the shape and spatial distribution of protein assemblies. Several observations suggest that proteins that crosslink actin filaments may play an important role in cellular mechanosensitivity. Palladin is an actin-crosslinking protein that is found in the lamellar actin network, stress fibers and focal adhesions, cellular structures that are critical for mechanosensing of the physical environment. By virtue of its close interactions with these structures in the cell, palladin may play an important role in cell mechanics. However, the role of actin crosslinkers in general, and palladin in particular, in cellular force generation and mechanosensing is not well known. I have investigated the role of palladin in regulating the plasticity of the actin cytoskeleton and cellular force generation in response to alterations in substrate stiffness. I have shown that the expression levels of palladin modulate the forces exerted by cells and their ability to sense substrate stiffness. Perturbation experiments also suggest that palladin levels in cells altered myosin motor activity. These results suggest that the actin crosslinkers, such as palladin, and myosin motors coordinate for optimal cell function and to prevent aberrant

  5. Actin acting at the Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gustavo; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Salcedo-Sicilia, Laia; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric

    2013-09-01

    The organization, assembly and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton provide force and tracks for a variety of (endo)membrane-associated events such as membrane trafficking. This review illustrates in different cellular models how actin and many of its numerous binding and regulatory proteins (actin and co-workers) participate in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus and in trafficking-associated processes such as sorting, biogenesis and motion of Golgi-derived transport carriers.

  6. [INVOLVEMENT OF PLANT CYTOSKELETON INTO CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF METALS TOXICITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiunova, L; Krasylenko, Yu A; Yemets, A I; Blume, Ya B

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes published date and the results of the author's own researches cantering the participation of plant cells cytoskeleton. It is considered cytotoxic impact of metals on the cytoskeleton's components, including microtubules and actin filaments. Particular attention is paid to the cellular and molecular mechanisms of influence of metals on cytoskeleton. We discussed the most probable binding sites of heavy metals and alternative mechanisms of their impact on the cytoskeleton.

  7. The role of cytoskeleton in cell changes under condition of simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.

    2001-03-01

    Single cells and cell culture are very good model for estimation of primary effects of gravitational changes. It is suggested that cell cytoskeleton plays a key role in mechanisms of adaptation to mechanical influences including gravitational ones. Our results demonstrated that cultured cells of human vascular endothelium are highly sensitive to hypogravity (clinorotation) and respond by significant decrease of cell proliferative activity. Simultaneously it was noted that the formation of confluent monolayer appeared early in cultures exposed to simulated microgravity due to accelerated cells spreading. Long-term hypogravity (several hours or days) leads to significant changes of cell cytoskeleton revealed as microfilament thinning and their redistribution within cell. Such changes were observed only in monolayer cells and not in cell suspensions. Gravitational forces as known to be modificators of cell adhesive ability and determine their mobility. Hypogravity environment stimulated endothelial cell migration in culture: 24-48 hrs pre-exposition to hypogravity significantly increased endothelial cell migration resulting in 2-3-fold acceleration of mechanically injured monolayer repair. Obtained results suggest that the effects of hypogravity on cultured human endothelial cells are, possibly, associated with protein kinase C and/or adenylate cyclase activity and are accompanied by noticeable functional cell changes.

  8. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  9. Specification of Architecture and Function of Actin Structures by Actin Nucleation Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Colleen T; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for diverse processes in mammalian cells; these processes range from establishing cell polarity to powering cell migration to driving cytokinesis to positioning intracellular organelles. How these many functions are carried out in a spatiotemporally regulated manner in a single cytoplasm has been the subject of much study in the cytoskeleton field. Recent work has identified a host of actin nucleation factors that can build architecturally diverse actin structures. The biochemical properties of these factors, coupled with their cellular location, likely define the functional properties of actin structures. In this article, we describe how recent advances in cell biology and biochemistry have begun to elucidate the role of individual actin nucleation factors in generating distinct cellular structures. We also consider how the localization and orientation of actin nucleation factors, in addition to their kinetic properties, are critical to their ability to build a functional actin cytoskeleton.

  10. Dynamic Regulation of Sarcomeric Actin Filaments in Striated Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    In striated muscle, the actin cytoskeleton is differentiated into myofibrils. Actin and myosin filaments are organized in sarcomeres and specialized for producing contractile forces. Regular arrangement of actin filaments with uniform length and polarity is critical for the contractile function. However, the mechanisms of assembly and maintenance of sarcomeric actin filaments in striated muscle are not completely understood. Live imaging of actin in striated muscle has revealed that actin sub...

  11. Characterization of Actin Filament Dynamics during Mitosis in Wheat Protoplasts under UV-B Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2016-01-29

    Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is caused by the thinning ozone and affects photosynthesis and crop yield. Recently, UV-B radiation has been considered as an environmental signal that regulates plant growth. Elucidating the downstream effectors in UV-B-triggered pathways is of particular interest. Previous studies have shown that actin filaments (AFs) play many roles during cell physiological processes. However, the underlying response of AFs to UV-B radiation remains unclear. In this study, wheat protoplasts were isolated from 7-d-old leaves. The dynamics of AFs during mitosis were observed under different treatments. The protoplasts were treated with UV-B radiation, cytochalasin B (CB) and jasplakinolide (JAS). Ph-FITC labelling results revealed typical actin filament structures in the control group; AFs were rearranged under UV-B radiation. AFs polymerized into bundles during interphase, the preprophase band (PPB) structure was destroyed during prophase, and the AFs gathered into plaques during metaphase in response to UV-B radiation. During anaphase and telophase, the distribution of AFs was dispersed. Pharmacologic experiments revealed that CB induced apoptosis and JAS induced nuclear division without cytokinesis in wheat protoplasts. These results indicated that AFs respond to UV-B radiation during mitosis, supplying evidence of UV-B signal transduction in plants.

  12. Activation of moesin, a protein that links actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, occurs by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding sequentially to two sites and releasing an autoinhibitory linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aissa, Khadija; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Belkina, Natalya V; Maniti, Ofelia; Rosales, Tilman; Hao, Jian-Jiang; Kruhlak, Michael J; Knutson, Jay R; Picart, Catherine; Shaw, Stephen

    2012-05-11

    Many cellular processes depend on ERM (ezrin, moesin, and radixin) proteins mediating regulated linkage between plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Although conformational activation of the ERM protein is mediated by the membrane PIP2, the known properties of the two described PIP2-binding sites do not explain activation. To elucidate the structural basis of possible mechanisms, we generated informative moesin mutations and tested three attributes: membrane localization of the expressed moesin, moesin binding to PIP2, and PIP2-induced release of moesin autoinhibition. The results demonstrate for the first time that the POCKET containing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on crystal structure (the "POCKET" Lys-63, Lys-278 residues) mediates all three functions. Furthermore the second described PIP2-binding site (the "PATCH," Lys-253/Lys-254, Lys-262/Lys-263) is also essential for all three functions. In native autoinhibited ERM proteins, the POCKET is a cavity masked by an acidic linker, which we designate the "FLAP." Analysis of three mutant moesin constructs predicted to influence FLAP function demonstrated that the FLAP is a functional autoinhibitory region. Moreover, analysis of the cooperativity and stoichiometry demonstrate that the PATCH and POCKET do not bind PIP2 simultaneously. Based on our data and supporting published data, we propose a model of progressive activation of autoinhibited moesin by a single PIP2 molecule in the membrane. Initial transient binding of PIP2 to the PATCH initiates release of the FLAP, which enables transition of the same PIP2 molecule into the newly exposed POCKET where it binds stably and completes the conformational activation.

  13. Involvement of the Sieve Element Cytoskeleton in Electrical Responses to Cold Shocks1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafke, Jens B.; Ehlers, Katrin; Föller, Jens; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Becker, Stefanie; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study dealt with the visualization of the sieve element (SE) cytoskeleton and its involvement in electrical responses to local cold shocks, exemplifying the role of the cytoskeleton in Ca2+-triggered signal cascades in SEs. High-affinity fluorescent phalloidin as well as immunocytochemistry using anti-actin antibodies demonstrated a fully developed parietal actin meshwork in SEs. The involvement of the cytoskeleton in electrical responses and forisome conformation changes as indicators of Ca2+ influx was investigated by the application of cold shocks in the presence of diverse actin disruptors (latrunculin A and cytochalasin D). Under control conditions, cold shocks elicited a graded initial voltage transient, ΔV1, reduced by external La3+ in keeping with the involvement of Ca2+ channels, and a second voltage transient, ΔV2. Cytochalasin D had no effect on ΔV1, while ΔV1 was significantly reduced with 500 nm latrunculin A. Forisome dispersion was triggered by cold shocks of 4°C or greater, which was indicative of an all-or-none behavior. Forisome dispersion was suppressed by incubation with latrunculin A. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton controls cold shock-induced Ca2+ influx into SEs, leading to forisome dispersion and sieve plate occlusion in fava bean (Vicia faba). PMID:23624858

  14. Cytoskeleton dynamics: Fluctuations within the network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursac, Predrag; Fabry, Ben; Trepat, Xavier; Lenormand, Guillaume; Butler, James P.; Wang, Ning; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; An, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Out-of-equilibrium systems, such as the dynamics of a living cytoskeleton (CSK), are inherently noisy with fluctuations arising from the stochastic nature of the underlying biochemical and molecular events. Recently, such fluctuations within the cell were characterized by observing spontaneous nano-scale motions of an RGD-coated microbead bound to the cell surface [Bursac et al., Nat. Mater. 4 (2005) 557-561]. While these reported anomalous bead motions represent a molecular level reorganization (remodeling) of microstructures in contact with the bead, a precise nature of these cytoskeletal constituents and forces that drive their remodeling dynamics are largely unclear. Here, we focused upon spontaneous motions of an RGD-coated bead and, in particular, assessed to what extent these motions are attributable to (i) bulk cell movement (cell crawling), (ii) dynamics of focal adhesions, (iii) dynamics of lipid membrane, and/or (iv) dynamics of the underlying actin CSK driven by myosin motors

  15. p53 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling to suppress tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keigo; Ebata, Takahiro; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Tobiume, Kei; Wolf, Steven John; Kawauchi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cells possess unique characteristics such as invasiveness, the ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inherent stemness. Cell morphology is altered during these processes and this is highly dependent on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is, therefore, important for determination of cell fate. Mutations within the TP53 (tumor suppressor p53) gene leading to loss or gain of function (GOF) of the protein are often observed in aggressive cancer cells. Here, we highlight the roles of p53 and its GOF mutants in cancer cell invasion from the perspective of the actin cytoskeleton; in particular its reorganization and regulation by cell adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins. We emphasize the multiple functions of p53 in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to the extracellular microenvironment, and oncogene activation. Such an approach provides a new perspective in the consideration of novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  16. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Lovander, Kaylee E.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools – Utrophin, Lifeact, an...

  17. Plant microtubule cytoskeleton complexity: microtubule arrays as fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John; Overall, Robyn; Marc, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems are by nature complex and this complexity has been shown to be important in maintaining homeostasis. The plant microtubule cytoskeleton is a highly complex system, with contributing factors through interactions with microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), expression of multiple tubulin isoforms, and post-translational modification of tubulin and MAPs. Some of this complexity is specific to microtubules, such as a redundancy in factors that regulate microtubule depolymerization. Plant microtubules form partial helical fractals that play a key role in development. It is suggested that, under certain cellular conditions, other categories of microtubule fractals may form including isotropic fractals, triangular fractals, and branched fractals. Helical fractal proteins including coiled-coil and armadillo/beta-catenin repeat proteins and the actin cytoskeleton are important here too. Either alone, or in combination, these fractals may drive much of plant development.

  18. Green fluorescent protein-mtalin causes defects in actin organization and cell expansion in Arabidopsis and inhibits actin depolymerizing factor's actin depolymerizing activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Anthony, R.G.; Hussey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to an actin binding domain is a commonly used method for live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton. One of these chimeric proteins is GFP-mTalin (GFP fused to the actin binding domain of mouse talin). Although it has been demonstrated that

  19. Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrujna Patel

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data show that the expression of actin-tracking probes significantly impacts on axonal and dendrite growth these neurons. Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a pBABE promoter, caused a significant decrease in total axon length, while another Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a CAG promoter, decreased the length and complexity of dendritic trees. Utr261-EGFP resulted in increased dendritic branching but Utr230-EGFP only accumulated in cell soma, without labelling any neurites. Lifeact-7-mEGFP and F-tractin-EGFP in a pEGFP-C1 vector, under the control of a CMV promoter, caused only minor changes in neuronal morphology as detected by Sholl analysis. The results of this study demonstrate the effects that filamentous actin tracking probes can have on the axonal and dendritic compartments of neuronal cells and emphasise the care that must be taken when interpreting data from experiments using these probes.

  20. A spatiotemporal characterization method for the dynamic cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussein, Ghada; Shanti, Aya; Farhat, Ilyas A. H.; Timraz, Sara B. H.; Alwahab, Noaf S. A.; Pearson, Yanthe E.; Martin, Matthew N.; Christoforou, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The significant gap between quantitative and qualitative understanding of cytoskeletal function is a pressing problem; microscopy and labeling techniques have improved qualitative investigations of localized cytoskeleton behavior, whereas quantitative analyses of whole cell cytoskeleton networks remain challenging. Here we present a method that accurately quantifies cytoskeleton dynamics. Our approach digitally subdivides cytoskeleton images using interrogation windows, within which box‐counting is used to infer a fractal dimension (D f) to characterize spatial arrangement, and gray value intensity (GVI) to determine actin density. A partitioning algorithm further obtains cytoskeleton characteristics from the perinuclear, cytosolic, and periphery cellular regions. We validated our measurement approach on Cytochalasin‐treated cells using transgenically modified dermal fibroblast cells expressing fluorescent actin cytoskeletons. This method differentiates between normal and chemically disrupted actin networks, and quantifies rates of cytoskeletal degradation. Furthermore, GVI distributions were found to be inversely proportional to D f, having several biophysical implications for cytoskeleton formation/degradation. We additionally demonstrated detection sensitivity of differences in D f and GVI for cells seeded on substrates with varying degrees of stiffness, and coated with different attachment proteins. This general approach can be further implemented to gain insights on dynamic growth, disruption, and structure of the cytoskeleton (and other complex biological morphology) due to biological, chemical, or physical stimuli. © 2016 The Authors. Cytoskeleton Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27015595

  1. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The axonal cytoskeleton : from organization to function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kevenaar, Josta T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338771042; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502

    The axon is the single long fiber that extends from the neuron and transmits electrical signals away from the cell body. The neuronal cytoskeleton, composed of microtubules (MTs), actin filaments and neurofilaments, is not only required for axon formation and axonal transport but also provides the

  3. A mathematical model of actin filament turnover for fitting FRAP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavatyi, Aliaksandr A; Nazarov, Petr V; Al Tanoury, Ziad; Apanasovich, Vladimir V; Yatskou, Mikalai; Friederich, Evelyne

    2010-03-01

    A novel mathematical model of the actin dynamics in living cells under steady-state conditions has been developed for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. As opposed to other FRAP fitting models, which use the average lifetime of actins in filaments and the actin turnover rate as fitting parameters, our model operates with unbiased actin association/dissociation rate constants and accounts for the filament length. The mathematical formalism is based on a system of stochastic differential equations. The derived equations were validated on synthetic theoretical data generated by a stochastic simulation algorithm adapted for the simulation of FRAP experiments. Consistent with experimental findings, the results of this work showed that (1) fluorescence recovery is a function of the average filament length, (2) the F-actin turnover and the FRAP are accelerated in the presence of actin nucleating proteins, (3) the FRAP curves may exhibit both a linear and non-linear behaviour depending on the parameters of actin polymerisation, and (4) our model resulted in more accurate parameter estimations of actin dynamics as compared with other FRAP fitting models. Additionally, we provide a computational tool that integrates the model and that can be used for interpretation of FRAP data on actin cytoskeleton.

  4. The role of mechanics in actin stress fiber kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, E L; Genin, G M

    2013-10-01

    The dynamic responses of actin stress fibers within a cell's cytoskeleton are central to the development and maintenance of healthy tissues and organs. Disturbances to these underlie a broad range of pathologies. Because of the importance of these responses, extensive experiments have been conducted in vitro to characterize actin cytoskeleton dynamics of cells cultured upon two-dimensional substrata, and the first experiments have been conducted for cells within three-dimensional tissue models. Three mathematical models exist for predicting the dynamic behaviors observed. Surprisingly, despite differing viewpoints on how actin stress fibers are stabilized or destabilized, all of these models are predictive of a broad range of available experimental data. Coarsely, the models of Kaunas and co-workers adopt a strategy whereby mechanical stretch can hasten the depolymerization actin stress fibers that turn over constantly, while the models of Desphande and co-workers adopt a strategy whereby mechanical stress is required to activate the formation of stress fibers and subsequently stabilize them. In three-dimensional culture, elements of both approaches appear necessary to predict observed phenomena, as embodied by the model of Lee et al. After providing a critical review of existing models, we propose lines of experimentation that might be able to test the different principles underlying their kinetic laws. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytoskeleton and Cytoskeleton-Bound RNA Visualization in Frog and Insect Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, Malgorzata; Bilinski, Szczepan; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2016-01-01

    The majority of oocyte functions involves and depends on the cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules and actin and cytokeratin filaments. Various structures and molecules are temporarily or permanently bound to the cytoskeletal elements and their functions rely on cytoskeleton integrity and its timely assembly. Thus the accurate visualization of cytoskeleton is often crucial for studies and analyses of oocyte structure and functions. Here we describe several reliable methods for microtubule and/or microfilaments preservation and visualization in Xenopus oocyte extracts, and in situ in live and fixed insect and frog (Xenopus) oocytes. In addition, we describe visualization of cytoskeleton-bound RNAs using molecular beacons in live Xenopus oocytes.

  6. Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, Hanna; Heinrich, Doris; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties

  7. A spatiotemporal characterization method for the dynamic cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussein, Ghada; Shanti, Aya; Farhat, Ilyas A H; Timraz, Sara B H; Alwahab, Noaf S A; Pearson, Yanthe E; Martin, Matthew N; Christoforou, Nicolas; Teo, Jeremy C M

    2016-05-01

    The significant gap between quantitative and qualitative understanding of cytoskeletal function is a pressing problem; microscopy and labeling techniques have improved qualitative investigations of localized cytoskeleton behavior, whereas quantitative analyses of whole cell cytoskeleton networks remain challenging. Here we present a method that accurately quantifies cytoskeleton dynamics. Our approach digitally subdivides cytoskeleton images using interrogation windows, within which box-counting is used to infer a fractal dimension (Df ) to characterize spatial arrangement, and gray value intensity (GVI) to determine actin density. A partitioning algorithm further obtains cytoskeleton characteristics from the perinuclear, cytosolic, and periphery cellular regions. We validated our measurement approach on Cytochalasin-treated cells using transgenically modified dermal fibroblast cells expressing fluorescent actin cytoskeletons. This method differentiates between normal and chemically disrupted actin networks, and quantifies rates of cytoskeletal degradation. Furthermore, GVI distributions were found to be inversely proportional to Df , having several biophysical implications for cytoskeleton formation/degradation. We additionally demonstrated detection sensitivity of differences in Df and GVI for cells seeded on substrates with varying degrees of stiffness, and coated with different attachment proteins. This general approach can be further implemented to gain insights on dynamic growth, disruption, and structure of the cytoskeleton (and other complex biological morphology) due to biological, chemical, or physical stimuli. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons.

  9. Separation of actin-dependent and actin-independent lipid rafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Kok, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to various detergents and more recently by using detergent-free procedures. The actin cytoskeleton is now recognized as a dynamic regulator of lipid raft stability. We carefully analyzed the effects of the cortical actin-disrupting

  10. Differential mapping of the free barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofer, Noa; Abu Shah, Enas; Keren, Kinneret

    2014-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in many cellular processes. Detailed analysis of the architecture of cellular actin networks provides valuable insight into the dynamic self-organization underlying these processes. In particular, since most of the actin turnover occurs at the tips of actin filaments, it is insightful to map the distribution of filament ends. Here we report a method for differentially labeling the pointed and the barbed ends of actin filaments in cellular networks by permeabilizing cells, following a brief fixation, and introducing labeled actin monomers in the presence or absence of capping protein, respectively. This method quantitatively maps the distributions of free barbed ends and free pointed ends in adherent cells, providing information on the polarity of cytoskeletal structures and mapping active sites available for actin assembly or disassembly. We demonstrate the use of this method by mapping the distribution of actin filament ends in motile fish epithelial keratocytes and in several mammalian cell lines, and show that free barbed ends are enriched near the tip of protruding lamellipodia while free pointed ends concentrate toward the rear. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd 2+ -associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd 2+ (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd 2+ -dependent effect, as only Cd 2+ concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd 2+ ] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd 2+ exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd 2+ concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations. • Glutathionylation requires glutathione

  12. Cadmium-induced glutathionylation of actin occurs through a ROS-independent mechanism: Implications for cytoskeletal integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Weiqun; Templeton, Douglas M., E-mail: doug.templeton@utoronto.ca

    2013-10-15

    Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in rat mesangial cells, and we have previously shown that this involves a complex interplay involving activation of kinase signaling, protein translocation, and disruption of focal adhesions. Here we investigate the role that glutathionylation of actin plays in Cd{sup 2+}-associated cytoskeletal reorganization. Low concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} (0.5–2 μM) caused an increase in actin glutathionylation by 6 h, whereas at higher concentrations glutathionylation remained at basal levels. Although oxidation with diamide increased glutathionylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were not involved in the Cd{sup 2+}-dependent effect, as only Cd{sup 2+} concentrations above 2 μM were sufficient to increase ROS. However, low [Cd{sup 2+}] increased total glutathione levels without affecting the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and inhibition of glutathione synthesis suppressed actin glutathionylation. Cadmium increased the activity of the enzyme glutaredoxin, which influences the equilibrium between glutathionylated and deglutathionylated proteins and thus may influence levels of glutathionylated actin. Together these observations show that cadmium-dependent effects on actin glutathionylation are affected by glutathione metabolism and not by direct effects of ROS on thiol chemistry. In vitro polymerization assays with glutathionylated actin show a decreased rate of polymerization. In contrast, immunofluorescence of cytoskeletal structure in intact cells suggests that increases in actin glutathionylation accompanying increased glutathione levels occurring under low Cd{sup 2+} exposure are protective in vivo, with cytoskeletal disruption ensuing only when higher Cd{sup 2+} concentrations increase ROS levels and prevent an increase in actin–glutathione conjugates. - Highlights: • Cadmium disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in mesangial cells. • Cadmium induces glutathionylation of actin at low concentrations.

  13. Mechanotransduction through Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses, such as those due to gravity, through their cell surface adhesion receptors (e.g., integrins) and that they respond as a result of structural arrangements with their internal cytoskeleton (CSK) which are orchestrated through use of tensegrity architecture. In this project, we carried out studies to define the architectural and molecular basis of cellular mechanotransduction. Our major goal was to define the molecular pathway that mediates mechanical force transfer between integrins and the CSK and to determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation. The specific aims of this proposal were: 1. To define the molecular basis of mechanical coupling between integrins, vinculin, and the actin CSK; 2. To develop a computer simulation of how mechanical stresses alter CSK structure and test this model in living cells; 3. To determine how mechanical deformation of integrin-CSK linkages is transduced into a biochemical response.

  14. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-08-20

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus ({approx}10{sup -6} N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability.

  16. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus (∼10 -6 N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability

  17. Actin-based gravity-sensing mechanisms in unicellular plant model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Markus; Limbach, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth in single-celled rhizoids and protonemata of the characean algae. It is well known that the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. Numerous actin-binding proteins control apical actin polymerization and the dynamic remodeling of the actin arrangement. An actomyosin-based system mediates the delivery and incorporation of secretory vesicles at the growing tip and coordinates the tip-high gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium which is required for local exocytosis. Additionally, the actomyosin system precisely controls the position of statoliths and, upon a change in orientation relative to the gravity vector, directs sedimenting statoliths to the confined graviperception sites of the plasma membrane where gravitropic signalling is initiated. The upward growth response of protonemata is preceded by an actin-dependent relocalization of the Ca2+-gradient to the upper flank. The downward growth response of rhizoids, however, is caused by differential growth of the opposite flankes due to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium limited to the plasma membrane area where statoliths are sedimented. Thus, constant actin polymerization in the growing tip and the spatiotemporal control of actin remodeling are essential for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids and protonemata.

  18. Movers and shakers: cell cytoskeleton in cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, C M; McCarroll, J A; Kavallaris, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the greatest number of cancer deaths. Metastatic disease, or the movement of cancer cells from one site to another, is a complex process requiring dramatic remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton. The various components of the cytoskeleton, actin (microfilaments), microtubules (MTs) and intermediate filaments, are highly integrated and their functions are well orchestrated in normal cells. In contrast, mutations and abnormal expression of cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an important role in the ability of cancer cells to resist chemotherapy and metastasize. Studies on the role of actin and its interacting partners have highlighted key signalling pathways, such as the Rho GTPases, and downstream effector proteins that, through the cytoskeleton, mediate tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. An emerging role for MTs in tumour cell metastasis is being unravelled and there is increasing interest in the crosstalk between key MT interacting proteins and the actin cytoskeleton, which may provide novel treatment avenues for metastatic disease. Improved understanding of how the cytoskeleton and its interacting partners influence tumour cell migration and metastasis has led to the development of novel therapeutics against aggressive and metastatic disease. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24 PMID:24665826

  19. Movers and shakers: cell cytoskeleton in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, C M; McCarroll, J A; Kavallaris, M

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is responsible for the greatest number of cancer deaths. Metastatic disease, or the movement of cancer cells from one site to another, is a complex process requiring dramatic remodelling of the cell cytoskeleton. The various components of the cytoskeleton, actin (microfilaments), microtubules (MTs) and intermediate filaments, are highly integrated and their functions are well orchestrated in normal cells. In contrast, mutations and abnormal expression of cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins play an important role in the ability of cancer cells to resist chemotherapy and metastasize. Studies on the role of actin and its interacting partners have highlighted key signalling pathways, such as the Rho GTPases, and downstream effector proteins that, through the cytoskeleton, mediate tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis. An emerging role for MTs in tumour cell metastasis is being unravelled and there is increasing interest in the crosstalk between key MT interacting proteins and the actin cytoskeleton, which may provide novel treatment avenues for metastatic disease. Improved understanding of how the cytoskeleton and its interacting partners influence tumour cell migration and metastasis has led to the development of novel therapeutics against aggressive and metastatic disease. This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Actin organization and dynamics in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berepiki, Adokiye; Lichius, Alexander; Read, Nick D

    2011-11-02

    Growth and morphogenesis of filamentous fungi is underpinned by dynamic reorganization and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin has crucial roles in exocytosis, endocytosis, organelle movement and cytokinesis in fungi, and these processes are coupled to the production of distinct higher-order structures (actin patches, cables and rings) that generate forces or serve as tracks for intracellular transport. New approaches for imaging actin in living cells are revealing important similarities and differences in actin architecture and organization within the fungal kingdom, and have yielded key insights into cell polarity, tip growth and long-distance intracellular transport. In this Review, we discuss the contribution that recent live-cell imaging and mutational studies have made to our understanding of the dynamics and regulation of actin in filamentous fungi.

  1. The role of actin and myosin during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Kovacs, Tamas; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2011-08-01

    Spermatogenesis is a transitionary process in which the diploid spermatogonia transform into haploid mature spermatozoa. Actin and myosin have been implicated in various aspects during spermatogenesis. Actin is present in the form of monomer, oligomer and polymer within cells, the latter is called microfilament. There are five actin-containing structures during spermatogenesis, i.e., ectoplasmic specialization, acroplaxome, manchette in mammals, actin cones in Drosophila and acroframosome in Caridean shrimp. They are involved in the shaping and differentiating of spermatids. Along with spermatogenesis, the actin cytoskeletons show active remodeling in this process. Some actin binding or actin regulated proteins have been demonstrated to regulate dynamic changes of the actin-containing structures. Myosin, actin-dependent molecular motor, plays an important role during spermatogenesis, such as involving in acrosome biogenesis, vesicle transport, gene transcription and nuclear shaping. The actin cytoskeleton and actin binding/regulated proteins cooperate to facilitate spermatogenesis. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about the cytoskeletal structures consisting of actin, actin binding/regulated proteins and myosin during spermatogenesis.

  2. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  3. The receptor-like MLO protein and the RAC/ROP family G-protein RACB modulate actin reorganization in barley attacked by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalski, Krystina S; Schultheiss, Holger; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Cytoskeleton remodelling is a crucial process in determining the polarity of dividing and growing plant cells, as well as during interactions with the environment. Nothing is currently known about the proteins, which regulate actin remodelling during interactions with invading pathogens. The biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) invades susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by penetrating epidermal cells, which remain intact during fungal development. In contrast, resistant host plants prevent infection by inhibiting penetration through apoplastic mechanisms, which require focusing defence reactions on the site of attack. We stained actin filaments in a susceptible Mlo-genotype and a near-isogenic race-non-specifically resistant barley mlo5-mutant genotype using fluorescence-labelled phalloidin after chemical fixation. This revealed that the actin cytoskeleton is differentially reorganized in susceptible and resistant hosts challenged by Bgh. Actin filaments were polarized towards the sites of attempted penetration in the resistant host, whereas when susceptible hosts were penetrated, a more subtle reorganization took place around fungal haustoria. Strong actin filament focusing towards sites of fungal attack was closely associated with successful prevention of penetration. Actin focusing was less frequent and seemingly delayed in susceptible wild-type barley expressing the susceptibility factor MLO. Additionally, single cell overexpression of a constitutively activated RAC/ROP G-protein, CA RACB, another potential host susceptibility factor and hypothetical actin cytoskeleton regulator, partly inhibited actin reorganization when under attack from Bgh, whereas knockdown of RACB promoted actin focusing. We conclude that RACB and, potentially, MLO are host proteins involved in the modulation of actin reorganization and cell polarity in the interaction of barley with Bgh.

  4. Skin Layer at the Actin-Gel Surface: Quenched Protein Membranes with Flat, Crumpled and Tubular Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, L. S.

    2004-03-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a major component of eukaryotic cells involved in key functions including cell shape and mechanical stability. We report on the discovery of a novel hierarchically structured skin-layer formed at the surface of an isotropic gel of filamentous actin bundles at high molar ratios of alpha-actinin, an actin cross-linking protein, to globular actin. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has elucidated the full 3D structure on the micron scale. The protein skin-layer, composed of a directed network of bundles, exhibits flat, crumpled and remarkable, tube-like and pleated multi-tubular morphologies, resulting from stresses due to the underlying gel. These biologically based geometric structures, which may freely detach from the gel, demonstrate potential for the generation of scaffolds with defined shapes for applications in tissue engineering and templating. Supported by NSF DMR-0203755 and CTS 0103516 and NIH GM59288.

  5. Actin-mediated cytoplasmic organization of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results that give insight in the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the production of an organized cytoplasm in plant cells, which is, for instance, required for proper cell morphogenesis.

    Chapter 1 is a review in which we discuss the possible role of actin-based

  6. EB1 regulates tubulin and actin cytoskeletal networks at the sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in male rats: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elizabeth I; Mok, Ka-Wai; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2015-02-01

    During spermatogenesis, developing germ cells are transported across the seminiferous epithelium. Studies propose that because microtubules (MTs) serve as the tracks for transporting cell organelles, they may also serve a similar function in the transport of developing germ cells. Polarized MTs may provide the tracks along which polarized actin microfilaments, which act as vehicles to transport cargo, such as preleptotene spermatocytes through the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and spermatids across the epithelium. Yet the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these events remain unknown. Using an established in vitro Sertoli cell system to study BTB function, we demonstrated herein that a MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1 (EB1) regulates the MT- and also the actin-based cytoskeleton of the Sertoli cell BTB in the rat. EB1 serves as a coordinator between the two cytoskeletons by regulating MT polymerization and actin filament bundling to modulate germ cell transport at the Sertoli cell BTB. A knockdown of EB1 by RNA interference was found to perturb the tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, as evidenced by mislocalization of junctional proteins critical for barrier function to facilitate spermatocyte transport, which was likely achieved by two coordinated events. First, EB1 knockdown resulted in changes in MT polymerization, thereby perturbing MT organization in Sertoli cells in which polarized MT no longer stretched properly across the cell cytosol to serve as the tracks. Second, EB1 knockdown perturbed actin organization via its effects on the branched actin polymerization-inducing protein called Arp3 (actin-related protein 3), perturbing microfilament bundling capability based on a biochemical assay, thereby causing microfilament truncation and misorganization, disrupting the function of the vehicle. This reduced actin microfilament bundling capability thus perturbed TJ-protein distribution and localization at the BTB, destabilizing the TJ barrier, leading

  7. JVG9, a benzimidazole derivative, alters the surface and cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Castillo, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Ambrosio, Javier R

    2014-09-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a particular cytoskeleton that consists of a subpellicular network of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Therefore, it is an excellent target for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Benzimidazole 2-carbamates, a class of well-known broad-spectrum anthelmintics, have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of many protozoa. Therefore, to find efficient anti-trypanosomal (trypanocidal) drugs, our group has designed and synthesised several benzimidazole derivatives. One, named JVG9 (5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol), has been found to be effective against T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we present the in vitro effects observed by laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Changes in the surface and the distribution of the cytoskeletal proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the trypanocidal activity of JVG9 involves the cytoskeleton as a target.

  8. JVG9, a benzimidazole derivative, alters the surface and cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan L Díaz-Chiguer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi has a particular cytoskeleton that consists of a subpellicular network of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Therefore, it is an excellent target for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Benzimidazole 2-carbamates, a class of well-known broad-spectrum anthelmintics, have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of many protozoa. Therefore, to find efficient anti-trypanosomal (trypanocidal drugs, our group has designed and synthesised several benzimidazole derivatives. One, named JVG9 (5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol, has been found to be effective against T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we present the in vitro effects observed by laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Changes in the surface and the distribution of the cytoskeletal proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the trypanocidal activity of JVG9 involves the cytoskeleton as a target.

  9. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons: protein filaments organizing small cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, James; Löwe, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Most, if not all, bacterial and archaeal cells contain at least one protein filament system. Although these filament systems in some cases form structures that are very similar to eukaryotic cytoskeletons, the term 'prokaryotic cytoskeletons' is used to refer to many different kinds of protein filaments. Cytoskeletons achieve their functions through polymerization of protein monomers and the resulting ability to access length scales larger than the size of the monomer. Prokaryotic cytoskeletons are involved in many fundamental aspects of prokaryotic cell biology and have important roles in cell shape determination, cell division and nonchromosomal DNA segregation. Some of the filament-forming proteins have been classified into a small number of conserved protein families, for example, the almost ubiquitous tubulin and actin superfamilies. To understand what makes filaments special and how the cytoskeletons they form enable cells to perform essential functions, the structure and function of cytoskeletal molecules and their filaments have been investigated in diverse bacteria and archaea. In this Review, we bring these data together to highlight the diverse ways that linear protein polymers can be used to organize other molecules and structures in bacteria and archaea.

  10. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Fagan, Tiffany N; Lovander, Kaylee E; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-09-15

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools--Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin--for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development. Specifically, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to express these tools at different levels and in different cells, and analyzed these tools for effects on fertility, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, and ability to label filamentous actin (F-actin) structures by both fixed and live imaging. While both Utrophin and Lifeact robustly label F-actin structures within the Drosophila germline, when strongly expressed they cause sterility and severe actin defects including cortical actin breakdown resulting in multi-nucleate nurse cells, early F-actin filament and aggregate formation during stage 9 (S9), and disorganized parallel actin filament bundles during stage 10B (S10B). However, by using a weaker germline GAL4 driver in combination with a higher temperature, Utrophin can label F-actin with minimal defects. Additionally, strong Utrophin expression within the germline causes F-actin formation in the nurse cell nuclei and germinal vesicle during mid-oogenesis. Similarly, Lifeact expression results in nuclear F-actin only within the germinal vesicle. F-tractin expresses at a lower level than the other two labeling tools, but labels cytoplasmic F-actin structures well without causing sterility or striking actin defects. Together these studies reveal how critical it is to evaluate the utility of each actin labeling tool

  11. The exocyst at the interface between cytoskeleton and membranes in eukaryotic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synek, Lukáš; Sekereš, Juraj; Žárský, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, JAN 2014 (2014) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P853 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : exocyst * actin cytoskeleton * microtubule cytoskeleton Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  12. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  13. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  14. The effect of ionizing radiation on the filamentous actin of vascular endothelial cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xiaowu; Chen Shisheng; Yang Lihe; Lin Juelong; Yang Haiwei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the ionizing radiation effect on filamentous actin of vascular endothelial cell and explore its mechanism. Methods: The vascular endothelial cells were irradiated with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. The cytoskeleton was observed with CLSM at 6 hs after the irradiation and the cytoskeleton protein F-actin detected with flow cytometry after 12 and 24 hs. Results: The damage to cytoskeletons increased with the radiation dose. The cytoskeleton protein F-actin was significantly decreased at 12 hs after the irradiation, and then recovered after 24 hs. Conclusion: Ionizing radiation caused vascular endothelial cell injury by damaging the cytoskeleton and depolymerizating the F-actin. (authors)

  15. Unstable F-actin specifies the area and microtubule direction of cell expansion in Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, M.J.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cells expand by exocytosis of wall material contained in Golgi-derived vesicles. We examined the role of local instability of the actin cytoskeleton in specifying the exocytosis site in Arabidopsis root hairs. During root hair growth, a specific actin cytoskeleton configuration is present in

  16. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  17. Swinholide A is a microfilament disrupting marine toxin that stabilizes actin dimers and severs actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, M R; Spector, I; Bershadsky, A D; Korn, E D

    1995-02-24

    Swinholide A, isolated from the marien sponge Theonella swinhoei, is a 44-carbon ring dimeric dilactone macrolide with a 2-fold axis of symmetry. Recent studies have elucidated its unusual structure and shown that it has potent cytotoxic activity. We now report that swinholide A disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of cells grown in culture, sequesters actin dimers in vitro in both polymerizing and non-polymerizing buffers with a binding stoichiometry of one swinholide A molecule per actin dimer, and rapidly severs F-actin in vitro with high cooperativity. These unique properties are sufficient to explain the cytotoxicity of swinholide A. They also suggest that swinholide A might be a model for studies of the mechanism of action of F-actin severing proteins and be therapeutically useful in conditions where filamentous actin contributes to pathologically high viscosities.

  18. Actin dynamics and the elasticity of cytoskeletal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a cell depends on its cytoskeleton, which includes an actin network. This network is transient and depends upon the continual polymerization and depolymerization of actin. The degradation of an actin network, and a corresponding reduction in cell stiffness, can indicate the presence of disease. Numerical simulations will be invaluable for understanding the physics of these systems and the correlation between actin dynamics and elasticity. Here we develop a model that is capable of generating actin network structures. In particular, we develop a model of actin dynamics which considers the polymerization, depolymerization, nucleation, severing, and capping of actin filaments. The structures obtained are then fed directly into a mechanical model. This allows us to qualitatively assess the effects of changing various parameters associated with actin dynamics on the elasticity of the material.

  19. Importance of non-selective cation channel TRPV4 interaction with cytoskeleton and their reciprocal regulations in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Goswami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPV4 and the cellular cytoskeleton have each been reported to influence cellular mechanosensitive processes as well as the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. If and how TRPV4 interacts with the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton at a molecular and functional level is not known. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the interaction of TRPV4 with cytoskeletal components biochemically, cell biologically by observing morphological changes of DRG-neurons and DRG-neuron-derived F-11 cells, as well as functionally with calcium imaging. We find that TRPV4 physically interacts with tubulin, actin and neurofilament proteins as well as the nociceptive molecules PKCepsilon and CamKII. The C-terminus of TRPV4 is sufficient for the direct interaction with tubulin and actin, both with their soluble and their polymeric forms. Actin and tubulin compete for binding. The interaction with TRPV4 stabilizes microtubules even under depolymerizing conditions in vitro. Accordingly, in cellular systems TRPV4 colocalizes with actin and microtubules enriched structures at submembranous regions. Both expression and activation of TRPV4 induces striking morphological changes affecting lamellipodial, filopodial, growth cone, and neurite structures in non-neuronal cells, in DRG-neuron derived F11 cells, and also in IB4-positive DRG neurons. The functional interaction of TRPV4 and the cytoskeleton is mutual as Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer, reduces the Ca2+-influx via TRPV4. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: TRPV4 acts as a regulator for both, the microtubule and the actin. In turn, we describe that microtubule dynamics are an important regulator of TRPV4 activity. TRPV4 forms a supra-molecular complex containing cytoskeletal proteins and regulatory kinases. Thereby it can integrate signaling of various intracellular second messengers and signaling cascades, as well as cytoskeletal dynamics. This study points out the existence of cross-talks between

  20. How HIV-1 Takes Advantage of the Cytoskeleton during Replication and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin; Nikolic, Damjan S.; Piguet, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infects T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells and can manipulate their cytoskeleton structures at multiple steps during its replication cycle. Based on pharmacological and genetic targeting of cytoskeleton modulators, new imaging approaches and primary cell culture models, important roles for actin and microtubules during entry and cell-to-cell transfer have been established. Virological synapses and actin-containing membrane extensions can mediate HIV-1 transfer from dendritic cells or macrophage cells to T cells and between T cells. We will review the role of the cytoskeleton in HIV-1 entry, cellular trafficking and cell-to-cell transfer between primary cells. PMID:21994805

  1. Phagocytosis: receptors, signal integration, and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    Phagocytosis is a remarkably complex and versatile process: it contributes to innate immunity through the ingestion and elimination of pathogens, while also being central to tissue homeostasis and remodeling by clearing effete cells. The ability of phagocytes to perform such diverse functions rests, in large part, on their vast repertoire of receptors. In this review, we address the various receptor types, their mobility in the plane of the membrane, and two modes of receptor crosstalk: priming and synergy. A major section is devoted to the actin cytoskeleton, which not only governs receptor mobility and clustering but also is instrumental in particle engulfment. Four stages of the actin remodeling process are identified and discussed: (i) the 'resting' stage that precedes receptor engagement, (ii) the disruption of the cortical actin prior to formation of the phagocytic cup, (iii) the actin polymerization that propels pseudopod extension, and (iv) the termination of polymerization and removal of preassembled actin that are required for focal delivery of endomembranes and phagosomal sealing. These topics are viewed in the larger context of the differentiation and polarization of the phagocytic cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Co-transcriptional nuclear actin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Actin is a key player for nuclear structure and function regulating both chromosome organization and gene activity. In the cell nucleus actin interacts with many different proteins. Among these proteins several studies have identified classical nuclear factors involved in chromatin structure and function, transcription and RNA processing as well as proteins that are normally involved in controlling the actin cytoskeleton. These discoveries have raised the possibility that nuclear actin performs its multi task activities through tight interactions with different sets of proteins. This high degree of promiscuity in the spectrum of protein-to-protein interactions correlates well with the conformational plasticity of actin and the ability to undergo regulated changes in its polymerization states. Several of the factors involved in controlling head-to-tail actin polymerization have been shown to be in the nucleus where they seem to regulate gene activity. By focusing on the multiple tasks performed by actin and actin-binding proteins, possible models of how actin dynamics controls the different phases of the RNA polymerase II transcription cycle are being identified.

  3. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  4. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick

    2005-01-01

    and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin...... cytoskeleton organisation, expression of Enigma alone led to the formation of F-actin clusters. Similar alteration in actin cytoskeleton organisation was observed in cells expressing both Enigma and APS with a mutation in the NPTY motif. These results identify Enigma as a novel APS-binding protein and suggest...... that the APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organisation....

  5. The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Christophe; Dubey, Pankaj; Roy, Subhojit

    2017-12-01

    The corporeal beauty of the neuronal cytoskeleton has captured the imagination of generations of scientists. One of the easiest cellular structures to visualize by light microscopy, its existence has been known for well over 100 years, yet we have only recently begun to fully appreciate its intricacy and diversity. Recent studies combining new probes with super-resolution microscopy and live imaging have revealed surprising details about the axonal cytoskeleton and, in particular, have discovered previously unknown actin-based structures. Along with traditional electron microscopy, these newer techniques offer a nanoscale view of the axonal cytoskeleton, which is important for our understanding of neuronal form and function, and lay the foundation for future studies. In this Review, we summarize existing concepts in the field and highlight contemporary discoveries that have fundamentally altered our perception of the axonal cytoskeleton.

  6. Coupling of cytoskeleton functions for fibroblast locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Lenn, M; Rees, D A

    1985-01-01

    the cells to lose control of shape and organelle distribution even though forward protrusion continued unaffected. Cytoplasmic displacements shown by marker mitochondria correlated with adjacent fluctuations at the leading edge, and drug treatments which increased the amplitude of mitochondrial movements...... caused visible protrusions in projected positions at the leading edge. We conclude that fibroblast locomotion may be driven coordinately by a common set of motility mechanisms and that this coordination may be lost as a result of physical or pharmacological disturbance. Taking our evidence with results...... from other Laboratories, we propose the following cytoskeleton functions. (i) Protrusive activity, probably based on solation--gelation cycles of the actin based cytoskeleton and membrane recycling which provides cellular and membrane components for streaming through the cell body to the leading edge...

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of actin remodeling and endomembrane trafficking in alveolar epithelial type I cell wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Lindsay M; Vergen, Jorge; Prakash, Y S; Pagano, Richard E; Hubmayr, Rolf D

    2011-04-01

    Alveolar epithelial type I cell (ATI) wounding is prevalent in ventilator-injured lungs and likely contributes to pathogenesis of "barotrauma" and "biotrauma." In experimental models most wounded alveolar cells repair plasma membrane (PM) defects and survive insults. Considering the force balance between edge energy at the PM wound margins and adhesive interactions of the lipid bilayer with the underlying cytoskeleton (CSK), we tested the hypothesis that subcortical actin depolymerization is a key facilitator of PM repair. Using real-time fluorescence imaging of primary rat ATI transfected with a live cell actin-green fluorescent protein construct (Lifeact-GFP) and loaded with N-rhodamine phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), we examined the spatial and temporal coordination between cytoskeletal remodeling and PM repair following micropuncture. Membrane integrity was inferred from the fluorescence intensity profiles of the cytosolic label calcein AM. Wounding led to rapid depolymerization of the actin CSK near the wound site, concurrent with accumulation of endomembrane-derived N-rhodamine PE. Both responses were sustained until PM integrity was reestablished, which typically occurs between ∼10 and 40 s after micropuncture. Only thereafter did the actin CSK near the wound begin to repolymerize, while the rate of endomembrane lipid accumulation decreased. Between 60 and 90 s after successful PM repair, after translocation of the actin nucleation factor cortactin, a dense actin fiber network formed. In cells that did not survive micropuncture injury, actin remodeling did not occur. These novel results highlight the importance of actin remodeling in ATI cell repair and suggest molecular targets for modulating the repair process.

  8. Passive and active microrheology for cross-linked F-actin networks in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungsuk; Ferrer, Jorge M; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lang, Matthew J; Kamm, Roger D

    2010-04-01

    Actin filament (F-actin) is one of the dominant structural constituents in the cytoskeleton. Orchestrated by various actin-binding proteins (ABPs), F-actin is assembled into higher-order structures such as bundles and networks that provide mechanical support for the cell and play important roles in numerous cellular processes. Although mechanical properties of F-actin networks have been extensively studied, the underlying mechanisms for network elasticity are not fully understood, in part because different measurements probe different length and force scales. Here, we developed both passive and active microrheology techniques using optical tweezers to estimate the mechanical properties of F-actin networks at a length scale comparable to cells. For the passive approach we tracked the motion of a thermally fluctuating colloidal sphere to estimate the frequency-dependent complex shear modulus of the network. In the active approach, we used an optical trap to oscillate an embedded microsphere and monitored the response in order to obtain network viscoelasticity over a physiologically relevant force range. While both active and passive measurements exhibit similar results at low strain, the F-actin network subject to high strain exhibits non-linear behavior which is analogous to the strain-hardening observed in macroscale measurements. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy, we also characterize the microstructure of reconstituted F-actin networks in terms of filament length, mesh size and degree of bundling. Finally, we propose a model of network connectivity by investigating the effect of filament length on the mechanical properties and structure. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin [(Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA]. Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of 35 S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal

  10. A Gly65Val substitution in an actin, GhACT_LI1, disrupts cell polarity and membrane anchoring of F-actin resulting in dwarf, lintless Li1 cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actin polymerizes to form the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hi...

  11. Actin organization during Eucalyptus root hair development and its response to fungal hypaphorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dauphin, A.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Emons, A.M.C.; Legué, V.

    2006-01-01

    The fungus Pisolithus microcarpus establishes an ectomycorrhiza with Eucalyptus globulus. This symbiosis involves a fungal synthesis and secretion of hypaphorine, an indolic compound. Previous studies have shown that hypaphorine induces an alteration in the actin cytoskeleton of elongating root

  12. Dissecting the actin cortex density and membrane-cortex distance in living cells by super-resolution microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M. P.; Colin-York, H.; Schneider, Falk

    2017-01-01

    and accurately measure the density distribution of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and the distance between the actin cortex and the membrane in live Jurkat T-cells. We found an asymmetric cortical actin density distribution with a mean width of 230 (+105/-125) nm. The spatial distances measured between...

  13. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kudryashova

    Full Text Available Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5 = 30 µM reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD) toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena; Kalda, Caitlin; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2012-01-01

    Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD) is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5) = 30 µM) reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+)-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M) = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively) suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  15. Actin and microtubule networks contribute differently to cell response for small and large strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitschke, H.; Schnauss, J.; Nnetu, K. D.; Warmt, E.; Stange, R.; Kaes, J.

    2017-09-01

    Cytoskeletal filaments provide cells with mechanical stability and organization. The main key players are actin filaments and microtubules governing a cell’s response to mechanical stimuli. We investigated the specific influences of these crucial components by deforming MCF-7 epithelial cells at small (≤5% deformation) and large strains (>5% deformation). To understand specific contributions of actin filaments and microtubules, we systematically studied cellular responses after treatment with cytoskeleton influencing drugs. Quantification with the microfluidic optical stretcher allowed capturing the relative deformation and relaxation of cells under different conditions. We separated distinctive deformational and relaxational contributions to cell mechanics for actin and microtubule networks for two orders of magnitude of drug dosages. Disrupting actin filaments via latrunculin A, for instance, revealed a strain-independent softening. Stabilizing these filaments by treatment with jasplakinolide yielded cell softening for small strains but showed no significant change at large strains. In contrast, cells treated with nocodazole to disrupt microtubules displayed a softening at large strains but remained unchanged at small strains. Stabilizing microtubules within the cells via paclitaxel revealed no significant changes for deformations at small strains, but concentration-dependent impact at large strains. This suggests that for suspended cells, the actin cortex is probed at small strains, while at larger strains; the whole cell is probed with a significant contribution from the microtubules.

  16. Memory Dynamics in Cross-linked Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Danielle; Majumdar, Sayantan; Gardel, Margaret

    Cells demonstrate the remarkable ability to adapt to mechanical stimuli through rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, a cross-linked network of actin filaments. In addition to its importance in cell biology, understanding this mechanical response provides strategies for creation of novel materials. A recent study has demonstrated that applied stress can encode mechanical memory in these networks through changes in network geometry, which gives rise to anisotropic shear response. Under later shear, the network is stiffer in the direction of the previously applied stress. However, the dynamics behind the encoding of this memory are unknown. To address this question, we explore the effect of varying either the rigidity of the cross-linkers or the length of actin filament on the time scales required for both memory encoding and over which it later decays. While previous experiments saw only a long-lived memory, initial results suggest another mechanism where memories relax relatively quickly. Overall, our study is crucial for understanding the process by which an external stress can impact network arrangement and thus the dynamics of memory formation.

  17. The mechanosensor of mesenchymal stem cells: mechanosensitive channel or cytoskeleton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, E; Chen, Chider; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-20

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells. MSCs and their potential for use in regenerative medicine have been investigated extensively. Recently, the mechanisms by which MSCs detect mechanical stimuli have been described in detail. As in other cell types, both mechanosensitive channels, such as transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), and the cytoskeleton, including actin and actomyosin, have been implicated in mechanosensation in MSCs. This review will focus on discussing the precise role of TRPM7 and the cytoskeleton in mechanosensation in MSCs.

  18. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in human cells in space proved by life-cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corydon, Thomas J.; Kopp, Sascha; Wehland, Markus; Braun, Markus; Schütte, Andreas; Mayer, Tobias; Hülsing, Thomas; Oltmann, Hergen; Schmitz, Burkhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces changes in the cytoskeleton. This might have an impact on cells and organs of humans in space. Unfortunately, studies of cytoskeletal changes in microgravity reported so far are obligatorily based on the analysis of fixed cells exposed to microgravity during a parabolic flight campaign (PFC). This study focuses on the development of a compact fluorescence microscope (FLUMIAS) for fast live-cell imaging under real microgravity. It demonstrates the application of the instrument for on-board analysis of cytoskeletal changes in FTC-133 cancer cells expressing the Lifeact-GFP marker protein for the visualization of F-actin during the 24th DLR PFC and TEXUS 52 rocket mission. Although vibration is an inevitable part of parabolic flight maneuvers, we successfully for the first time report life-cell cytoskeleton imaging during microgravity, and gene expression analysis after the 31st parabola showing a clear up-regulation of cytoskeletal genes. Notably, during the rocket flight the FLUMIAS microscope reveals significant alterations of the cytoskeleton related to microgravity. Our findings clearly demonstrate the applicability of the FLUMIAS microscope for life-cell imaging during microgravity, rendering it an important technological advance in live-cell imaging when dissecting protein localization. PMID:26818711

  19. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in human cells in space proved by life-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corydon, Thomas J; Kopp, Sascha; Wehland, Markus; Braun, Markus; Schütte, Andreas; Mayer, Tobias; Hülsing, Thomas; Oltmann, Hergen; Schmitz, Burkhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Microgravity induces changes in the cytoskeleton. This might have an impact on cells and organs of humans in space. Unfortunately, studies of cytoskeletal changes in microgravity reported so far are obligatorily based on the analysis of fixed cells exposed to microgravity during a parabolic flight campaign (PFC). This study focuses on the development of a compact fluorescence microscope (FLUMIAS) for fast live-cell imaging under real microgravity. It demonstrates the application of the instrument for on-board analysis of cytoskeletal changes in FTC-133 cancer cells expressing the Lifeact-GFP marker protein for the visualization of F-actin during the 24(th) DLR PFC and TEXUS 52 rocket mission. Although vibration is an inevitable part of parabolic flight maneuvers, we successfully for the first time report life-cell cytoskeleton imaging during microgravity, and gene expression analysis after the 31(st) parabola showing a clear up-regulation of cytoskeletal genes. Notably, during the rocket flight the FLUMIAS microscope reveals significant alterations of the cytoskeleton related to microgravity. Our findings clearly demonstrate the applicability of the FLUMIAS microscope for life-cell imaging during microgravity, rendering it an important technological advance in live-cell imaging when dissecting protein localization.

  20. Bacterial cytoskeleton and implications for new antibiotic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Xie, Longxiang; Luo, Hongping; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally eukaryotes exclusive cytoskeleton has been found in bacteria and other prokaryotes. FtsZ, MreB and CreS are bacterial counterpart of eukaryotic tubulin, actin filaments and intermediate filaments, respectively. FtsZ can assemble to a Z-ring at the cell division site, regulate bacterial cell division; MreB can form helical structure, and involve in maintaining cell shape, regulating chromosome segregation; CreS, found in Caulobacter crescentus (C. crescentus), can form curve or helical filaments in intracellular membrane. CreS is crucial for cell morphology maintenance. There are also some prokaryotic unique cytoskeleton components playing crucial roles in cell division, chromosome segregation and cell morphology. The cytoskeleton components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), together with their dynamics during exposure to antibiotics are summarized in this article to provide insights into the unique organization of this formidable pathogen and druggable targets for new antibiotics.

  1. Actin based processes that could determine the cytoplasmic architecture of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Actin polymerisation can generate forces that are necessary for cell movement, such as the propulsion of a class of bacteria, including Listeria, and the protrusion of migrating animal cells. Force generation by the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells has not been studied. One process in plant cells

  2. Resinless section electron microscopy reveals the yeast cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, J; Penman, S

    1997-04-15

    The cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially invisible using conventional microscopy techniques. A similar problem was solved for the mammalian cell cytoskeleton using resinless section electron microscopy, a technique applied here to yeast. In the resinless image, soluble proteins are no longer cloaked by embedding medium and must be removed by selective detergent extraction. In yeast, this requires breaching the cell wall by digesting with Zymolyase sufficiently to allow detergent extraction of the plasma membrane lipids. Gel electropherograms show that the extracted or "soluble" proteins are distinct from the retained or "structural" proteins that presumably comprise the cytoskeleton. These putative cytoskeleton proteins include the major portions of a 43-kDa protein, which is presumably actin, and of proteins in a band appearing at 55 kDa, as well as numerous less abundant, nonactin proteins. Resinless section electron micrographs show a dense, three-dimensional web of anastomosing, polymorphic filaments bounded by the remnant cell wall. Although the filament network is very heterogenous, there appear to be two principal classes of filament diameters-5 nm and 15-20 nm-which may correspond to actin and intermediate filaments, respectively. A large oval region of lower filament density probably corresponds to the vacuole, and an electron dense spheroidal body, 300-500 nm in diameter, is likely the nucleus. The techniques detailed in this report afford new approaches to the study of yeast cytoarchitecture.

  3. Estrogen Regulates Protein Synthesis and Actin Polymerization in Hippocampal Neurons through Different Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Victor; Baudry, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen rapidly modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating selective membrane-associated receptors. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated protein synthesis are two major events required for the consolidation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. Estradiol regulates synaptic plasticity by interacting with both processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we used acute rat hippocampal slices to analyze the mechanisms underlying rapid changes in mTOR activity and actin polymerization elicited by estradiol. Estradiol-induced mTOR phosphorylation was preceded by rapid and transient activation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) and by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) degradation. These effects were prevented by calpain and ERK inhibitors. Estradiol-induced mTOR stimulation did not require activation of classical estrogen receptors (ER), as specific ERα and ERβ agonists (PPT and DPN, respectively) failed to mimic this effect, and ER antagonists could not block it. Estradiol rapidly activated both RhoA and p21-activated kinase (PAK). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of RhoA kinase (ROCK), H1152, and a potent and specific PAK inhibitor, PF-3758309, blocked estradiol-induced cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization. ER antagonists also blocked these effects of estrogen. Consistently, both PPT and DPN stimulated PAK and cofilin phosphorylation as well as actin polymerization. Finally, the effects of estradiol on actin polymerization were insensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors, but its stimulation of mTOR activity was impaired by latrunculin A, a drug that disrupts actin filaments. Taken together, our results indicate that estradiol regulates local protein synthesis and cytoskeletal reorganization via different molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways. PMID:24611062

  4. SPARC Interacts with Actin in Skeletal Muscle in Vitro and in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Jepsen, Pia Lørup; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to actin. This interaction is present in regenerating myofibers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and compartment syndrome. Analysis of the α-, β-, and γ-actin isoforms in SPARC knockout myoblasts reveals a changed expression pattern with dominance of γ-actin. In SPARC knockout...... stimulation protocol, we find a defective force recovery. Therefore, SPARC appears to be an important modulator of the actin cytoskeleton, implicating maintenance of muscular function. This direct interaction with actin suggests a new role of SPARC during tissue remodeling....

  5. Highly Dynamic Host Actin Reorganization around Developing Plasmodium Inside Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.; Itoe, Maurice A.; Afonso, Cristina; Henriques, Ricardo; Gardner, Rui; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Simões, Pedro D.; Raquel, Helena; Almeida, António Paulo; Moita, Luis F.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mota, Maria M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes and infect hepatocytes, where a single sporozoite replicates into thousands of merozoites inside a parasitophorous vacuole. The nature of the Plasmodium-host cell interface, as well as the interactions occurring between these two organisms, remains largely unknown. Here we show that highly dynamic hepatocyte actin reorganization events occur around developing Plasmodium berghei parasites inside human hepatoma cells. Actin reorganization is most prominent between 10 to 16 hours post infection and depends on the actin severing and capping protein, gelsolin. Live cell imaging studies also suggest that the hepatocyte cytoskeleton may contribute to parasite elimination during Plasmodium development in the liver. PMID:22238609

  6. Simvastatin affects cell motility and actin cytoskeleton distribution of microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, HF; Rappert, Angelika A.C.; Mommaas, AM; Van Haastert, ES; Van der Valk, P; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, KPH; Van den Elsen, PJ

    2006-01-01

    Statin treatment is proposed to be a new potential therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The effects of statin treatment on brain cells, however, are hardly understood. We therefore evaluated the effects of simvastatin treatment on

  7. Crosstalk between Rac1-mediated actin regulation and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Alejandro; González-Billault, Christian

    2018-02-20

    The small RhoGTPase Rac1 is implicated in a variety of events related to actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Remarkably, another event that is completely different from those related to actin regulation has the same relevance; the Rac1-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidases (NOX). Each outcome involves different Rac1 downstream effectors; on one hand, events related to the actin cytoskeleton require Rac1 to bind to WAVEs proteins and PAKs that ultimately promote actin branching and turnover, on the other, NOX-derived ROS production demands active Rac1 to be bound to a cytosolic activator of NOX. How Rac1-mediated signaling ends up promoting actin-related events, NOX-derived ROS, or both is poorly understood. Rac1 regulators, including scaffold proteins, are known to exert tight control over its functions. Hence, evidence of Rac1 regulatory events leading to both actin remodeling and NOX-mediated ROS generation are discussed. Moreover, cellular functions linked to physiological and pathological conditions that exhibit crosstalk between Rac1 outcomes are analyzed, while plausible roles in neuronal functions (and dysfunctions) are highlighted. Together, discussed evidence shed light on cellular mechanisms which requires Rac1 to direct either actin- and/or ROS-related events, helping to understand crucial roles of Rac1 dual functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV infection of T cells: actin-in and actin-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Shaw, Stephen

    2009-04-14

    Three studies shed light on the decade-old observation that the actin cytoskeleton is hijacked to facilitate entry of HIV into its target cells. Polymerization of actin is required to assemble high concentrations of CD4 and CXCR4 at the plasma membrane, which promote viral binding and entry in both the simple model of infection by free virus and the more physiologically relevant route of infection through the virological synapse. Three types of actin-interacting proteins-filamin, ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM), and cofilin-are now shown to play critical roles in this process. Filamin binds to both CD4 and CXCR4 in a manner promoted by signaling of the HIV gp120 glycoprotein. ERM proteins attach actin filaments to the membrane and may promote polymerization of actin. Early in the process of viral entry, cofilin is inactivated, which is proposed to facilitate the early assembly of actin filaments, but cofilin is reported to be activated soon thereafter to facilitate postentry events. This complex role of cofilin may help to reconcile the paradox that actin polymerization promotes initial binding and fusion steps but inhibits some subsequent early postentry events.

  9. Actin, RhoA, and Rab11 participation during encystment in Entamoeba invadens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, M; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Lagunes-Guillén, A E; Chávez-Munguía, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    In the genus Entamoeba, actin reorganization is necessary for cyst differentiation; however, its role is still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of actin and encystation-related proteins during Entamoeba invadens encystation. Studied proteins were actin, RhoA, a small GTPase involved through its effectors in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton; Rab11, a protein involved in the transport of encystation vesicles; and enolase, as an encystment vesicles marker. Results showed a high level of polymerized actin accompanied by increased levels of RhoA-GTP during cell rounding and loss of vacuoles. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor, and Y27632, an inhibitor of RhoA activity, reduced encystment in 80%. These inhibitors also blocked cell rounding, disposal of vacuoles, and the proper formation of the cysts wall. At later times, F-actin and Rab11 colocalized with enolase, suggesting that Rab11 could participate in the transport of the cyst wall components through the F-actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is playing a decisive role in determining cell morphology changes and helping with the transport of cell wall components to the cell surface during encystment of E. invadens.

  10. Effect of 0.4 mT power frequency magnetic field on F-actin assembly of CHL cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Keping; Cai Zhiyin; Zhang Yukun; Xia Nuohong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field on the microfilament (F- actin) assembly of Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells. Methods: F-actin were marked with immunohistochemical method, then observed under a confocal microscope. The content of ECFRs in the preparation of the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton was measured with Western-blotting. Results: The stress fiber's of CHL cells decreased after exposure to 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field for 30min, as well as after treatment with epidermal growth factor (ECF) of 50nM. Filopodias appeared at the periphery after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. The EGF receptor mass associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton increased after exposure to magnetic field as well as treatment with EGF. Conclusion: 0.4mT power frequency magnetic field induced assembly of F-actin in CHL cells. The change induced by magnetic field would be related to clustering of EGFR induced by magnetic field and passing the signal down. (authors)

  11. Cortactin Adopts a Globular Conformation and Bundles Actin into Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowieson, Nathan P.; King, Gordon; Cookson, David; Ross, Ian; Huber, Thomas; Hume, David A.; Kobe, Bostjan; Martin, Jennifer L. (Queensland); (Aust. Synch.)

    2008-08-21

    Cortactin is a filamentous actin-binding protein that plays a pivotal role in translating environmental signals into coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. The dynamic reorganization of actin in the cytoskeleton drives processes including changes in cell morphology, cell migration, and phagocytosis. In general, structural proteins of the cytoskeleton bind in the N-terminal region of cortactin and regulatory proteins in the C-terminal region. Previous structural studies have reported an extended conformation for cortactin. It is therefore unclear how cortactin facilitates cross-talk between structural proteins and their regulators. In the study presented here, circular dichroism, chemical cross-linking, and small angle x-ray scattering are used to demonstrate that cortactin adopts a globular conformation, thereby bringing distant parts of the molecule into close proximity. In addition, the actin bundling activity of cortactin is characterized, showing that fully polymerized actin filaments are bundled into sheet-like structures. We present a low resolution structure that suggests how the various domains of cortactin interact to coordinate its array of binding partners at sites of actin branching.

  12. Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 links pathogen perception, defense activation and transcription to cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Porter

    Full Text Available The primary role of Actin-Depolymerizing Factors (ADFs is to sever filamentous actin, generating pointed ends, which in turn are incorporated into newly formed filaments, thus supporting stochastic actin dynamics. Arabidopsis ADF4 was recently shown to be required for the activation of resistance in Arabidopsis following infection with the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst expressing the effector protein AvrPphB. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of RPS5, the cognate resistance protein of AvrPphB, was dramatically reduced in the adf4 mutant, suggesting a link between actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the transcriptional regulation of R-protein activation. By examining the PTI (PAMP Triggered Immunity response in the adf4 mutant when challenged with Pst expressing AvrPphB, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the PTI-specific target gene FRK1 (Flg22-Induced Receptor Kinase 1. These data are in agreement with recent observations demonstrating a requirement for RPS5 in PTI-signaling in the presence of AvrPphB. Furthermore, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-signaling was significantly reduced in the adf4 mutant, while no such reduction was observed in the rps5-1 point mutation under similar conditions. Isoelectric focusing confirmed phosphorylation of ADF4 at serine-6, and additional in planta analyses of ADF4's role in immune signaling demonstrates that nuclear localization is phosphorylation independent, while localization to the actin cytoskeleton is linked to ADF4 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for ADF4 in controlling gene-for-gene resistance activation, as well as MAPK-signaling, via the coordinated regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and R-gene transcription.

  13. Capillary electrophoretic analysis reveals subcellular binding between individual mitochondria and cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cytoskeleton and mitochondria are essential for normal cellular function. An assessment of such interactions is commonly based on bulk analysis of mitochondrial and cytoskeletal markers present in a given sample, which assumes complete binding between these two organelle types. Such measurements are biased because they rarely account for non-bound ‘free’ subcellular species. Here we report on the use of capillary electrophoresis with dual laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to identify, classify, count and quantify properties of individual binding events of mitochondria and cytoskeleton. Mitochondria were fluorescently labeled with DsRed2 while F-actin, a major cytoskeletal component, was fluorescently labeled with Alexa488-phalloidin. In a typical subcellular fraction of L6 myoblasts, 79% of mitochondrial events did not have detectable levels of F-actin, while the rest had on average ~2 zeptomole F-actin, which theoretically represents a ~ 2.5-μm long network of actin filaments per event. Trypsin treatment of L6 subcellular fractions prior to analysis decreased the fraction of mitochondrial events with detectable levels of F-actin, which is expected from digestion of cytoskeletal proteins on the surface of mitochondria. The electrophoretic mobility distributions of the individual events were also used to further distinguish between cytoskeleton-bound from cytoskeleton-free mitochondrial events. The CE-LIF approach described here could be further developed to explore cytoskeleton interactions with other subcellular structures, the effects of cytoskeleton destabilizing drugs, and the progression of viral infections. PMID:21309532

  14. Mechanosensitive kinetic preference of actin-binding protein to actin filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Taiji

    2016-04-01

    The kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments is altered by external forces on the filament. Such an altered kinetic preference is largely responsible for remodeling the actin cytoskeletal structure in response to intracellular forces. During remodeling, actin-binding proteins and actin filaments interact under isothermal conditions, because the cells are homeostatic. In such a temperature homeostatic state, we can rigorously and thermodynamically link the chemical potential of actin-binding proteins to stresses on the actin filaments. From this relationship, we can construct a physical model that explains the force-dependent kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments. To confirm the model, we have analyzed the mechanosensitive alternation of the kinetic preference of Arp2/3 and cofilin to actin filaments. We show that this model captures the qualitative responses of these actin-binding proteins to the forces, as observed experimentally. Moreover, our theoretical results demonstrate that, depending on the structural parameters of the binding region, actin-binding proteins can show different kinetic responses even to the same mechanical signal tension, in which the double-helix nature of the actin filament also plays a critical role in a stretch-twist coupling of the filament.

  15. eNOS S-nitrosylates β-actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-θ at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena García-Ortiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the organization of signaling microclusters at the immune synapse (IS; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show here that nitric oxide (NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS controls the coalescence of protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ at the central supramolecular activation cluster (c-SMAC of the IS. eNOS translocated with the Golgi to the IS and partially colocalized with F-actin around the c-SMAC. This resulted in reduced actin polymerization and centripetal retrograde flow of β-actin and PKC-θ from the lamellipodium-like distal (d-SMAC, promoting PKC-θ activation. Furthermore, eNOS-derived NO S-nitrosylated β-actin on Cys374 and impaired actin binding to profilin-1 (PFN1, as confirmed with the transnitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO. The importance of NO and the formation of PFN1-actin complexes on the regulation of PKC-θ was corroborated by overexpression of PFN1- and actin-binding defective mutants of β-actin (C374S and PFN1 (H119E, respectively, which reduced the coalescence of PKC-θ at the c-SMAC. These findings unveil a novel NO-dependent mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton controls the organization and activation of signaling microclusters at the IS.

  16. Actin dynamics, architecture, and mechanics in cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoin, Laurent; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Sykes, Cécile; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Tight coupling between biochemical and mechanical properties of the actin cytoskeleton drives a large range of cellular processes including polarity establishment, morphogenesis, and motility. This is possible because actin filaments are semi-flexible polymers that, in conjunction with the molecular motor myosin, can act as biological active springs or "dashpots" (in laymen's terms, shock absorbers or fluidizers) able to exert or resist against force in a cellular environment. To modulate their mechanical properties, actin filaments can organize into a variety of architectures generating a diversity of cellular organizations including branched or crosslinked networks in the lamellipodium, parallel bundles in filopodia, and antiparallel structures in contractile fibers. In this review we describe the feedback loop between biochemical and mechanical properties of actin organization at the molecular level in vitro, then we integrate this knowledge into our current understanding of cellular actin organization and its physiological roles.

  17. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of the actin filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Holmes, Kenneth C; Noé, Frank; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-07-01

    Actin is a major structural protein of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and enables cell motility. Here, we present a model of the actin filament (F-actin) that not only incorporates the global structure of the recently published model by Oda et al. but also conserves internal stereochemistry. A comparison is made using molecular dynamics simulation of the model with other recent F-actin models. A number of structural determents such as the protomer propeller angle, the number of hydrogen bonds, and the structural variation among the protomers are analyzed. The MD comparison is found to reflect the evolution in quality of actin models over the last 6 years. In addition, simulations of the model are carried out in states with both ADP or ATP bound and local hydrogen-bonding differences characterized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Formation of actin networks in microfluidic concentration gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja eStrelnikova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties of cytoskeletal networks are contributors in a number of mechanical responses of cells including cellular deformation and locomotion, and are crucial for the proper action of living cells. Local chemical gradients modulate cytoskeletal functionality including the interactions of the cytoskeleton with other cellular components. Actin is a major constituent of the cytoskeleton. Introducing a microfluidic-based platform, we explored the impact of concentration gradients on the formation and structural properties of actin networks. Microfluidics-controlled flow-free steady state experimental conditions allow for the generation of chemical gradients of different profiles, such as linear or step-like. We discovered specific features of actin networks emerging in defined gradients. In particular, we analyzed the effects of spatial conditions on network properties, bending rigidities of network links, and the network elasticity.

  19. Water and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, J F

    2001-07-01

    The diffusion of intracellular fluid and solutes is mainly limited by the density and the geometry of crossbridges between cytoskeletal polymers mediating the formation of an integrated cytoplasmic scaffold. Evidence for specific relationships between water and cytoskeletal polymers arises from the effect of heavy water on their polymerization process in vitro and on the cytoskeleton of living cells. The hydration of cytoskeletal subunits is modified through polymerization, a mechanism which may be involved in the direct contribution of the cytoskeleton to the osmotic properties of cells together with changes of hydration of polymers within networks. The dynamic properties of the hydration layer of cytoskeletal polymers may reflect the repetitive distribution of the surface charges of subunits within the polymer lattice, thus inducing a local and long range ordering of the diffusion flows of water and solutes inside polymer networks. The interactions between subunits in protofilaments and between protofilaments determine the specific viscoelastic properties of each type of polymer, regulated by associated proteins, and the mechanical properties of the cell through the formation of bundles and gels. Individual polymers are interconnected into dynamic networks through crossbridging by structural associated proteins and molecular motors, the activity of which involves cooperative interactions with the polymer lattice and likely the occurence of coordinated modifications of the hydration layer of the polymer surface. The cytoskeletal polymers are polyelectrolytes which constitute a large intracellular surface of condensed anionic charges and form a buffering structure for the sequestration of cations involved in the regulation of intracellular events. This property allows also the association of cytoplasmic enzymes and multimolecular complexes with the cytoskeleton, facilitating metabolic channelling and the localization of these complexes in specific subdomains of the

  20. Cell Adhesions: Actin-Based Modules that Mediate Cell-Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Cell Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Alexia; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Nelson, W. James; Bianchini, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Cell adhesions link cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to each other, and depend on interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Both cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites contain discrete, yet overlapping functional modules. These modules establish physical association with the actin cytoskeleton, locally modulate actin organization and dynamics, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways. Interplay between these modules generates distinct actin architectures that underlie different stages, types, and functions of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions. Actomyosin contractility is required to generate mature, stable adhesions, as well as sense and translate the mechanical properties of the cellular environment to changes in cell organization and behavior. In this chapter we discuss the organization and function of different adhesion modules and how they interact with the actin cytoskeleton. We highlight the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in adhesions, and how adhesion molecules mediate crosstalk between cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion sites. PMID:28679638

  1. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  2. Cytoskeleton-related regulation of primary cilia shortening mediated by melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoshige, Sakura; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hosoba, Kosuke; Hamamoto, Akie; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Yumiko

    2017-11-01

    Primary cilia are specialized microtubule-based organelles. Their importance is highlighted by the gamut of ciliary diseases associated with various syndromes including diabetes and obesity. Primary cilia serve as signaling hubs through selective interactions with ion channels and conventional G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 (MCHR1), a key regulator of feeding, is selectively expressed in neuronal primary cilia in distinct regions of the mouse brain. We previously found that MCH acts on ciliary MCHR1 and induces cilia shortening through a Gi/o-dependent Akt pathway with no cell cycle progression. Many factors can participate in cilia length control. However, the mechanisms for how these molecules are relocated and coordinated to activate cilia shortening are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of cytoskeletal dynamics in regulating MCH-induced cilia shortening using clonal MCHR1-expressing hTERT-RPE1 cells. Pharmacological and biochemical approaches showed that cilia shortening mediated by MCH was associated with increased soluble cytosolic tubulin without changing the total tubulin amount. Enhanced F-actin fiber intensity was also observed in MCH-treated cells. The actions of various pharmacological agents revealed that coordinated actin machinery, especially actin polymerization, was required for MCHR1-mediated cilia shortening. A recent report indicated the existence of actin-regulated machinery for cilia shortening through GPCR agonist-dependent ectosome release. However, our live-cell imaging experiments showed that MCH progressively elicited cilia shortening without exclusion of fluorescence-positive material from the tip. Short cilia phenotypes have been associated with various metabolic disorders. Thus, the present findings may contribute toward better understanding of how the cytoskeleton is involved in the GPCR ligand-triggered cilia shortening with cell mechanical

  3. Single-cell mechanics--An experimental-computational method for quantifying the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartibi, M; Liu, Y X; Liu, G-Y; Komvopoulos, K

    2015-11-01

    The membrane-cytoskeleton system plays a major role in cell adhesion, growth, migration, and differentiation. F-actin filaments, cross-linkers, binding proteins that bundle F-actin filaments to form the actin cytoskeleton, and integrins that connect the actin cytoskeleton network to the cell plasma membrane and extracellular matrix are major cytoskeleton constituents. Thus, the cell cytoskeleton is a complex composite that can assume different shapes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based techniques have been used to measure cytoskeleton material properties without much attention to cell shape. A recently developed surface chemical patterning method for long-term single-cell culture was used to seed individual cells on circular patterns. A continuum-based cell model, which uses as input the force-displacement response obtained with a modified AFM setup and relates the membrane-cytoskeleton elastic behavior to the cell geometry, while treating all other subcellular components suspended in the cytoplasmic liquid (gel) as an incompressible fluid, is presented and validated by experimental results. The developed analytical-experimental methodology establishes a framework for quantifying the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity of live cells. This capability may have immense implications in cell biology, particularly in studies seeking to establish correlations between membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity and cell disease, mortality, differentiation, and migration, and provide insight into cell infiltration through nonwoven fibrous scaffolds. The present method can be further extended to analyze membrane-cytoskeleton viscoelasticity, examine the role of other subcellular components (e.g., nucleus envelope) in cell elasticity, and elucidate the effects of mechanical stimuli on cell differentiation and motility. This is the first study to decouple the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity from cell stiffness and introduce an effective approach for measuring the elastic modulus. The

  4. Electrostatics Control Actin Filament Nucleation and Elongation Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H.; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L.; Lamb, Don C.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  5. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment.

  6. Reorganization of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in association with exocytosis in rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Braun, K; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    The subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in mast cells has been studied by scanning electron microscopy of the internal side of the plasma membrane. Rearrangement of the dense subplasmalemmal network of actin filaments took place following cell activation by compound 48/80 and secretion of histamine. The...

  7. X-rays effects on cytoskeleton mechanics of healthy and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzetta, Valeria; De Menna, Marta; Musella, Ida; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; Quarto, Maria; Netti, Paolo A; Fusco, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in the cytoskeleton structure are frequently found in several diseases and particularly in cancer cells. It is also through the alterations of the cytoskeleton structure that cancer cells acquire most of their common features such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell death evasion, and the gaining of migratory and invasive characteristics. Although radiation therapies currently represent one of the most effective treatments for patients, the effects of X-irradiation on the cytoskeleton architecture are still poorly understood. In this case we investigated the effects, over time of two different doses of X-ray irradiation, on cell cytoskeletons of BALB/c3T3 and Sv40-transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells (SVT2). Biophysical parameters - focal adhesion size, actin bundles organization, and cell mechanical properties - were measured before and after irradiations (1 and 2 Gy) at 24 and 72 h, comparing the cytoskeleton properties of normal and transformed cells. The differences, before and after X-irradiation, were revealed in terms of cell morphology and deformability. Finally, such parameters were correlated to the alterations of cytoskeleton dynamics by evaluating cell adhesion at the level of focal adhesion and cytoskeleton mechanics. X-irradiation modifies the structure and the activity of cell cytoskeleton in a dose-dependent manner. For transformed cells, radiation sensitively increased cell adhesion, as indicated by paxillin-rich focal adhesion, flat morphology, a well-organized actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular mechanics. On the other hand, for normal fibroblasts IR had negligible effects on cytoskeletal and adhesive protein organization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Actin dynamics in mouse fibroblasts in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Maarten J. A.; Bijvelt, Jose J.; Boonstra, Johannes

    2007-09-01

    After stimulating with the growth factor PDGF, cells exhibit abundant membrane ruffling and other morphological changes under normal gravity conditions. These morphological changes are largely determined by the actin microfilament system. Now these actin dynamics were studied under microgravity conditions in mouse fibroblasts during the DELTA mission. The aim of the present study was to describe the actin morphology in detail, to establish the effect of PDGF on actin morphology and to study the role of several actin-interacting proteins involved in introduced actin dynamics in microgravity. Identical experiments were conducted at 1G on earth as a reference. No results in microgravity were obtained due to a combination of malfunctioning hardware and unfulfilled temperature requirements.

  9. Fungicidal activity of copper-sputtered flexible surfaces under dark and actinic light against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Myriam K S; Rtimi, Sami; Kiwi, John; Pulgarin, César; Entenza, José M; Bizzini, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Candida spp. are able to survive on hospital surfaces and causes healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). Since surface cleaning and disinfecting interventions are not totally effective to eliminate Candida spp., new approaches should be devised. Copper (Cu) has widely recognized antifungal activity and the use of Cu-sputtered surfaces has recently been proposed to curb the spread of HCAIs. Moreover, the activity of Cu under the action of actinic light remains underexplored. We investigated the antifungal activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces (Cu-PES) against azole-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata under dark and low intensity visible light irradiation (4.65mW/cm 2 ). The surface properties of Cu-PES photocatalysts were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Under dark, Cu-PES showed a fungicidal activity (≥3log 10 CFU reduction of the initial inoculum) against both C. albicans DSY296 and C. glabrata DSY565 leading to a reduction of the starting inoculum of 3.1 and 3.0log 10 CFU, respectively, within 60min of exposure. Under low intensity visible light irradiation, Cu-PES exhibited an accelerated fungicidal activity against both strains with a reduction of 3.0 and 3.4log 10 CFU, respectively, within 30min of exposure. This effect was likely due to the semiconductor Cu 2 O/CuO charge separation. The decrease in cell viability of the two Candida strains under dark and light conditions correlated with the progressive loss of membrane integrity. These results indicate that Cu-PES represent a promising strategy for decreasing the colonization of surfaces by yeasts and that actinic light can improve its self-disinfecting activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Actin polymerization drives polar growth in Arabidopsis root hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Luis Alfredo Bañuelos; Sanchez, Rosana; Hernandez-Barrera, Alejandra; Zepeda-Jazo, Isaac; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen; Torres, Luis Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the actin cytoskeleton is a prime regulator of cell polarity, growth, and cytoplasmic streaming. Tip growth, as observed in root hairs, caulonema, and pollen tubes, is governed by many factors, including calcium gradients, exocytosis and endocytosis, reactive oxygen species, and the cytoskeleton. Several studies indicate that the polymerization of G-actin into F-actin also contributes to tip growth. The structure and function of F-actin within the apical dome is variable, ranging from a dense meshwork to sparse single filaments. The presence of multiple F-actin structures in the elongating apices of tip-growing cells suggests that this cytoskeletal array is tightly regulated. We recently reported that sublethal concentrations of fluorescently labeled cytochalasin could be used to visualize the distribution of microfilament plus ends using fluorescence microscopy, and found that the tip region of the growing root hair cells of a legume plant exhibits a clear response to the nodulation factors secreted by Rhizobium. (1) In this current work, we expanded our analysis using confocal microscopy and demonstrated the existence of highly dynamic fluorescent foci along Arabidopsis root hair cells. Furthermore, we show that the strongest fluorescence signal accumulates in the tip dome of the growing root hair and seems to be in close proximity to the apical plasma membrane. Based on these findings, we propose that actin polymerization within the dome of growing root hair cells regulates polar growth.

  11. Liquid droplets of cross-linked actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayan; Gardel, Margaret

    Soft materials constructed from biomolecules self-assemble into a myriad of structures that work in concert to support cell physiology. One critical soft material is the actin cytoskeleton, a viscoelastic gel composed of cross-linked actin filaments. Although actin networks are primarily known for their elastic properties, which are crucial to regulating cell mechanics, the viscous behavior has been theorized to enable shape changes and flows. We experimentally demonstrate a fluid phase of cross-linked actin, where cross-linker condenses dilute short actin filaments into spindle-shaped droplets, or tactoids. Tactoids have shape dynamics consistent with a continuum model of liquid crystal droplets. The cross-linker, which acts as a long range attractive interaction, analogous to molecular cohesion, controls the tactoid shape and dynamics, which reports on the liquid's interfacial tension and viscosity. We investigate how the cross-linker properties and filament length influence the liquid properties. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism to control organization of the actin cytoskeleton and provide insight into design principles for complex, macromolecular liquid phases.

  12. Thematic Minireview Series: The State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert S; Fowler, Velia M

    2015-07-10

    The study of cytoskeletal polymers has been an active area of research for more than 70 years. However, despite decades of pioneering work by some of the brightest scientists in biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology, many central questions regarding the polymers themselves are only now starting to be answered. For example, although it has long been appreciated that the actin cytoskeleton provides contractility and couples biochemical responses with mechanical stresses in cells, only recently have we begun to understand how the actin polymer itself responds to mechanical loads. Likewise, although it has long been appreciated that the microtubule cytoskeleton can be post-translationally modified, only recently have the enzymes responsible for these modifications been characterized, so that we can now begin to understand how these modifications alter the polymerization and regulation of microtubule structures. Even the septins in eukaryotes and the cytoskeletal polymers of prokaryotes have yielded new insights due to recent advances in microscopy techniques. In this thematic series of minireviews, these topics are covered by some of the very same scientists who generated these recent insights, thereby providing us with an overview of the State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. ACTIN BINDING PROTEIN 29 from Lilium pollen plays an important role in dynamic actin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Huang, Xi; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qinwen; Hussey, Patrick J; Ren, Haiyun

    2007-06-01

    Villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily proteins have been shown to function in tip-growing plant cells. However, genes encoding gelsolin/fragmin do not exist in the Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) databases, and it is possible that these proteins are encoded by villin mRNA splicing variants. We cloned a 1006-bp full-length cDNA from Lilium longiflorum that encodes a 263-amino acid predicted protein sharing 100% identity with the N terminus of 135-ABP (Lilium villin) except for six C-terminal amino acids. The deduced 29-kD protein, Lilium ACTIN BINDING PROTEIN29 (ABP29), contains only the G1 and G2 domains and is the smallest identified member of the villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily. The purified recombinant ABP29 accelerates actin nucleation, blocks barbed ends, and severs actin filaments in a Ca(2+)- and/or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-regulated manner in vitro. Microinjection of the protein into stamen hair cells disrupted transvacuolar strands whose backbone is mainly actin filament bundles. Transient expression of ABP29 by microprojectile bombardment of lily pollen resulted in actin filament fragmentation and inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Our results suggest that ABP29 is a splicing variant of Lilium villin and a member of the villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily, which plays important roles in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination and tube growth.

  14. Actin, actin-related proteins and profilin in diatoms: a comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumeier, Charlotte; Polinski, Ellen; Menzel, Diedrik

    2015-10-01

    Diatoms are heterokont unicellular algae with a widespread distribution throughout all aquatic habitats. Research on diatoms has advanced significantly over the last decade due to available genetic transformation methods and publicly available genome databases. Yet up to now, proteins involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton in diatoms are largely unknown. Consequently, this work focuses on actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs) encoded in the diatom genomes of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Thalassiosira oceanica, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Our comparative genomic study revealed that most diatoms possess only a single conventional actin and a small set of ARPs. Among these are the highly conserved cytoplasmic Arp1 protein and the nuclear Arp4 as well as Arp6. Diatom genomes contain genes coding for two structurally different homologues of Arp4 that might serve specific functions. All diatom species examined here lack ARP2 and ARP3 proteins, suggesting that diatoms are not capable of forming the Arp2/3 complex, which is essential in most eukaryotes for actin filament branching and plus-end dynamics. Interestingly, none of the sequenced representatives of the Bacillariophyta phylum code for profilin. Profilin is an essential actin-binding protein regulating the monomer actin pool and is involved in filament plus-end dynamics. This is the first report of organisms not containing profilin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The F-actin modifier villin regulates insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis downstream of islet cell autoantigen 512

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mziaut

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Our findings show that villin controls the size of the F-actin cages restricting SGs and, thus, regulates their dynamics and availability for exocytosis. Evidence that villin acts downstream of Ica512 also indicates that SGs directly influence the remodeling properties of the cortical actin cytoskeleton for tight control of insulin secretion.

  16. MCLR-induced PP2A inhibition and subsequent Rac1 inactivation and hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins are involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement in SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Jinghui; Lin, Shuyan; Wang, Beilei; Xing, Mingluan; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria-derived toxin microcystin-LR (MCLR) has been widely investigated in its effects on normal cells, there is little information concerning its effects on cancer cells. In the present study, the SMMC-7721 human liver cancer cell line treated with MCLR was used to investigate the change of PP2A, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation levels of PP2A substrates that related with cytoskeleton stability and explored underlying mechanisms. Here, we confirmed that MCLR entered into SMMC-7721 cells, bound to PP2A/C subunit and inhibited the activity of PP2A. The upregulation of phosphorylation of the PP2A/C subunit and PP2A regulation protein α4, as well as the change in the association of PP2A/C with α4, were responsible for the decrease in PP2A activity. Another novel finding is that the rearrangement of filamentous actin and microtubules led by MCLR may attribute to the increased phosphorylation of HSP27, VASP and cofilin due to PP2A inhibition. As a result of weakened interactions with PP2A and alterations in its subcellular localization, Rac1 may contribute to the cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by MCLR in SMMC-7721 cells. The current paper presents the first report demonstrating the characteristic of PP2A in MCLR exposed cancer cells, which were more susceptible to MCLR compared with the normal cell lines we previously found, which may be owing to the absence of some type of compensatory mechanisms. The hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins and Rac1 inactivation which were induced by inhibition of PP2A are shown to be involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of selenium on the protection of myocardial cells from injuries induced by overloaded reactive oxygen species, and on the expression of actin in myocardial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Tan, Wuhong; Zhu, Yanhe; Wang, Lixin; Zhai, Lianbang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of selenium on the protection of myocardial cells from injuries induced by H2O2 and on the expression of alpha-actin and beta-actin in myocardial cells. Myocardial cells of suckling mice in the culture were divided into six groups: Controls group (without H2O2 or Se), H2O2 group, Se 0.05 micromol/ L group, Se 0.5 micromol/L group, Se 1.0 micromol/L group and Se 5.0 micromol/L group. The ultrastructure of myocardial cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the LDH and MDA contents in the culture media were determined by colorimetry. The expression of alpha-actin and beta-actin in myocardial cells was detected by Western blot. The injury of myocardial cells observed under TEM was attenuated in the 0.5 micromol/L Se group. The LDH and MDA contents in the culture media of the Se groups was higher than the control group (P contents in the 0.5 micromol/L Se group were the lowest in all Se groups. The expression level of alpha-actin and beta-actin in the 0.5 micromol/L Se group is higher than that in the H2O2 group, even higher than the control group. The protective effect of Se on myocardial cells damaged by H2O2 was better in the 0.5 micromol/ LSe group, which could maintain the expression of alpha-actin and beta-actin, even induce the remolding of cytoskeleton proteins.

  18. Taking control: reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by Chlamydia [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wesolowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss the machinery used by Chlamydia to coordinate the reorganization of actin and microtubules.

  19. ADF/cofilin-mediated actin retrograde flow directs neurite formation in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin C; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee; Jacob, Sonja; Tahirovic, Sabina; Dupraz, Sebastian; Stern, Sina; Garvalov, Boyan K; Gurniak, Christine; Shaw, Alisa E; Meyn, Liane; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Bamburg, James R; Small, J Victor; Witke, Walter; Bradke, Frank

    2012-12-20

    Neurites are the characteristic structural element of neurons that will initiate brain connectivity and elaborate information. Early in development, neurons are spherical cells but this symmetry is broken through the initial formation of neurites. This fundamental step is thought to rely on actin and microtubule dynamics. However, it is unclear which aspects of the complex actin behavior control neuritogenesis and which molecular mechanisms are involved. Here, we demonstrate that augmented actin retrograde flow and protrusion dynamics facilitate neurite formation. Our data indicate that a single family of actin regulatory proteins, ADF/Cofilin, provides the required control of actin retrograde flow and dynamics to form neurites. In particular, the F-actin severing activity of ADF/Cofilin organizes space for the protrusion and bundling of microtubules, the backbone of neurites. Our data reveal how ADF/Cofilin organizes the cytoskeleton to drive actin retrograde flow and thus break the spherical shape of neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical stimulation induces formin-dependent assembly of a perinuclear actin rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaowei; Li, Qingsen; Mogilner, Alex; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Shivashankar, G V

    2015-05-19

    Cells constantly sense and respond to mechanical signals by reorganizing their actin cytoskeleton. Although a number of studies have explored the effects of mechanical stimuli on actin dynamics, the immediate response of actin after force application has not been studied. We designed a method to monitor the spatiotemporal reorganization of actin after cell stimulation by local force application. We found that force could induce transient actin accumulation in the perinuclear region within ∼ 2 min. This actin reorganization was triggered by an intracellular Ca(2+) burst induced by force application. Treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 recapitulated the force-induced perinuclear actin remodeling. Blocking of actin polymerization abolished this process. Overexpression of Klarsicht, ANC-1, Syne Homology (KASH) domain to displace nesprins from the nuclear envelope did not abolish Ca(2+)-dependent perinuclear actin assembly. However, the endoplasmic reticulum- and nuclear membrane-associated inverted formin-2 (INF2), a potent actin polymerization activator (mutations of which are associated with several genetic diseases), was found to be important for perinuclear actin assembly. The perinuclear actin rim structure colocalized with INF2 on stimulation, and INF2 depletion resulted in attenuation of the rim formation. Our study suggests that cells can respond rapidly to external force by remodeling perinuclear actin in a unique Ca(2+)- and INF2-dependent manner.

  1. Micropatterned Azopolymer Surfaces Modulate Cell Mechanics and Cytoskeleton Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Ventre, Maurizio; Cavalli, Silvia; Radmacher, Manfred; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-30

    Physical and chemical characteristics of materials are important regulators of cell behavior. In particular, cell elasticity is a fundamental parameter that reflects the state of a cell. Surface topography finely modulates cell fate and function via adhesion mediated signaling and cytoskeleton generated forces. However, how topographies alter cell mechanics is still unclear. In this work we have analyzed the mechanical properties of peripheral and nuclear regions of NIH-3T3 cells on azopolymer substrates with different topographic patterns. Micrometer scale patterns in the form of parallel ridges or square lattices of surface elevations were encoded on light responsive azopolymer films by means of contactless optical methods. Cell mechanics was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells and consequently the cell cytoskeleton were oriented along the linear patterns affecting cytoskeletal structures, e.g., formation of actin stress fibers. Our data demonstrate that topographic substrate patterns are recognized by cells and mechanical information is transferred by the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, cytoskeleton generated forces deform the nucleus, changing its morphology that appears to be related to different mechanical properties in the nuclear region.

  2. Characterization of mRNA-Cytoskeleton Interactions In Situ Using FMTRIP and Proximity Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeenah; Lifland, Aaron W.; Alonas, Eric J.; Zurla, Chiara; Santangelo, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated an association between the cytoskeleton and mRNA, as well as the asymmetric distribution of mRNA granules within the cell in response to various signaling events. It is likely that the extensive cytoskeletal network directs mRNA transport and localization, with different cytoskeletal elements having their own specific roles. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes in the interactions between the mRNA and the cytoskeleton as a response to a stimulus, a technique that can visualize and quantify these changes across a population of cells while capturing cell-to-cell variations is required. Here, we demonstrate a method for imaging and quantifying mRNA-cytoskeleton interactions on a per cell basis with single-interaction sensitivity. Using a proximity ligation assay with flag-tagged multiply-labeled tetravalent RNA imaging probes (FMTRIP), we quantified interactions between mRNAs and β-tubulin, vimentin, or filamentous actin (F-actin) for two different mRNAs, poly(A) + and β-actin mRNA, in two different cell types, A549 cells and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). We found that the mRNAs interacted predominantly with F-actin (>50% in HDF, >20% in A549 cells), compared to β-tubulin (cell types. We then quantified changes in these interactions in response to two perturbations, F-actin depolymerization and arsenite-induced oxidative stress, both of which alter either the cytoskeleton itself and mRNA localization. Both perturbations led to a decrease in poly(A) + mRNA interactions with F-actin and an increase in the interactions with microtubules, in a time dependent manner. PMID:24040294

  3. Metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of PlexinD1 and its sequestration to actin rods in the motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademacher, Sebastian; Verheijen, Bert M.; Hensel, Niko; Peters, Miriam; Bora, Gamze; Brandes, Gudrun; de Sá, Renata Vieira; Heidrich, Natascha; Fischer, Silke; Brinkmann, Hella; van der Pol, W. Ludo; Wirth, Brunhilde; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Claus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cytoskeletal rearrangement during axon growth is mediated by guidance receptors and their ligands which act either as repellent, attractant or both. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is disturbed in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly

  4. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  5. During capacitation in bull spermatozoa, actin and PLC-ζ undergo dynamic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Flores, Itzayana; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Palma-Lara, Icela; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; de Lourdes Juárez-Mosqueda, María

    2017-10-01

    The migration pattern of sperm-specific phospholipase C-ζ (PLC-ζ) was followed and the role of this migration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics was determined. We investigated whether PLC-ζ exits sperm, opening the possibility that PLC-ζ is the 'spermatozoidal activator factor' (SOAF). As capacitation progresses, the highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton bound different proteins to regulate their location and activity. PLC-ζ participation at the start of fertilization was established. In non-capacitated spermatozoa, PLC-ζ is in the perinuclear theca (PT) and in the flagellum, therefore it was decided to determine whether bovine sperm actin interacts with PLC-ζ to direct its relocation as it progresses from non-capacitated (NC) to capacitated (C) and to acrosome-reacted (AR) spermatozoa. PLC-ζ interacted with actin in NC spermatozoa (100%), PLC-ζ levels decreased in C spermatozoa to 32% and in AR spermatozoa to 57% (P < 0.001). The level of actin/PLC-ζ interaction was twice as high in G-actin (P < 0.001) that reflected an increase in affinity. Upon reaching the AR spermatozoa, PLC-ζ was partially released from the cell. It was concluded that actin cytoskeleton dynamics control the migration of PLC-ζ during capacitation and leads to its partial release at AR spermatozoa. It is suggested that liberated PLC-ζ could reach the egg and favour fertilization.

  6. The cytoskeleton as a novel therapeutic target for old neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eira, Jessica; Silva, Catarina Santos; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Liz, Márcia Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Cytoskeleton defects, including alterations in microtubule stability, in axonal transport as well as in actin dynamics, have been characterized in several unrelated neurodegenerative conditions. These observations suggest that defects of cytoskeleton organization may be a common feature contributing to neurodegeneration. In line with this hypothesis, drugs targeting the cytoskeleton are currently being tested in animal models and in human clinical trials, showing promising effects. Drugs that modulate microtubule stability, inhibitors of posttranslational modifications of cytoskeletal components, specifically compounds affecting the levels of tubulin acetylation, and compounds targeting signaling molecules which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics, constitute the mostly addressed therapeutic interventions aiming at preventing cytoskeleton damage in neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will discuss in a critical perspective the current knowledge on cytoskeleton damage pathways as well as therapeutic strategies designed to revert cytoskeleton-related defects mainly focusing on the following neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Root cytoskeleton: its role in perception of and response to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    We have critically evaluated the possible functions of the plant cytoskeleton in root gravisensing and graviresponse and discussed the evidence that microtubules (MTs) and actin microfilaments (MFs) do not control differential cell growth during bending of roots. On the other hand, MF and MT networks are envisaged to participate in gravisensing because of the mechanical properties of the cytoskeletal structures that interconnect plant cell organelles with the plasma membrane. In restrained gravisensing, forces are suggested to be transmitted to membranes because large-scale gravity-dependent repositioning of organelles is effectively prevented due to the cytoskeleton-mediated anchorage of their envelopes at the plasma membrane. From the cytoskeletal point of view, we can also envisage an unrestrained gravity sensing when cytoskeletal tethers are not strong enough to preserve the tight control over distribution of organelles and the latter, if heavy enough, are allowed to sediment towards the physical bottom of cells. This situation obviously occurs in root cap statocytes because these uniquely organized cells are depleted of prominent actin MF bundles, endoplasmic MT arrays, and ER elements in their internal cytoplasm. Nevertheless, indirect evidence clearly indicates that sedimented root cap statoliths are enmeshed within fine but dynamic MF networks and that their behaviour is obviously under, at least partial, cytoskeletal control. The actomyosin-enriched domain among and around amyloplasts is proposed to increase the perception of gravity due to the grouping effect of sedimenting statoliths. Cytoskeletal links between myosin-rich statoliths, and cell peripheries well equipped with dense cortical MTs, membrane-associated cytoskeleton, as well as with ER elements, would allow efficient restrained gravisensing only at the statocyte cell cortex. As a consequence of cytoskeletal depletion in the internal statocyte cytoplasm and bulk sedimentation of large

  8. Microscale Mechanics of Actin Networks During Dynamic Assembly and Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmessa, Bekele; Robertson-Anderson, Rae; Ross, Jennifer; Nguyen, Dan; Saleh, Omar

    Actin is one of the key components of the cytoskeleton, enabling cells to move and divide while maintaining shape by dynamic polymerization, dissociation and crosslinking. Actin polymerization and network formation is driven by ATP hydrolysis and varies depending on the concentrations of actin monomers and crosslinking proteins. The viscoelastic properties of steady-state actin networks have been well-characterized, yet the mechanical properties of these non-equilibrium systems during dynamic assembly and disassembly remain to be understood. We use semipermeable microfluidic devices to induce in situ dissolution and re-polymerization of entangled and crosslinked actin networks, by varying ATP concentrations in real-time, while measuring the mechanical properties during disassembly and re-assembly. We use optical tweezers to sinusoidally oscillate embedded microspheres and measure the resulting force at set time-intervals and in different regions of the network during cyclic assembly/disassembly. We determine the time-dependent viscoelastic properties of non-equilibrium network intermediates and the reproducibility and homogeneity of network formation and dissolution. Results inform the role that cytoskeleton reorganization plays in the dynamic multifunctional mechanics of cells. NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1255446) and a Scialog Collaborative Innovation Award funded by Research Corporation for Scientific Advancement (Grant No. 24192).

  9. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  10. Disruption of Spectrin-Like Cytoskeleton in Differentiating Keratinocytes by PKCδ Activation Is Associated with Phosphorylated Adducin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Masci, Paul P.; Lavin, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505) activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505) phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex. PMID:22163289

  11. Microscale force response and morphology of tunable co-polymerized cytoskeleton networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Shea; Yadav, Vikrant; Ross, Jennifer L.; Robertson-Anderson, Rae M.

    The cytoskeleton is largely comprised of actin and microtubules that entangle and crosslink to form complex networks and structures, giving rise to nonlinear multifunctional mechanics in cells. The relative concentrations of semiflexible actin filaments and rigid microtubules tune cytoskeleton function, allowing cells to move and divide while maintaining rigidity and resilience. To elucidate this complex tunability, we create in vitro composites of co-polymerized actin and microtubules with actin:microtubule molar ratios of 0:1-1:0. We use optical tweezers and confocal microscopy to characterize the nonlinear microscale force response and morphology of the composites. We optically drag a microsphere 30 μm through varying actin-microtubule networks at 10 μm/s and 20 μm/s, and measure the force the networks exerts to resist the strain and the force relaxation following strain. We use dual-color confocal microscopy to image distinctly-labeled filaments in the networks, and characterize the integration of actin and microtubules, network connectivity, and filament rigidity. We find that increasing the fraction of microtubules in networks non-monotonically increases elasticity and stiffness, and hinders force relaxation by suppressing network mobility and fluctuations. NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1255446), Scialog Collaborative Innovation Award funded by Research Corporation for Scientific Advancement (Grant No. 24192).

  12. Integration of actin dynamics and cell adhesion by a three-dimensional, mechanosensitive molecular clutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lindsay B; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-08-01

    During cell migration, the forces generated in the actin cytoskeleton are transmitted across transmembrane receptors to the extracellular matrix or other cells through a series of mechanosensitive, regulable protein-protein interactions termed the molecular clutch. In integrin-based focal adhesions, the proteins forming this linkage are organized into a conserved three-dimensional nano-architecture. Here we discuss how the physical interactions between the actin cytoskeleton and focal-adhesion-associated molecules mediate force transmission from the molecular clutch to the extracellular matrix.

  13. Mip1 associates with both the Mps1 kinase and actin and is required for cell cortex stability and anaphase spindle positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mps1 family of protein kinases contributes to cell cycle control by regulating multiple microtubule cytoskeleton activities. We have uncovered a new Mps1 substrate that provides a novel link between Mps1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a conserved human Mps1 (hMps1) interacting pr...

  14. A novel function of twins, B subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, in regulating actin polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-An Yeh

    Full Text Available Actin is an important component of the cytoskeleton and its polymerization is delicately regulated by several kinases and phosphatases. Heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a potent phosphatase that is crucial for cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton arrangement, and neurodegeneration. To facilitate these varied functions, different regulators determine the different targets of PP2A. Among these regulators of PP2A, the B subunits in particular may be involved in cytoskeleton arrangement. However, little is known about the role of PP2A in actin polymerization in vivo. Using sophisticated fly genetics, we demonstrated a novel function for the fly B subunit, twins, to promote actin polymerization in varied tissue types, suggesting a broad and conserved effect. Furthermore, our genetic data suggest that twins may act upstream of the actin-polymerized-proteins, Moesin and Myosin-light-chain, and downstream of Rho to promote actin polymerization. This work opens a new avenue for exploring the biological functions of a PP2A regulator, twins, in cytoskeleton regulation.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric field induced cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage adversely impact cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, M; Fox, P; Buescher, S; Kolb, J

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) on three human cell lines and demonstrated cell shrinkage, breakdown of the cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and chromosomal telomere damage. There was a differential response between cell types coinciding with cell survival. Jurkat cells showed cytoskeleton, nuclear membrane and telomere damage that severely impacted cell survival compared to two adherent cell lines. Interestingly, disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in adherent cells prior to nsPEF exposure significantly reduced cell survival. We conclude that nsPEF applications are able to induce damage to the cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane. Telomere sequences, regions that tether and stabilize DNA to the nuclear membrane, are severely compromised as measured by a pan-telomere probe. Internal pore formation following nsPEF applications has been described as a factor in induced cell death. Here we suggest that nsPEF induced physical changes to the cell in addition to pore formation need to be considered as an alternative method of cell death. We suggest nsPEF electrochemical induced depolymerization of actin filaments may account for cytoskeleton and nuclear membrane anomalies leading to sensitization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Axon Initial Segment Cytoskeleton: Architecture, Development, and Role in Neuron Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven L; Svitkina, Tatyana M

    2016-01-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized structure in neurons that resides in between axonal and somatodendritic domains. The localization of the AIS in neurons is ideal for its two major functions: it serves as the site of action potential firing and helps to maintain neuron polarity. It has become increasingly clear that the AIS cytoskeleton is fundamental to AIS functions. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the AIS cytoskeleton with particular interest in its unique architecture and role in maintenance of neuron polarity. The AIS cytoskeleton is divided into two parts, submembrane and cytoplasmic, based on localization, function, and molecular composition. Recent studies using electron and subdiffraction fluorescence microscopy indicate that submembrane cytoskeletal components (ankyrin G, βIV-spectrin, and actin filaments) form a sophisticated network in the AIS that is conceptually similar to the polygonal/triangular network of erythrocytes, with some important differences. Components of the AIS cytoplasmic cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin filaments, and neurofilaments) reside deeper within the AIS shaft and display structural features distinct from other neuronal domains. We discuss how the AIS submembrane and cytoplasmic cytoskeletons contribute to different aspects of AIS polarity function and highlight recent advances in understanding their AIS cytoskeletal assembly and stability.

  17. The role of apical cell-cell junctions and associated cytoskeleton in mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluysmans, Sophie; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Spadaro, Domenica; Shah, Jimit; Rouaud, Florian; Citi, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterised by several types of specialised cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions (AJ) play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signalling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and AJ to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton. In the last two decades, specific cytoskeleton-associated junctional molecules have been implicated in mechanotransduction, revealing the existence of multimolecular complexes that can sense mechanical cues and translate them into adaptation to tensile forces and biochemical signals. Here, we summarise the current knowledge about the machineries that link tight and AJ to actin filaments and microtubules, and the molecular basis for mechanotransduction at epithelial and endothelial AJ. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, S; Altamura, M M

    2007-04-01

    Osmotin is a pathogenesis-related protein exhibiting cryoprotective functions. Our aim was to understand whether it is involved in the cold acclimation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a frost-sensitive species lacking dormancy. We exposed olive trees expressing tobacco osmotin gene under the 35S promoter (35S:osm) [in the same manner as wild type (wt) plants] to cold shocks in the presence/absence of cold acclimation, and monitored changes in programmed cell death (PCD), cytoskeleton, and calcium ([Ca2+]c) signalling. In the wt, osmotin was immunolocalized only in cold-acclimated plants, and in the tissues showing PCD. In the 35S:osm clones, the protein was detected also in the non-acclimated plants, and always in the tissues exhibiting PCD. In the non-acclimated wt protoplasts exposed to cold shock, a transient decrease in phallotoxin signal suggests a temporary disassembly of F-actin, a transient increase occurred instead in 35S:osm protoplasts exposed to the same shock. Transient increases in [Ca2+]c were observed only in the wt protoplasts. However, when F-actin was depolymerized by cytochalasin or latrunculin, and microtubules by colchicine, increase in [Ca2+]c also occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. Successive cold shocks caused transient rises in [Ca2+]c and transient decreases in the phallotoxin signal in wt protoplasts. No change occurred in [Ca2+]c occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. The phallotoxin signal transiently increased at the first shock, but did not change after the subsequent shocks, and an overall signal reduction occurred with shock repetition. Following acclimation, no cold shock-induced change in [Ca2+]c levels and F-actin signal occurred either in wt or 35S:osm protoplasts. The results show that osmotin is positively involved in the acclimation-related PCD, in blocking the cold-induced calcium signalling, and in affecting cytoskeleton in response to cold stimuli.

  19. Micropatterned Macrophage Analysis Reveals Global Cytoskeleton Constraints Induced by Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trescos, Yannick; Tessier, Emilie; Rougeaux, Clémence; Goossens, Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretes the edema toxin (ET) that disrupts the cellular physiology of endothelial and immune cells, ultimately affecting the adherens junction integrity of blood vessels that in turn leads to edema. The effects of ET on the cytoskeleton, which is critical in cell physiology, have not been described thus far on macrophages. In this study, we have developed different adhesive micropatterned surfaces (L and crossbow) to control the shape of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and primary peritoneal macrophages. We found that macrophage F-actin cytoskeleton adopts a specific polar organization slightly different from classical human HeLa cells on the micropatterns. Moreover, ET induced a major quantitative reorganization of F-actin within 16 h with a collapse at the nonadhesive side of BMDMs along the nucleus. There was an increase in size and deformation into a kidney-like shape, followed by a decrease in size that correlates with a global cellular collapse. The collapse of F-actin was correlated with a release of focal adhesion on the patterns and decreased cell size. Finally, the cell nucleus was affected by actin reorganization. By using this technology, we could describe many previously unknown macrophage cellular dysfunctions induced by ET. This novel tool could be used to analyze more broadly the effects of toxins and other virulence factors that target the cytoskeleton. PMID:26015478

  20. The rpg4/Rpg5 stem rust resistance locus in barley: resistance genes and cytoskeleton dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, Robert; Steffenson, Brian J; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2009-04-01

    Two closely linked resistance genes, rpg4 and Rpg5, conferring resistance to several races of Puccinia graminis, were cloned and characterized. The Rpg5 gene confers resistance to an isolate of Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis (Pgs), while rpg4 confers resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Rpg5 is a novel gene containing nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat domains in combination with a serine threonine protein kinase domain. High-resolution mapping plus allele and recombinant sequencing identified the rpg4 gene, which encodes an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein (ADF2). Resistance against the Pgt races QCCJ, MCCF, TTKSK (aka Ug99) and RCRS requires both Rpg5 and rpg4, while Rpg5 alone confers resistance to Pgs isolate 92-MN-90. The dependency on the actin modifying protein ADF2 indicates cytoskeleton reorganization or redirection plays a role in pathogen-host interactions. Rpg5 may interact with ADF2 to activate or deactivate its function in the resistance response. Alternatively, Rpg5 could initiate signal transduction leading to resistance in response to detecting ADF2 protein modification. Pgt may redirect the actin cytoskeleton by inducing modifications of ADF2. The redirection of actin could possibly enable the pathogen to develop a haustoria-plant cell cytoskeleton interface for acquisition of nutrients.

  1. CecropinXJ, a silkworm antimicrobial peptide, induces cytoskeleton disruption in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijie; Wu, Yanling; Kang, Su; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exist in the non-specific immune system of organism and participate in the innate host defense of each species. CecropinXJ, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, possesses potent anticancer activity and acts preferentially on cancer cells instead of normal cells, but the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by cecropinXJ remains largely unknown. This study was performed to investigate the cytoskeleton-disrupting effects of cecropinXJ on human esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca109 using scanning electron microscopy observation, fluorescence imaging, cell migration and invasion assays, western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The electronic microscope and fluorescence imaging observation suggested that cecropinXJ could result in morphological changes and induce damage to microtubules and actin of Eca109 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration and invasion assays demonstrated that cecropinXJ could inhibit migration and invasion of tumor cells. Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis showed that there was obvious correlation between microtubule depolymerization and actin polymerization induced by cecropinXJ. Moreover, cecropinXJ might also cause decreased expression of α-actin, β-actin, γ-actin, α-tubulin, and β-tubulin genes in concentration- and time-dependent manners. In summary, this study indicates that cecropinXJ triggers cytotoxicity in Eca109 cells through inducing the cytoskeleton destruction and regulating the expression of cytoskeleton proteins. This cecropinXJ-mediated cytoskeleton-destruction effect is instrumental in our understanding of the detailed action of antimicrobial peptides in human cancer cells and cecropinXJ might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

  2. A Gly65Val substitution in an actin, GhACT_LI1, disrupts cell polarity and F-actin organization resulting in dwarf, lintless cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Gregory N; Fang, David D; Turley, Rickie B; Florane, Christopher B; Li, Ping; Mattison, Christopher P; Naoumkina, Marina

    2017-04-01

    Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon lintless Li 1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865). We observed altered cell morphology and disrupted organization of F-actin in Li 1 plant cells by confocal microscopy. Mutant leaf cells lacked interdigitation of lobes and F-actin did not uniformly decorate the nuclear envelope. While wild-type lint fiber trichome cells contained long longitudinal actin cables, the short Li 1 fiber cells accumulated disoriented transverse cables. The polymerization-defective Gly65Val allele in Li 1 plants likely disrupts processive elongation of F-actin, resulting in a disorganized cytoskeleton and reduced cell polarity, which likely accounts for the dominant gene action and diverse pleiotropic effects associated with the Li 1 mutation. Lastly, we propose a model to account for these effects, and underscore the roles of actin organization in determining plant cell polarity, shape and plant growth. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Reorganization of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in association with exocytosis in rat mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E H; Braun, K; Johansen, Torben

    1989-01-01

    The subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton in mast cells has been studied by scanning electron microscopy of the internal side of the plasma membrane. Rearrangement of the dense subplasmalemmal network of actin filaments took place following cell activation by compound 48/80 and secretion of histamine....... The rearrangement was a withdrawal of the subplasmalemmal cytoskeleton from the exocytotic sites and the development of bare, filament-free areas around the sites. In calcium-depleted mast cells we demonstrated a dense network that was difficult to break. Activation of the calcium-depleted cells by compound 48...

  4. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeletonactin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  5. Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenska, Joanna; Kang, Yongsung; Greenberg, Jean T

    2014-01-01

    Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Pseudomonas syringae, a plant extracellular pathogen, injects HopW1 effector into host cells to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and reduce vesicle movement in order to elude defense responses. In some Arabidopsis accessions, however, HopW1 is recognized and causes resistance via an actin-independent mechanism. HopW1 targets isoform 7 of vegetative actin (ACT7) that is regulated by phytohormones and environmental factors. We hypothesize that dynamic changes of ACT7 filaments are involved in plant immunity. PMID:25551177

  6. Inhibiting actin depolymerization enhances osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Shi, Kaikai; Frary, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton through actin dynamics is involved in a number of biological processes, but its role in human stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation is poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that stabilizing actin filaments by inhibiting gene...... expression of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) in hMSCs, enhanced cell viability and differentiation into osteoblastic cells (OB) in vitro, as well as heterotopic bone formation in vivo. Similarly, treating hMSC with Phalloidin, which is known to stabilize...... polymerized actin filaments, increased hMSCs viability and OB differentiation. Conversely, Cytocholasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, reduced cell viability and inhibited OB differentiation of hMSC. At a molecular level, preventing Cofilin phosphorylation through inhibition of LIM domain kinase 1...

  7. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Chaperonin filaments: The archael cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.; Kagawa, H.K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, E.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Chaperonins are multi-subunit double-ring complexed composed of 60-kDa proteins that are believed to mediate protein folding in vivo. The chaperonins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae are composed of the organism`s two most abundant proteins, which represent 4% of its total protein and have an intracellular concentration of {ge} 3.0 mg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml, purified chaperonin proteins aggregate to form ordered filaments. Filament formation, which requires Mg{sup ++} and nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), occurs at physiological temperatures under conditions suggesting filaments may exist in vivo. If the estimated 4,600 chaperonins per cell, formed filaments in vivo, they could create a matrix of filaments that would span the diameter of an average S. shibatae cell 100 times. Direct observations of unfixed, minimally treated cells by intermediate voltage electron microscopy (300 kV) revealed an intracellular network of filaments that resembles chaperonin filaments produced in vitro. The hypothesis that the intracellular network contains chaperonins is supported by immunogold analyses. The authors propose that chaperonin activity may be regulated in vivo by filament formation and that chaperonin filaments may serve a cytoskeleton-like function in archaea and perhaps in other prokaryotes.

  9. Disassembly of actin structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field is a downstream effect of cell swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Semenov, Iurii; Kuipers, Marjorie A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton structures was reported as one of the characteristic effects of nanosecond-duration pulsed electric field (nsPEF) in both mammalian and plant cells. We utilized CHO cells that expressed the monomeric fluorescent protein (mApple) tagged to actin to test if nsPEF modifies the cell actin directly or as a consequence of cell membrane permeabilization. A train of four 600-ns pulses at 19.2 kV/cm (2 Hz) caused immediate cell membrane poration manifested by YO-PRO-1 dye uptake, gradual cell rounding and swelling. Concurrently, bright actin features were replaced by dimmer and uniform fluorescence of diffuse actin. To block the nsPEF-induced swelling, the bath buffer was isoosmotically supplemented with an electropore-impermeable solute (sucrose). A similar addition of a smaller, electropore-permeable solute (adonitol) served as a control. We demonstrated that sucrose efficiently blocked disassembly of actin features by nsPEF, whereas adonitol did not. Sucrose also attenuated bleaching of mApple-tagged actin in nsPEF-treated cells (as integrated over the cell volume), although did not fully prevent it. We conclude that disintegration of the actin cytoskeleton was a result of cell swelling, which, in turn, was caused by cell permeabilization by nsPEF and transmembrane diffusion of solutes which led to the osmotic imbalance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Actin-Binding Protein α-Adducin Is Required for Maintaining Axon Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Sérgio Carvalho; Sampaio, Paula; Sousa, Vera Filipe; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Joana; Pinto-Costa, Rita; Peters, Luanne Laurel; Brites, Pedro; Sousa, Mónica Mendes

    2016-04-19

    The actin-binding protein adducin was recently identified as a component of the neuronal subcortical cytoskeleton. Here, we analyzed mice lacking adducin to uncover the function of this protein in actin rings. α-adducin knockout mice presented progressive axon enlargement in the spinal cord and optic and sciatic nerves, followed by axon degeneration and loss. Using stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy, we show that a periodic subcortical actin cytoskeleton is assembled in every neuron type inspected including retinal ganglion cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In neurons devoid of adducin, the actin ring diameter increased, although the inter-ring periodicity was maintained. In vitro, the actin ring diameter adjusted as axons grew, suggesting the lattice is dynamic. Our data support a model in which adducin activity is not essential for actin ring assembly and periodicity but is necessary to control the diameter of both actin rings and axons and actin filament growth within rings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Actin-Binding Protein α-Adducin Is Required for Maintaining Axon Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carvalho Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin-binding protein adducin was recently identified as a component of the neuronal subcortical cytoskeleton. Here, we analyzed mice lacking adducin to uncover the function of this protein in actin rings. α-adducin knockout mice presented progressive axon enlargement in the spinal cord and optic and sciatic nerves, followed by axon degeneration and loss. Using stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy, we show that a periodic subcortical actin cytoskeleton is assembled in every neuron type inspected including retinal ganglion cells and dorsal root ganglia neurons. In neurons devoid of adducin, the actin ring diameter increased, although the inter-ring periodicity was maintained. In vitro, the actin ring diameter adjusted as axons grew, suggesting the lattice is dynamic. Our data support a model in which adducin activity is not essential for actin ring assembly and periodicity but is necessary to control the diameter of both actin rings and axons and actin filament growth within rings.

  12. Treatment of Actinic Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mature skin is prone to bruising, resulting in a condition known as actinic purpura, characterized by unsightly ecchymosis and purple patches. Similar to other skin conditions, the incidence of actinic purpura increases with advancing age and occurs with equal frequency among men and women. The unsightly appearance of actinic purpura may be a source of emotional distress among the elderly. A new product has been formulated specifically for the treatment of actinic purpura. This product contains retinol, α-hydroxy acids, arnica oil, ceramides, niacinamide, and phytonadione, which effectively treat actinic purpura by improving local circulation, thickening the skin, and repairing the skin barrier. The objective of this paper is to review the beneficial properties of these ingredients and their respective roles in the treatment of actinic purpura. PMID:28979656

  13. Molecular investigations into the mechanics of actin in different nucleotide states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Y; Iverson, Tyler M; Dima, Ruxandra I

    2011-01-13

    Actin plays crucial roles in the mechanical response of cells to applied forces. For example, during cell adhesion, under the action of forces transmitted through integrins, actin filaments (F-actin) induce intracellular mechanical movements leading to changes in the cell shape. Muscle contraction results from the interaction of F-actin with the molecular motor myosin. Thus, understanding the origin of actin's mechanical flexibility is required to understand the basis of fundamental cellular processes. F-actin results from the polymerization of globular actin (G-actin), which contains one tightly bound nucleotide (ATP or ADP). Experiments revealed that G-actin is more flexible than F-actin, but no molecular-level understanding of this differential behavior exists. To probe the basis of the mechanical behavior of actin, we study the force response of G-actin bound with ATP (G-ATP) or ADP (G-ADP). We investigate the global unfolding of G-actin under forces applied at its ends and its mechanical resistance along the actin-actin and actin-myosin bonds in F-actin. Our study reveals that the nucleotide plays an important role in the global unfolding of actin, leading to multiple unfolding scenarios which emphasize the differences between the G-ATP and G-ADP states. Furthermore, our simulations show that G-ATP is more flexible than G-ADP and that the actin-myosin interaction surface responds faster to force than the actin-actin interaction surface. The deformation of G-actin under tension revealed in our simulations correlates very well with experimental data on G-actin domain flexibility.

  14. Identification of Human P2X1 Receptor-interacting Proteins Reveals a Role of the Cytoskeleton in Receptor Regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Ulyana; Roberts, Jonathan A.; Evans, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    P2X1 receptors are ATP-gated ion channels expressed by smooth muscle and blood cells. Carboxyl-terminally His-FLAG-tagged human P2X1 receptors were stably expressed in HEK293 cells and co-purified with cytoskeletal proteins including actin. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D inhibited P2X1 receptor currents with no effect on the time course of the response or surface expression of the receptor. Stabilization of the cytoskeleton with jasplakinolide had no effect on P2X1 receptor currents but decreased receptor mobility. P2X2 receptor currents were unaffected by cytochalasin, and P2X1/2 receptor chimeras were used to identify the molecular basis of actin sensitivity. These studies showed that the intracellular amino terminus accounts for the inhibitory effects of cytoskeletal disruption similar to that shown for lipid raft/cholesterol sensitivity. Stabilization of the cytoskeleton with jasplakinolide abolished the inhibitory effects of cholesterol depletion on P2X1 receptor currents, suggesting that lipid rafts may regulate the receptor through stabilization of the cytoskeleton. These studies show that the cytoskeleton plays an important role in P2X1 receptor regulation. PMID:21757694

  15. Mechanotransduction through the plasma membrane & cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Kristina; Pelling, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical forces initiate immediate and long-term changes in cells; however the exact mechanisms remain unclear, albeit crucial for understanding the pathology of disease. We used combined confocal and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate changes in cell morphology and elasticity in response to a mechanical stimulus. The AFM was used as a nano-indentor to gauge the response of the membrane and cytoskeleton (CSK) of HeLa cells. We observed their viscoelastic nature by probing cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein localized at the plasma membrane. Inhibition of acto-myosin contractility (AMc) resulted in a significant decrease of cellular elasticity, and a corresponding increase in mean deformation. We also investigated the rate at which the membrane and CSK deform and relax in response to a local force. The response to a local perturbation is nearly instantaneous for control cells and shows no statistical difference when compared to cells treated with CSK-inhibiting drugs. Inhibition of AMc affects the rate of recovery, in comparison to control cells which recover quite quickly (30-60s). Overall, we demonstrated short and long-term deformation and subsequent recovery of both the cell membrane and actin network in response to a local force.

  16. Spreading and contraction in phagocytosis: The role of actin organization and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer E.

    Phagocytosis is the process used by immune cells to engulf and remove foreign objects from the body. The engulfment is realized by the formation of an actin-driven `phagocytic cup' of the cell membrane, which quickly crawls up and then surrounds the object via constriction. In this study, we resolve the paradox of how actin-driven protrusion of the plasma membrane can co-exist with a contractile actin belt proposed to mechanically-drive the closure of the phagocytic cup. To do this we quantitatively assessed macrophage phagocytic behavior in a planar geometry, a process known as frustrated phagocytosis. Our results reveal that phagocytosis occurs in a binary manner, such that once it is initiated, frustrated phagocytosis proceeds at a prescribed rate, resulting in peak contact areas that correspond to a roughly 225% increase in apparent cell surface area. Upon reaching their maximum area, the majority of macrophages enter a period of late-stage contraction. During the contraction phase, cells exert significant stress on the underlying substrate. Contraction also corresponds with dramatic reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton, in particular the formation of a bundled contractile belt around the cell perimeter. In contrast to other studies of phagocytosis, our work definitively illustrates that whatever signals trigger late-stage phagocytic contraction must be independent of particle size and curvature. Mounting evidence suggests that membrane tension is involved in late-stage signaling. The idea that tension is linked to late-stage contraction is reinforced by our finding that the peak-contact area roughly corresponds to the area threshold that results in increased cortical tension, as measured by Lam et al., and that reducing tension through hypertonic buffer shock enables the cells to spread further before the onset of contraction. Supported by NSF Grants #PHYS-0848797 and SRN-POLS 1205878.

  17. Image-based model of the spectrin cytoskeleton for red blood cell simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, David L.; Peskin, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    We simulate deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation using the immersed boundary method with a cytoskeletal model that incorporates structural details revealed by tomographic images. The elasticity of red blood cells is known to be supplied by both their lipid bilayer membranes, which resist bending and local changes in area, and their cytoskeletons, which resist in-plane shear. The cytoskeleton consists of spectrin tetramers that are tethered to the lipid bilayer by ankyrin and by actin-based junctional complexes. We model the cytoskeleton as a random geometric graph, with nodes corresponding to junctional complexes and with edges corresponding to spectrin tetramers such that the edge lengths are given by the end-to-end distances between nodes. The statistical properties of this graph are based on distributions gathered from three-dimensional tomographic images of the cytoskeleton by a segmentation algorithm. We show that the elastic response of our model cytoskeleton, in which the spectrin polymers are treated as entropic springs, is in good agreement with the experimentally measured shear modulus. By simulating red blood cells in flow with the immersed boundary method, we compare this discrete cytoskeletal model to an existing continuum model and predict the extent to which dynamic spectrin network connectivity can protect against failure in the case of a red cell subjected to an applied strain. The methods presented here could form the basis of disease- and patient-specific computational studies of hereditary diseases affecting the red cell cytoskeleton. PMID:28991926

  18. Image-based model of the spectrin cytoskeleton for red blood cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas G; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Stokes, David L; Peskin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    We simulate deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation using the immersed boundary method with a cytoskeletal model that incorporates structural details revealed by tomographic images. The elasticity of red blood cells is known to be supplied by both their lipid bilayer membranes, which resist bending and local changes in area, and their cytoskeletons, which resist in-plane shear. The cytoskeleton consists of spectrin tetramers that are tethered to the lipid bilayer by ankyrin and by actin-based junctional complexes. We model the cytoskeleton as a random geometric graph, with nodes corresponding to junctional complexes and with edges corresponding to spectrin tetramers such that the edge lengths are given by the end-to-end distances between nodes. The statistical properties of this graph are based on distributions gathered from three-dimensional tomographic images of the cytoskeleton by a segmentation algorithm. We show that the elastic response of our model cytoskeleton, in which the spectrin polymers are treated as entropic springs, is in good agreement with the experimentally measured shear modulus. By simulating red blood cells in flow with the immersed boundary method, we compare this discrete cytoskeletal model to an existing continuum model and predict the extent to which dynamic spectrin network connectivity can protect against failure in the case of a red cell subjected to an applied strain. The methods presented here could form the basis of disease- and patient-specific computational studies of hereditary diseases affecting the red cell cytoskeleton.

  19. Comparison of the cell cytoskeleton in migratory and stationary chick fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badley, R A; Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the principal cytoskeletal components (actin, tubulin and 10 nm filament protein) have been compared by immunofluorescence microscopy in two populations of chick heart fibroblasts, previously shown to be adapted respectively for rapid, directed migration or adhesion and growth...... bundles. The variety of patients observed in the migratory cells are documented and the possible roles of the different components of the cytoskeleton in cell locomotion are discussed........ We find that neither microtubule nor 10 nm filament distributions after significantly during the conversion from the migratory to the stationary state but in contrast there are significant differences in the organization of actin. The stationary cells possess more numerous and thicker stress fibre...

  20. Force Exertion and Transmission in Cross-Linked Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Samantha

    Cells are responsive to external cues in their environment telling them to proliferate or migrate within their surrounding tissue. Sensing of cues that are mechanical in nature, such stiffness of a tissue or forces transmitted from other cells, is believed to involve the cytoskeleton of a cell. The cytoskeleton is a complex network of proteins consisting of polymers that provide structural support, motor proteins that remodel these structures, and many others. We do not yet have a complete understanding of how cytoskeletal components respond to either internal or external mechanical force and stiffness. Such an understanding should involve mechanisms by which constituent molecules, such as motor proteins, are responsive to mechanics. Additionally, physical models of how forces are transmitted through biopolymer networks are necessary. My research has focused on networks formed by the cytoskeletal filament actin and the molecular motor protein myosin II. Actin filaments form networks and bundles that form a structural framework of the cell, and myosin II slides actin filaments. In this thesis, we show that stiffness of an elastic load that opposes myosin-generated actin sliding has a very sharp effect on the myosin force output in simulations. Secondly, we show that the stiffness and connectivity of cytoskeletal filaments regulates the contractility and anisotropy of network deformations that transmit force on material length scales. Together, these results have implications for predicting and interpreting the deformations and forces in biopolymeric active materials.

  1. Actin and myosin contribute to mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A.; He, J.; Mao, C. C.; Bailey, L. J.; Di Re, M.; Sembongi, H.; Kazak, L.; Dzionek, K.; Holmes, J. B.; Cluett, T. J.; Harbour, M. E.; Fearnley, I. M.; Crouch, R. J.; Conti, M. A.; Adelstein, R. S.; Walker, J. E.; Holt, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA maintenance and segregation are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast. We found two cytoskeletal proteins among six proteins tightly associated with rat liver mitochondrial DNA: non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and β-actin. In human cells, transient gene silencing of MYH9 (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA), or the closely related MYH10 gene (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB), altered the topology and increased the copy number of mitochondrial DNA; and the latter effect was enhanced when both genes were targeted simultaneously. In contrast, genetic ablation of non-muscle myosin IIB was associated with a 60% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, compared to control cells. Gene silencing of β-actin also affected mitochondrial DNA copy number and organization. Protease-protection experiments and iodixanol gradient analysis suggest some β-actin and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA reside within human mitochondria and confirm that they are associated with mitochondrial DNA. Collectively, these results strongly implicate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PMID:21398640

  2. The evolution of the cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a system of intracellular filaments crucial for cell shape, division, and function in all three domains of life. The simple cytoskeletons of prokaryotes show surprising plasticity in composition, with none of the core filament-forming proteins conserved in all lineages. In contrast, eukaryotic cytoskeletal function has been hugely elaborated by the addition of accessory proteins and extensive gene duplication and specialization. Much of this complexity evolved before the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. The distribution of cytoskeletal filaments puts constraints on the likely prokaryotic line that made this leap of eukaryogenesis. PMID:21859859

  3. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein in parasitic dodder as a tool for studying of cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštier Peter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dodder (Cuscuta species cause severe agricultural damage in many countries throughout the world. To establish strategies for control of its growth and spreading it is important to study its life cycle and survival strategies. For these efforts genetic modification would represent a powerful tool. Here we report on Agrobacteriummediated transformation of dodder using green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to actin-binding protein as a vital marker. Since the shoot of germinating C. europaea contains a functional apical meristem and grows quickly comparing to the root-like structure, the shoot apex was used here as explant. The transgene expression was only transient, nevertheless it enabled to detect allocation of actin filaments and studying the cytoskeleton organization in dodder shoot apex. Transient expression of GFP appears to be a suitable method for studying Cuscuta development through cytoskeleton organisation that is presently largely unexplored.

  4. Spatially restricted actin-regulatory signaling contributes to synapse morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel A.; Cahill, Michael E.; Tulisiak, Christopher T.; Geinisman, Yuri; Penzes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines is organized into microdomains, but how signaling molecules that regulate actin are spatially governed is incompletely understood. Here we examine how the localization of the RacGEF kalirin-7, a well-characterized regulator of actin in spines, varies as a function of postsynaptic density (PSD) area and spine volume. Using serial section electron microscopy (EM), we find that extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, expression of kalirin-7 varies directly with synapse size and spine volume. Moreover, we find that overall expression levels of kalirin-7 differ in spines bearing perforated and non-perforated synapses, due primarily to extrasynaptic pools of kalirin-7 expression in the former. Overall, our findings indicate that kalirin-7 is differentially compartmentalized in spines as a function of both synapse morphology and spine size. PMID:22458534

  5. Spiral actin-polymerization waves can generate amoeboidal cell crawling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Kruse, K.

    2014-05-01

    Amoeboidal cell crawling on solid substrates is characterized by protrusions that seemingly appear randomly along the cell periphery and drive the cell forward. For many cell types, it is known that the protrusions result from polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about how the formation of protrusions is triggered and whether the appearance of subsequent protrusions is coordinated. Recently, the spontaneous formation of actin-polymerization waves was observed. These waves have been proposed to orchestrate the cytoskeletal dynamics during cell crawling. Here, we study the impact of cytoskeletal polymerization waves on cell migration using a phase-field approach. In addition to directionally moving cells, we find states reminiscent of amoeboidal cell crawling. In this framework, new protrusions are seen to emerge from a nucleation process, generating spiral actin waves in the cell interior. Nucleation of new spirals does not require noise, but occurs in a state that is apparently displaying spatio-temporal chaos.

  6. Rheology of Membrane-Attached Minimal Actin Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeding, Helen; Schoen, Markus; Kramer, Corinna; Doerrer, Nils; Kuerschner, Aileen; Geil, Burkhard; Mey, Ingo P; Heussinger, Claus; Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia

    2018-03-28

    The actin cortex is a thin cross-linked network attached to the plasma membrane, being responsible for the cell's shape during migration, division and growth. In a reductionist approach, we created a minimal actin cortex (MAC) attached to a lipid membrane to correlate the filamentous actin architecture with its viscoelastic properties. The system is composed of a supported 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer doped with the receptor lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) to which a constitutively active mutant of ezrin, being a direct membrane-cytoskeleton linker, is bound. The formation of the MAC on the supported lipid bilayer is analyzed as a function of increasing PtdIns(4,5)P2/ezrin pinning points revealing an increase in the intersections between actin filaments, i.e., the node density of the MAC. Bead tracking microrheology on the membrane attached actin network provides information about its viscoelastic properties. The results show that ezrin serves as a dynamic cross-linker for the actin cortex attached to the lipid bilayer and that the stiffness of the network is influenced by the pinning point density, relating the plateau storage modulus G0 to the node density of the MAC.

  7. Integration of linear and dendritic actin nucleation in Nck-induced actin comets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskaya, Sofya; Velle, Katrina B; Campellone, Kenneth G; Talman, Arthur; Alvarez, Diego; Agaisse, Hervé; Wu, Yi I; Loew, Leslie M; Mayer, Bruce J

    2016-01-15

    The Nck adaptor protein recruits cytosolic effectors such as N-WASP that induce localized actin polymerization. Experimental aggregation of Nck SH3 domains at the membrane induces actin comet tails--dynamic, elongated filamentous actin structures similar to those that drive the movement of microbial pathogens such as vaccinia virus. Here we show that experimental manipulation of the balance between unbranched/branched nucleation altered the morphology and dynamics of Nck-induced actin comets. Inhibition of linear, formin-based nucleation with the small-molecule inhibitor SMIFH2 or overexpression of the formin FH1 domain resulted in formation of predominantly circular-shaped actin structures with low mobility (actin blobs). These results indicate that formin-based linear actin polymerization is critical for the formation and maintenance of Nck-dependent actin comet tails. Consistent with this, aggregation of an exclusively branched nucleation-promoting factor (the VCA domain of N-WASP), with density and turnover similar to those of N-WASP in Nck comets, did not reconstitute dynamic, elongated actin comets. Furthermore, enhancement of branched Arp2/3-mediated nucleation by N-WASP overexpression caused loss of the typical actin comet tail shape induced by Nck aggregation. Thus the ratio of linear to dendritic nucleation activity may serve to distinguish the properties of actin structures induced by various viral and bacterial pathogens. © 2016 Borinskaya et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Resemblance of actin-binding protein/actin gels to covalently crosslinked networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmey, Paul A.; Hvidt, Søren; Lamb, Jennifer; Stossel, Thomas P.

    1990-05-01

    THE maintainance of the shape of cells is often due to their surface elasticity, which arises mainly from an actin-rich cytoplasmic cortex1,2. On locomotion, phagocytosis or fission, however, these cells become partially fluid-like. The finding of proteins that can bind to actin and control the assembly of, or crosslink, actin filaments, and of intracellular messages that regulate the activities of some of these actin-binding proteins, indicates that such 'gel sol' transformations result from the rearrangement of cortical actin-rich networks3. Alternatively, on the basis of a study of the mechanical properties of mixtures of actin filaments and an Acanthamoeba actin-binding protein, α-actinin, it has been proposed that these transformations can be accounted for by rapid exchange of crosslinks between actin filaments4: the cortical network would be solid when the deformation rate is greater than the rate of crosslink exchange, but would deform or 'creep' when deformation is slow enough to permit crosslinker molecules to rearrange. Here we report, however, that mixtures of actin filaments and actin-binding protein (ABP), an actin crosslinking protein of many higher eukaryotes, form gels Theologically equivalent to covalently crosslinked networks. These gels do not creep in response to applied stress on a time scale compatible with most cell-surface movements. These findings support a more complex and controlled mechanism underlying the dynamic mechanical properties of cortical cytoplasm, and can explain why cells do not collapse under the constant shear forces that often exist in tissues.

  9. Cytochalasin E alters the cytoskeleton and decreases ENaC activity in Xenopus 2F3 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, Matthew S.; Yu, Ling; Bao, Hui-Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Liu, Bing-Chen; Ma, He-Ping; Eaton, Douglas C.; Alli, Abdel A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous reports have linked cytoskeleton-associated proteins with the regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin E on ENaC activity in Xenopus 2F3 cells. Here, we show that cytochalasin E treatment for 60 min can disrupt the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured Xenopus 2F3 cells. We show using single channel patch-clamp experiments and measurements of short-circuit current that ENaC activity, but not its density, is altered by cytochalasin E-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton. In nontreated cells, 8 of 33 patches (24%) had no measurable ENaC activity, whereas in cytochalasin E-treated cells, 17 of 32 patches (53%) had no activity. Analysis of those patches that did contain ENaC activity showed channel open probability significantly decreased from 0.081 ± 0.01 in nontreated cells to 0.043 ± 0.01 in cells treated with cytochalasin E. Transepithelial current from mpkCCD cells treated with cytochalasin E, cytochalasin D, or latrunculin B for 60 min was decreased compared with vehicle-treated cells. The subcellular expression of fodrin changed significantly, and several protein elements of the cytoskeleton decreased at least twofold after 60 min of cytochalasin E treatment. Cytochalasin E treatment disrupted the association between ENaC and myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate. The results presented here suggest disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by different compounds can attenuate ENaC activity through a mechanism involving changes in the subcellular expression of fodrin, several elements of the cytoskeleton, and destabilization of the ENaC-myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate complex. PMID:24829507

  10. Cytochalasin E alters the cytoskeleton and decreases ENaC activity in Xenopus 2F3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, Matthew S; Yu, Ling; Bao, Hui-Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Liu, Bing-Chen; Ma, He-Ping; Alli, Ahmed A; Eaton, Douglas C; Alli, Abdel A

    2014-07-01

    Numerous reports have linked cytoskeleton-associated proteins with the regulation of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of actin cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin E on ENaC activity in Xenopus 2F3 cells. Here, we show that cytochalasin E treatment for 60 min can disrupt the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured Xenopus 2F3 cells. We show using single channel patch-clamp experiments and measurements of short-circuit current that ENaC activity, but not its density, is altered by cytochalasin E-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton. In nontreated cells, 8 of 33 patches (24%) had no measurable ENaC activity, whereas in cytochalasin E-treated cells, 17 of 32 patches (53%) had no activity. Analysis of those patches that did contain ENaC activity showed channel open probability significantly decreased from 0.081 ± 0.01 in nontreated cells to 0.043 ± 0.01 in cells treated with cytochalasin E. Transepithelial current from mpkCCD cells treated with cytochalasin E, cytochalasin D, or latrunculin B for 60 min was decreased compared with vehicle-treated cells. The subcellular expression of fodrin changed significantly, and several protein elements of the cytoskeleton decreased at least twofold after 60 min of cytochalasin E treatment. Cytochalasin E treatment disrupted the association between ENaC and myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate. The results presented here suggest disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by different compounds can attenuate ENaC activity through a mechanism involving changes in the subcellular expression of fodrin, several elements of the cytoskeleton, and destabilization of the ENaC-myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate complex. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. A unique cytoskeleton associated with crawling in the amoeboid sperm of the nematode, Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Nematode sperm extend pseudopods and pull themselves over substrates. They lack an axoneme or the actin and myosins of other types of motile cells, but their pseudopods contain abundant major sperm protein (MSP), a family of 14-kD polypeptides found exclusively in male gametes. Using high voltage electron microscopy, a unique cytoskeleton was discovered in the pseudopod of in vitro-activated, crawling sperm of the pig intestinal nematode Ascaris suum. It consists of 5-10-nm fuzzy fibers organ...

  12. Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Miranda-Saksena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon of the highly polarized sensory neurons.

  13. Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon) of the highly polarized sensory neurons. PMID:29473915

  14. Direction of actin flow dictates integrin LFA-1 orientation during leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Moore, Travis I; Mehta, Shalin B; Kalappurakkal, Joseph Mathew; Swaminathan, Vinay; Koga, Nobuyasu; Lambert, Talley J; Baker, David; Waters, Jennifer C; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Tani, Tomomi; Mayor, Satyajit; Waterman, Clare M; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-12-11

    Integrin αβ heterodimer cell surface receptors mediate adhesive interactions that provide traction for cell migration. Here, we test whether the integrin, when engaged to an extracellular ligand and the cytoskeleton, adopts a specific orientation dictated by the direction of actin flow on the surface of migrating cells. We insert GFP into the rigid, ligand-binding head of the integrin, model with Rosetta the orientation of GFP and its transition dipole relative to the integrin head, and measure orientation with fluorescence polarization microscopy. Cytoskeleton and ligand-bound integrins orient in the same direction as retrograde actin flow with their cytoskeleton-binding β-subunits tilted by applied force. The measurements demonstrate that intracellular forces can orient cell surface integrins and support a molecular model of integrin activation by cytoskeletal force. Our results place atomic, Å-scale structures of cell surface receptors in the context of functional and cellular, μm-scale measurements.

  15. Mechanics of membrane–cytoskeleton attachment in Paramecium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, C; Nassoy, P; Sykes, C; Jerber, J; Fisch, C; Dupuis-Williams, P; Simoes-Betbeder, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we assess the role of the protein MKS1 (Meckel syndrome type 1) in the cortical membrane mechanics of the ciliated protist Paramecium. This protein is known to be crucial in the process of cilium formation, and we investigate its putative role in membrane–cytoskeleton attachment. Therefore, we compare cells where the gene coding for MKS1 is silenced to wild-type cells. We found that scanning electron microscopy observation of the cell surface reveals a cup-like structure in wild-type cells that is lost in silenced cells. Since this structure is based on the underlying cytoskeleton, one hypothesis to explain this observation is a disruption of membrane attachment to the cytoskeleton in the absence of MKS1 that should affect plasma membrane mechanics. We test this by probing the mechanics of wild-type and silenced cells by micropipette aspiration. Strikingly, we observe that, at the same aspiration pressure, the membrane of silenced cells is easily aspirated by the micropipette whereas that of wild-type cells enters only at a moderate velocity, an effect that suggests a detachment of the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton in silenced cells. We quantify this detachment by measuring the deformation of the cell cortex and the rate of cell membrane entry in the micropipette. This study offers a new perspective for the characterization of membrane–cytoskeleton attachment in protists and paves the way for a better understanding of the role of membrane–cortex attachment in cilium formation. (paper)

  16. Mechanics of membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, C.; Jerber, J.; Fisch, C.; Simoes-Betbeder, M.; Dupuis-Williams, P.; Nassoy, P.; Sykes, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we assess the role of the protein MKS1 (Meckel syndrome type 1) in the cortical membrane mechanics of the ciliated protist Paramecium. This protein is known to be crucial in the process of cilium formation, and we investigate its putative role in membrane-cytoskeleton attachment. Therefore, we compare cells where the gene coding for MKS1 is silenced to wild-type cells. We found that scanning electron microscopy observation of the cell surface reveals a cup-like structure in wild-type cells that is lost in silenced cells. Since this structure is based on the underlying cytoskeleton, one hypothesis to explain this observation is a disruption of membrane attachment to the cytoskeleton in the absence of MKS1 that should affect plasma membrane mechanics. We test this by probing the mechanics of wild-type and silenced cells by micropipette aspiration. Strikingly, we observe that, at the same aspiration pressure, the membrane of silenced cells is easily aspirated by the micropipette whereas that of wild-type cells enters only at a moderate velocity, an effect that suggests a detachment of the membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton in silenced cells. We quantify this detachment by measuring the deformation of the cell cortex and the rate of cell membrane entry in the micropipette. This study offers a new perspective for the characterization of membrane-cytoskeleton attachment in protists and paves the way for a better understanding of the role of membrane-cortex attachment in cilium formation.

  17. ACTIN BINDING PROTEIN29 from Lilium Pollen Plays an Important Role in Dynamic Actin Remodeling[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yun; Huang, Xi; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qinwen; Hussey, Patrick J.; Ren, Haiyun

    2007-01-01

    Villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily proteins have been shown to function in tip-growing plant cells. However, genes encoding gelsolin/fragmin do not exist in the Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) databases, and it is possible that these proteins are encoded by villin mRNA splicing variants. We cloned a 1006-bp full-length cDNA from Lilium longiflorum that encodes a 263–amino acid predicted protein sharing 100% identity with the N terminus of 135-ABP (Lilium villin) except for six C-terminal amino acids. The deduced 29-kD protein, Lilium ACTIN BINDING PROTEIN29 (ABP29), contains only the G1 and G2 domains and is the smallest identified member of the villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily. The purified recombinant ABP29 accelerates actin nucleation, blocks barbed ends, and severs actin filaments in a Ca2+- and/or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate–regulated manner in vitro. Microinjection of the protein into stamen hair cells disrupted transvacuolar strands whose backbone is mainly actin filament bundles. Transient expression of ABP29 by microprojectile bombardment of lily pollen resulted in actin filament fragmentation and inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. Our results suggest that ABP29 is a splicing variant of Lilium villin and a member of the villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily, which plays important roles in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination and tube growth. PMID:17586658

  18. Temperature response of the neuronal cytoskeleton mapped via atomic force and fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal cells change their growth properties in response to external physical stimuli such as variations in external temperature, stiffness of the growth substrate, or topographical guidance cues. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms that control these biomechanical responses is necessary for understanding the basic principles that underlie neuronal growth and regeneration. Here, we present elasticity maps of living cortical neurons (embryonic rat) as a function of temperature, and correlate these maps to the locations of internal structural components of the cytoskeleton. Neurons display a significant increase in the average elastic modulus upon a decrease in ambient temperature from 37 to 25 °C. We demonstrate that the dominant mechanism by which the elasticity of the neurons changes in response to temperature is the stiffening of the actin components of the cytoskeleton induced by myosin II. We also report a reversible shift in the location and composition of the high-stiffness areas of the neuron cytoskeleton with temperature. At 37 °C the areas of the cell displaying high elastic modulus overlap with the tubulin-dense regions, while at 25 °C these high-stiffness areas correspond to the actin-dense regions of the cytoskeleton. These results demonstrate the importance of considering temperature effects when investigating cytoskeletal dynamics in cells. (paper)

  19. Remodeling of tick cytoskeleton in response to infection withAnaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Valdes, James J; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, Jose

    2017-06-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum infects vertebrate and tick hosts. In this study, a genome-wide search for cytoskeleton components was performed in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis . The available transcriptomics and proteomics data was then used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis cytoskeleton components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection. The results showed that cytoskeleton components described in other model organisms were present in the I. scapularis genome. One type of intermediate filaments (lamin), a family of septins that was recently implicated in the cellular response to intracellular pathogens, and several members of motor proteins (kinesins and dyneins) that could be implicated in the cytoplasmic movements of A. phagocytophilum were found. The results showed that levels of tubulin, actin, septin, actin-related proteins and motor proteins were affected by A. phagocytophilum , probably to facilitate infection in I. scapularis . Functional studies demonstrated a role for selected cytoskeleton components in pathogen infection. These results provided a more comprehensive view of the cytoskeletal components involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks.

  20. Marine toxins and the cytoskeleton: a new view of palytoxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, M Carmen; Ares, Isabel R; Cagide, Eva

    2008-12-01

    Palytoxin is a marine toxin first isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), even though dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are the most probable origin of the toxin. Ostreopsis has a wide distribution in tropical and subtropical areas, but recently these dinoflagellates have also started to appear in the Mediterranean Sea. Two of the most remarkable properties of palytoxin are the large and complex structure (with different analogs, such as ostreocin-D or ovatoxin-a) and the extreme acute animal toxicity. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been proposed as receptor for palytoxin. The marine toxin is known to act on the Na(+) pump and elicit an increase in Na(+) permeability, which leads to depolarization and a secondary Ca(2+) influx, interfering with some functions of cells. Studies on the cellular cytoskeleton have revealed that the signaling cascade triggered by palytoxin leads to actin filament system distortion. The activity of palytoxin on the actin cytoskeleton is only partially associated with the cytosolic Ca(2+) changes; therefore, this ion represents an important factor in altering this structure, but it is not the only cause. The goal of the present minireview is to compile the findings reported to date about: (a) how palytoxin and analogs are able to modify the actin cytoskeleton within different cellular models; and (b) what signaling mechanisms could be involved in the modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by palytoxin.

  1. The role of the cytoskeleton in cellular force generation in 2D and 3D environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraning-Rush, Casey M; Carey, Shawn P; Califano, Joseph P; Smith, Brooke N; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2011-01-01

    To adhere and migrate, cells generate forces through the cytoskeleton that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix. While cellular force generation has been studied on 2D substrates, less is known about cytoskeletal-mediated traction forces of cells embedded in more in vivo-like 3D matrices. Recent studies have revealed important differences between the cytoskeletal structure, adhesion, and migration of cells in 2D and 3D. Because the cytoskeleton mediates force, we sought to directly compare the role of the cytoskeleton in modulating cell force in 2D and 3D. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with agents that perturbed actin, microtubules, or myosin, and analyzed for changes in cytoskeletal organization and force generation in both 2D and 3D. To quantify traction stresses in 2D, traction force microscopy was used; in 3D, force was assessed based on single cell-mediated collagen fibril reorganization imaged using confocal reflectance microscopy. Interestingly, even though previous studies have observed differences in cell behaviors like migration in 2D and 3D, our data indicate that forces generated on 2D substrates correlate with forces within 3D matrices. Disruption of actin, myosin or microtubules in either 2D or 3D microenvironments disrupts cell-generated force. These data suggest that despite differences in cytoskeletal organization in 2D and 3D, actin, microtubules and myosin contribute to contractility and matrix reorganization similarly in both microenvironments

  2. Ezrin regulating the cytoskeleton remodelling is required for hypoxia-induced Myofibroblast proliferation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eYi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH is a disease of the small vessels characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, thickening of arterial walls, vascular remodelling, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, thus leading to right heart failure and finally death. Recent evidence demonstrated that massive Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle-like Cells (PASMLCs accumulating in the intima might also be developed from the differentiation of Pulmonary Myofibroblast (PMF of tunica media. And PMF appeared the phenomenon of the cytoskeleton remodeling. So, it would be important in the clarification of the pivotal factors controlling this cytoskeleton structure change. Methods: PMFs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups and incubated by nomal or hypoxic conditions respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results: Here, we report that the hypoxia increased the expression levels of Ezrin mRNA and protein in PMFs, which might explain the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin in PMFs was significantly induced by hypoxia. After inhibiting Ezrin in PMFs by siRNA transfection, we found the over-expression of cytoskeletal proteins induced by hypoixa were significantly suppressed at all time points. Additionally, we found that hypoxia or over-expression of Ezrin through Ad-Ezrin transfection significantly increases the proliferation and migration of PMFs, and which could be inverted by the transfection of siRNA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ezrin regulating of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins may be the major cause of PMFs' proliferation and migration under the condition of hypoxia and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the accumulation of

  3. G-Protein Gα13Functions with Abl Kinase to Regulate Actin Cytoskeletal Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Wang, Dawei; Xing, Bowen; Tan, Ying-Cai; Huang, Jianyun; Liu, Bingqian; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Espenel, Cedric; Kreitzer, Geri; Guo, Lin; Zhang, J Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun

    2017-12-08

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are essential cellular signal transducers. One of the G-proteins, Gα 13 , is critical for actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that Gα 13 is essential for both G-protein-coupled receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization such as dynamic dorsal ruffle turnover and cell migration. However, the mechanism by which Gα 13 signals to actin cytoskeletal reorganization is not completely understood. Here we show that Gα 13 directly interacts with Abl tyrosine kinase, which is a critical regulator of actin cytoskeleton. This interaction is critical for Gα 13 -induced dorsal ruffle turnover, endothelial cell remodeling, and cell migration. Our data uncover a new molecular signaling pathway by which Gα 13 controls actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, R; Philp, N; Safer, D; Chintapalli, J; Hoffman, R; Collins, L; Nachmias, V T

    1997-01-01

    In several cell types, short-term increases in the concentration of the G-actin-sequestering peptide thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4) cause the disassembly of F-actin bundles. To determine the extent of cell adaptability to these reductions in F-actin, we overexpressed Tbeta4 in NIH 3T3 cells. In cell lines with Tbeta4 levels twice those of vector controls, G-actin increased approximately twofold as expected. However, F-actin did not decrease as in short-term experiments but rather also increased approximately twofold so that the G-F ratio remained constant. Surprisingly, the cytoskeletal proteins myosin IIA, alpha-actinin, and tropomyosin also increased nearly twofold. These increases were specific; DNA, total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, profilin, and actin depolymerizing factor levels were unchanged in the overexpressing cells. The Tbeta4 lines spread more fully and adhered to the dish more strongly than vector controls; this altered phenotype correlated with a twofold increase in talin and alpha5-integrin and a nearly threefold increase in vinculin. Focal adhesions, detected by indirect immunofluorescence with antivinculin, were increased in size over the controls. Northern blotting showed that mRNAs for both beta-actin and vinculin were increased twofold in the overexpressing lines. We conclude that 1) NIH 3T3 cells adapt to increased levels of G-actin sequestered by increased Tbeta4 by increasing their total actin so that the F-actin/G-actin ratio remains constant; 2) these cells coordinately increase several cytoskeletal and adhesion plaque proteins; and 3) at least for actin and vinculin, this regulation is at the transcriptional level. We therefore propose that the proteins of this multimember interacting complex making up the actin-based cytoskeleton, are coordinately regulated by factors that control the expression of several proteins. The mechanism may bear similarities to the control of synthesis of another multimember interacting complex, the myofibril of

  5. Covalent interactions of acetaldehyde with the actin/microfilament system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D S; Jennett, R B; Smith, S L; Sorrell, M F; Tuma, D J

    1989-01-01

    The covalent binding of [14C]acetaldehyde to purified rabbit skeletal muscle actin was characterized. As we have found for other cytoskeletal proteins, actin formed stable covalent adducts under reductive and non-reductive conditions. Under non-reductive conditions, individual and competition binding studies versus albumin both showed that the G-form of actin is more reactive toward acetaldehyde than the F-form. When proteins were compared on an 'equi-lysine' basis under non-reducing conditions, G-actin was found to preferentially compete with albumin for binding to acetaldehyde. Time-course dialysis studies indicated that acetaldehyde-actin adducts become more stable with prolonged incubation at 37 degrees C. These data raise the possibility that actin could be a preferential target for adduct formation in cellular systems and will serve as the basis for ongoing studies aimed at defining the role of acetaldehyde-protein adducts in ethanol-induced cell injury.

  6. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  7. Zonula occludens-1 and -2 regulate apical cell structure and the zonula adherens cytoskeleton in polarized epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Alan S.; Van Itallie, Christina M.; Anderson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of both adherens (AJ) and tight (TJ) junctions are dependent on the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and -2 proteins have context-dependent interactions with both junction types and bind directly to F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins, suggesting ZO-1 and -2 might regulate cytoskeletal activity at cell junctions. To address this hypothesis, we generated stable Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines depleted of both ZO-1 and -2. Both paracellular permeability and the localization of TJ proteins are disrupted in ZO-1/-2–depleted cells. In addition, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy revealed a significant expansion of the perijunctional actomyosin ring associated with the AJ. These structural changes are accompanied by a recruitment of 1-phosphomyosin light chain and Rho kinase 1, contraction of the actomyosin ring, and expansion of the apical domain. Despite these changes in the apical cytoskeleton, there are no detectable changes in cell polarity, localization of AJ proteins, or the organization of the basal and lateral actin cytoskeleton. We conclude that ZO proteins are required not only for TJ assembly but also for regulating the organization and functional activity of the apical cytoskeleton, particularly the perijunctional actomyosin ring, and we speculate that these activities are relevant both to cellular organization and epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:22190737

  8. Characterization of the Endothelial Cell Cytoskeleton following HLA Class I Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Mary E.; Souda, Puneet; Jin, Yi-Ping; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a target of antibody-mediated allograft rejection. In vitro, when the HLA class I molecules on the surface of ECs are ligated by anti-HLA class I antibodies, cell proliferation and survival pathways are activated and this is thought to contribute to the development of antibody-mediated rejection. Crosslinking of HLA class I molecules by anti-HLA antibodies also triggers reorganization of the cytoskeleton, which induces the formation of F-actin stress fibers. HLA class I induced stress fiber formation is not well understood. Methodology and Principal Findings The present study examines the protein composition of the cytoskeleton fraction of ECs treated with HLA class I antibodies and compares it to other agonists known to induce alterations of the cytoskeleton in endothelial cells. Analysis by tandem mass spectrometry revealed unique cytoskeleton proteomes for each treatment group. Using annotation tools a candidate list was created that revealed 12 proteins, which were unique to the HLA class I stimulated group. Eleven of the candidate proteins were phosphoproteins and exploration of their predicted kinases provided clues as to how these proteins may contribute to the understanding of HLA class I induced antibody-mediated rejection. Three of the candidates, eukaryotic initiation factor 4A1 (eIF4A1), Tropomyosin alpha 4-chain (TPM4) and DDX3X, were further characterized by Western blot and found to be associated with the cytoskeleton. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that class I ligation stimulated increased eIF4A1 co-localization with F-actin and paxillin. Conclusions/Significance Colocalization of eIF4A1 with F-actin and paxillin following HLA class I ligation suggests that this candidate protein could be a target for understanding the mechanism(s) of class I mediated antibody-mediated rejection. This proteomic approach for analyzing the cytoskeleton of ECs can be applied to other agonists and various cells types

  9. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  10. Directional Transport of a Bead Bound to Lamellipodial Surface Is Driven by Actin Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Nobezawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The force driving the retrograde flow of actin cytoskeleton is important in the cellular activities involving cell movement (e.g., growth cone motility in axon guidance, wound healing, or cancer metastasis. However, relative importance of the forces generated by actin polymerization and myosin II in this process remains elusive. We have investigated the retrograde movement of the poly-D-lysine-coated bead attached with the optical trap to the edge of lamellipodium of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The velocity of the attached bead drastically decreased by submicromolar concentration of cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide, indicating the involvement of actin turnover. On the other hand, the velocity decreased only slightly in the presence of 50 μM (−-blebbistatin and Y-27632. Comparative fluorescence microscopy of the distribution of actin filaments and that of myosin II revealed that the inhibition of actin turnover by cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, or jasplakinolide greatly diminished the actin filament network. On the other hand, inhibition of myosin II activity by (−-blebbistatin or Y-27632 little affected the actin network but diminished stress fibers. Based on these results, we conclude that the actin polymerization/depolymerization plays the major role in the retrograde movement, while the myosin II activity is involved in the maintenance of the dynamic turnover of actin in lamellipodium.

  11. Cytoskeleton in mast cell signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 130 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Grant - others:ECST(XE) Action BM1007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytoskeleton * mast cell activation * signal transduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. The cytoskeleton of digitonin-treated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Craig, S W; Decker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1980-06-01

    Treatment of isolated rat hepatocptes with low concentrations of digitonin increases the permeability of the plsma membrane to cytosolic proteins without causing release of organelles such as mitochondria into the surrounding medium. Electron microscopy showed that treatment of the cells with increasing concentations of digitonin results in a progressive loss in the continuity of the plasma membrane, while most other aspects of cellular morphology remain normal. Depletion of background staining material from the cytosol by digitonin treatment of the cells greatly enhances the visualization of the cytoskeleton. The use of this technique, together with immunofluorescent light microscopy, has verified the presence of an actin-containing filamentous network at the hepatocyte cortex as well as intermediate filaments distributed throughout the cell. Digitonin is thus useful both for selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane and for intensifying the appearance of intracellular structures such as microfilaments that are normally difficult to observe in cells such as hepatocytes.

  13. CSPGs inhibit axon branching by impairing mitochondria-dependent regulation of actin dynamics and axonal translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, Rajiv; Ketschek, Andrea; Grandi, Leah; Gallo, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. It is reported that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching. The effects of CSPGs on actin cytoskeletal dynamics are specific to axon segments populated by mitochondria. In contrast, CSPGs do not affect the microtubule content of axons, or the localization of microtubules into axonal filopodia, a required step in the mechanism of branch formation. It is also reported that CSPGs decrease the mitochondria-dependent axonal translation of cortactin, an actin associated protein involved in branching. Finally, the inhibitory effects of CSPGs on axon branching, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the axonal translation of cortactin are reversed by culturing neurons with acetyl-l-carnitine, which promotes mitochondrial respiration. Collectively these data indicate that CSPGs impair mitochondrial function in axons, an effect which contributes to the inhibition of axon branching. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 419-437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dendrite architecture organized by transcriptional control of the F-actin nucleator Spire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago; Ou, Yimiao; Li, Sally; Giniger, Edward; van Meyel, Donald J

    2014-02-01

    The architectures of dendritic trees are crucial for the wiring and function of neuronal circuits because they determine coverage of receptive territories, as well as the nature and strength of sensory or synaptic inputs. Here, we describe a cell-intrinsic pathway sculpting dendritic arborization (da) neurons in Drosophila that requires Longitudinals Lacking (Lola), a BTB/POZ transcription factor, and its control of the F-actin cytoskeleton through Spire (Spir), an actin nucleation protein. Loss of Lola from da neurons reduced the overall length of dendritic arbors, increased the expression of Spir, and produced inappropriate F-actin-rich dendrites at positions too near the cell soma. Selective removal of Lola from only class IV da neurons decreased the evasive responses of larvae to nociception. The increased Spir expression contributed to the abnormal F-actin-rich dendrites and the decreased nocifensive responses because both were suppressed by reduced dose of Spir. Thus, an important role of Lola is to limit expression of Spir to appropriate levels within da neurons. We found Spir to be expressed in dendritic arbors and to be important for their development. Removal of Spir from class IV da neurons reduced F-actin levels and total branch number, shifted the position of greatest branch density away from the cell soma, and compromised nocifensive behavior. We conclude that the Lola-Spir pathway is crucial for the spatial arrangement of branches within dendritic trees and for neural circuit function because it provides balanced control of the F-actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  16. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  17. Roles of the cytoskeleton and of Protein Phosphorylation Events in the Osmotic Stress Response in EEL Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Pedersen, Stine F; Hoffmann, Else K

    2002-01-01

    phase is bumetanide-insensitive, the second, sustained phase is bumetanide-sensitive, reflecting activation of the apically located Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC) cotransporter, which correlates with the cellular RVI response. Here, we investigated the involvement of the cytoskeleton and of serine......-actin and microtubules. In addition, the shrinkage-induced activation of NKCC appears to require the activity of both PKC and MLCK. It is suggested that NKCC regulation by hypertonic stress involves an interaction between the cytoskeleton and protein phosphorylation events....

  18. An αII Spectrin-Based Cytoskeleton Protects Large-Diameter Myelinated Axons from Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Claire Yu-Mei; Zhang, Chuansheng; Zollinger, Daniel R; Leterrier, Christophe; Rasband, Matthew N

    2017-11-22

    Axons must withstand mechanical forces, including tension, torsion, and compression. Spectrins and actin form a periodic cytoskeleton proposed to protect axons against these forces. However, because spectrins also participate in assembly of axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier, it is difficult to uncouple their roles in maintaining axon integrity from their functions at AIS and nodes. To overcome this problem and to determine the importance of spectrin cytoskeletons for axon integrity, we generated mice with αII spectrin-deficient peripheral sensory neurons. The axons of these neurons are very long and exposed to the mechanical forces associated with limb movement; most lack an AIS, and some are unmyelinated and have no nodes. We analyzed αII spectrin-deficient mice of both sexes and found that, in myelinated axons, αII spectrin forms a periodic cytoskeleton with βIV and βII spectrin at nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, but that loss of αII spectrin disrupts this organization. Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have reduced numbers of nodes, disrupted paranodal junctions, and mislocalized Kv1 K + channels. We show that the density of nodal βIV spectrin is constant among axons, but the density of nodal αII spectrin increases with axon diameter. Remarkably, Avil-cre;Sptan1 f/f mice have intact nociception and small-diameter axons, but severe ataxia due to preferential degeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. Our results suggest that nodal αII spectrin helps resist the mechanical forces experienced by large-diameter axons, and that αII spectrin-dependent cytoskeletons are also required for assembly of nodes of Ranvier. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A periodic axonal cytoskeleton consisting of actin and spectrin has been proposed to help axons resist the mechanical forces to which they are exposed (e.g., compression, torsion, and stretch). However, until now, no vertebrate animal model has tested the requirement of the spectrin cytoskeleton in

  19. The calcium feedback loop and T cell activation: how cytoskeleton networks control intracellular calcium flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Noah; Reicher, Barak; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-02-01

    During T cell activation, the engagement of a T cell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) results in rapid cytoskeletal rearrangements and a dramatic increase of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration, downstream to T cell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation. These events facilitate the organization of an immunological synapse (IS), which supports the redistribution of receptors, signaling molecules and organelles towards the T cell-APC interface to induce downstream signaling events, ultimately supporting T cell effector functions. Thus, Ca(2+) signaling and cytoskeleton rearrangements are essential for T cell activation and T cell-dependent immune response. Rapid release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, e.g. the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggers the opening of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, residing in the plasma membrane. These channels facilitate a sustained influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane in a process termed store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Because CRAC channels are themselves inhibited by Ca(2+) ions, additional factors are suggested to enable the sustained Ca(2+) influx required for T cell function. Among these factors, we focus here on the contribution of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. The TCR-mediated increase in intracellular Ca(2+) evokes a rapid cytoskeleton-dependent polarization, which involves actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) reorientation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) flux and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and further describe the way by which the cytoskeletal networks feedback to Ca(2+) signaling by controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of Ca(2+) sources and sinks, modulating TCR-dependent Ca(2+) signals, which are required for an appropriate T cell response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters

  20. The dynamic cytoskeleton of the developing male germ cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Ann O

    2012-05-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is characterised by dramatic cellular change to transform the non-polar spermatogonium into a highly polarised and functional spermatozoon. The acquisition of cell polarity is a requisite step for formation of viable sperm. The polarity of the spermatozoon is clearly demonstrated by the acrosome at the apical pole of the cell and the flagellum at the opposite end. Spermatogenesis consists of three basic phases: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. The final phase represents the period of greatest cellular change where cell-type specific organelles such as the acrosome and the flagellum form, the nucleus migrates to the plasma membrane and elongates, chromatin condenses and residual cytoplasm is removed. An important feature of spermatogenesis is the change in the cytoskeleton that occurs throughout this pathway. In this review, the author will provide an overview of these transformations and provide insight into possible modes of regulation of these rearrangements during spermatogenesis. Although primary focus will be given to the microtubule cytoskeleton, the importance of actin filaments to the cellular transformation of the male germ cell will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Soçiété Francaise des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France.

  1. Astrocyte-neuron interaction in diphenyl ditelluride toxicity directed to the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimfarth, Luana; da Silva Ferreira, Fernanda; Pierozan, Paula; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2017-03-15

    Diphenylditelluride (PhTe) 2 is a neurotoxin that disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis. We are showing that different concentrations of (PhTe) 2 caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament subunits (NFL, NFM and NFH) and altered actin organization in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons from cerebral cortex of rats. These mechanisms were mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors without participation of either L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) or metabotropic glutamate receptors. Upregulated Ca 2+ influx downstream of NMDA receptors activated Ca 2+ -dependent protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) causing hypophosphorylation of astrocyte and neuron IFs. Immunocytochemistry showed that hypophosphorylated intermediate filaments (IF) failed to disrupt their organization into the cytoskeleton. However, phalloidin-actin-FITC stained cytoskeleton evidenced misregulation of actin distribution, cell spreading and increased stress fibers in astrocytes. βIII tubulin staining showed that neurite meshworks are not altered by (PhTe) 2 , suggesting greater susceptibility of astrocytes than neurons to (PheTe) 2 toxicity. These findings indicate that signals leading to IF hypophosphorylation fail to disrupt the cytoskeletal IF meshwork of interacting astrocytes and neurons in vitro however astrocyte actin network seems more susceptible. Our findings support that intracellular Ca 2+ is one of the crucial signals that modulate the action of (PhTe) 2 in co-cultured astrocytes and neurons and highlights the cytoskeleton as an end-point of the neurotoxicity of this compound. Cytoskeletal misregulation is associated with cell dysfunction, therefore, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating the neurotoxicity of this compound is a matter of increasing interest since tellurium compounds are increasingly released in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the ‘molecular clutch’ description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of major sperm protein, which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton. (paper)

  3. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the "molecular clutch" description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of Major Sperm Protein (MSP), which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton.

  4. Probing actin polymerization by intermolecular cross-linking

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have used N,N'-1,4-phenylenebismaleimide, a bifunctional sulfhydryl cross-linking reagent, to probe the oligomeric state of actin during the early stages of its polymerization into filaments. We document that one of the first steps in the polymerization of globular monomeric actin (G-actin) under a wide variety of ionic conditions is the dimerization of a significant fraction of the G-actin monomer pool. As polymerization proceeds, the yield of this initial dimer ("lower" dimer with an app...

  5. Altered Actin Dynamics and Functions of Osteoblast-Like Cells in Parabolic Flight may Involve ERK1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongquan; Tan, Yingjun; Yang, Fen; Qu, Lina; Zhang, Hongyu; Wan, Yumin; Li, Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Osteoblasts are sensitive to mechanical stressors such as gravity and alter their cytoskeletons and functions to adapt; however, the contribution of gravity to this phenomenon is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute gravitational changes on the structure and function of osteoblast ROS17/2.8 as generated by parabolic flight. The changes in microfilament cytoskeleton was observed by immunofluorescence stain of Texas red conjugated Phalloidin and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated DNase I for F-actin and G-actin, respectively. To examine osteoblast function, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activity, osteocalcin secretions and the expression of ALP, COL1A1 (collagen type I alpha 1 chain) and osteocalcin were detected by modified Gomori methods, radioimmunity and RT-PCR, respectively. Double fluorescence staining of phosphorylated p44/42 and F-actin were performed to observe their colocalization relationship. The established semi-quantitative analysis method of fluorescence intensity of EGFP was used to detect the activity changes of COL1A1 promoter in EGFP-ROS cells with MAPK inhibitor PD98059 or F-actin inhibitor cytochalasin B. Results indicate that the altered gravity induced the reorganization of microfilament cytoskeletons of osteoblasts. After 3 h parabolic flight, F-actin of osteoblast cytoskeleton became thicker and directivity, whereas G-actin shrunk and became more concentrated at the edge of nucleus. The excretion of osteocalcin, the activity of ALP and the expression of mRNA decreased. Colocalization analysis indicated that phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK was coupled with F-actin. Inhibitor PD98059 and cytochalasin B decreased the fluorescence intensity of EGFP-ROS cells. Above results suggest that short time gravity variations induce the adjustment of osteoblast structure and functional and ERK1/2 signaling maybe involve these responses. We believe that it is an adaptive method of the osteoblasts to gravity alteration that structure

  6. Disruption of microtubule network rescues aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Henmi

    Full Text Available A large GTPase dynamin, which is required for endocytic vesicle formation, regulates the actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with cortactin. Dynamin2 mutants impair the formation of actin comets, which are induced by Listeria monocytogenes or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. However, the role of dynamin2 in the regulation of the actin comet is still unclear. Here we show that aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells were rescued by disrupting of microtubule networks. Depletion of dynamin2, but not cortactin, significantly reduced the length and the speed of actin comets induced by Listeria. This implies that dynamin2 may regulate the actin comet in a cortactin-independent manner. As dynamin regulates microtubules, we investigated whether perturbation of microtubules would rescue actin comet formation in dynamin2-depleted cells. Treatment with taxol or colchicine created a microtubule-free space in the cytoplasm, and made no difference between control and dynamin2 siRNA cells. This suggests that the alteration of microtubules by dynamin2 depletion reduced the length and the speed of the actin comet.

  7. An antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba binds actin and can trigger cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ningning; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Mühlhäuser, Philipp; Liu, Qiong; Riemann, Michael; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Ginkbilobin is a short antifungal protein that had been purified and cloned from the seeds of the living fossil Ginkgo biloba. Homologues of this protein can be detected in all seed plants and the heterosporic fern Selaginella and are conserved with respect to domain structures, peptide motifs, and specific cysteine signatures. To get insight into the cellular functions of these conserved motifs, we expressed green fluorescent protein fusions of full-length and truncated ginkbilobin in tobacco BY-2 cells. We show that the signal peptide confers efficient secretion of ginkbilobin. When this signal peptide is either cleaved or masked, ginkbilobin binds and visualizes the actin cytoskeleton. This actin-binding activity of ginkbilobin is mediated by a specific subdomain just downstream of the signal peptide, and this subdomain can also coassemble with actin in vitro. Upon stable overexpression of this domain, we observe a specific delay in premitotic nuclear positioning indicative of a reduced dynamicity of actin. To elucidate the cellular response to the binding of this subdomain to actin, we use chemical engineering based on synthetic peptides comprising different parts of the actin-binding subdomain conjugated with the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 and with rhodamine B as a fluorescent reporter. Binding of this synthetic construct to actin efficiently induces programmed cell death. We discuss these findings in terms of a working model, where ginkbilobin can activate actin-dependent cell death.

  8. Disruption of microtubule network rescues aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Yuji; Tanabe, Kenji; Takei, Kohji

    2011-01-01

    A large GTPase dynamin, which is required for endocytic vesicle formation, regulates the actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with cortactin. Dynamin2 mutants impair the formation of actin comets, which are induced by Listeria monocytogenes or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. However, the role of dynamin2 in the regulation of the actin comet is still unclear. Here we show that aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells were rescued by disrupting of microtubule networks. Depletion of dynamin2, but not cortactin, significantly reduced the length and the speed of actin comets induced by Listeria. This implies that dynamin2 may regulate the actin comet in a cortactin-independent manner. As dynamin regulates microtubules, we investigated whether perturbation of microtubules would rescue actin comet formation in dynamin2-depleted cells. Treatment with taxol or colchicine created a microtubule-free space in the cytoplasm, and made no difference between control and dynamin2 siRNA cells. This suggests that the alteration of microtubules by dynamin2 depletion reduced the length and the speed of the actin comet.

  9. EhCoactosin stabilizes actin filaments in the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is a protist parasite that is the causative agent of amoebiasis, and is a highly motile organism. The motility is essential for its survival and pathogenesis, and a dynamic actin cytoskeleton is required for this process. EhCoactosin, an actin-binding protein of the ADF/cofilin family, participates in actin dynamics, and here we report our studies of this protein using both structural and functional approaches. The X-ray crystal structure of EhCoactosin resembles that of human coactosin-like protein, with major differences in the distribution of surface charges and the orientation of terminal regions. According to in vitro binding assays, full-length EhCoactosin binds both F- and G-actin. Instead of acting to depolymerize or severe F-actin, EhCoactosin directly stabilizes the polymer. When EhCoactosin was visualized in E. histolytica cells using either confocal imaging or total internal reflectance microscopy, it was found to colocalize with F-actin at phagocytic cups. Over-expression of this protein stabilized F-actin and inhibited the phagocytic process. EhCoactosin appears to be an unusual type of coactosin involved in E. histolytica actin dynamics.

  10. Non-lytic, actin-based exit of intracellular parasites from C. elegans intestinal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Estes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.

  11. The anti-actin drugs latrunculin and cytochalasin affect the maturation of spruce somatic embryos in different ways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráková, Zuzana; Eliášová, Kateřina; Vágner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 221, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 90-99 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12FR017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Somatic embryogenesis * Cytoskeleton * Actin Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2014

  12. Patterning and lifetime of plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase is dependent on actin organization in Arabidopsis interphase cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampathkumar, A.; Gutierrez, R.; McFarlane, H.E.; Bringmann, M.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Emons, A.M.C.; Samuels, L.; Ketelaar, T.; Ehrhardt, D.W.; Persson, S.

    2013-01-01

    The actin and microtubule cytoskeletons regulate cell shape across phyla, from bacteria to metazoans. In organisms with cell walls, the wall acts as a primary constraint of shape, and generation of specific cell shape depends on cytoskeletal organization for wall deposition and/or cell expansion. In

  13. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  14. Rhophilin-1 Is a Key Regulator of the Podocyte Cytoskeleton and Is Essential for Glomerular Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Mark A.; Andersson, Ann-Charlotte; Katayama, Kan; Xiao, Ziejie; Nukui, Masatoshi; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Rhophilin-1 is a Rho GTPase-interacting protein, the biologic function of which is largely unknown. Here, we identify and describe the functional role of Rhophilin-1 as a novel podocyte-specific protein of the kidney glomerulus. Rhophilin-1 knockout mice were phenotypically normal at birth but developed albuminuria at about 2 weeks of age. Kidneys from severely albuminuric mice revealed widespread podocyte foot process effacement, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and FSGS-like lesions. The absence of any overt changes in the expression of podocyte proteins at the onset of proteinuria suggested that the primary cause of podocyte abnormalities in Rhpn1-null mice was the result of cell-autonomous, Rhophilin-1–dependent signaling events. In culture, Rhophilin-1 was detected at the plasma membrane leading edge of primary podocytes, where it elicited remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton network. This effect of Rhophilin-1 on actin cytoskeleton organization associated with inhibitory effects on Rho-dependent phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and stress fiber formation. Conversely, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain increased in podocyte foot processes of Rhpn1−/− mice, implicating altered actinomyosin contractility in foot process effacement and compromised filtration capacity. Targeted deletion of RhoA in podocytes of Rhophilin-1 knockout mice exacerbated the renal injury. Taken together, our results indicate that Rhophilin-1 is essential for the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and that this protein is a key determinant of podocyte cytoskeleton architecture. PMID:25071083

  15. Cytoskeleton and Golgi-apparatus interactions: a two-way road of function and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Egea,1 Carla Serra-Peinado,1 María P Gavilan,2 Rosa M Rios21Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Immulogia i Neurociències, Facultat de Medicina and Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Departamento de Señalización Celular, CSIC-Centro Andaluz de Biomedicina y Medicina Regenerativa (CABIMER, Seville, SpainAbstract: The Golgi apparatus is the result of a complex and dynamic interaction between a large variety of molecules that determine its architecture, protein and lipid transports, and those that integrate signals from outside and inside the cell. The cytoskeleton facilitates the functional integration of all these processes. Association and coordination between microtubules and actin filaments, as well as their respective binding and regulatory proteins, are clearly necessary for Golgi structure and function. Protein sorting, membrane fission and fusion, and the motion of Golgi-derived transport carriers are all affected by both cytoskeleton elements.Keywords: cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus, membrane trafficking, secretory pathway, actin, microtubules

  16. Cell-cell interactions mediate cytoskeleton organization and collective endothelial cell chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the role of cell-cell and cell-ligand interactions in cytoskeleton organization of endothelial cells (ECs) and their directional migration within a microfluidic device. The migration of ECs in response to a biochemical factor was studied. Mathematical analysis of the cell migration pathways and cellular cytoskeleton revealed that directional migration, migration persistence length, migration speed, and cytoskeletal stress fiber alignment can be mediated by the level of cell contacts as well as the presence or absence of a biochemical polarizing factor. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, higher cell density and more frequent cell contacts has a reinforcing effect on collective cell chemotaxis. In contrast, in the absence of a polarizing factor, high cell density can decrease or suppress the ability of the cells to migrate. Also, the correlation of actin stress fiber organization and alignment with directional migration of ECs was investigated. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, stress fibers within the cytoskeleton of ECs can be significantly aligned parallel to the gradient direction when the cells have higher level of contacts. The results also show that the organization and alignment of actin stress fibers is mediated by cell adhesion junctions during collective cell migration and introduce cell-cell interactions as a key factor during collective cell chemotaxis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte...... differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating h...

  18. Tropomyosin-1 protects transformed alveolar epithelial cells against cigaret smoke extract through the stabilization of F-actin-dependent cell-cell junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Izdebska, Magdalena; Sroka, Wiktor Dariusz; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of tropomyosin-1-based structural stabilization of F-actin in transformed human alveolar epithelial line H1299 cells subjected to high oxidative stress induced by cigaret smoke extract. We demonstrated here that cigaret smoke extract induces cell shrinking and detachment as a consequence of F-actin cytoskeleton degradation in H1299 cells not overexpressing tropomyosin-1. Furthermore, the treatment of these cells with cigaret smoke extract resulted in the loss of peripheral localization of ZO-1 and initiated apoptosis. In contrast, structural stabilization of F-actin, by overexpression of tropomyosin-1, preserved cell to cell interactions through the attenuation of cortical actin organization into thin fibers and thus protected these cells against oxidative stress-induced degradation of actin cytoskeleton and cell death. In conclusion, we suggest that structural stabilization of thin cortical F-actin fibers increases link between tight junctions proteins and actin cytoskeleton and thus protects H1299 cells against cigaret smoke extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. WASP-Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization influences fusogen localization during cell-cell fusion in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell fusion is essential for development and physiology. Actin polymerization was implicated in the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 engagement in a reconstituted Drosophila cell culture system, and the actin-binding protein spectraplakin links EFF-1 to the actin cytoskeleton and promotes cell-cell fusions in C. elegans larvae. However, it remains unclear whether and how fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton are coordinated in C. elegans embryos. Here, we used live imaging analysis of GFP knock-in and RNAi embryos to study the embryonic cell-cell fusions in C. elegans. Our results show that the inhibition of WASP-Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization delays cell-cell fusions. EFF-1 is primarily distributed in intracellular vesicles in embryonic fusing cells, and we find that the perturbation of actin polymerization reduces the number of EFF-1-postive vesicles. Thus, the actin cytoskeleton differently promotes cell-cell fusion by regulating fusogen localization to the fusing plasma membrane in larvae or to intracellular vesicles in embryos.

  20. Distinct actin oligomers modulate differently the activity of actin nucleators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zheng; Silvan, Unai; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Aebi, Ueli; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Mannherz, Hans Georg

    2015-10-01

    Polymerization of actin monomers into filaments requires the initial formation of nuclei composed of a few actin subunits; however, their instability has hindered their detailed study. Therefore we used chemically crosslinked actin oligomers to analyse their effect on actin polymerization. Actin dimer (upper dimer, UD), trimer and tetramer intermolecularly crosslinked by phenylene-bismaleimide along the genetic helix (between Lys199 and Cys374) were isolated by gel filtration and found to increasingly stimulate actin polymerization as shown by the pyrene assay and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In contrast, the so-called lower actin dimer (LD) characterized by a Cys374-Cys374 crosslink stimulated actin polymerization only at low but inhibited it at high concentrations. UD and trimer stimulated the repolymerization of actin from complexes with thymosin β4 (Tβ4) or profilin, whereas the LD stimulated repolymerization only from the profilin : actin but not the actin : Tβ4 complex. In vivo, actin polymerization is stimulated by nucleation factors. Therefore the interaction and effects of purified LD, UD and trimer on the actin-nucleating activity of gelsolin, mouse diaphanous related (mDia) formin and the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex were analysed. Native gel electrophoresis demonstrated binding of LD, UD and trimer to gelsolin and its fragment G1-3, to the FH2 domains of the formins mDia1 and mDia3, and to Arp2/3 complex. UD and trimer increased the nucleating activity of gelsolin and G1-3, but not of the mDia-FH2 domain nor of the Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, LD at equimolar concentration to Arp2/3 complex stimulated its nucleating activity, but inhibited that of mDia-FH2 domains, gelsolin and G1-3, demonstrating differential regulation of their nucleating activity by dimers containing differently oriented actin subunits. © 2015 FEBS.

  1. The circular F-actin bundles provide a track for turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria in Arabidopsis root hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The movement of organelles in root hairs primarily occurs along the actin cytoskeleton. Circulation and "reverse fountain" cytoplasmic streaming constitute the typical forms by which most organelles (such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus in plant root hair cells engage in bidirectional movement. However, there remains a lack of in-depth research regarding the relationship between the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and turnaround organelle movement in plant root hair cells.In this paper, Arabidopsis seedlings that had been stably transformed with a GFP-ABD2-GFP (green fluorescent protein-actin-binding domain 2-green fluorescent protein construct were utilized to study the distribution of bundles of filamentous (F-actin and the directed motion of mitochondria along these bundles in root hairs. Observations with a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that there were widespread circular F-actin bundles in the epidermal cells and root hairs of Arabidopsis roots. In root hairs, these circular bundles primarily start at the sub-apical region, which is the location where the turnaround movement of organelles occurs. MitoTracker probes were used to label mitochondria, and the dynamic observation of root hair cells with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that turnaround mitochondrial movement occurred along circular F-actin bundles.Relevant experimental results demonstrated that the circular F-actin bundles provide a track for the turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria.

  2. Transforming growth factor β-induced superficial zone protein accumulation in the surface zone of articular cartilage is dependent on the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNary, Sean M; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Reddi, A Hari

    2014-03-01

    The phenotype of articular chondrocytes is dependent on the cytoskeleton, specifically the actin microfilament architecture. Articular chondrocytes in monolayer culture undergo dedifferentiation and assume a fibroblastic phenotype. This process can be reversed by altering the actin cytoskeleton by treatment with cytochalasin. Whereas dedifferentiation has been studied on chondrocytes isolated from the whole cartilage, the effects of cytoskeletal alteration on specific zones of cells such as superficial zone chondrocytes are not known. Chondrocytes from the superficial zone secrete superficial zone protein (SZP), a lubricating proteoglycan that reduces the coefficient of friction of articular cartilage. A better understanding of this phenomenon may be useful in elucidating chondrocyte dedifferentiation in monolayer and accumulation of the cartilage lubricant SZP, with an eye toward tissue engineering functional articular cartilage. In this investigation, the effects of cytoskeletal modulation on the ability of superficial zone chondrocytes to secrete SZP were examined. Primary superficial zone chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer and treated with a combination of cytoskeleton modifying reagents and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 1, a critical regulator of SZP production. Whereas cytochalasin D maintains the articular chondrocyte phenotype, the hallmark of the superficial zone chondrocyte, SZP, was inhibited in the presence of TGFβ1. A decrease in TGFβ1-induced SZP accumulation was also observed when the microtubule cytoskeleton was modified using paclitaxel. These effects of actin and microtubule alteration were confirmed through the application of jasplakinolide and colchicine, respectively. As Rho GTPases regulate actin organization and microtubule polymerization, we hypothesized that the cytoskeleton is critical for TGFβ-induced SZP accumulation. TGFβ-mediated SZP accumulation was inhibited by small molecule inhibitors ML141 (Cdc42), NSC23766 (Rac1

  3. Cytoskeleton, L-type Ca2+ and stretch activated channels in injured skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton (actin microfilaments and anchoring proteins is involved in maintaining the sarco-membrane stiffness and integrity and in turn the mechanical stability and function of the intra- and sub-sarcoplasmic proteins. Accordingly, it regulates Ca2+ entry through the L-type Ca2+ channels and the mechano-sensitivity of the stretch activated channels (SACs. Moreover, being intra-sarcomeric cytoskeleton bound to costameric proteins and other proteins of the sarcoplasma by intermediate filaments, as desmin, it integrates the properties of the sarcolemma with the skeletal muscle fibres contraction. The aim of this research was to compare the cytoskeleton, SACs and the ECC alterations in two different types of injured skeletal muscle fibres: by muscle denervation and mechanical overload (eccentric contraction. Experiments on denervation were made in isolated Soleus muscle of male Wistar rats; forced eccentric-contraction (EC injury was achieved in Extensor Digitorum Longus muscles of Swiss mice. The method employed conventional intracellular recording with microelectrodes inserted in a single fibre of an isolated skeletal muscle bundle. The state of cytoskeleton was evaluated by recording SAC currents and by evaluating the resting membrane potential (RMP value determined in current-clamp mode. The results demonstrated that in both injured skeletal muscle conditions the functionality of L-type Ca2+ current, ICa, was affected. In parallel, muscle fibres showed an increase of the resting membrane permeability and of the SAC current. These issues, together with a more depolarized RMP are an index of altered cytoskeleton. In conclusion, we found a symilar alteration of ICa, SAC and cytoskeleton in both injured skeletal muscle conditions.

  4. The prehistory of the cytoskeleton concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Fabio; Coen, Matteo; Gabbiani, Giulio

    2014-08-01

    Here we discuss how the concept and the name of cytoskeleton were generated and started to evolve over the last two centuries into what is presently a basic topic of modern biology. We also attempt to describe some facets of the emergence of cytoskeleton component characterization in which our laboratory was in part involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Endotoxemia Engages the RhoA Kinase Pathway to Impair Cardiac Function By Altering Cytoskeleton, Mitochondrial Fission, and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preau, Sebastien; Delguste, Florian; Yu, Yichi; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Richard, Vincent; Saulnier, Fabienne; Boulanger, Eric; Neviere, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The RhoA/ROCK pathway controls crucial biological processes involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. In this work, we tested whether Rho kinase inhibition would beneficially impact cardiac cytoskeleton organization, bioenergetics, and autophagy in experimental endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in mice. Fasudil, a potent ROCK inhibitor, prevented LPS-induced cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton disarray, and mitochondrial injury. ROCK inhibition prevented phosphorylation of cofilin and dynamin-related protein-1, which promotes stabilization-polymerization of F-actin and mediates mitochondrial fission, respectively. Pyr1, which exclusively alters actin dynamics, prevented LPS-induced myocardial dysfunction, suggesting that beneficial impact of ROCK inhibition was not mainly related to pleiotropic effects of fasudil on cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress. Fasudil reduced mitochondrial fragmentation, stimulated initiation of autophagy, and elicited cardioprotection in LPS heart. Mdivi-1, a potent mitochondria fission inhibitor, converted cardioprotective autophagy to an inefficient form due to cargo loading failure in which autophagic vacuoles fail to trap cytosolic cargo, despite their formation at enhanced rates and lysosomal elimination. In experimental endotoxemia, cardioprotection by RhoA/ROCK inhibition may be related to changes in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial homeostasis. Improvement of LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by fasudil was attributed to inhibition of ROCK-dependent Drp1 phosphorylation and activation of autophagic processes that can limit mitochondrial fragmentation and enhance degradation of damaged mitochondria, respectively. Fasudil prevented LPS-induced heart oxidative stress, abnormal F-actin distribution, and oxidative phosphorylation, which concur to improve cardiac contractile and

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Alters the Number of Attachment Sites between Ezrin and Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, Julia A.; Brückner, Bastian R.; Nehls, Stefan; Pietuch, Anna; Gerke, Volker; Mey, Ingo; Janshoff, Andreas; Steinem, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Direct linkage between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton is controlled by the protein ezrin, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin protein family. To function as a membrane-cytoskeleton linker, ezrin needs to be activated in a process that involves binding of ezrin to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue. Here, we used colloidal probe microscopy to quantitatively analyze the interaction between ezrin and F-actin as a function of these activating factors. We show that the measured individual unbinding forces between ezrin and F-actin are independent of the activating parameters, in the range of approximately 50 piconewtons. However, the cumulative adhesion energy greatly increases in the presence of PIP2 demonstrating that a larger number of bonds between ezrin and F-actin has formed. In contrast, the phosphorylation state, represented by phosphor-mimetic mutants of ezrin, only plays a minor role in the activation process. These results are in line with in vivo experiments demonstrating that an increase in PIP2 concentration recruits more ezrin to the apical plasma membrane of polarized cells and significantly increases the membrane tension serving as a measure of the adhesion sites between the plasma membrane and the F-actin network. PMID:24500715

  7. Dynamic intracellular reorganization of cytoskeletons and the vacuole in defense responses and hypersensitive cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Takumi; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Plants have evolved various means for controlled and organized cell destruction, known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plant immune responses against microbial infection, hypersensitive cell death as a form of PCD is a crucial event to prevent the spread of biotrophic pathogens. Recent live cell imaging techniques have revealed dynamic features and significant roles of cytoskeletons and the vacuole during defense responses and the PCD. Actin microfilaments (MFs) focus on the infection sites and function as tracks for the polar transport of antimicrobial materials. To accomplish hypersensitive cell death, further dynamic changes in cytoskeletons are induced. MFs play a role in the structural and functional regulation of the vacuole, leading to execution of the PCD. We here overview spatiotemporal dynamic changes in the cytoskeletons and the vacuoles triggered by signals from pathogens, and propose a hypothetical model for MF-regulated vacuole-mediated PCD in plant immunity.

  8. Statistical Mechanics of the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen

    The mechanical integrity of eukaryotic cells along with their capability of dynamic remodeling depends on their cytoskeleton, a structural scaffold made up of a complex and dense network of filamentous proteins spanning the cytoplasm. Active force generation within the cytoskeletal networks by molecular motors is ultimately powered by the consumption of chemical energy and conversion of that energy into mechanical work. The resulting functional movements range from the collective cell migration in epithelial tissues responsible for wound healing to the changes of cell shape that occur during muscle contraction, as well as all the internal structural rearrangements essential for cell division. The role of the cytoskeleton as a dynamic versatile mesoscale "muscle", whose passive and active performance is both highly heterogeneous in space and time and intimately linked to diverse biological functions, allows it to serve as a sensitive indicator for the health and developmental state of the cell. By approaching this natural nonequilibrium many-body system from a variety of perspectives, researchers have made major progress toward understanding the cytoskeleton's unusual mechanical, dynamical and structural properties. Yet a unifying framework capable of capturing both the dynamics of active pattern formation and the emergence of spontaneous collective motion, that allows one to predict the dependence of the model's control parameters on motor properties, is still needed. In the following we construct a microscopic model and provide a theoretical framework to investigate the intricate interplay between local force generation, network architecture and collective motor action. This framework is able to accommodate both regular and heterogeneous pattern formation, as well as arrested coarsening and macroscopic contraction in a unified manner, through the notion of motor-driven effective interactions. Moreover a systematic expansion scheme combined with a variational

  9. The effect of 60Co-irradiation on platelet cytoskeleton and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qingqi; Li Chengzhu

    1987-01-01

    Changes in rat platelet cytoskeleton and platelet function by 60 Co-irradiation were investigated. When platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was stimulated with ADP, PRP aggregation rates on the 3rd, 6th and 9th day after irradiation were 135%, 96% and 0% of the controls respectively. Although control rat PRP responded to collagen stimulation well, PRP from treated rats had lost the aggregation ability induced by collagen. When same amounts of platelets from the control and the treated rats were extracted with 1% triton X-100-EGTA buffer and the cytoskeleton pellet analysed by SDS-PAGE, it was found that the amount and components of the rat platelet cytoskeleton especially actin and myosin on the 3rd day after irradiation were greatly increased. Those from rat platelets on the 6th day after irradiation showed no difference from the controls, but was significantly decreased on the 9th day after irradiation. Based on these results, the authors concluded that the platelets from rats on the 3rd day after irradiation were in an active state. Exhaustion of granule contents or impairment of collagen receptors might render platelets unable to respond to collagen. Decreased platelet function on the 9th day after irradiation was due to a failure of assembly of its cytoskeleton

  10. Diffusion of lipids and GPI-anchored proteins in actin-free plasma membrane vesicles measured by STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Falk; Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...... (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Hindered diffusion of phospholipids and sphingolipids...... forming immobile clusters, both of which disappear in GPMVs. Our data underline the crucial role of the actin cortex in maintaining hindered diffusion modes of many but not all of the membrane molecules, and highlight a powerful experimental approach to decipher specific influences on molecular plasma...

  11. Structure and Functional Characteristics of Rat's Left Ventricle Cardiomyocytes under Antiorthostatic Suspension of Various Duration and Subsequent Reloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I. V.; Mirzoev, T. M.; Biryukov, N. S.; Veselova, O. M.; Larina, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the research was to identify the structural and functional characteristics of the rat's left ventricle under antiorthostatic suspension within 1, 3, 7 and 14 days, and subsequent 3 and 7-day reloading after a 14-day suspension. The transversal stiffness of the cardiomyocyte has been determined by the atomic force microscopy, cell respiration—by polarography and proteins content—by Western blotting. Stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton increases as soon as one day after the suspension and increases up to the 14th day, and starts decreasing during reloading, reaching the control level after 7 days. The stiffness of the contractile apparatus and the intensity of cell respiration also increases. The content of non-muscle isoforms of actin in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins does not change during the whole experiment, as does not the beta-actin content in the membrane fraction. The content of gamma-actin in the membrane fraction correlates with the change in the transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton. Increased content of alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 in the membrane fraction of proteins during the suspension is consistent with increased gamma-actin content there. The opposite direction of change of alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 content suggests their involvement into the signal pathways. PMID:23093854

  12. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  13. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell's specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  14. Marginal Iodine Deficiency Affects Dendritic Spine Development by Disturbing the Function of Rac1 Signaling Pathway on Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Ye; Shan, Zhongyan; Xi, Qi; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID)-induced thyroid hormone (TH) insufficient during development leads to impairments of brain function, such as learning and memory. Marginal ID has been defined as subtle insufficiency of TH, characterized as low thyroxine (T 4 ) levels, whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we established Wistar rat models with ID diet during pregnancy and lactation. The effects of marginal ID on long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated in the hippocampal CA1 region. To study the development of dendritic spines in pyramidal cells, Golgi-Cox staining was conducted on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, PN21, and PN28. The activation of Rac1 signaling pathway, which is essential for dendritic spine development by regulating actin cytoskeleton, was also investigated. Our results showed that marginal ID slightly reduced the field-excitatory postsynaptic potential (f-EPSP) slope and the population spike (PS) amplitude. Besides, the density of dendritic spines during the critical period of rat postnatal development was mildly decreased, and we found no significant change of spine morphology in marginal ID group. We also observed decreased activation of the Rac1 signaling pathway in pups subjected to maternal marginal ID. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T 4 induced by marginal ID results in slight impairments of LTP and leads to mild damage of dendritic spine development, which may be due to abnormal regulation of Rac1 signaling pathway on cytoskeleton.

  15. Actin-myosin–based contraction is responsible for apoptotic nuclear disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Daniel R.; Coleman, Mathew L.; Li, Shuixing; Robertson, David; Sullivan, Teresa; Stewart, Colin L.; Olson, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane blebbing during the apoptotic execution phase results from caspase-mediated cleavage and activation of ROCK I. Here, we show that ROCK activity, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, MLC ATPase activity, and an intact actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubular cytoskeleton, are required for disruption of nuclear integrity during apoptosis. Inhibition of ROCK or MLC ATPase activity, which protect apoptotic nuclear integrity, does not affect caspase-mediated degradation of nuclear proteins such as lamins A, B1, or C. The conditional activation of ROCK I was sufficient to tear apart nuclei in lamin A/C null fibroblasts, but not in wild-type fibroblasts. Thus, apoptotic nuclear disintegration requires actin-myosin contractile force and lamin proteolysis, making apoptosis analogous to, but distinct from, mitosis where nuclear disintegration results from microtubule-based forces and from lamin phosphorylation and depolymerization. PMID:15657395

  16. The pathogen-actin connection: A platform for defense signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, B; Henty, Jessica L; Porter, K J; Staiger, Chris J

    2011-09-08

    The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of cytoplasmic polymers, plays a central role in numerous fundamental processes, such as development, reproduction, and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As a platform for innate immune responses in mammalian cells, the actin cytoskeleton is a central component in the organization and activation of host defenses, including signaling and cellular repair. In plants, our understanding of the genetic and biochemical responses in both pathogen and host that are required for virulence and resistance has grown enormously. Additional advances in live-cell imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics have markedly altered our view of actin turnover in plants. In this review, we outline current knowledge of host resistance following pathogen perception, both in terms of the genetic interactions that mediate defense signaling, as well as the biochemical and cellular processes that are required for defense signaling.

  17. Role of nesprin-1 in nuclear deformation in endothelial cells under static and uniaxial stretching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Toshiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sato, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nesprin-1 knockdown decreases widths of nuclei in ECs under static condition. ► Nuclear strain caused by stretching is increased by nesprin-1 knockdown in ECs. ► We model mechanical interactions of F-actin with the nucleus in stretched cells. ► F-actin bound to nesprin-1 may cause sustainable force transmission to the nucleus. -- Abstract: The linker of nucleus and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, including nesprin-1, has been suggested to be crucial for many biological processes. Previous studies have shown that mutations in nesprin-1 cause abnormal cellular functions and diseases, possibly because of insufficient force transmission to the nucleus through actin filaments (F-actin) bound to nesprin-1. However, little is known regarding the mechanical interaction between the nucleus and F-actin through nesprin-1. In this study, we examined nuclear deformation behavior in nesprin-1 knocked-down endothelial cells (ECs) subjected to uniaxial stretching by evaluating nuclear strain from lateral cross-sectional images. The widths of nuclei in nesprin-1 knocked-down ECs were smaller than those in wild-type cells. In addition, nuclear strain in nesprin-1 knocked-down cells, which is considered to be compressed by the actin cortical layer, increased compared with that in wild-type cells under stretching condition. These results indicate that nesprin-1 knockdown releases the nucleus from the tension of F-actin bound to the nucleus, thereby increasing allowance for deformation before stretching, and that F-actin bound to the nucleus through nesprin-1 causes sustainable force transmission to the nucleus.

  18. Actinic reticuloid. Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the case of actinic reticuloid - the rare dermatosis which clinical presentation is similar to atopic dermatitis, T-cell lymphoma. Good treatment effect was obtained by long cycles (2 cycles for 3 months of hydroxychloroquine and sun protective therapy included sunscreens SPF 50, nicotinic acid, sun-safe clothes which blocked ultraviolet radiation without any glucocorticosteroid drugs and cytostatic treatment.

  19. Effects of the F-actin inhibitor latrunculin A on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecká, Marie; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kawamoto, Susumu

    2015-07-01

    Our basic cell biology research was aimed at investigating the effect on eukaryotic cells of the sudden loss of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Cells treated with latrunculin A (LA) in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium were examined using phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopy, freeze-substitution, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, counted using a Bürker chamber and their absorbance measured. The cells responded to the presence of LA, an F-actin inhibitor, with the disappearance of actin patches, actin cables and actin rings. This resulted in the formation of larger spherical cells with irregular morphology in the cell walls and ultrastructural disorder of the cell organelles and secretory vesicles. Instead of buds, LA-inhibited cells formed only 'table-mountain-like' wide flattened swellings without apical growth with a thinner glucan cell-wall layer containing β-1,3-glucan microfibrils. The LA-inhibited cells lysed. Actin cables and patches were required for bud formation and bud growth. In addition, actin patches were required for the formation of β-1,3-glucan microfibrils in the bud cell wall. LA has fungistatic, fungicidal and fungilytic effects on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells Inverse relationship between TCTP/RhoA and p53/ /cyclin A/actin expression in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Kloc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization and negatively regulates cell motility via regulation of RhoA
    expression. We studied the organization of actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton and the expression of TCTP, p53,
    cyclin A, RhoA and actin in HIO180 non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells, and OVCAR3 and SKOV3 (expressing
    low level of inducible p53 ovarian epithelial cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Immunostaining
    and ultrastructural analyses illustrated a dramatic difference in the organization of the cytokeratin and actin
    filaments in non-transformed versus cancer cell lines. We also determined that there is an inverse relationship between
    the level of TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. This previously unidentified
    negative relationship between TCTP/RhoA and actin/p53/cyclin A may suggest that this interaction is linked
    with the high aggressiveness of ovarian cancers.The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP plays a role in cell growth, cell cycle and cancer
    progression. TCTP controls negatively the stability of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and interacts with the
    cellular cytoskeleton. The deregulation of the actin and cytokeratin cytoskeleton is responsible for the increased
    migratory activity of tumor cells and is linked with poor patient outcome. Recent studies indicate that cyclin A,
    a key regulator of cell cycle, controls actin organization

  2. The Evolving Complexity of the Podocyte Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B

    2017-11-01

    Podocytes exhibit a unique cytoskeletal architecture that is fundamentally linked to their function in maintaining the kidney filtration barrier. The cytoskeleton regulates podocyte shape, structure, stability, slit diaphragm insertion, adhesion, plasticity, and dynamic response to environmental stimuli. Genetic mutations demonstrate that even slight impairment of the podocyte cytoskeletal apparatus results in proteinuria and glomerular disease. Moreover, mechanisms underpinning all acquired glomerular pathologies converge on disruption of the cytoskeleton, suggesting that this subcellular structure could be targeted for therapeutic purposes. This review summarizes our current understanding of the function of the cytoskeleton in podocytes and the associated implications for pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Two Molecules of Lobophorolide Cooperate to Stabilize an Actin Dimer Using Both Their 'Ring' and 'Tail' Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, J.; Mok, Y; Kubanek, J; Allingham, J

    2010-01-01

    Actin filament-disrupting marine macrolides are promising templates from which to design therapeutics against cancer and other diseases that co-opt the actin cytoskeleton. Typically, these macrolides form either a 1:1 or 2:1 actin-macrolide complex where their aliphatic side chain, or 'tail', has been reported to convey the major determinant of cytotoxicity. We now report the structure of the marine macrolide lobophorolide bound to actin with a unique 2:2 stoichiometry in which two lobophorolide molecules cooperate to form a dimerization interface that is composed entirely of the macrolide 'ring' region, and each molecule of lobophorolide interacts with both actin subunits via their ring and tail regions to tether the subunits together. This binding mode imposes multiple barriers against microfilament stability and holds important implications for development of actin-targeting drugs and the evolution of macrolide biosynthetic enzymes.

  4. Calcium and actin in the saga of awakening oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Luigia, E-mail: santella@szn.it; Limatola, Nunzia; Chun, Jong T.

    2015-04-24

    The interaction of the spermatozoon with the egg at fertilization remains one of the most fascinating mysteries of life. Much of our scientific knowledge on fertilization comes from studies on sea urchin and starfish, which provide plenty of gametes. Large and transparent, these eggs have served as excellent model systems for studying egg activation and embryo development in seawater, a plain natural medium. Starfish oocytes allow the study of the cortical, cytoplasmic and nuclear changes during the meiotic maturation process, which can also be triggered in vitro by hormonal stimulation. These morphological and biochemical changes ensure successful fertilization of the eggs at the first metaphase. On the other hand, sea urchin eggs are fertilized after the completion of meiosis, and are particularly suitable for the study of sperm–egg interaction, early events of egg activation, and embryonic development, as a large number of mature eggs can be fertilized synchronously. Starfish and sea urchin eggs undergo abrupt changes in the cytoskeleton and ion fluxes in response to the fertilizing spermatozoon. The plasma membrane and cortex of an egg thus represent “excitable media” that quickly respond to the stimulus with the Ca{sup 2+} swings and structural changes. In this article, we review some of the key findings on the rapid dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton in the oocyte/egg cortex upon hormonal or sperm stimulation and their roles in the modulation of the Ca{sup 2+} signals and in the control of monospermic fertilization. - Highlights: • Besides microtubules, microfilaments may anchor the nucleus to oocyte surface. • The cortical Ca{sup 2+} flash and wave at fertilization mirror electrical membrane change. • Artificial egg activation lacks microvilli extension in the perivitelline space. • Calcium is necessary but not sufficient for cortical granules exocytosis. • Actin cytoskeleton modulates Ca{sup 2+} release at oocyte maturation

  5. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchenbuechler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  6. Function of the cytoskeleton in gravisensing during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2003-10-01

    Since astronauts and cosmonauts have significant bone loss in microgravity we hypothesized that there would be physiological changes in cellular bone growth and cytoskeleton in the absence of gravity. Investigators from around the world have studied a multitude of bone cells in microgravity including Ros 17/2.8, Mc3T3-E1, MG-63, hFOB and primary chicken calvaria. Changes in cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) have been noted in many of these studies. Investigators have noted changes in shape of cells exposed to as little as 20 seconds of microgravity in parabolic flight. Our laboratory reported that quiescent osteoblasts activated by sera under microgravity conditions had a significant 60% reduction in growth (pmicrofilament collapse), or in G2/M (inhibition of microtubule polymerization during G2/M-phase). We therefore hypothesize that microgravity would inhibit growth in either G1, or G2/M.

  7. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  8. Live cell imaging of actin dynamics in dexamethasone-treated porcine trabecular meshwork cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tomokazu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Inoue-Mochita, Miyuki; Tanihara, Hidenobu

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is important for controlling outflow of the aqueous humor. In some reports, dexamethasone (DEX) increased the aqueous humor outflow resistance and induced unusual actin structures, such as cross-linked actin networks (CLAN), in TM cells. However, the functions and dynamics of CLAN in TM cells are not completely known, partly because actin stress fibers have been observed only in fixed cells. We conducted live-cell imaging of the actin dynamics in TM cells with or without DEX treatment. An actin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct with a modified insect virus was transfected into porcine TM cells. Time-lapse imaging of live TM cells treated with 25 μM Y-27632 and 100 nM DEX was performed using an inverted fluorescence microscope. Fluorescent images were recorded every 15 s for 30 min after Y-27632 treatment or every 30 min for 72 h after DEX treatment. The GFP-actin was expressed in 22.7 ± 10.9% of the transfected TM cells. In live TM cells, many actin stress fibers were observed before the Y-27632 treatment. Y-27632 changed the cell shape and decreased stress fibers in a time-dependent manner. In fixed cells, CLAN-like structures were seen in 26.5 ± 1.7% of the actin-GFP expressed PTM cells treated with DEX for 72 h. In live imaging, there was 28% CLAN-like structure formation at 72 h after DEX treatment, and the lifetime of CLAN-like structures increased after DEX treatment. The DEX-treated cells with CLAN-like structures showed less migration than DEX-treated cells without CLAN-like structures. Furthermore, the control cells (without DEX treatment) with CLAN-like structures also showed less migration than the control cells without CLAN-like structures. These results suggested that CLAN-like structure formation was correlated with cell migration in TM cells. Live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton provides valuable information on the actin dynamics in TM

  9. Analysis of actin FLAP dynamics in the leading lamella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor R Kuznetsov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport of labeled G-actin from the mid-lamella region to the leading edge in a highly motile malignant rat fibroblast line has been studied using fluorescence localization after photobleaching or FLAP, and the transit times recorded in these experiments were so fast that simple diffusion was deemed an insufficient explanation (see Zicha et al., Science, v. 300, pp. 142-145 [1].We re-examine the Zicha FLAP experiments using a two-phase reactive interpenetrating flow formalism to model the cytoplasm and the transport dynamics of bleached and unbleached actin. By allowing an improved treatment of effects related to the retrograde flow of the cytoskeleton and of the geometry and finite thickness of the lamella, this new analysis reveals a mechanism that can realistically explain the timing and the amplitude of all the FLAP signals observed in [1] without invoking special transport modalities.We conclude that simple diffusion is sufficient to explain the observed transport rates, and that variations in the transport of labeled actin through the lamella are minor and not likely to be the cause of the observed physiological variations among different segments of the leading edge. We find that such variations in labeling can easily arise from differences and changes in the microscopic actin dynamics inside the edge compartment, and that the key dynamical parameter in this regard is the so-called "dilatation rate" (the velocity of cytoskeletal retrograde flow divided by a characteristic dimension of the edge compartment where rapid polymerization occurs. If our dilatation hypothesis is correct, the transient kinetics of bleached actin relocalization constitute a novel and very sensitive method for probing the cytoskeletal dynamics in leading edge micro-environments which are otherwise very difficult to directly interrogate.

  10. Analysis of actin FLAP dynamics in the leading lamella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Igor R; Herant, Marc; Dembo, Micah

    2010-04-15

    The transport of labeled G-actin from the mid-lamella region to the leading edge in a highly motile malignant rat fibroblast line has been studied using fluorescence localization after photobleaching or FLAP, and the transit times recorded in these experiments were so fast that simple diffusion was deemed an insufficient explanation (see Zicha et al., Science, v. 300, pp. 142-145 [1]). We re-examine the Zicha FLAP experiments using a two-phase reactive interpenetrating flow formalism to model the cytoplasm and the transport dynamics of bleached and unbleached actin. By allowing an improved treatment of effects related to the retrograde flow of the cytoskeleton and of the geometry and finite thickness of the lamella, this new analysis reveals a mechanism that can realistically explain the timing and the amplitude of all the FLAP signals observed in [1] without invoking special transport modalities. We conclude that simple diffusion is sufficient to explain the observed transport rates, and that variations in the transport of labeled actin through the lamella are minor and not likely to be the cause of the observed physiological variations among different segments of the leading edge. We find that such variations in labeling can easily arise from differences and changes in the microscopic actin dynamics inside the edge compartment, and that the key dynamical parameter in this regard is the so-called "dilatation rate" (the velocity of cytoskeletal retrograde flow divided by a characteristic dimension of the edge compartment where rapid polymerization occurs). If our dilatation hypothesis is correct, the transient kinetics of bleached actin relocalization constitute a novel and very sensitive method for probing the cytoskeletal dynamics in leading edge micro-environments which are otherwise very difficult to directly interrogate.

  11. High aspect ratio silicon nanowires control fibroblast adhesion and cytoskeleton organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Murello, Anna; Cassese, Damiano; Ban, Jelena; Dal Zilio, Simone; Lazzarino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are essential to the survival and proliferation of most cells, and are responsible for triggering a wide range of biochemical pathways. More recently, the biomechanical role of those interactions was highlighted, showing, for instance, that adhesion forces are essential for cytoskeleton organization. Silicon nanowires (Si NWs) with their small size, high aspect ratio and anisotropic mechanical response represent a useful model to investigate the forces involved in the adhesion processes and their role in cellular development. In this work we explored and quantified, by single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), the interaction of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with a flexible forest of Si NWs. We observed that the cell adhesion forces are comparable to those found on collagen and bare glass coverslip, analogously the membrane tether extraction forces are similar to that on collagen but stronger than that on bare flat glass. Cell survival did not depend significantly on the substrate, although a reduced proliferation after 36 h was observed. On the contrary both cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization revealed striking differences. The cell morphology on Si-NW was characterized by a large number of filopodia and a significant decrease of the cell mobility. The cytoskeleton organization was characterized by the absence of actin fibers, which were instead dominant on collagen and flat glass support. Such findings suggest that the mechanical properties of disordered Si NWs, and in particular their strong asymmetry, play a major role in the adhesion, morphology and cytoskeleton organization processes. Indeed, while adhesion measurements by SCFS provide out-of-plane forces values consistent with those measured on conventional substrates, weaker in-plane forces hinder proper cytoskeleton organization and migration processes.

  12. Actin Polymerization and ATP Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Edward D.; Carlier, Marie-France; Pantaloni, Dominique

    1987-10-01

    F-actin is the major component of muscle thin filaments and, more generally, of the microfilaments of the dynamic, multifunctional cytoskeletal systems of nonmuscle eukaryotic cells. Polymeric F-actin is formed by reversible noncovalent self-association of monomeric G-actin. To understand the dynamics of microfilament systems in cells, the dynamics of polymerization of pure actin must be understood. The following model has emerged from recent work. During the polymerization process, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) that is bound to G-actin is hydrolyzed to adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) that is bound to F-actin. The hydrolysis reaction occurs on the F-actin subsequent to the polymerization reaction in two steps: cleavage of ATP followed by the slower release of inorganic phosphate (Pi). As a result, at high rates of filament growth a transient cap of ATP-actin subunits exists at the ends of elongating filaments, and at steady state a stabilizing cap of ADP \\cdot Pi-actin subunits exists at the barbed ends of filaments. Cleavage of ATP results in a highly stable filament with bound ADP \\cdot Pi, and release of Pi destabilizes the filament. Thus these two steps of the hydrolytic reaction provide potential mechanisms for regulating the monomer-polymer transition.

  13. Baculovirus AC102 is a nucleocapsid protein that is crucial for nuclear actin polymerization and nucleocapsid morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Susan E; Borgo, Gina M; Ticau, Simina; Ohkawa, Taro; Welch, Matthew D

    2018-03-14

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of alphabaculoviruses, is an enveloped DNA virus that infects lepidopteran insects and is commonly known as a vector for protein expression and cell transduction. AcMNPV belongs to a diverse group of viral and bacterial pathogens that target the host cell actin cytoskeleton during infection. AcMNPV is unusual, however, in that it absolutely requires actin translocation into the nucleus early in infection, and actin polymerization within the nucleus late in infection coincident with viral replication. Of the six viral factors that are sufficient, when coexpressed, to induce the nuclear localization of actin, only AC102 is essential for viral replication and the nuclear accumulation of actin. We therefore sought to better understand the role of AC102 in actin mobilization in the nucleus early and late in infection. Although AC102 was proposed to function early in infection, we found that AC102 is predominantly expressed as a late protein. In addition, we observed that AC102 is required for F-actin assembly in the nucleus during late infection, as well as for proper formation of viral replication structures and nucleocapsid morphogenesis. Finally, we found that AC102 is a nucleocapsid protein and a newly recognized member of a complex consisting of the viral proteins EC27, C42, and the actin polymerization protein P78/83. Taken together, our findings suggest that AC102 is necessary for nucleocapsid morphogenesis and actin assembly during late infection through its role as a component of the P78/83-C42-EC27-AC102 protein complex. IMPORTANCE The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is an important biotechnological tool for protein expression and cell transduction, and related nucleopolyhedroviruses are also employed as environmentally benign insecticides. One impact of our work is to better understand the fundamental mechanisms through

  14. Physical properties of mesenchymal stem cells are coordinated by the perinuclear actin cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Takanori; Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Shimizu, Yuji; Yuba, Shunsuke; Miyake, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cell thickness and stiffness of rat MSC are inversely correlated. → Perinuclear actin cap coordinates the cell thickness and stiffness of rat MSC. → Physical properties of rat MSCs regulate their proliferation activity. → Physical properties of MSCs are potent indicators for their physiological functions. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their applications in regenerative medicine. Successful use of MSCs in cell-based therapies will rely on the ability to effectively identify their properties and functions with a relatively non-destructive methodology. In this study, we measured the surface stiffness and thickness of rat MSCs with atomic force microscopy and clarified their relation at a single-cell level. The role of the perinuclear actin cap in regulating the thickness, stiffness, and proliferative activity of these cells was also determined by using several actin cytoskeleton-modifying reagents. This study has helped elucidate a possible link between the physical properties and the physiological function of the MSCs, and the corresponding regulatory role of the actin cytoskeleton.

  15. Physical properties of mesenchymal stem cells are coordinated by the perinuclear actin cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, Takanori, E-mail: takanori.kihara@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Shimizu, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Yuba, Shunsuke [Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 3-11-46 Nakoji, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Miyake, Jun [Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} Cell thickness and stiffness of rat MSC are inversely correlated. {yields} Perinuclear actin cap coordinates the cell thickness and stiffness of rat MSC. {yields} Physical properties of rat MSCs regulate their proliferation activity. {yields} Physical properties of MSCs are potent indicators for their physiological functions. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their applications in regenerative medicine. Successful use of MSCs in cell-based therapies will rely on the ability to effectively identify their properties and functions with a relatively non-destructive methodology. In this study, we measured the surface stiffness and thickness of rat MSCs with atomic force microscopy and clarified their relation at a single-cell level. The role of the perinuclear actin cap in regulating the thickness, stiffness, and proliferative activity of these cells was also determined by using several actin cytoskeleton-modifying reagents. This study has helped elucidate a possible link between the physical properties and the physiological function of the MSCs, and the corresponding regulatory role of the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-04-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Prediction and dissection of widely-varying association rate constants of actin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Kenneth H; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Actin is an abundant protein that constitutes a main component of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Its polymerization and depolymerization are regulated by a variety of actin-binding proteins. Their functions range from nucleation of actin polymerization to sequestering G-actin in 1∶1 complexes. The kinetics of forming these complexes, with rate constants varying at least three orders of magnitude, is critical to the distinct regulatory functions. Previously we have developed a transient-complex theory for computing protein association mechanisms and association rate constants. The transient complex refers to an intermediate in which the two associating proteins have near-native separation and relative orientation but have yet to form short-range specific interactions of the native complex. The association rate constant is predicted as k(a) = k(a0) e(-ΔG(el*)/k(B)T), where k(a0) is the basal rate constant for reaching the transient complex by free diffusion, and the Boltzmann factor captures the bias of long-range electrostatic interactions. Here we applied the transient-complex theory to study the association kinetics of seven actin-binding proteins with G-actin. These proteins exhibit three classes of association mechanisms, due to their different molecular shapes and flexibility. The 1000-fold k(a) variations among them can mostly be attributed to disparate electrostatic contributions. The basal rate constants also showed variations, resulting from the different shapes and sizes of the interfaces formed by the seven actin-binding proteins with G-actin. This study demonstrates the various ways that actin-binding proteins use physical properties to tune their association mechanisms and rate constants to suit distinct regulatory functions.

  18. A feedback loop between dynamin and actin recruitment during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Taylor

    Full Text Available Clathrin-mediated endocytosis proceeds by a sequential series of reactions catalyzed by discrete sets of protein machinery. The final reaction in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is membrane scission, which is mediated by the large guanosine triophosphate hydrolase (GTPase dynamin and which may involve the actin-dependent recruitment of N-terminal containing BIN/Amphiphysin/RVS domain containing (N-BAR proteins. Optical microscopy has revealed a detailed picture of when and where particular protein types are recruited in the ∼20-30 s preceding scission. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanisms and functions that underpin protein recruitment are not well understood. Here we used an optical assay to investigate the coordination and interdependencies between the recruitment of dynamin, the actin cytoskeleton, and N-BAR proteins to individual clathrin-mediated endocytic scission events. These measurements revealed that a feedback loop exists between dynamin and actin at sites of membrane scission. The kinetics of dynamin, actin, and N-BAR protein recruitment were modulated by dynamin GTPase activity. Conversely, acute ablation of actin dynamics using latrunculin-B led to a ∼50% decrease in the incidence of scission, an ∼50% decrease in the amplitude of dynamin recruitment, and abolished actin and N-BAR recruitment to scission events. Collectively these data suggest that dynamin, actin, and N-BAR proteins work cooperatively to efficiently catalyze membrane scission. Dynamin controls its own recruitment to scission events by modulating the kinetics of actin and N-BAR recruitment to sites of scission. Conversely actin serves as a dynamic scaffold that concentrates dynamin and N-BAR proteins at sites of scission.

  19. Model of fission yeast cell shape driven by membrane-bound growth factors and the cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Drake

    Full Text Available Fission yeast serves as a model for how cellular polarization machinery consisting of signaling molecules and the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton regulates cell shape. In this work, we develop mathematical models to investigate how these cells maintain a tubular shape of approximately constant diameter. Many studies identify active Cdc42, found in a cap at the inner membrane of growing cell tips, as an important regulator of local cell wall remodeling, likely through control of exocyst tethering and the targeting of other polarity-enhancing structures. First, we show that a computational model with Cdc42-dependent local cell wall remodeling under turgor pressure predicts a relationship between spatial extent of growth signal and cell diameter that is in agreement with prior experiments. Second, we model the consequences of feedback between cell shape and distribution of Cdc42 growth signal at cell tips. We show that stability of cell diameter over successive cell divisions places restrictions on their mutual dependence. We argue that simple models where the spatial extent of the tip growth signal relies solely on geometrical alignment of confined microtubules might lead to unstable width regulation. Third, we study a computational model that combines a growth signal distributed over a characteristic length scale (as, for example, by a reaction-diffusion mechanism with an axis-sensing microtubules system that places landmarks at positions where microtubule tips touch the cortex. A two-dimensional implementation of this model leads to stable cell diameter for a wide range of parameters. Changes to the parameters of this model reproduce straight, bent, and bulged cell shapes, and we discuss how this model is consistent with other observed cell shapes in mutants. Our work provides an initial quantitative framework for understanding the regulation of cell shape in fission yeast, and a scaffold for understanding this process on a more molecular

  20. RNA-binding proteins of the NXF (nuclear export factor) family and their connection with the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamon, L A; Ginanova, V R; Kliver, S F; Yakimova, A O; Atsapkina, A A; Golubkova, E V

    2017-04-01

    The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor). Dm NXF1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein in Drosophila melanogaster that has orthologs in different animals. The universal function of nxf1 genes is the nuclear export of different mRNAs in various organisms. In this mini-review, we briefly discuss the evidence demonstrating that Dm NXF1 fulfils not only universal but also specialized cytoplasmic functions. This protein is detected not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. It is a component of neuronal granules. Dm NXF1 marks nuclear division spindles during early embryogenesis and the dense body on one side of the elongated spermatid nuclei. The characteristic features of sbr mutants (sbr 10 and sbr 5 ) are impairment of chromosome segregation and spindle formation anomalies during female meiosis. sbr 12 mutant sterile males with immobile spermatozoa exhibit disturbances in the axoneme, mitochondrial derivatives and cytokinesis. These data allow us to propose that the Dm NXF1 proteins transport certain mRNAs in neurites and interact with localized mRNAs that are necessary for dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. ABBA regulates plasma-membrane and actin dynamics to promote radial glia extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikangas, Juha; Hakanen, Janne; Mattila, Pieta K; Grumet, Martin; Salminen, Marjo; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2008-05-01

    Radial glia play key roles in neuronal migration, axon guidance, and neurogenesis during development of the central nervous system. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating growth and morphology of these extended cells are unknown. We show that ABBA, a novel member of the IRSp53-MIM protein family, is enriched in different types of radial glia. ABBA binds ATP-actin monomers with high affinity and deforms PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-rich membranes in vitro through its WH2 and IM domains, respectively. In radial-glia-like C6-R cells, ABBA localises to the interface between the actin cytoskeleton and plasma membrane, and its depletion by RNAi led to defects in lamellipodial dynamics and process extension. Together, this study identifies ABBA as a novel regulator of actin and plasma membrane dynamics in radial glial cells, and provides evidence that membrane binding and deformation activity is critical for the cellular functions of IRSp53-MIM-ABBA family proteins.

  2. Continuum mechanical model for cross-linked actin networks with contractile bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J. P. S.; Parente, M. P. L.; Natal Jorge, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a mechanical approach to cell biology, there is a close relationship between cellular function and mechanical properties. In recent years, an increasing amount of attention has been given to the coupling between biochemical and mechanical signals by means of constitutive models. In particular, on the active contractility of the actin cytoskeleton. Given the importance of the actin contraction on the physiological functions, this study propose a constitutive model to describe how the filamentous network controls its mechanics actively. Embedded in a soft isotropic ground substance, the network behaves as a viscous mechanical continuum, comprised of isotropically distributed cross-linked actin filaments and actomyosin bundles. Trough virtual rheometry experiments, the present model relates the dynamics of the myosin motors with the network stiffness, which is to a large extent governed by the time-scale of the applied deformations/forces.

  3. A new method to measure mechanics and dynamic assembly of branched actin networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauër, Pierre; Tavacoli, Joe; Pujol, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    networks and controlled enough to access to their non linear mechanical responses. Deformations are measured with nanometer-resolution, well below the optical resolution. Self-assembly of the magnetic particles into chains simplifies experiments and allows for parallel measurements. The combination......We measured mechanical properties and dynamic assembly of actin networks with a new method based on magnetic microscopic cylinders. Dense actin networks are grown from the cylinders’ surfaces using the biochemical Arp2/3-machinery at play in the lamellipodium extension and other force...... of accuracy and good throughput of measurements results in a method with high potential for cell and cytoskeleton mechanics. Using this method, we observed in particular a strong non linear mechanical behavior of dense branched actin networks at low forces that has not been reported previously....

  4. Host Actin Polymerization Tunes the Cell Division Cycle of an Intracellular Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sloan Siegrist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and division are two of the most fundamental capabilities of a bacterial cell. While they are well described for model organisms growing in broth culture, very little is known about the cell division cycle of bacteria replicating in more complex environments. Using a D-alanine reporter strategy, we found that intracellular Listeria monocytogenes (Lm spend a smaller proportion of their cell cycle dividing compared to Lm growing in broth culture. This alteration to the cell division cycle is independent of bacterial doubling time. Instead, polymerization of host-derived actin at the bacterial cell surface extends the non-dividing elongation period and compresses the division period. By decreasing the relative proportion of dividing Lm, actin polymerization biases the population toward cells with the highest propensity to form actin tails. Thus, there is a positive-feedback loop between the Lm cell division cycle and a physical interaction with the host cytoskeleton.

  5. Opposing effects of actin signaling and LFA-1 on establishing the affinity threshold for inducing effector T-cell responses in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, E.; Drobek, Aleš; Štěpánek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 8 (2016), s. 1887-1901 ISSN 0014-2980 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09208Y Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Actin cytoskeleton * Antigen affinity treshold * LFA-1 * Rap1 * Rho-family GTPases * T-cell receptor signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.227, year: 2016

  6. Arabidopsis group Ie formins localize to specific cell membrane domains, interact with actin-binding proteins and cause defects in cell expansion upon aberrant expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Deeks, M.J.; Cvrčková, F.; Machesky, M. L.; Mikitova, V.; Ketelaar, T.; Žárský, Viktor; Davies, B.; Hussey, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 3 (2005), s. 529-540 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1461; GA ČR GA204/05/0268 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : actin * Arabidopsis * cytoskeleton Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.285, year: 2005

  7. High Glucose Predisposes Gene Expression and ERK Phosphorylation to Apoptosis and Impaired Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion via the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Yang, Kaiyuan; Li, GuoDong; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2012-01-01

    Chronic high glucose (HG) inflicts glucotoxicity on vulnerable cell types such as pancreatic β cells and contributes to insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in diabetic patients. To identify HG-induced cellular aberrations that are candidate mediators of glucotoxicity in pancreatic β cells, we analyzed gene expression in ERoSHK6, a mouse insulin-secreting cell line after chronic HG exposure (six-day exposure to 33.3 mM glucose). Chronic HG exposure which reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) increased transcript levels of 185 genes that clustered primarily in 5 processes namely cellular growth and proliferation; cell death; cellular assembly and organization; cell morphology; and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. The former two were validated by increased apoptosis of ERoSHK6 cells after chronic HG exposure and reaffirmed the vulnerability of β cells to glucotoxicity. The three remaining processes were partially substantiated by changes in cellular morphology and structure, and instigated an investigation of the cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion. These studies revealed a depolymerized actin cytoskeleton that lacked actin stress fibers anchored at vinculin-containing focal adhesion sites as well as loss of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adherence after exposure to chronic HG, and were concomitant with constitutive ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was refractory to serum and glucose deprivation. Although inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PD98059 promoted actin polymerization, it increased apoptosis and GSIS impairment. These findings suggest that ERK phosphorylation is a proximate regulator of cellular processes targeted by chronic HG-induced gene expression and that dynamic actin polymerization and depolymerization is important in β cell survival and function. Therefore, chronic HG alters gene expression and signal transduction to predispose the cytoskeleton towards apoptosis and GSIS impairment. PMID:23024780

  8. Leukocytes Breach Endothelial Barriers by Insertion of Nuclear Lobes and Disassembly of Endothelial Actin Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Barzilai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers. Surprisingly, formation of both paracellular gaps and transcellular pores by squeezing leukocytes did not require Rho kinase or myosin II-mediated endothelial contractility. Electron-microscopic analysis suggested that nuclear squeezing displaced without condensing the endothelial actin filaments. Blocking endothelial actin turnover abolished leukocyte nuclear squeezing, whereas increasing actin filament density did not. We propose that leukocyte nuclei must disassemble the thin endothelial actin filaments interlaced between endothelial stress fibers in order to complete TEM.

  9. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of gamma(cyto-actin does not exacerbate the mdx phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W Prins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously documented a ten-fold increase in gamma(cyto-actin expression in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and hypothesized that increased gamma(cyto-actin expression may participate in an adaptive cytoskeletal remodeling response. To explore whether increased gamma(cyto-actin fortifies the cortical cytoskeleton in dystrophic skeletal muscle, we generated double knockout mice lacking both dystrophin and gamma(cyto-actin specifically in skeletal muscle (ms-DKO. Surprisingly, dystrophin-deficient mdx and ms-DKO mice presented with comparable levels of myofiber necrosis, membrane instability, and deficits in muscle function. The lack of an exacerbated phenotype in ms-DKO mice suggests gamma(cyto-actin and dystrophin function in a common pathway. Finally, because both mdx and ms-DKO skeletal muscle showed similar levels of utrophin expression and presented with identical dystrophies, we conclude utrophin can partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin independent of a gamma(cyto-actin-utrophin interaction.

  10. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is chloroplast import of photosynthesis proteins facilitated by an actin-TOC-TIC-VIPP1 complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhet, Juliette; Gray, John C

    2009-10-01

    Actin filaments are major components of the cytoskeleton that interact with chloroplast envelope membranes to allow chloroplast positioning and movement, stromule mobility and gravitropism perception. We recently reported that Toc159, a component of the TOC complex of the chloroplast protein import apparatus, interacts directly with actin. The interaction of Toc159 and actin was identified by co-immunoprecipitation and co-sedimentation experiments with detergent-solubilised pea chloroplast envelope membranes. In addition, many of the components of the TOC-TIC protein import apparatus and VIPP1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1) were identified by mass spectroscopy in the material co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies to actin. Toc159 is the receptor for the import of photosynthesis proteins and VIPP1 is involved in thylakoid membrane formation by inducing vesicle formation from the chloroplast inner envelope membrane, suggesting we may have identified an actin-TOC-TIC-VIPP1 complex that may provide a means of channeling cytosolic preproteins to the thylakoid membrane. The interaction of Toc159 with actin may facilitate exchange between the putative soluble and membrane forms of Toc159 and promote the interaction of cytosolic preproteins with the TOC complex.

  12. Characterization of the activities of actin-affecting drugs on tumor cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayot, Caroline; Debeir, Olivier; Ham, Philippe van; Damme, Marc van; Kiss, Robert; Decaestecker, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Metastases kill 90% of cancer patients. It is thus a major challenge in cancer therapy to inhibit the spreading of tumor cells from primary tumor sites to those particular organs where metastases are likely to occur. Whereas the actin cytoskeleton is a key component involved in cell migration, agents targeting actin dynamics have been relatively poorly investigated. Consequently, valuable in vitro pharmacological tools are needed to selectively identify this type of agent. In response to the absence of any standardized process, the present work aims to develop a multi-assay strategy for screening actin-affecting drugs with anti-migratory potentials. To validate our approach, we used two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) and three actin-affecting drugs (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, and jasplakinolide). We quantified the effects of these drugs on the kinetics of actin polymerization in tubes (by means of spectrofluorimetry) and on the dynamics of actin cytoskeletons within whole cells (by means of fluorescence microscopy). Using quantitative videomicroscopy, we investigated the actual effects of the drugs on cell motility. Finally, the combined drug effects on cell motility and cell growth were evaluated by means of a scratch-wound assay. While our results showed concordant drug-induced effects on actin polymerization occurring in vitro in test tubes and within whole cells, the whole cell assay appeared more sensitive than the tube assay. The inhibition of actin polymerization induced by cytochalasin D was paralleled by a decrease in cell motility for both cell types. In the case of jasplakinolide, which induces actin polymerization, while it significantly enhanced the locomotion of the A549 cells, it significantly inhibited that of the MCF-7 ones. All these effects were confirmed by means of the scratch-wound assay except of the jasplakinolide-induced effects on MCF-7 cell motility. These later seemed compensated by an additional effect occurring during wound

  13. Single-point ACT2 gene mutation in the Arabidopsis root hair mutant der1-3 affects overall actin organization, root growth and plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaškebová, L; Šamaj, J; Ovecka, M

    2017-12-27

    The actin cytoskeleton forms a dynamic network in plant cells. A single-point mutation in the DER1 (deformed root hairs1) locus located in the sequence of ACTIN2, a gene for major actin in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana, leads to impaired root hair development (Ringli C, Baumberger N, Diet A, Frey B, Keller B. 2002. ACTIN2 is essential for bulge site selection and tip growth during root hair development of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology129: 1464-1472). Only root hair phenotypes have been described so far in der1 mutants, but here we demonstrate obvious aberrations in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and overall plant development. Organization of the actin cytoskeleton in epidermal cells of cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots was studied qualitatively and quantitatively by live-cell imaging of transgenic lines carrying the GFP-FABD2 fusion protein and in fixed cells after phalloidin labelling. Patterns of root growth were characterized by FM4-64 vital staining, light-sheet microscopy imaging and microtubule immunolabelling. Plant phenotyping included analyses of germination, root growth and plant biomass. Speed of germination, plant fresh weight and total leaf area were significantly reduced in the der1-3 mutant in comparison with the C24 wild-type. Actin filaments in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon epidermal cells of the der1-3 mutant were shorter, thinner and arranged in more random orientations, while actin bundles were shorter and had altered orientations. The wavy pattern of root growth in der1-3 mutant was connected with higher frequencies of shifted cell division planes (CDPs) in root cells, which was consistent with the shifted positioning of microtubule-based preprophase bands and phragmoplasts. The organization of cortical microtubules in the root cells of the der1-3 mutant, however, was not altered. Root growth rate of the der1-3 mutant is not reduced, but changes in the actin cytoskeleton organization can induce a wavy root growth pattern

  14. Perturbation of host cell cytoskeleton by cranberry proanthocyanidins and their effect on enteric infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Harmidy

    Full Text Available Cranberry-derived compounds, including a fraction known as proanthocyanidins (PACs exhibit anti-microbial, anti-infective, and anti-adhesive properties against a number of disease-causing organisms. In this study, the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins (CPACs on the infection of epithelial cells by two enteric bacterial pathogens, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and Salmonella Typhimurium was investigated. Immunofluorescence data showed that actin pedestal formation, required for infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, was disrupted in the presence of CPACs. In addition, invasion of HeLa cells by Salmonella Typhimurium was significantly reduced, as verified by gentamicin protection assay and immunofluorescence. CPACs had no effect on bacterial growth, nor any detectable effect on the production of bacterial effector proteins of the type III secretion system. Furthermore, CPACs did not affect the viability of host cells. Interestingly, we found that CPACs had a potent and dose-dependent effect on the host cell cytoskeleton that was evident even in uninfected cells. CPACs inhibited the phagocytosis of inert particles by a macrophage cell line, providing further evidence that actin-mediated host cell functions are disrupted in the presence of cranberry CPACs. Thus, although CPAC treatment inhibited Salmonella invasion and EPEC pedestal formation, our results suggest that this is likely primarily because of the perturbation of the host cell cytoskeleton by CPACs rather than an effect on bacterial virulence itself. These findings have significant implications for the interpretation of experiments on the effects of CPACs on bacteria-host cell interactions.

  15. Atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy on the cytoskeleton of permeabilised and embedded cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, Karl; Theiss, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technical method of cell permeabilisation and embedding to study the organisation and distribution of intracellular proteins with aid of atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in identical areas. While confocal laser scanning microscopy is useful for the identification of certain proteins subsequent labelling with markers or antibodies, atomic force microscopy allows the observation of macromolecular structures in fixed and living cells. To demonstrate the field of application of this preparatory technique, cells were permeabilised, fixed, and the actin cytoskeleton was stained with phalloidin-rhodamine. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to show the organisation of these microfilaments, e.g. geodesic dome structures. Thereafter, cells were embedded in Durcupan water-soluble resin, followed by UV-polymerisation of resin at 4 o C. This procedure allowed intracellular visualisation of the cell nucleus or cytoskeletal elements by atomic force microscopy, for instance to analyse the globular organisation of actin filaments. Therefore, this method offers a great potential to combine both microscopy techniques in order to understand and interpret intracellular protein relations, for example, the biochemical and morphological interaction of the cytoskeleton

  16. Identification of Dynamic Changes in Proteins Associated with the Cellular Cytoskeleton after Exposure to Okadaic Acid

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    Peter Roepstorff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of cells to the diarrhetic shellfish poison, okadaic acid, leads to a dramatic reorganization of cytoskeletal architecture and loss of cell-cell contact. When cells are exposed to high concentrations of okadaic acid (100–500 nM, the morphological rearrangement is followed by apoptotic cell death. Okadaic acid inhibits the broad acting Ser/Thr protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, which results in hyperphosphorylation of a large number of proteins. Some of these hyperphosphorylated proteins are most likely key players in the reorganization of the cell morphology induced by okadaic acid. We wanted to identify these phosphoproteins and searched for them in the cellular lipid rafts, which have been found to contain proteins that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion. By using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture cells treated with okadaic acid (400 nM could be combined with control cells before the isolation of lipid rafts. Protein phosphorylation events and translocations induced by okadaic acid were identified by mass spectrometry. Okadaic acid was shown to regulate the phosphorylation status and location of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton, microtubules and cell adhesion structures. A large number of these okadaic acid-regulated prote