WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlie effective research-based

  1. Recreational stimulants, herbal, and spice cannabis: The core psychobiological processes that underlie their damaging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A

    2017-05-01

    Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate. The acute mood gains underlie their recreational usage, while the mood deficits on withdrawal explain their addictiveness. Cyclical mood changes are found with every central nervous system stimulant and also occur with cannabis. These mood state changes provide a surface index for more profound psychobiological fluctuations. Homeostatic balance is altered, with repetitive disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and disrupted cortisol-neurohormonal secretions. Hence, these drugs cause increased stress, disturbed sleep, neurocognitive impairments, altered brain activity, and psychiatric vulnerability. Equivalent deficits occur with novel psychoactive stimulants such as mephedrone and artificial "spice" cannabinoids. These psychobiological fluctuations underlie drug dependency and make cessation difficult. Psychobiological stability and homeostatic balance are optimally restored by quitting psychoactive drugs. Recreational stimulants such as cocaine or MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and sedative drugs such as cannabis damage human homeostasis and well-being through similar core psychobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A research-based curriculum for teaching the photoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKagan, S. B.; Handley, W.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a curriculum on the photoelectric effect including an interactive computer simulation, interactive lectures with peer instruction, and conceptual and mathematical homework problems. Our curriculum addresses established student difficulties and is designed so that students will be able to (1) correctly predict the results of experiments on the photoelectric effect and (2) describe how these results lead to the photon model of light. Our instruction leads to better student mastery of the first goal than either traditional instruction or previous reformed instruction, with approximately 85% of students correctly predicting the results of changes to the experimental conditions. Most students are able to correctly state the observations made in the photoelectric effect experiment and the inferences that can be made from these observations, but are less successful drawing a clear logical connection between the observations and the inferences.

  3. Maternal effects underlie ageing costs of growth in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata.

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    Mathilde L Tissier

    Full Text Available Maternal effects provide a mechanism to adapt offspring phenotype and optimize the mother's fitness to current environmental conditions. Transferring steroids to the yolk is one way mothers can translate environmental information into potential adaptive signals for offspring. However, maternally-derived hormones might also have adverse effects for offspring. For example, recent data in zebra finch chicks suggested that ageing related-processes (i.e. oxidative stress and telomere loss were increased after egg-injection of corticosterone (CORT. Still, we have few experimental data describing the effect of maternal effects on the growth-ageing trade-off in offspring. Here, we chronically treated pre-laying zebra finch females (Taeniopygia guttata with 17-β-estradiol (E2 or CORT, and followed offspring growth and cellular ageing rates (oxidative stress and telomere loss. CORT treatment decreased growth rate in male chicks and increased rate of telomere loss in mothers and female offspring. E2 increased body mass gain in male offspring, while reducing oxidative stress in both sexes but without affecting telomere loss. Since shorter telomeres were previously found to be a proxy of individual lifespan in zebra finches, maternal effects may, through pleiotropic effects, be important determinants of offspring life-expectancy by modulating ageing rate during embryo and post-natal growth.

  4. Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J; Anttila, Katja; Chen, Zhongqi; Heath, John W; Farrell, Anthony P; Neff, Bryan D

    2014-08-22

    With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic variation in offspring phenotype was mostly negligible, although these direct genetic effects explained 53% of the variation in resting heart rate (fH). Conversely, maternal effects had a significant influence on resting fH, scope for fH, cardiac arrhythmia temperature and CTmax. These maternal effects were associated with egg size, as indicated by strong relationships between the mean egg diameter of mothers and offspring thermal tolerance. Because egg size can be highly heritable in chinook salmon, our finding indicates that the maternal effects of egg size constitute an indirect genetic effect contributing to thermal tolerance. Such indirect genetic effects could accelerate evolutionary responses to the selection imposed by rising temperatures and could contribute to the population-specific thermal tolerance that has recently been uncovered among Pacific salmon populations. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymmetric cultural effects on perceptual expertise underlie an own-race bias for voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Chiao, Joan Y; Wong, Patrick C M

    2010-01-01

    The own-race bias in memory for faces has been a rich source of empirical work on the mechanisms of person perception. This effect is thought to arise because the face-perception system differentially encodes the relevant structural dimensions of features and their configuration based on experiences with different groups of faces. However, the effects of sociocultural experiences on person perception abilities in other identity-conveying modalities like audition have not been explored. Investigating an own-race bias in the auditory domain provides a unique opportunity for studying whether person identification is a modality-independent construct and how it is sensitive to asymmetric cultural experiences. Here we show that an own-race bias in talker identification arises from asymmetric experience with different spoken dialects. When listeners categorized voices by race (White or Black), a subset of the Black voices were categorized as sounding White, while the opposite case was unattested. Acoustic analyses indicated listeners' perceptions about race were consistent with differences in specific phonetic and phonological features. In a subsequent person-identification experiment, the Black voices initially categorized as sounding White elicited an own-race bias from White listeners, but not from Black listeners. These effects are inconsistent with person-perception models that strictly analogize faces and voices based on recognition from only structural features. Our results demonstrate that asymmetric exposure to spoken dialect, independent from talkers' physical characteristics, affects auditory perceptual expertise for talker identification. Person perception thus additionally relies on socioculturally-acquired dynamic information, which may be represented by different mechanisms in different sensory modalities.

  6. Enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission and inhibition of excitatory mechanisms underlie the anticonvulsant effects of Mallotus oppositifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mallotus oppositifolius is a shrub that is used traditionally to treat epilepsy, but its potential has not been scientifically validated. Aims: This study investigated the anticonvulsant properties and possible mechanism of action of the 70% v/v hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of M. oppositifolius.Materials and Methods: Inprinting control region (ICR mice (25–30 g were pretreated with the M. oppositifolius leaf extract (10–100 mg/kg before administering the respective convulsants (pentylenetetrazole [PTZ], picrotoxin [PTX], strychnine [STR], 4-aminopyridine [4-AP], and pilocarpine. The effect of the extract in maximal electroshock seizure (MES model was investigated also. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean and were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA or two-way ANOVA where appropriate with Newman–Keuls or Bonferroni post hoc test respectively. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In both PTX and PTZ test, extract delayed the onset of seizures and reduced the frequency and duration of seizures. In the STR-induced seizure test, the extract significantly delayed the onset of seizures and reduced the duration of seizures. The extract also delayed the onset of clonic and tonic seizures as well as increasing the survival of mice in the 4-AP-induced seizure test. It further reduced the duration of tonic limb extensions in the MES test. In the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, the extract significantly delayed the onset of clonic convulsions and reduced the frequency and duration of seizures. Moreover, the anticonvulsant effect of the extract was attenuated by flumazenil, a benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor antagonist. Conclusion: These findings show that the extract has anticonvulsant effect possible mediated by GABAergic, glycinergic neurotransmission, and potassium channel conductions. It may also be acting by antagonizing muscarinic

  7. Heterogeneity of trans-callosal structural connectivity and effects on resting state subnetwork integrity may underlie both wanted and unwanted effects of therapeutic corpus callostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Consideration of the selective vulnerability of resting state sub-networks, and of between-individual variability in connectivity patterns, sheds new light on the occurrence of both wanted and unwanted effects of callosotomy. We propose that beneficial effects (seizure reduction relate to disruption of the default mode network, with unwanted “disconnection syndrome” effects due to disruption particularly of the somatomotor and frontoparietal RSNs. Our results may also explain why disconnection syndromes primary reflect lateralised sensory-motor problems (e.g. of limb movement rather than midline function (e.g. tongue movement. Marked between-subject variation in callosal connectivity may underlie the poor predictability of effects of callosotomy. High resolution structural connectivity studies of this nature may be useful in pre-surgical planning of therapeutic callosotomy for intractable epilepsy.

  8. Island Explorations: Discovering Effects of Environmental Research-Based Lab Activities on Analytical Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; LeCaptain, Dale; Murphy, Sarah; Martin, Mary; Knight, Rachel M.; Harke, Maureen A.; Burke, Ryan; Beck, Kara; Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David

    2014-01-01

    Motivating students in analytical chemistry can be challenging, in part because of the complexity and breadth of topics involved. Some methods that help encourage students and convey real-world relevancy of the material include incorporating environmental issues, research-based lab experiments, and service learning projects. In this paper, we…

  9. DNA, cell wall and general oxidative damage underlie the tellurite/cefotaxime synergistic effect in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C Molina-Quiroz

    Full Text Available The constant emergence of antibiotic multi-resistant pathogens is a concern worldwide. An alternative for bacterial treatment using nM concentrations of tellurite was recently proposed to boost antibiotic-toxicity and a synergistic effect of tellurite/cefotaxime (CTX was described. In this work, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is proposed. Global changes of the transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite/CTX were determined by DNA microarrays. Induction of a number of stress regulators (as SoxS, genes related to oxidative damage and membrane transporters was observed. Accordingly, increased tellurite adsorption/uptake and oxidative injuries to proteins and DNA were determined in cells exposed to the mixture of toxicants, suggesting that the tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect is dependent, at least in part, on oxidative stress. Thus, the synergistic tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect depends on increased tellurite uptake/adsorption which results in damage to proteins, DNA and probably other macromolecules. Our findings represent a contribution to the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stress and can be of great interest in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies.

  10. Preliminary evidence that different mechanisms underlie the anger superiority effect in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIsomura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that angry faces capture humans’ attention more rapidly than emotionally positive faces. This phenomenon is referred to as the anger superiority effect (ASE. Despite atypical emotional processing, adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been reported to show ASE as well as typically developed (TD individuals. So far, however, few studies have clarified whether or not the mechanisms underlying ASE are the same for both TD and ASD individuals. Here, we tested how TD and ASD children process schematic emotional faces during detection by employing a recognition task in combination with a face-in-the-crowd task. Results of the face-in-the-crowd task revealed the prevalence of ASE both in TD and ASD children. However, the results of the recognition task revealed group differences: In TD children, detection of angry faces required more configural face processing and disrupted the processing of local features. In ASD children, on the other hand, it required more feature-based processing rather than configural processing. Despite the small sample sizes, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD, in contrast to TD children, show quick detection of angry faces by extracting local features in faces.

  11. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin

    2005-03-01

    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  12. Technology advance and the carbon dioxide emission in China – Empirical research based on the rebound effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lisha; Li, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    At present, technology advance is the greatest contributor to the carbon dioxide mitigation. However, the real effect of technology advance on mitigation is worth further studying due to the existence of rebound effect (RE). A key issue is how to quantify the relationship between technology advance and carbon dioxide emission accurately. This paper figures out a comprehensive and modified framework involving around the RE of carbon emission from the macroeconomic perspective. Using this framework, this paper quantitatively evaluates the relationship between technical change and carbon emission based on the data of 30 provinces in China. It is founded that: (1) the carbon RE is about 10–60% in Chinese provinces; (2) the RE of carbon emission differs among the regions in China; (3) carbon reduction and environment issues should be solved step by step regionally in China. (4) According to our results, a reasonable control on total energy consumption and fossil-energy pricing adjustment, should be taken as the supplementary policy in China; at the same time, carbon financing, carbon trading and other aspects of institutional innovation should be taken into account at the appropriate time. - Highlights: • Build a macroresearch framework for carbon emission rebound effect. • Further extend the definition of the technological progress. • The macrocarbon emission rebound effect is distributed between 10% and 60%. • Confirms the regional differences of the carbon emission rebound effect in China.

  13. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

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    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China—An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Hui; Ying, Huihui

    2017-01-01

    While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment. PMID:29257068

  15. The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China-An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Hui; Ying, Huihui

    2017-12-19

    While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment.

  16. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  17. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L.; Sikora, Chamonix O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca’s area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS. PMID:28759567

  18. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Qiao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS and typically developing (TD fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area, caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.

  19. Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Antonino; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Babcock, Laura; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Arbula, Sandra; Tarantino, Vincenza; Semenza, Carlo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2017-09-29

    Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated using FreeSurfer. Participants' hemispheres were registered to a symmetric template and Laterality Indices (LI) for the surface thickness and for the area at each vertex in each participant were computed. The correlation of these surface LI measures with the verbal and spatial Stroop effects (incongruent-congruent difference in trial performance) was assessed at each vertex by means of general linear models at the whole-brain level. We found a significant correlation between performance and surface area LI in an inferior posterior temporal cluster (overlapping with the so-called visual word form area, VWFA), with a more left-lateralized area in this region associated with a smaller Stroop effect only in the verbal task. These results point to an involvement of the VWFA for higher-level processes based on word reading, including the suppression of this process when required by the task, and could be interpreted in the context of cross-hemispheric rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Getting Lost in Translation? An Analysis of the International Engagement of Practitioners and Policy-Makers with the Educational Effectiveness Research Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma; Chapman, Christopher; Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research (EER) has accumulated much knowledge in the areas of school effectiveness research (SER), teacher effectiveness research (TER) and school/system improvement research (SSIR). Yet many schools and educational systems are not making enough use of the material and their insights. The article reviews evidence of…

  1. Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, S. H.; Lockwood, J. F.; McCarthy, D. W.

    2001-12-01

    NOAO facilities will be used in support of ``Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education" (TLRBSE), a new Teacher Retention and Renewal program that will be funded through the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Education and Human Resources. The goal of TLRBSE is to provide professional development for secondary teachers of mathematics and science in an effort to support novice teachers beginning their careers as well as to motivate and retain experienced teachers. Within the context of astronomy, TLRBSE will develop master teachers who will mentor a second tier of novice teachers in the exemplary method of research-based science education, a proven effective teaching method which models the process of inquiry and exploration used by scientists. Participants will be trained through a combination of in-residence workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, a distance-learning program during the academic year, interaction at professional meetings and mentor support from teacher leaders and professional astronomers. A total of 360 teachers will participate in the program over five years.

  2. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  3. Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Sellers, Kristin K; Rudelt, Lucas; Priesemann, Viola; Hutt, Axel; Fröhlich, Flavio; Wibral, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source-such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we reconsidered past interpretations of reduced information transfer as a sign of decoupling, and asked whether impaired local information processing leads to a loss of information transfer. An important prediction of this alternative hypothesis is that changes in locally available information (signal entropy) should be at least as pronounced as changes in information transfer. We tested this prediction by recording local field potentials in two ferrets after administration of isoflurane in concentrations of 0.0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. We found strong decreases in the source entropy under isoflurane in area V1 and the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-as predicted by our alternative hypothesis. The decrease in source entropy was stronger in PFC compared to V1. Information transfer between V1 and PFC was reduced bidirectionally, but with a stronger decrease from PFC to V1. This links the stronger decrease in information transfer to the stronger decrease in source entropy-suggesting reduced source entropy reduces information transfer. This conclusion fits the observation that the synaptic targets of isoflurane are located in local cortical circuits rather than on the synapses formed by interareal axonal projections. Thus, changes in information transfer under isoflurane seem to be a consequence of changes in local processing more than of decoupling between brain areas. We suggest that source entropy changes must be considered whenever interpreting changes in information transfer as decoupling.

  4. Deficiency in the Heat Stress Response Could Underlie Susceptibility to Metabolic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert S; Morris, E Matthew; Wheatley, Joshua L; Archer, Ashley E; McCoin, Colin S; White, Kathleen S; Wilson, David R; Meers, Grace M E; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Geiger, Paige C

    2016-11-01

    Heat treatment (HT) effectively prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The positive metabolic actions of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), which include increased oxidative capacity and enhanced mitochondrial function, underlie the protective effects of HT. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of HSP72 induction to mitigate the effects of consumption of a short-term 3-day HFD in rats selectively bred to be low-capacity runners (LCRs) and high-capacity runners (HCRs)-selective breeding that results in disparate differences in intrinsic aerobic capacity. HCR and LCR rats were fed a chow or HFD for 3 days and received a single in vivo HT (41°C, for 20 min) or sham treatment (ST). Blood, skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissues were harvested 24 h after HT/ST. HT decreased blood glucose levels, adipocyte size, and triglyceride accumulation in liver and muscle and restored insulin sensitivity in glycolytic muscles from LCR rats. As expected, HCR rats were protected from the HFD. Importantly, HSP72 induction was decreased in LCR rats after only 3 days of eating the HFD. Deficiency in the highly conserved stress response mediated by HSPs could underlie susceptibility to metabolic disease with low aerobic capacity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Research-based standards for accessible housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Brandt, Åse

    Since standards for accessible housing seldom are manifestly based on research and vary cross nationally, it is important to examine if there exists any scientific evidence, supporting these standards. Thus, one aim of this study was to review the literature in search of such scientific evidence...... to inform research-based accessibility standards is available?, a descriptive literature review was conducted. The studies should be empirically based, published during 1990 to 2010, target adult persons, published in peer reviewed journals or, as architectural competitions, PhD-thesis or conference...... presentations. We contacted 22 leading researchers and resource persons, conducted a database search in CINAHL, PubMed, PsyINFO, socINDEX, ISI and Google Scholar, using 28 search terms in 81 combinations and hand searched 22 relevant scientific journals. The explorative part of this study was based on empirical...

  6. Research Based Learning (RBL: How to Improve Critical Thinking Skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptuti Susiani Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is a part of the 21th century necessary skills trained to future teachers. Research-based learning (RBL presents as an alternative learning model that can develop the critical thinking skills. This study aims at describing the effect of the implementation of the research-based Learning (RBL to develop future teachers’ critical thinking skills. Qualitative approach was used in this classroom research. The participants in this study consisted of 106 future teachers. Data were collected using observation and test. The results of the research indicate that the implementation research-based learning (RBL can develop critical thinking skills. It is proved by the fact that the students were able to show their interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference and explanation abilities. Meanwhile, aspect of self- regulation ability has not yet been able to be found. This research were used to make more sure previous research that implementation of the RBL can improve the quality learning process and make positive changes for the students in the intellectual and emotional. This research provides a different learning experience which can develop critical thinking skill.

  7. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Research-Based Protocol Aligned to Predict High Levels of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary; Grigsby, Bettye; Vesey, Winona

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a research-based teacher selection protocol. The protocol is intended to offer school district hiring authorities a tool to identify teacher candidates with the behaviors expected to predict effective teaching. It is hypothesized that a particular series of research-based interview questions focusing on teaching behaviors in…

  9. Low striatal glutamate levels underlie cognitive decline in the elderly: evidence from in vivo molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Mayer, Dirk; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2008-10-01

    Glutamate (Glu), the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of prefrontal cortical efferents, potentially mediates higher order cognitive processes, and its altered availability may underlie mechanisms of age-related decline in frontally based functions. Although animal studies support a role for Glu in age-related cognitive deterioration, human studies, which require magnetic resonance spectroscopy for in vivo measurement of this neurotransmitter, have been impeded because of the similarity of Glu's spectroscopic signature to those of neighboring spectral brain metabolites. Here, we used a spectroscopic protocol, optimized for Glu detection, to examine the effect of age in 3 brain regions targeted by cortical efferents--the striatum, cerebellum, and pons--and to test whether performance on frontally based cognitive tests would be predicted by regional Glu levels. Healthy elderly men and women had lower Glu in the striatum but not pons or cerebellum than young adults. In the combined age groups, levels of striatal Glu (but no other proton metabolite also measured) correlated selectively with performance on cognitive tests showing age-related decline. The selective relations between performance and striatal Glu provide initial and novel, human in vivo support for age-related modification of Glu levels as contributing to cognitive decline in normal aging.

  10. Distinct myocardial mechanisms underlie cardiac dysfunction in endotoxemic male and female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, Ion A.; Aziz, Kanwal; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Brouckaert, Peter; Siwik, Deborah A.; Colucci., Wilson S.

    2016-01-01

    In male mice, Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy develops as a result of dysregulation of myocardial calcium (Ca2+) handling, leading to depressed cellular Ca2+ transients (ΔCai). ΔCai depression is partially due to inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATP-ase (SERCA) via oxidative modifications, which are partially opposed by cGMP generated by the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Whether similar mechanisms underlie Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy in female mice is unknown.

  11. Integrative review of implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchner, Staci S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize and critique experimental and/or quasi-experimental research that has evaluated implementation strategies for translation of research-based evidence into nursing practice. Successfully implementing evidence-based research can improve patient outcomes. Identifying successful implementation strategies is imperative to move research-based evidence into practice. As implementation science gains popularity, it is imperative to understand the strategies that most effectively translate research-based evidence into practice. The review used the CINAHL and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases. Articles were included if they were experimental and/or quasi-experimental research designs, were written in English, and measured nursing compliance to translation of research-based evidence. An independent review was performed to select and critique the included articles. A wide array of interventions were completed, including visual cues, audit and feedback, educational meetings and materials, reminders, outreach, and leadership involvement. Because of the complex multimodal nature of the interventions and the variety of research topics, comparison across interventions was difficult. Many difficulties exist in determining what implementation strategies are most effective for translation of research-based evidence into practice by nurses. With these limited findings, further research is warranted to determine which implementation strategies most successfully translate research-based evidence into practice.

  12. Does insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, or a sex hormone alteration underlie the metabolic syndrome? Studies in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gerald B; Jing, Tianyi; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-06-01

    Insulin resistance, obesity, and a sex hormone alteration have each been suggested as the underlying link for the constellation of risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome or the insulin resistance syndrome. In an attempt to identify in women which of these variables is the most likely link, insulin, adiposity variables, sex hormones, and risk factors for MI were measured and their relationships analyzed statistically in 58 premenopausal and 20 postmenopausal healthy women. On controlling for age, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlated more strongly with risk factors for MI, insulin, and free testosterone (FT) than did total adipose tissue or subcutaneous adipose tissue. VAT, therefore, was used as the adiposity variable for further data analysis. Waist circumference was a better surrogate of VAT than was waist-hip ratio, which was a poor surrogate of VAT. VAT correlated positively with insulin, FT, triglyceride, and glucose, and negatively with high-density lipoprotein and sex hormone-binding globulin. On controlling for age, FT and insulin correlated with risk factors for MI and with each other, but on controlling for age and VAT, all of their correlations lost statistical significance except for FT-triglyceride and FT-insulin in the postmenopausal women. In conclusion, VAT accumulation in women, independently of other measures of adiposity, may largely explain the correlations of insulin, obesity, and sex hormones with risk factors for MI and may be the immediate underlying factor that links risk factors for MI to form the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance, which has been generally accepted to be the underlying factor, may be a component of the syndrome rather than its underlying link. We hypothesize that in women FT may effect preferential VAT accumulation and induce insulin resistance directly, as well as via VAT accumulation, so that a sex hormone alteration may underlie VAT accumulation and thus

  13. A phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial of the effect of modafinil on cancer-related fatigue among 631 patients receiving chemotherapy: a University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Morrow, Gary R; Roscoe, Joseph A; Heckler, Charles; Mohile, Supriya; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Hemstad, Amy; Esparaz, Benjamin T; Hopkins, Judith O

    2010-07-15

    Cancer-related fatigue is a debilitating symptom affecting psychosocial functioning and quality of life in 70% to 100% of cancer patients during and after treatment. The authors examined the effect of 200 mg of modafinil daily on the severity of cancer-related fatigue. The authors conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3, clinical trial to examine the effect of modafinil on patient-reported fatigue in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. A sample of 877 cancer patients beginning chemotherapy at 23 geographically separate University of Rochester Cancer Center (URCC) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) affiliates were assessed for fatigue. Patients who reported fatigue (N=867) were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mg of oral modafinil (Provigil) daily or a placebo. Treatment began on Day 5 of Cycle 2 and ended after Day 7 of Cycle 4. Fatigue and depression were assessed during Cycles 2 to 4 by using psychometrically valid measures. Group differences (treatment vs control) in the worst level of fatigue during the previous week at Cycle 4 were examined by using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusting for baseline fatigue (Cycle 2). There were 631 patients (315 modafinil, 316 placebo) who provided evaluable data. ANCOVA showed a significant interaction between treatment condition and baseline fatigue (P=.017), where patients with severe baseline fatigue (n=458) benefited from modafinil, whereas patients with mild or moderate fatigue did not. Modafinil had no statistically significant effect on depression (P>.05). Modafinil may be useful in controlling cancer-related fatigue in patients who present with severe fatigue but is not useful in patients with mild or moderate fatigue. Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  14. Neural regions that underlie reinforcement learning are also active for social expectancy violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lasana T; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    Prediction error, the difference between an expected and an actual outcome, serves as a learning signal that interacts with reward and punishment value to direct future behavior during reinforcement learning. We hypothesized that similar learning and valuation signals may underlie social expectancy violations. Here, we explore the neural correlates of social expectancy violation signals along the universal person-perception dimensions trait warmth and competence. In this context, social learning may result from expectancy violations that occur when a target is inconsistent with an a priori schema. Expectancy violation may activate neural regions normally implicated in prediction error and valuation during appetitive and aversive conditioning. Using fMRI, we first gave perceivers high warmth or competence behavioral information that led to dispositional or situational attributions for the behavior. Participants then saw pictures of people responsible for the behavior; they represented social groups either inconsistent (rated low on either warmth or competence) or consistent (rated high on either warmth or competence) with the behavior information. Warmth and competence expectancy violations activate striatal regions that represent evaluative and prediction error signals. Social cognition regions underlie consistent expectations. These findings suggest that regions underlying reinforcement learning may work in concert with social cognition regions in warmth and competence social expectancy. This study illustrates the neural overlap between neuroeconomics and social neuroscience.

  15. Natural Variation in SER1 and ENA6 Underlie Condition-Specific Growth Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Sirr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquitous use in laboratory strains, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding core metabolic enzymes are relatively rare in wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we identify a naturally occurring serine auxotrophy in a sake brewing strain from Japan. Through a cross with a honey wine (white tecc brewing strain from Ethiopia, we map the minimal medium growth defect to SER1, which encodes 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and is orthologous to the human disease gene, PSAT1. To investigate the impact of this polymorphism under conditions of abundant external nutrients, we examine growth in rich medium alone or with additional stresses, including the drugs caffeine and rapamycin and relatively high concentrations of copper, salt, and ethanol. Consistent with studies that found widespread effects of different auxotrophies on RNA expression patterns in rich media, we find that the SER1 loss-of-function allele dominates the quantitative trait locus (QTL landscape under many of these conditions, with a notable exacerbation of the effect in the presence of rapamycin and caffeine. We also identify a major-effect QTL associated with growth on salt that maps to the gene encoding the sodium exporter, ENA6. We demonstrate that the salt phenotype is largely driven by variation in the ENA6 promoter, which harbors a deletion that removes binding sites for the Mig1 and Nrg1 transcriptional repressors. Thus, our results identify natural variation associated with both coding and regulatory regions of the genome that underlie strong growth phenotypes.

  16. An Efficacy Trial of Research-Based Curriculum Materials with Curriculum-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph A.; Getty, Stephen R.; Kowalski, Susan M.; Wilson, Christopher D.; Carlson, Janet; Van Scotter, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a curriculum-based intervention for high school science students. Specifically, the intervention was two years of research-based, multidisciplinary curriculum materials for science supported by comprehensive professional development for teachers that focused on those materials. A modest positive effect was…

  17. Academics' Perceptions of the Challenges and Barriers to Implementing Research-Based Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Angela; Mantai, Lilia

    2017-01-01

    How can universities ensure that strategic aims to integrate research and teaching through engaging students in research-based experiences be effectively realised within institutions? This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study exploring academics' perceptions of the challenges and barriers to implementing undergraduate research.…

  18. Cocoa Farmer Characteristics and Access to Research-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose is to review the state of cocoa extension system and its preparedness to meet the information needs of resource-poor farmers. It also sought to investigate the extent of farmer access to research-based information and how this access is influenced by certain farmer characteristics. Social survey involving ...

  19. The AI Interdisciplinary Context: Single or Multiple Research Bases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawam, Yves J.

    1992-01-01

    This study used citation analysis to determine whether the disciplines contributing to the journal literature of artificial intelligence (AI)--philosophy, psychology, linguistics, computer science, and engineering--share a common AI research base. The idea that AI consists of a completely interdisciplinary endeavor was refuted. (MES)

  20. Principles of Assessment for Project and Research Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaiti, Ziad; Grimaldi, Silvia; Goven, Dharmendra; Mootanah, Rajshree; Martin, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide assessment guidelines which help to implement research-based education in science and technology areas, which would benefit from the quality of this type of education within this subject area. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is a reflection on, and analysis of, different aspects of…

  1. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  2. A 13-Week Research-Based Biochemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefurgy, Scott T.; Mundorff, Emily C.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a 13-week research-based biochemistry laboratory curriculum designed to provide the students with the experience of engaging in original research while introducing foundational biochemistry laboratory techniques. The laboratory experience has been developed around the directed evolution of an enzyme chosen by the instructor, with…

  3. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  4. What Successful Science Teachers Do: 75 Research-Based Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Neal A.; Cheyne, Michele; Yerrick, Randy K.

    2010-01-01

    The experience and science expertise of these award-winning authors makes this easy-to-use guide a teacher's treasure trove. This latest edition to the popular What Successful Teachers Do series describes 75 research-based strategies and outlines best practices for inquiry-oriented science. Each strategy includes a brief description of the…

  5. Protecting the Innocence of Youth: Moral Sanctity Values Underlie Censorship From Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rajen A; Masicampo, E J

    2017-11-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between people's moral values (drawing on moral foundations theory) and their willingness to censor immoral acts from children. Results revealed that diverse moral values did not predict censorship judgments. It was not the case that participants who valued loyalty and authority, respectively, sought to censor depictions of disloyal and disobedient acts. Rather, censorship intentions were predicted by a single moral value-sanctity. The more people valued sanctity, the more willing they were to censor from children, regardless of the types of violations depicted (impurity, disloyalty, disobedience, etc.). Furthermore, people who valued sanctity objected to indecent exposure only to apparently innocent and pure children-those who were relatively young and who had not been previously exposed to immoral acts. These data suggest that sanctity, purity, and the preservation of innocence underlie intentions to censor from young children.

  6. The SUPER Program: A Research-based Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernakovich, J. G.; Boone, R. B.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Lavallee, J. M.; Moore, J. C.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    rare in ecology. We feel that development and implementation of these types of active-learning, research based programs can help universities to produce undergraduate researchers capable of contributing meaningfully to research, and to greater societal issues by enhancing their problem solving and critical thinking skills.

  7. Distinct Circuits Underlie the Effects of 5-HT1B Receptors on Aggression and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Tanaka, Kenji F; Barr, Mary M; Tritschler, Laurent; Le Dantec, Yannick; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-05-06

    Impulsive and aggressive behaviors are both modulated by serotonergic signaling, specifically through the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). 5-HT1BR knockout mice show increased aggression and impulsivity, and 5-HT1BR polymorphisms are associated with aggression and drug addiction in humans. To dissect the mechanisms by which the 5-HT1BR affects these phenotypes, we developed a mouse model to spatially and temporally regulate 5-HT1BR expression. Our results demonstrate that forebrain 5-HT1B heteroreceptors expressed during an early postnatal period contribute to the development of the neural systems underlying adult aggression. However, distinct heteroreceptors acting during adulthood are involved in mediating impulsivity. Correlating with the impulsivity, dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is elevated in the absence of 5-HT1BRs and normalized following adult rescue of the receptor. Overall, these data show that while adolescent expression of 5-HT1BRs influences aggressive behavior, a distinct set of 5-HT1B receptors modulates impulsive behavior during adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  9. Adapting Project Management Practices to Research-Based Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, P.; Baker, T.; Corbin, B.; Keith, L.; Loerch, L.; Mullenax, C.; Myers, R.; Rhodes, B.; Skytland, N.

    2007-01-01

    From dealing with the inherent uncertainties in outcomes of scientific research to the lack of applicability of current NASA Procedural Requirements guidance documentation, research-based projects present challenges that require unique application of classical project management techniques. If additionally challenged by the creation of a new program transitioning from basic to applied research in a technical environment often unfamiliar with the cost and schedule constraints addressed by project management practices, such projects can find themselves struggling throughout their life cycles. Finally, supplying deliverables to a prime vehicle customer, also in the formative stage, adds further complexity to the development and management of research-based projects. The Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Projects Branch at NASA Johnson Space Center encompasses several diverse applied research-based or research-enabling projects within the newly-formed Human Research Program. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the organizational structure and environment in which these projects operate and how the projects coordinate to address and manage technical requirements. We will identify several of the challenges (cost, technical, schedule, and personnel) encountered by projects across the Branch, present case reports of actions taken and techniques implemented to deal with these challenges, and then close the session with an open forum discussion of remaining challenges and potential mitigations.

  10. Chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bartholow Duncan

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering, in free-living populations, of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors generally linked to insulin resistance, obesity and central obesity. Consonant with the well-established inflammatory pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease, the metabolic syndrome is now being investigated in relation to its inflammatory nature. OBJETIVO: We present cross-sectional findings demonstrating that markers of inflammation correlate with components of the metabolic syndrome, and prospective findings of the ARIC Study indicating that markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction predict the development of diabetes mellitus and weight gain in adults. We present biological evidence to suggest that chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie the metabolic syndrome, characterizing the common soil for the causality of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of the role of the innate immune system in these diseases may lead to important advances in the prediction and management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Long-Term Synaptic Changes in Two Input Pathways into the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Underlie Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junchol; Choi, June-Seek

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity in two input pathways into the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the sensory thalamus, have been suggested to underlie extinction, suppression of a previously acquired conditioned response (CR) following repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, little is known about…

  12. Nurture or nature? The growth paradox of research-based spin-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbinati, S.; Souitaris, V.; Moray, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effect of institutional origin (‘nurture’) and economic context (‘nature’) on the financial resource endowment and subsequent early employment growth of research-based spin-offs (RBSOs). The nurture dimensions capture the relationship between the parent research institution and the RBSO during the start-up phase: the type of incubation model, the formal vs informal transfer of technology and the extent of inventors’ involvement with the firm. The nature dimensions incl...

  13. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Barros, Anna P; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-10-23

    The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context.We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate - and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones - the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate - are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological adaptations across individual wrist

  14. Undergraduate Research or Research-Based Courses: Which Is Most Beneficial for Science Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Donoso, Ruby; González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 25 years, both research literature and practice-oriented reports have claimed the need for improving the quality of undergraduate science education through linking research and teaching. Two manners of doing this are reported: undergraduate research and research-based courses. Although there are studies reporting benefits of participating in these experiences, few synthesize their findings. In this article, we present a literature review aimed at synthesizing and comparing results of the impact of participating in these research experiences to establish which approach is most beneficial for students to develop as scientists. Twenty studies on student participation in undergraduate research and research-based courses were reviewed. Results show that both types of experiences have positive effects on students. These results have implications for both practice and research. Regarding practice, we propose ideas for designing and implementing experiences that combine both types of experiences. Concerning research, we identify some methodological limitations that should be addressed in further studies.

  15. Distinct Myocardial Mechanisms Underlie Cardiac Dysfunction in Endotoxemic Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A; Aziz, Kanwal; Buys, Emmanuel S; Brouckaert, Peter; Siwik, Deborah A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2016-12-01

    In male mice, sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy develops as a result of dysregulation of myocardial calcium (Ca) handling, leading to depressed cellular Ca transients (ΔCai). ΔCai depression is partially due to inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ATP-ase (SERCA) via oxidative modifications, which are partially opposed by cGMP generated by the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Whether similar mechanisms underlie sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy in female mice is unknown.Male and female C57Bl/6J mice (WT), and mice deficient in the sGC α1 subunit activity (sGCα1), were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, ip). LPS induced mouse death and cardiomyopathy (manifested as the depression of left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography) to a similar degree in WT male, WT female, and sGCα1 male mice, but significantly less in sGCα1 female mice. We measured sarcomere shortening and ΔCai in isolated, externally paced cardiomyocytes, at 37°C. LPS depressed sarcomere shortening in both WT male and female mice. Consistent with previous findings, in male mice, LPS induced a decrease in ΔCai (to 30 ± 2% of baseline) and SERCA inhibition (manifested as the prolongation of the time constant of Ca decay, τCa, to 150 ± 5% of baseline). In contrast, in female mice, the depression of sarcomere shortening induced by LPS occurred in the absence of any change in ΔCai, or SERCA activity. This suggested that, in female mice, the causative mechanism lies downstream of the Ca transients, such as a decrease in myofilament sensitivity for Ca. The depression of sarcomere shortening shortening after LPS was less severe in female sGCα1 mice than in WT female mice, indicating that cGMP partially mediates cardiomyocyte dysfunction.These results suggest, therefore, that LPS-induced cardiomyopathy develops through distinct sex-specific myocardial mechanisms. While in males LPS induces sGC-independent decrease in ΔCai, in female mice LPS acts downstream of

  16. Piezo- and Flexoelectric Membrane Materials Underlie Fast Biological Motors in the Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Kathryn D; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear is remarkably sensitive to quiet sounds, exhibits over 100dB dynamic range, and has the exquisite ability to discriminate closely spaced tones even in the presence of noise. This performance is achieved, in part, through active mechanical amplification of vibrations by sensory hair cells within the inner ear. All hair cells are endowed with a bundle of motile microvilli, stereocilia, located at the apical end of the cell, and the more specialized outer hair cells (OHC's) are also endowed with somatic electromotility responsible for changes in cell length in response to perturbations in membrane potential. Both hair bundle and somatic motors are known to feed energy into the mechanical vibrations in the inner ear. The biophysical origin and relative significance of the motors remains a subject of intense research. Several biological motors have been identified in hair cells that might underlie the motor(s), including a cousin of the classical ATP driven actin-myosin motor found in skeletal muscle. Hydrolysis of ATP, however, is much too slow to be viable at audio frequencies on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Heuristically, the OHC somatic motor behaves as if the OHC lateral wall membrane were a piezoelectric material and the hair bundle motor behaves as if the plasma membrane were a flexoelectric material. We propose these observations from a continuum materials perspective are literally true. To examine this idea, we formulated mathematical models of the OHC lateral wall "piezoelectric" motor and the more ubiquitous "flexoelectric" hair bundle motor. Plausible biophysical mechanisms underlying piezo- and flexoelectricity were established. Model predictions were compared extensively to the available data. The models were then applied to study the power conversion efficiency of the motors. Results show that the material properties of the complex membranes in hair cells provide them with the ability to convert electrical power available in the inner

  17. Developing an understanding of research-based nursing pedagogy among clinical instructors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakari, Nazik M A; Hamadi, Hanadi Y; Salem, Olfat

    2014-11-01

    Effective instruction is imperative to the learning process of clinical nursing instructors. Faculty members are required to provide high-quality teaching and training by using new ways of teaching pedagogical methods to clinical instructors, which have transformed pedagogies from an exclusive clinical model to a holistic model. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical instructors' use of planning, implementation, feedback loops, and reflection frameworks to apply research-based teaching and to examine the pedagogy used during field experience. Data for the qualitative study were obtained from twenty purposefully sampled clinical teachers (n=20) via lists of questioned instructional practices and discussions, semi-structured interviews, observational notes, field notes, and written reflections. Data were analyzed by using a triangulation method to ensure trustworthiness, credibility, and reliability. Three main themes emerged regarding the use of research-based teaching strategies: the need for learning about research-based pedagogy, support mechanisms to implement innovative teaching strategies, and transitioning from nursing student to nursing clinical instructors. It has been well documented that the nursing profession faces a serious shortage of nursing faculty, impacting the quality of clinical teaching. Developing clinical instructor programs to give students opportunities to select instructor pathways, focusing on knowledge promoting critical thinking and life-long professional development, is essential. Nursing colleges must collaborate by using a partnership model to achieve competency in planning, implementation, feedback loops, and reflection. Applying research-based clinical teaching requires the development of programs that integrate low-fidelity simulation and assisted instruction through the use of computers in Nursing Colleges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research-based active-learning instruction in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2013-04-01

    The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.

  19. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  20. Development of a research-based hospital model in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ganglip

    2012-05-01

    Noting the increasing public attention on healthcare, Korean society has shown greater attention to the significance of the health technology (HT) development. In order to promote HT competitiveness, the role of research-based hospitals (RBHs), in producing new ideas as well as utilizing final outcomes, has grown increasingly significant. Despite high quality healthcare professionals, state-of-the-art equipment, and well-developed information technology, few hospitals in Korea are successful leaders in HT development. In order to understand HT research and development (R&D) programs in Korea as well as hospital-based R&D investment performance, this paper has analyzed a recent three-year R&D investment of the Korean government. In addition, a survey on how to promote RBHs in Korea has been proceeded through adopting the Delphi method. Several model cases of RBHs abroad have also been studied to understand key success factors in formulating a development model of RBHs in Korea. This paper proposes suggestions for the promotion of RBHs in Korea: systematic reform related to the hospitals, reinforcement of the infrastructure of the hospitals, empowering human resources and policy framework to support the hospitals.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESEARCH-BASED PHYSICS LEARNING MODEL WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO DEVELOP STUDENTS’ SCIENTIFIC PROCESSING SKILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmeldi Usmeldi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Physics learning in SMA N 2 Padang was implemented through theory and practicum for verifying the theories. The results of the initial survey showed that the physics teachers had not yet applied the research-based learning. Supporting facilities such as physics lab and its equipment has been already available, but it has not been utilized optimally. Research-based learning is a model that can improve scientific processing skills and learning outcomes of students. The research aimed to produce a valid, practical, and effective research-based physics learning model and devices. This research was a research and development using the 4D model of Thiagarajan. The instrument of this research are interview guides, observation sheets, sheet of validation of model and learning tools, questionnaire for both teachers’ and learners’ responses, assessment sheets for scientific processing skills, and achievement test. The results showed that the developed model and the learning devices according to the assessment of experts were declared valid. Model and learning devices were practical based on the observation and the questionnaires. The application of research-based physics learning could effectively improve scientific skills and learning outcomes of students. This model is suggested to physics teachers in high school in regard with implementing research-based learning.

  2. Disease Stage-Dependent Changes in Cardiac Contractile Performance and Oxygen Utilization Underlie Reduced Myocardial Efficiency in Human Inherited Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ahmet; Knaapen, Paul; Harms, Hendrik J; Parbhudayal, Rahana Y; Michels, Michelle; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Rossum, Albert C; Germans, Tjeerd; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-05-01

    Reduced myocardial efficiency represents a target for therapy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy although therapeutic benefit may depend on disease stage. Here, we determined disease stage-dependent changes in myocardial efficiency and effects of myectomy surgery. Myocardial external efficiency (MEE) was determined in 27 asymptomatic mutation carriers (genotype positive/phenotype negative), 10 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis, and 14 healthy individuals using [ 11 C]-acetate positron emission tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up measurements were performed in HOCM and aortic valve stenosis patients 4 months after surgery. External work did not differ in HOCM compared with controls, whereas myocardial oxygen consumption was lower in HOCM. Because of a higher cardiac mass, total cardiac oxygen consumption was significantly higher in HOCM than in controls and genotype positive/phenotype negative. MEE was significantly lower in genotype positive/phenotype negative than in controls (28±6% versus 42±6%) and was further decreased in HOCM (22±5%). In contrast to patients with aortic valve stenosis, MEE was not improved in patients with HOCM after surgery, which was explained by opposite changes in the septum (decrease) and lateral (increase) wall. Different mechanisms underlie reduced MEE at the early and advanced stage of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The initial increase and subsequent reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption during disease progression indicates that energy deficiency is a primary mutation-related event, whereas mechanisms secondary to disease remodeling underlie low MEE in HOCM. Our data highlight that the benefit of therapies to improve energetic status of the heart may vary depending on the disease stage and that treatment should be initiated before cardiac remodeling. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Computer assisted analysis of research-based teaching method in English newspaper reading teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the teaching of English newspaper reading has been developing rapidly. However, the teaching effect of the existing course is not ideal. The paper tries to apply the research-based teaching model to English newspaper reading teaching, investigates the current situation in higher vocational colleges, and analyzes the problems. It designs a teaching model of English newspaper reading and carries out the empirical research conducted by computers. The results show that the teaching mode can use knowledge and ability to stimulate learners interest and comprehensively improve their ability to read newspapers.

  4. How faculty learn about and implement research-based instructional strategies: The case of Peer Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty’s experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.

  5. How faculty learn about and implement research-based instructional strategies: The case of Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.

  6. Research-Based Teacher Education? Exploring the Meaning Potentials of Swedish Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvunger, Daniel; Wahlström, Ninni

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study's aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of…

  7. EcoCancers: Do environmental factors underlie a breast cancer epidemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-07-03

    An unintentional side effect of industrialization may be an environment that bathes its inhabitants in a sea of pollutants with estrogenic effects. A number of researchers around the world are investigating mechanisms other than dietary fat to explain breast cancer's rise. Although results are far from conclusive, they do suggest that some industrial agents such as pesticides and ingredients in plastics mimic the hormone estrogen in their effects on the body. Others such as magnetic fields and certain combustion by-products can boost the concentration of estrogens circulate in the bloodstream. Research on light and electromagnetic field exposures is also underway. This article summarizes various aspects of research on alternative causes for breast cancer. Most researchers working on xenoestrogens offer two general cautions: the mechanisms suggested to explain the effects of the possible new agents are not mutually exclusive and the relative significance of the new factors is unproved.

  8. Bariatric Surgery in Obese Women of Reproductive Age Improves Conditions That Underlie Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes: Retrospective Cohort Study of UK National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, Eric; Whyte, Martin; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Jones, Simon; Gatenby, Piers; de Lusignan, Simon; Shawe, Jill

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study are the following: to describe the female population of reproductive age having bariatric surgery in the UK, to assess the age and ethnicity of women accessing surgery, and to assess the effect of bariatric surgery on factors that underlie fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Demographic details, comorbidities, and operative type of women aged 18-45 years were extracted from the National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR). A comparison was made with non-operative cases (aged 18-45 and BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 ) from the Health Survey for England (HSE, 2007-2013). Analyses were performed using "R" software. Data were extracted on 15,222 women from NBSR and 1073 from HSE. Women aged 18-45 comprised 53 % of operations. Non-Caucasians were under-represented in NBSR compared to HSE (10 vs 16 % respectively, p fertility and pregnancy outcomes. A prospective study is required to verify these effects.

  9. Analysis of the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Which Underlie Sensitivity to Bacterial Endotoxin and Early Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-24

    tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertriglyceridemia, thrombocytopenia, metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure, hepatic failure, acute respiratory distress...The symptomatology associated with endotoxemia was first noted in modem times in 1928 by Schwartzman, who first described the systemic disseminated...bilirubin, lactate (which indicates an ameliorating effect on metabolic acidosis), and to bring about an increase in the mean arterial pressure in balxxms

  10. Curtain Antenna Array Simulation Research Based on MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the radiating capacity of curtain antenna array, this paper constructs a three- line-four-column curtain antenna array using cage antenna as the antenna array element and obtains a normalizing 3D radiation patterns through conducting simulation with MATLAB. Meanwhile, the relationships between the antenna spacing and the largest directivity coefficient, as well as the communication frequency and largest directivity coefficient are analyzed in this paper. It turns out that the max value will generate when the antenna spacing is around 18 m and the best communication effect will be achieved when the communication frequency is about 12.4 MHz.

  11. Does thinner right entorhinal cortex underlie genetic liability to cannabis use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Subhadip; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2018-02-27

    Although alterations in medial temporal lobe structures have been previously associated with use of cannabis, one of the most widely used illicit drugs, whether such alterations are a cause or effect of cannabis use has been unclear. In this cross-sectional observational study involving 404 twins/siblings, we have compared cortical thickness and surface area between groups of gender-matched sibling-pairs (concordant cannabis unexposed, concordant exposed and discordant for cannabis exposure) using permutation tests after controlling for potential confounds. Bi-variate polygenic model was used to assess the genetic and environmental contributions underlying cortical morphological phenotypes and frequency of cannabis use. Cortical thickness of the right entorhinal cortex was significantly lower in the concordant exposed siblings compared to both discordant unexposed and discordant exposed groups [false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected, q right entorhinal cortex thickness and frequency of cannabis use is due to the contribution of significant shared additive genetic (ρ g = -0.19 ± 0.08; p = 0.02) factors but not unique environment (ρ e = 0.05 ± 0.09; p = 0.53). Significantly lower surface area of the right entorhinal cortex in discordant exposed group compared with the discordant unexposed group furnishes preliminary evidence in support of causal effect of cannabis use (FDR-corrected, q right entorhinal cortex. Prospective longitudinal studies are necessary to definitively disentangle the cause-effect relationships of cannabis use.

  12. How can physics underlie the mind? top-down causation in the human context

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George

    2016-01-01

    Physics underlies all complexity, including our own existence: how is this possible? How can our own lives emerge from interactions of electrons, protons, and neutrons? This book considers the interaction of physical and non-physical causation in complex systems such as living beings, and in particular in the human brain, relating this to the emergence of higher levels of complexity with real causal powers. In particular it explores the idea of top-down causation, which is the key effect allowing the emergence of true complexity and also enables the causal efficacy of non-physical entities, including the value of money, social conventions, and ethical choices.

  13. Different Signal Enhancement Pathways of Attention and Consciousness Underlie Perception in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2017-06-14

    It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception. It was found that attention displayed a response-gain function, whereas consciousness displayed a contrast-gain function. Through model comparisons, which only included contrast-gain modulations, both contrast-gain and response-gain effects can be explained with a two-level normalization model, in which consciousness affects only the first level and attention affects only the second level. These results demonstrate that attention and consciousness can effectively show different gain functions because they operate through different signal enhancement mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The relationship between attention and consciousness is still debated. Mapping contrast response functions (CRFs) has allowed (neuro)scientists to gain important insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of visual processing. Here, the influence of both attention and consciousness on these functions were measured and they displayed a strong dissociation. First, attention lowered CRFs, whereas consciousness raised them. Second, attention manifests itself as a response-gain function, whereas consciousness manifests itself as a contrast-gain function. Extensive model comparisons show that these results are best explained in a two-level normalization model in which consciousness affects only the first level, whereas attention affects only the second level

  14. NO production and potassium channels activation induced by Crotalus durissus cascavella underlie mesenteric artery relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S S; Jesus, R L C; Simões, L O; Vasconcelos, W P; Medeiros, I A; Veras, R C; Casais-E-Silva, L L; Silva, D F

    2017-07-01

    Animal toxins are natural resources for pharmacological studies. The venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (C.d. cascavella) may be a source in the bio-prospecting of new anti-hypertensive agents. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular effects of the venom of C.d. cascavella in normotensive rats. Studies were performed using isolated mesenteric artery segments and aortic endothelial cells. The cumulative administration of the venom of C.d. cascavella (0.001-30 μg/mL) on phenylephrine (Phe; 10 μM) pre-contracted rings induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in the presence of vascular endothelium (E max  = 47.9 ± 5.0% n = 8), and its effect was almost abolished in the absence of endothelium (E max  = 5.8± 2.4% n = 5 ( ∗∗∗ p stable radical scavenger for nitric oxide (E max  = 10.77± 3.6%, n = 6). Moreover, the venom induced the release of NO by isolated aortic endothelial cells through amperometric studies. When assessing the participation of K + channels on the vasodilatory response of the venom, tyrode solution with 20 mM of KCl caused a significant reduction in the relaxation response (p channels (4-amynopiridine 1 mM; E max  = 9.5 ± 1.3, %, n = 5, ***p channels. These data illustrate that C.d. cascavella is a source of bioactive molecules and therefore has therapeutic potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional deficiencies in chaperone-mediated autophagy underlie α-synuclein aggregation and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Kristen A.; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2012-01-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, it remains unclear why certain brain regions are selectively vulnerable to protein aggregation. In transgenic mice expressing human A53T α-synuclein, the brainstem and spinal cord develop the most prominent α-synuclein inclusions which correlate with age-dependent motor dysfunction. Herein we present the novel finding that this selective aggregation is in part dependent on the inability of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) to effectively degrade α-synuclein in these brain regions. Lysosomal assays revealed that CMA activity was significantly decreased in aggregation-prone regions compared to the remainder of the brain. Previously, CMA activity has been shown to be proportional to levels of the CMA receptor Lamp-2a. Using antibodies, brain tissue from Lamp-2a null mice, enzymatic deglycosylation, and mass spectrometry, we identified Lamp2a as a novel 72 kDa glycoprotein in the mouse brain. Examination of Lamp-2a levels revealed differences in expression across brain regions. The brainstem and the spinal cord had a more than three-fold greater levels of Lamp-2a as compared to regions less vulnerable to aggregation and exhibited a selective upregulation of Lamp-2a during development of α-synuclein inclusions. Despite this dynamic response of Lamp-2a, the levels of substrates bound to the brain lysosomes as well as the rates of substrate uptake and degradation were not proportional to the levels of Lamp-2a. These regional differences in CMA activity and Lamp-2a expression were found in both non-transgenic mice as well as A53T α-syn mice. Therefore, these are inherent variations and not a transgene-specific effect. However, differences in CMA activity may render select brain regions vulnerable to homeostatic dysfunction in the presence of stressors such as overexpression of human A53T α-syn. Collectively, the data provide a potential mechanism to explain the dichotomy of vulnerability or resistance that underlies brain regions

  16. Diverse developmental disorders from The One Ring: distinct molecular pathways underlie the cohesinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHorsfield

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The multi-subunit protein complex, cohesin, is responsible for sister chromatid cohesion during cell division. The interaction of cohesin with DNA is controlled by a number of additional regulatory proteins. Mutations in cohesin, or its regulators, cause a spectrum of human developmental syndromes known as the ‘cohesinopathies’. Cohesinopathy disorders include Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and Roberts Syndrome. The discovery of novel roles for chromatid cohesion proteins in regulating gene expression led to the idea that cohesinopathies are caused by dysregulation of multiple genes downstream of mutations in cohesion proteins. Consistent with this idea, Drosophila, mouse and zebrafish cohesinopathy models all show altered expression of developmental genes. However, there appears to be incomplete overlap among dysregulated genes downstream of mutations in different components of the cohesion apparatus. This is surprising because mutations in all cohesion proteins would be predicted to affect cohesin’s roles in cell division and gene expression in similar ways. Here we review the differences and similarities between genetic pathways downstream of components of the cohesion apparatus, and discuss how such differences might arise, and contribute to the spectrum of cohesinopathy disorders. We propose that mutations in different elements of the cohesion apparatus have distinct developmental outcomes that can be explained by sometimes subtly different molecular effects.

  17. Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding-swimming trade-off in starfish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, William; Prakash, Vivek N.; Prakash, Manu

    2017-04-01

    Many marine invertebrates have larval stages covered in linear arrays of beating cilia, which propel the animal while simultaneously entraining planktonic prey. These bands are strongly conserved across taxa spanning four major superphyla, and they are responsible for the unusual morphologies of many invertebrate larvae. However, few studies have investigated their underlying hydrodynamics. Here, we study the ciliary bands of starfish larvae, and discover a beautiful pattern of slowly evolving vortices that surrounds the swimming animals. Closer inspection of the bands reveals unusual ciliary `tangles' analogous to topological defects that break up and re-form as the animal adjusts its swimming stroke. Quantitative experiments and modelling demonstrate that these vortices create a physical trade-off between feeding and swimming in heterogeneous environments, which manifests as distinct flow patterns or `eigenstrokes' representing each behaviour--potentially implicating neuronal control of cilia. This quantitative interplay between larval form and hydrodynamic function may generalize to other invertebrates with ciliary bands, and illustrates the potential effects of active boundary conditions in other biological and synthetic systems.

  18. Functional and structural changes in internal pudendal arteries underlie erectile dysfunction induced by androgen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhéure Alves-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is strongly associated with erectile dysfunction (ED. Inadequate penile arterial blood flow is one of the major causes of ED. The blood flow to the corpus cavernosum is mainly derived from the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs; however, no study has evaluated the effects of androgen deprivation on IPA′s function. We hypothesized that castration impairs IPAs reactivity and structure, contributing to ED. In our study, Wistar male rats, 8-week-old, were castrated and studied 30 days after orchiectomy. Functional and structural properties of rat IPAs were determined using wire and pressure myograph systems, respectively. Protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Plasma testosterone levels were determined using the IMMULITE 1000 Immunoassay System. Castrated rats exhibited impaired erectile function, represented by decreased intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased phenylephrine- and electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contraction and decreased acetylcholine- and EFS-induced vasodilatation. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased internal diameter, external diameter, thickness of the arterial wall, and cross-sectional area. Castration decreased nNOS and α-actin expression and increased collagen expression, p38 (Thr180/Tyr182 phosphorylation, as well as caspase 3 cleavage. In conclusion, androgen deficiency is associated with impairment of IPA reactivity and structure and increased apoptosis signaling markers. Our findings suggest that androgen deficiency-induced vascular dysfunction is an event involving hypotrophic vascular remodeling of IPAs.

  19. Research-Based Assessment Affordances and Constraints: Perceptions of Physics Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Bell, Alexander; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-01-01

    To help faculty use research-based materials in a more significant way, we learn about their perceived needs and desires and use this information to suggest ways for the physics education research community to address these needs. When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily…

  20. Deficits in Neurite Density Underlie White Matter Structure Abnormalities in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Charlotte L; Davies, Geoff; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Gabel, Matt C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Cercignani, Mara; Seth, Anil K; Greenwood, Kathryn E; Medford, Nick; Critchley, Hugo D

    2017-11-15

    Structural abnormalities across multiple white matter tracts are recognized in people with early psychosis, consistent with dysconnectivity as a neuropathological account of symptom expression. We applied advanced neuroimaging techniques to characterize microstructural white matter abnormalities for a deeper understanding of the developmental etiology of psychosis. Thirty-five first-episode psychosis patients, and 19 healthy controls, participated in a quantitative neuroimaging study using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, a multishell diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique that distinguishes white matter fiber arrangement and geometry from changes in neurite density. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity images were also derived. Tract-based spatial statistics compared white matter structure between patients and control subjects and tested associations with age, symptom severity, and medication. Patients with first-episode psychosis had lower regional FA in multiple commissural, corticospinal, and association tracts. These abnormalities predominantly colocalized with regions of reduced neurite density, rather than aberrant fiber bundle arrangement (orientation dispersion index). There was no direct relationship with active symptoms. FA decreased and orientation dispersion index increased with age in patients, but not control subjects, suggesting accelerated effects of white matter geometry change. Deficits in neurite density appear fundamental to abnormalities in white matter integrity in early psychosis. In the first application of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in psychosis, we found that processes compromising axonal fiber number, density, and myelination, rather than processes leading to spatial disruption of fiber organization, are implicated in the etiology of psychosis. This accords with a neurodevelopmental origin of aberrant brain-wide structural connectivity predisposing individuals to

  1. Identifying mechanisms that underlie links between COMT genotype and aggression in male adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Langley, Kate; Northover, Clare; Hubble, Kelly; Rubia, Katya; Schepman, Karen; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2016-04-01

    There is a known strong genetic contribution to aggression in those with ADHD. In a previous investigation of a large population cohort, impaired 'emotional/social cognitive' processing, assessed by questionnaire, was observed to mediate the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in individuals with ADHD. We set out to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample, using task-based and physiological assessments of emotional and cognitive processing. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that directly assessed emotional processing mediates the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in young people with ADHD. Males aged 10-17 years with ADHD were recruited from UK community clinics (n = 194). Research diagnostic interviews (parent and child) were used to assess psychopathology and generate DSM-IV Conduct Disorder symptom scores. Participants completed tasks assessing executive function (response inhibition and set shifting), empathy for fear, sadness and happiness, and fear conditioning [measured using skin conductance responses (SCR) to aversive stimuli]. COMT Val allele carriers showed poorer response inhibition (F = 5.27, p = .02) and set shifting abilities (F = 6.45, p = .01), reduced fear empathy (F = 4.33, p = .04) and reduced autonomic responsiveness (lower SCRs) to the conditioned aversive stimulus (F = 11.74, p = .001). COMT Val158Met did not predict impairments in recognising others' emotions or affective empathy for happiness or sadness. Mediation analysis revealed that impaired fear-related mechanisms indirectly mediated the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression. Our findings suggest fear mechanisms as possible targets for psychological interventions to disrupt links between genetic risk and aggressive outcomes in ADHD. Our findings also reveal the potential of hypothesis-driven approaches for identifying neuropsychological mechanisms that mediate genetic risk effects on behaviour and psychopathology. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of

  2. Protein instability, haploinsufficiency, and cortical hyper-excitability underlie STXBP1 encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Jovana; Maroteaux, Gregoire; Schut, Desiree; Loos, Maarten; Dubey, Mohit; Pitsch, Julika; Remmelink, Esther; Koopmans, Bastijn; Crowley, James; Cornelisse, L Niels; Sullivan, Patrick F; Schoch, Susanne; Toonen, Ruud F; Stiedl, Oliver; Verhage, Matthijs

    2018-03-12

    De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background. All disease variants had severely decreased protein levels. Together, these cellular studies suggest that impaired protein stability and STXBP1 haploinsufficiency explain STXBP1-encephalopathy and that, therefore, Stxbp1+/- mice provide a valid mouse model. Simultaneous video and EEG recordings revealed that Stxbp1+/- mice with different genomic backgrounds recapitulate the seizure/spasm phenotype observed in humans, characterized by myoclonic jerks and spike-wave discharges that were suppressed by the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam. Mice heterozygous for Stxbp1 in GABAergic neurons only, showed impaired viability, 50% died within 2-3 weeks, and the rest showed stronger epileptic activity. c-Fos staining implicated neocortical areas, but not other brain regions, as the seizure foci. Stxbp1+/- mice showed impaired cognitive performance, hyperactivity and anxiety-like behaviour, without altered social behaviour. Taken together, these data demonstrate the construct, face and predictive validity of Stxbp1+/- mice and point to protein instability, haploinsufficiency and imbalanced excitation in neocortex, as the underlying mechanism of STXBP1-encephalopathy. The mouse models reported here are valid models for development of therapeutic interventions targeting STXBP1-encephalopathy.

  3. Neurological, nutritional and alcohol consumption factors underlie cognitive and motor deficits in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Hardcastle, Cheshire; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Zahr, Natalie M

    2017-12-15

    Variations in pattern and extent of cognitive and motor impairment occur in alcoholism (ALC). Causes of such heterogeneity are elusive and inconsistently accounted for by demographic or alcohol consumption differences. We examined neurological and nutritional factors as possible contributors to heterogeneity in impairment. Participants with ALC (n = 96) and a normal comparison group (n = 41) were examined on six cognitive and motor domains. Signs of historically determined subclinical Wernicke's encephalopathy were detected using the Caine et al. criteria, which were based on postmortem examination and chart review of antemortem data of alcoholic cases with postmortem evidence for Wernicke's encephalopathy. Herein, four Caine criteria provided quantification of dietary deficiency, cerebellar dysfunction, low general cognitive functioning and oculomotor abnormalities in 86 of the 96 ALC participants. Subgroups based on Caine criteria yielded a graded effect, where those meeting more criteria exhibited greater impairment than those meeting no to fewer criteria. These results could not be accounted for by history of drug dependence. Multiple regression indicated that compromised performance on ataxia, indicative of cerebellar dysfunction, predicted non-mnemonic and upper motor deficits, whereas low whole blood thiamine level, consistent with limbic circuit dysfunction, predicted mnemonic deficits. This double dissociation indicates biological markers that contribute to heterogeneity in expression of functional impairment in ALC. That non-mnemonic and mnemonic deficits are subserved by the dissociable neural systems of frontocerebellar and limbic circuitry, both commonly disrupted in ALC, suggests neural mechanisms that can differentially affect selective functions, thereby contributing to heterogeneity in pattern and extent of dysfunction in ALC. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Do pollinator distributions underlie the evolution of pollination ecotypes in the Cape shrub Erica plukenetii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Niet, Timotheüs; Pirie, Michael D; Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D; Midgley, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    According to the Grant-Stebbins model of pollinator-driven divergence, plants that disperse beyond the range of their specialized pollinator may adapt to a new pollination system. Although this model provides a compelling explanation for pollination ecotype formation, few studies have directly tested its validity in nature. Here we investigate the distribution and pollination biology of several subspecies of the shrub Erica plukenetii from the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa. We analyse these data in a phylogenetic context and combine these results with information on pollinator ranges to test whether the evolution of pollination ecotypes is consistent with the Grant-Stebbins model. Pollinator observations showed that the most common form of E. plukenetii with intermediate corolla length is pollinated by short-billed Orange-breasted sunbirds. Populations at the northern fringe of the distribution are characterized by long corollas, and are mainly pollinated by long-billed Malachite sunbirds. A population with short corollas in the centre of the range was mainly pollinated by insects, particularly short-tongued noctuid moths. Bird exclusion in this population did not have an effect on fruit set, while insect exclusion reduced fruit set. An analysis of floral scent across the range, using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, showed that the scent bouquets of flowers from moth-pollinated populations are characterized by a larger number of scent compounds and higher emission rates than those in bird-pollinated populations. This was also reflected in clear separation of moth- and bird-pollinated populations in a two-dimensional phenotype space based on non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis of scent data. Phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences strongly supported monophyly of E. plukenetii, but not of all the subspecies. Reconstruction of ancestral character states suggests two shifts from traits associated with short

  5. Study of research-based teaching mode in the course of Geometric Optics and Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Geng, Meihua; Cheng, Xiangai; Jiang, Zongfu

    2017-08-01

    Modern teaching opinions require research-based teaching mode in research universities. It is an advanced teaching mode enabling students to explore science and technology autonomously. It has a lot of advantages comparing with the conventional knowledge-oriented teaching mode. In this paper, we show some understanding of research-based teaching mode. And based on the course features of Geometric optics and optical instruments and characteristics of students, we explore the research-based teaching mode in the part of Practical Optical Systems.

  6. Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children with and without Reading Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2,…

  7. Memory and communication support in dementia: research-based strategies for caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin R; Broughton, Megan; Baker, Rosemary; Pachana, Nancy A; Angwin, Anthony J; Humphreys, Michael S; Mitchell, Leander; Byrne, Gerard J; Copland, David A; Gallois, Cindy; Hegney, Desley; Chenery, Helen J

    2011-03-01

    Difficulties with memory and communication are prominent and distressing features of dementia which impact on the person with dementia and contribute to caregiver stress and burden. There is a need to provide caregivers with strategies to support and maximize memory and communication abilities in people with dementia. In this project, a team of clinicians, researchers and educators in neuropsychology, psychogeriatrics, nursing and speech pathology translated research-based knowledge from these fields into a program of practical strategies for everyday use by family and professional caregivers. From the available research evidence, the project team identified compensatory or facilitative strategies to assist with common areas of difficulty, and structured these under the mnemonics RECAPS (for memory) and MESSAGE (for communication). This information was adapted for presentation in a DVD-based education program in accordance with known characteristics of effective caregiver education. The resultant DVD comprises (1) information on the nature and importance of memory and communication in everyday life; (2) explanations of common patterns of difficulty and preserved ability in memory and communication across the stages of dementia; (3) acted vignettes demonstrating the strategies, based on authentic samples of speech in dementia; and (4) scenarios to prompt the viewer to consider the benefits of using the strategies. Using a knowledge-translation framework, information and strategies can be provided to family and professional caregivers to help them optimize residual memory and communication in people with dementia. Future development of the materials, incorporating consumer feedback, will focus on methods for enabling wider dissemination.

  8. A summary of research-based assessment of students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Within the undergraduate physics curriculum, students' primary exposure to experimental physics comes from laboratory courses. Thus, as experimentation is a core component of physics as a discipline, lab courses can be gateways in terms of both recruiting and retaining students within the physics major. Physics lab courses have a wide variety of explicit and/or implicit goals for lab courses, including helping students to develop expert-like beliefs about the nature and importance of experimental physics. To assess students' beliefs, attitudes, and expectations about the nature of experimental physics, there is currently one research-based assessment instrument available—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Since its development, the E-CLASS has been the subject of multiple research studies aimed at understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of various laboratory learning environments. This paper presents a description of the E-CLASS assessment and a summary of the research that has been done using E-CLASS data with a particular emphasis on the aspects of this work that are most relevant for instructors.

  9. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Kv4 channels underlie the subthreshold-operating A-type K+-current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawath R Na Phuket

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglion (DRG contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling.  Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K+ channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K+ current (IA has remained hypothetical.  Kv4 channels may underlie the IA in DRG neurons.  We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (whole-tissue and single-cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the IA in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7-8 day-old rats.  Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM IA.  Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this IA occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent.  Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs.  Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons (~30 mm exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker.  In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent.  Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2.  Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to IA in DRG neurons.  Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

  11. Didactic trajectory of research in mathematics education using research-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to describe the role of research-based learning in design a learning trajectory of research in mathematics education to enhance research and academic writing skills for pre-service mathematics teachers. The method used is a design research with three stages, namely the preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. The research subjects are pre-service mathematics teacher class of 2012 from one higher education institution in Tangerang - Indonesia. The use of research-based learning in designing learning trajectory of research in mathematics education plays a crucial role as a trigger to enhancing math department preservice teachers research and academic writing skills. Also, this study also describes the design principles and characteristics of the learning trajectory namely didactic trajectory generated by the role of research-based learning syntax.

  12. The impact of research-based learning on student’s academic performance and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbawati, M. S.; Anistyasari, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Undergraduate students often have difficulty in finding the updated research topic for their undergraduate thesis. This is due to students have less knowledge about research in a particular field because they are less familiar with scientific articles. This work, therefore, proposed an implementation of research-based learning and measured students’ academic performance and motivation. The study is conducted in four stages which are the plan, do, check, and act. Research-based learning is conducted based on its syntax. Paper and pencil test is then performed to measure students’ academic achievement and a survey is devoted to determining students’ academic motivation. The results show that most students obtain satisfied score and they feel comfortable to join a class with research-based learning.

  13. Achieving generic competences through a cross-disciplinary research based course in Arctic Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    successful in achieving both the scientific and generic competences than the students who did not. The students evaluate the course as being highly motivating for further learning and they get confident by successfully having executed a research based project in a new context. The project and field work...... engineering competences, so they are more aware of this, instead of just focussing on improving their scientific competences.......In a research based course in Arctic Technology, different teaching activities were used to support learning of both technical and generic competences. The active learning was based around a 3-weeks field work period in Greenland in combination with lectures, assignments, project and peer group...

  14. The art and science of risk management: a US research-based industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Janice K; Dai, Wanju S; Dieck, Gretchen S; Hostelley, Linda S; Hassall, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The research-based pharmaceutical industry in the US strongly supports the concepts of risk management and sees formal risk management as playing a major role in the development of safe medicines for the public, as well as providing a mechanism to ensure that decisions concerning individual drug benefit and risk are made based on scientific evidence. Safe medicines refer to those drugs whose benefits have been found to outweigh their risks when they are used according to the approved labelling. Risk management is the comprehensive and proactive application of scientifically based methodologies to identify, assess, communicate and minimise risk throughout the life cycle of a drug so as to establish and maintain a favourable benefit-risk balance in patients. Although there are certainly a number of global risk management initiatives in place or being undertaken, harmonisation has yet to be achieved. Industry is faced with a variety of different risk management approaches and tools. There is a need to move the focus of risk management from the post-approval arena to earlier in the development process and tools need to be developed to support risk management throughout the lifecycle of a drug. The focus in the US on risk minimalisation strategies will also be an area for methodological development. A key factor in the success of overall risk management is the dialogue between industry and regulators throughout the development, review and marketing of the product. It is through such dialogue that appropriate, efficient and effective risk management strategies will be developed and implemented and the best decisions regarding the safe use of pharmaceutical products will be made.

  15. Identifying Research-Based Teaching Strategies in Reading to Close the Achievement Gap for Low Socio-Economic Children in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Steven Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of scientifically research based (SRB) teaching strategies on the learning of students living in poverty in a Educational Service Center (ESC) Region VI of East Texas. By interviewing teachers within academically successful campuses with high economically disadvantaged student populations, an accurate assessment was…

  16. An Instructional Design Model with the Cultivating Research-Based Learning Strategies for Fostering Teacher Students' Creative Thinking Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuana, Khwanchai; Khuana, Tanthip; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2017-01-01

    Designing the instructional model with the innovative the "Research-Based Learning Strategy Lesson Plans" of the effectiveness of the processing performance and the resulting performance (E1/E2) with the IOC value determining standardized criteria of 80/80 were developed. Students' perceptions were assessed with the 30-item…

  17. Teachers' Reported Knowledge and Implementation of Research-Based Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.; Chow, Jason C.; Gordon, Jason R.; Mahany, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' reported knowledge about and implementation of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies were examined. A total of 160 elementary teachers from two districts in different regions of the same state completed the researcher-developed "Survey of Classroom and Behavior Management." On average, teachers reported to…

  18. Research-based design & design-based research: Affordances, limitations and synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Research-based design is an orientation to educational development that is explicitly informed by existing research as well as formative evaluation. Design-based research is a genre of inquiry in which the design of innovative solutions to problems in educational practice provides the context for

  19. Research-Based Educational Practices for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; McDaniel, Melanie; Sprinkle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has become the fastest growing disability in the United States, with current prevalence rates estimated at as many as 1 in 110 children (CDC, 2010). This increase in the number of students identified with ASD has significant implications for public schools. The most popular research-based educational practices for…

  20. Combination of the Research-Based Learning Method with the Modern Physics Experiment Course Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolai; Li, Qinghuai

    2011-01-01

    It has been the hotspot to reconstruct the education course based on the research-based learning in the course reform in many countries in recent years. The new course standard of China insists that the teaching is the interactive process that teachers and students communicate and develop together. In the teaching, the relationship between…

  1. Lesson Study to Scale up Research-Based Knowledge: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Fractions Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Perry, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of fractions eludes many U.S. students, and research-based knowledge about fraction, such as the utility of linear representations, has not broadly influenced instruction. This randomized trial of lesson study supported by mathematical resources assigned 39 educator teams across the United States to locally managed lesson study…

  2. Training Internal Medicine Residents in Social Medicine and Research-Based Health Advocacy: A Novel, In-Depth Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gaurab; Pels, Richard J; Stark, Rachel L; Jain, Priyank; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2017-04-01

    Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum. The course has three major innovations: it has a yearlong longitudinal curriculum, it is required for all residents, and all residents complete a group research-based health advocacy project within the curricular year. The authors describe the structure, content, and goals of this curriculum. Over the last four years (AYs 2012-2015), residents (17/32; 53%) have rated the overall quality of the course highly (mean = 5.2, where 6 = outstanding; standard deviation = 0.64). In each year since the new course has been implemented, all scholarly work from the course has been presented at conferences by 31 resident presenters and/or coauthors. The course seems to enhance the residency program's capacity to recruit high-caliber residents and faculty members. The authors are collecting qualitative and quantitative data on the impact of the course. They will use their findings to advocate for a national health advocacy competency framework. Recommendations about how to initiate or further develop social medicine and health advocacy curricula are offered.

  3. Making Sense of Collective Events: The Co-creation of a Research-based Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Boydell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A symbolic interaction (BLUMER, 1969; MEAD, 1934; PRUS, 1996; PRUS & GRILLS, 2003 approach was taken to study the collective event (PRUS, 1997 of creating a research-based dance on pathways to care in first episode psychosis. Viewing the co-creation of a research-based dance as collective activity attends to the processual aspects of an individual's experiences. It allowed us to study the process of the creation of the dance and its capacity to convert abstract research into concrete form and to produce generalizable abstract knowledge from the empirical research findings. Thus, through the techniques of movement, metaphor, voice-over, and music, the characterization of experience through dance was personal and generic, individual and collective, particular and trans-situational. The dance performance allowed us to address the visceral, emotional, and visual aspects of our research which are frequently invisible in traditional academia. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110155

  4. Research based teaching as a model for developing complex pre-cast concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the potentials of utilising research-based teaching as a method for developing advanced concrete structures in an architectural context. A novel technique for casting concrete elements in PETG plastic is described as a body of research that formed the basis of a case in which...... master students assisted in the development and realisation of an amorphous, catenary grid-shell. Development in many areas simultaneously was essential for the success of the case studies, which made them suitable for a research-based teaching setup, where didactic considerations on a general...... and specific level were important: On a general level, three didactic tools were used: the first being the presentation of knowledge generation as something that happens between researcher and student. The second involved presenting students with a narrow focus before presenting a wide one, and the third...

  5. A framework for designing a research-based "mathematics counsellor" teacher programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Thomas Jankvist, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses one way in which decades of mathematics education research results can inform practice, by offering a framework for designing and implementing an in-service teacher education programme for upper secondary mathematics teachers in Denmark. The programme aims to educate a “task...... force” of so-called “maths counsellors”, i.e., mathematics teachers whose goal it is to help identify students with genuine learning difficulties in mathematics, investigate the nature of these difficulties, and carry out research-based interventions to assist the students in overcoming them. We present...... and discuss the various components of the programme, theoretical as well as practical, and account for how these make up a framework for designing a research-based “maths counsellor” teacher programme...

  6. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  7. Changing R&D models in research-based pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Alexander; Gassmann, Oliver; Hinder, Markus

    2016-04-27

    New drugs serving unmet medical needs are one of the key value drivers of research-based pharmaceutical companies. The efficiency of research and development (R&D), defined as the successful approval and launch of new medicines (output) in the rate of the monetary investments required for R&D (input), has declined since decades. We aimed to identify, analyze and describe the factors that impact the R&D efficiency. Based on publicly available information, we reviewed the R&D models of major research-based pharmaceutical companies and analyzed the key challenges and success factors of a sustainable R&D output. We calculated that the R&D efficiencies of major research-based pharmaceutical companies were in the range of USD 3.2-32.3 billion (2006-2014). As these numbers challenge the model of an innovation-driven pharmaceutical industry, we analyzed the concepts that companies are following to increase their R&D efficiencies: (A) Activities to reduce portfolio and project risk, (B) activities to reduce R&D costs, and (C) activities to increase the innovation potential. While category A comprises measures such as portfolio management and licensing, measures grouped in category B are outsourcing and risk-sharing in late-stage development. Companies made diverse steps to increase their innovation potential and open innovation, exemplified by open source, innovation centers, or crowdsourcing, plays a key role in doing so. In conclusion, research-based pharmaceutical companies need to be aware of the key factors, which impact the rate of innovation, R&D cost and probability of success. Depending on their company strategy and their R&D set-up they can opt for one of the following open innovators: knowledge creator, knowledge integrator or knowledge leverager.

  8. Moving towards Practice-Oriented and Research-Based Teacher Education: Challenges of Kosovo and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status, development trends and challenges of teacher education in Kosovo and Albania in their efforts to be aligned with current trends of a more research-based, practice and skills oriented teacher education system. The article compares the provision of pre-service teacher education and draws conclusions related to future development trends of the two countries as they aim to meet the best international standards and practices in shaping pre-service teacher education from a research-based and practice orientation. This article is based primarily on findings from desk research conducted at public universities in Kosovo and Albania, more specifically analyzing the university curricula and other documents related to the provision of teacher education courses. In addition, the research involves the analysis of work completed and documents produced as a result of the 2009-2011 Trans-European Mobility Program for University Studies (TEMPUS Project “Development of Master Study Programs in Education” (DEMED. The article outlines the similarities and differences of teacher education systems in Kosovo and Albania and emphasizes the need for small countries to co-operate on joint reform that leads to wider regional impact and facilitates mobility of staff and students. Identifying common goals is thus important. The two priority goals for these two countries are: development of practice and research-based teacher education. Conclusions are presented with the intent of findings being extrapolated to similar small, developing countries.

  9. Linking Cellular Mechanisms to Behavior: Entorhinal Persistent Spiking and Membrane Potential Oscillations May Underlie Path Integration, Grid Cell Firing, and Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Hasselmo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex plays an important role in spatial memory and episodic memory functions. These functions may result from cellular mechanisms for integration of the afferent input to entorhinal cortex. This article reviews physiological data on persistent spiking and membrane potential oscillations in entorhinal cortex then presents models showing how both these cellular mechanisms could contribute to properties observed during unit recording, including grid cell firing, and how they could underlie behavioural functions including path integration. The interaction of oscillations and persistent firing could contribute to encoding and retrieval of trajectories through space and time as a mechanism relevant to episodic memory.

  10. Context matters: volunteer bias, small sample size, and the value of comparison groups in the assessment of research-based undergraduate introductory biology lab courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Kloser, Matthew J; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course.

  11. [Advances on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jian-Qing; Chen, Zuan-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Yi

    2010-06-01

    With the continuous development in microfluidic fabrication technology, microfluidic analysis has evolved from a concept to one of research frontiers in last twenty years. The research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors based on microfluidic devices has also made great progress. Microfluidic technology improved greatly the analytical performance of the research of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors by reducing the consumption of reagents, decreasing the analysis time, and developing automation. This review focuses on the development and classification of enzymes and enzyme inhibitors research based on microfluidic devices.

  12. Research-Based Astronomy Workshops for Secondary School Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Kirdkao, Thagoon

    We present the results of the Learning Center for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (LESA). Thai-land organizes a series of research-based astronomical workshops for secondary school students in the country during 2006 present. The goal of LESA is to apply the research-based learn-ing approach to complement astronomy education, which has been included in the national curriculum since 2002, and to let students gain first-hand experience in astronomical research. Realization of research-based astronomical education in Thailand has long been held back by the limited availability of astronomical facilities in the country. We therefore developed work-shop modules for students using professional astronomical data generously made available to us through various collaborations and on-line archives. Two major difficulties we have overcame in developing these modules are, first, to seek research topics that are meaningful, inspiring, and can demonstrate the process of astronomical research with minimal background in astrophysics, and second, to find the software capable of processing large amounts of astronomical data, yet easily accessible for students. Our workshop modules centered on the basic research methods in observational astronomy, including astrometry, photometry, and spectroscopy. Data for these analysis modules were obtained through collaboration with various research groups, such as re-mote robotic telescopes access from the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, archival images from the Catalina Sky Survey, archival spectra from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, and imaging and spectral data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We adapt the raw data such that they can be accessed and analyzed with freely-available astronomical software such as the Iris or SAOImage ds9 and VSpec for imaging and spectral data, respectively. In each of the past five years, we have organized year-round workshops for students

  13. Changing R&D models in research-based pharmaceutical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Schuhmacher, Alexander; Gassmann, Oliver; Hinder, Markus

    2016-01-01

    New drugs serving unmet medical needs are one of the key value drivers of research-based pharmaceutical companies. The efficiency of research and development (R&D), defined as the successful approval and launch of new medicines (output) in the rate of the monetary investments required for R&D (input), has declined since decades. We aimed to identify, analyze and describe the factors that impact the R&D efficiency. Based on publicly available information, we reviewed the R&D models of major re...

  14. Implementation of a Research-Based Lab Module in a High School Chemistry Curriculum: A Study of Classroom Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For this study, a research-based lab module was implemented in two high school chemistry classes for the purpose of examining classroom dynamics throughout the process of students completing the module. A research-based lab module developed for use in undergraduate laboratories by the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) was…

  15. Igniting Transformative Change in Dementia Care Through Research-based Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Sherry L; Mitchell, Gail J; Jonas-Simpson, Christine M; Whyte, Colleen P; Gillies, Jennifer L; Carson, Jennifer D

    2016-12-01

    Little research has examined the lasting impact of the arts. As part of a longitudinal research project, we set out to examine how personal images, understandings, and actions of family members (FMs) of persons with dementia and health care professionals (HCPs) change after the introduction of a research-based drama about the experiences of living with dementia called I'm Still Here. This article focuses on the shorter- (6 weeks) and longer-term (12 months) experiences of engaging with I'm Still Here and how those experiences triggered personal transformation. Informed by phenomenology, this article presents findings from follow-up telephone interviews conducted 6 weeks and 12 months after FMs of persons with dementia and HCPs attended a live performance of I'm Still Here. The phenomenological shifts reflected in the longitudinal data suggest a process of engagement with research-based drama that involves four themes: bearing witness to suffering evokes compassion; expanding with new awareness and understanding; finding comfort, confidence, and courage to change; and envisioning and enacting new possibilities. Findings demonstrate the possibilities of the arts for knowledge mobilization in changing the culture of dementia care through a process of illuminating new and enduring realizations and transforming actions and practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Integrating relationship- and research-based approaches in Australian health promotion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Li, Vincy; Daley, Michelle; Zask, Avigdor; Lloyd, Beverly

    2015-12-01

    We examine the perspectives of health promotion practitioners on their approaches to determining health promotion practice, in particular on the role of research and relationships in this process. Using Grounded Theory methods, we analysed 58 semi-structured interviews with 54 health promotion practitioners in New South Wales, Australia. Practitioners differentiated between relationship-based and research-based approaches as two sources of knowledge to guide health promotion practice. We identify several tensions in seeking to combine these approaches in practice and describe the strategies that participants adopted to manage these tensions. The strategies included working in an evidence-informed rather than evidence-based way, creating new evidence about relationship-based processes and outcomes, adopting 'relationship-based' research and evaluation methods, making research and evaluation useful for communities, building research and evaluation skills and improving collaboration between research and evaluation and programme implementation staff. We conclude by highlighting three systemic factors which could further support the integration of research-based and relationship-based health promotion practices: (i) expanding conceptions of health promotion evidence, (ii) developing 'relationship-based' research methods that enable practitioners to measure complex social processes and outcomes and to facilitate community participation and benefit, and (iii) developing organizational capacity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gravity-dependent estimates of object mass underlie the generation of motor commands for horizontal limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2014-07-15

    Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. What factors underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories? investigating the roles of language skills and auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P; Gray, Eleanor A; Robinson, Jamey L; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments investigated the cognitive skills that underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, performance on the Verbal Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scales (BAS) II (Elliott, Smith, & McCulloch, 1997) predicted correct and false recall of semantic lures. In Experiment 2, performance on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (Yopp, 1988) did not predict correct recall, but inversely predicted the false recall of phonological lures. Auditory short-term memory was a negative predictor of false recall in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings are discussed in terms of the formation of gist and verbatim traces as proposed by fuzzy trace theory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1998) and the increasing automaticity of associations as proposed by associative activation theory (Howe, Wimmer, Gagnon, & Plumpton, 2009). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CDKN2A/B Deletion and Double-hit Mutations of the MAPK Pathway Underlie the Aggressive Behavior of Langerhans Cell Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Luc; Adélaïde, José; Popovici, Cornel; Garnier, Séverine; Guille, Arnaud; Mescam-Mancini, Lenaïg; Laurent, Camille; Brousset, Pierre; Coze, Carole; Michel, Gérard; Chaffanet, Max; Bouabdallah, Reda; Coso, Diane; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has a mostly favorable outcome, whereas Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an aggressive tumor. It is still unclear whether any specific molecular alterations could underlie the aggressive behavior of Langerhans cell proliferations. We used targeted next-generation sequencing and array-comparative genomic hybridization to profile 22 LCH samples from different patients together with 3 LCS samples corresponding to different relapses from the same patient. The third LCS relapse was a composite tumor including both B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and LCS components. The 22 LCH samples were mostly of bone origin and showed classic histophenotypical features. Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed in all 3 LCS samples a similar homozygous somatic loss affecting the CDKN2A/B locus, whereas the 17 informative LCH samples did not show any detectable abnormality. In the 3 LCS samples, targeted next-generation sequencing of 495 cancer genes detected common mutations in KMT2D/MLL2 and in both MAP2K1 and NRAS genes, whereas BRAF was not mutated. A NOTCH1 mutation was acquired in 2 LCS samples. The composite LCS/B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor showed the same genetic profile in its 2 components. LCH samples showed mutually exclusive mutations of BRAF (8/20) and MAP2K1 (4/19), but no mutation of KMT2D, NRAS nor NOTCH1. These results suggest that CDKN2A/B deletion and/or simultaneous mutations of MAP2K1 and NRAS may underlie the aggressive behavior of Langerhans cell tumors, and thus could be useful for the diagnosis of malignancy in histiocytic neoplasms. The MAPK pathway "double hit" profile provides a basis for targeted therapy in LCS patients.

  20. New approach to generating insights for aging research based on literature mining and knowledge integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeondae; Natori, Yukikazu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from. We demonstrate that our approach provides useful information that deepens insights on future trends which differs from data obtained conventionally, and this methodology is already paving the way for a new field in aging-related research based on literature mining. One compelling example of this is how our new approach can be a useful tool in drug repositioning.

  1. The research-based learning development model as a foundation in generating research ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Poppy; Dika, Johan Wayan; Permanasari, Avita Ayu

    2017-09-01

    Research Based Learning is learning that requires students to have exploration skills related to their field. By doing so, students are encouraged to create skills in managing the higherorder of abstraction in order to resolve any problems encountered. The study was done to make the schemes and sequences of learning needed by the students in order to help them to explore first ideas for their upcoming thesis. The scheme development resulted in five stages consisting of 1) identifying research journals; 2) track the development of research topics; 3) reviewing research journals; 4) discussing the results of the reviews; and 5) formulating the research topic. Furthermore, the application of 5 the stage receives percentage agreement of students was 85.9%. Therefore, it can be noted that the application of the scheme is definitely a help for students to find research ideas.

  2. Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Simmons, Michael L.; Howes, Elaine V.

    2005-05-01

    An important distinction can be made between the science, technology, and society (STS) movement of past years and the domain of socioscientific issues (SSI). STS education as typically practiced does not seem embedded in a coherent developmental or sociological framework that explicitly considers the psychological and epistemological growth of the child, nor the development of character or virtue. In contrast, the SSI movement focuses on empowering students to consider how science-based issues reflect, in part, moral principles and elements of virtue that encompass their own lives, as well as the physical and social world around them. The focus of this paper is to describe a research-based framework of current research and practice that identifies factors associated with reasoning about socioscientific issues and provide a working model that illustrates theoretical and conceptual links among key psychological, sociological, and developmental factors central to SSI and science education.

  3. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  4. Molecular mechanisms that underlie the sexual stimulant actions of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. and Crocus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Alhowiriny, Tawfeq Abdullah; El-Tahir, Kamal Eh; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    The effects of extracts and sub-fractions of Avicennia marina, Crocus sativus and sildenafil on the sexual behavior of male rats and their effects on the intracavernosal pressure (I.CV), intracavernosal cyclic GMP and dihydrotestosterone plasma level were examined. The sexual behavior was followed for four hours using infra-red video cameras to quantify the effects on various male sexual behaviors. The results revealed that the active sub-fraction in case of A. marina was the hexane fraction of the chloroform extracts (C/H) whereas that of C. sativus was the hexane fraction of the alcoholic extract (A/H). (C/H), (A/H) and sildenafil significantly increased the total sexual stimulation index from 53.8±2.7 (control) to 406±7.8, 225±4 and 401±30.1, respectively (P<0.001, N=6). They significantly increased the index of successful mounting and ejaculation from 2.6±0.5 (control) to 40±2.7, 21±2.3 and 18±1.7, respectively (P<0.01, N=6). They significantly increased the cyclic GMP level from 0.94±0.07 (control) to 3.1±0.13, 1.59±0.11 and 3.66±0.19 ng/mg wet tissue, respectively (P<0.05, N=7). They did not affect dihydrotestosterone plasma level. (C/H), (A/H) and sildenafil increased the (I.CV) pressure by 4.8±0.3, 1.4±0.8 and 4.2±0.9 mmHg. The (C/H) seemed to be more active than sildenafil and twice active than (A/H). Both extracts and sildenafil acted via an increase in cyclic GMP.

  5. Shaping scientific attitude of biology education students through research-based teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Darmadi

    2017-08-01

    Scientific attitude is need of today's society for peaceful and meaningful living of every person in a multicultural world. A case study was conducted at the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Riau, Pekanbaru in order to describe the scientific attitude that shaped by research-based teaching (RBT). Eighteen students of English for Biology bilingual program were selected from 88 regular students as a subject of the study. RBT designed consists of 9 steps: 1) field observations, 2) developing research proposals, 3) research proposal seminar, 4) field data collecting, 5) data analyzing & ilustrating, 6) writing research papers, 7) preparing power point slides, 8) creating a scientific poster, 9) seminar & poster session. Data were collected by using check list observation instuments during 14 weeks (course sessions), then analyzed by using descriptive-quantitative method. The results showed that RBT were able to shape critical-mindedness, suspended judgement, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude as well as tolerance of uncertainty. These attitudes which shaped were varies according to every steps of learning activities. It's seems that the preparation of scientific posters and research seminar quite good in shaping the critical-mindedness, suspended judgment, respect for evidence, honesty, objectivity, and questioning attitude, as well as tolerance of uncertainty. In conclusion, the application of research-based teaching through the English for Biology courses could shape the students scientific attitudes. However, the consistency of the appearance of a scientific attitude in every stage of Biology-based RBT learning process need more intensive and critical assessment.

  6. Islands of spatially discordant APD alternans underlie arrhythmogenesis by promoting electrotonic dyssynchrony in models of fibrotic rat ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Rupamanjari; Engels, Marc C.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Panfilov, Alexander V.; Pijnappels, Daniël A.

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis and altered gap junctional coupling are key features of ventricular remodelling and are associated with abnormal electrical impulse generation and propagation. Such abnormalities predispose to reentrant electrical activity in the heart. In the absence of tissue heterogeneity, high-frequency impulse generation can also induce dynamic electrical instabilities leading to reentrant arrhythmias. However, because of the complexity and stochastic nature of such arrhythmias, the combined effects of tissue heterogeneity and dynamical instabilities in these arrhythmias have not been explored in detail. Here, arrhythmogenesis was studied using in vitro and in silico monolayer models of neonatal rat ventricular tissue with 30% randomly distributed cardiac myofibroblasts and systematically lowered intercellular coupling achieved in vitro through graded knockdown of connexin43 expression. Arrhythmia incidence and complexity increased with decreasing intercellular coupling efficiency. This coincided with the onset of a specialized type of spatially discordant action potential duration alternans characterized by island-like areas of opposite alternans phase, which positively correlated with the degree of connexinx43 knockdown and arrhythmia complexity. At higher myofibroblast densities, more of these islands were formed and reentrant arrhythmias were more easily induced. This is the first study exploring the combinatorial effects of myocardial fibrosis and dynamic electrical instabilities on reentrant arrhythmia initiation and complexity.

  7. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alters Brain Activity in Regions that Underlie Reward and Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Michaelides, Mike; Subrize, Mike; Miller, Mike L; Bellezza, Robert; Cooney, Robert N; Leggio, Lorenzo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Rogers, Ann M; Volkow, Nora D; Hajnal, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a very effective bariatric procedure to achieve significant and sustained weight loss, yet little is known about the procedure's impact on the brain. This study examined the effects of RYGB on the brain's response to the anticipation of highly palatable versus regular food. High fat diet-induced obese rats underwent RYGB or sham operation and were then tested for conditioned place preference (CPP) for the bacon-paired chamber, relative to the chow-paired chamber. After CPP, animals were placed in either chamber without the food stimulus, and brain-glucose metabolism (BGluM) was measured using positron emission tomography (μPET). Bacon CPP was only observed in RYGB rats that had stable weight loss following surgery. BGluM assessment revealed that RYGB selectively activated regions of the right and midline cerebellum (Lob 8) involved in subjective processes related to reward or expectation. Also, bacon anticipation led to significant activation in the medial parabrachial nuclei (important in gustatory processing) and dorsomedial tegmental area (key to reward, motivation, cognition and addiction) in RYGB rats; and activation in the retrosplenial cortex (default mode network), and the primary visual cortex in control rats. RYGB alters brain activity in areas involved in reward expectation and sensory (taste) processing when anticipating a palatable fatty food. Thus, RYGB may lead to changes in brain activity in regions that process reward and taste-related behaviors. Specific cerebellar regions with altered metabolism following RYGB may help identify novel therapeutic targets for treatment of obesity.

  8. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Alters Brain Activity in Regions that Underlie Reward and Taste Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis K Thanos

    Full Text Available Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery is a very effective bariatric procedure to achieve significant and sustained weight loss, yet little is known about the procedure's impact on the brain. This study examined the effects of RYGB on the brain's response to the anticipation of highly palatable versus regular food.High fat diet-induced obese rats underwent RYGB or sham operation and were then tested for conditioned place preference (CPP for the bacon-paired chamber, relative to the chow-paired chamber. After CPP, animals were placed in either chamber without the food stimulus, and brain-glucose metabolism (BGluM was measured using positron emission tomography (μPET.Bacon CPP was only observed in RYGB rats that had stable weight loss following surgery. BGluM assessment revealed that RYGB selectively activated regions of the right and midline cerebellum (Lob 8 involved in subjective processes related to reward or expectation. Also, bacon anticipation led to significant activation in the medial parabrachial nuclei (important in gustatory processing and dorsomedial tegmental area (key to reward, motivation, cognition and addiction in RYGB rats; and activation in the retrosplenial cortex (default mode network, and the primary visual cortex in control rats.RYGB alters brain activity in areas involved in reward expectation and sensory (taste processing when anticipating a palatable fatty food. Thus, RYGB may lead to changes in brain activity in regions that process reward and taste-related behaviors. Specific cerebellar regions with altered metabolism following RYGB may help identify novel therapeutic targets for treatment of obesity.

  9. A prospective 2-site parallel intervention trial of a research-based film to increase exercise amongst older hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Miller, Karen-Lee; Brooks, Dina; Colobong, Romeo; Parsons, Trisha; Jassal, Sarbjit Vanita; Thomas, Alison; Binns, Malcolm; Naglie, Gary

    2017-01-26

    Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We developed a research-based film, Fit for Dialysis, designed to introduce, motivate, and sustain exercise for wellness amongst older hemodialysis patients, and exercise counseling and support by nephrologists, nurses, and family caregivers. The objective of this clinical trial is to determine whether and in what ways Fit for Dialysis improves outcomes and influences knowledge/attitudes regarding the importance of exercise for wellness in the context of end-stage renal disease. This 2-site parallel intervention trial will recruit 60 older hemodialysis patients from two urban hospitals. The trial will compare the film + a 16-week exercise program in one hospital, with a 16-week exercise-only program in another hospital. Physical fitness and activity measures will be performed at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks, and 12 weeks after the end of the program. These include the 2-min Walk Test, Grip Strength, Duke Activity Status Index, and the Timed Up-and-Go Test, as well as wearing a pedometer for one week. Throughout the 16-week exercise program, and at 12 weeks after, we will record patients' exercise using the Godin Leisure-time Exercise Questionnaire. Patients will also keep a diary of the exercise that they do at home on non-dialysis days. Qualitative interviews, conducted at baseline, 8, and 16 weeks, will explore the impact of Fit for Dialysis on the knowledge/attitudes of patients, family caregivers, and nephrology staff regarding exercise for wellness, and in what ways the film is effective in educating, motivating, or sustaining patient exercise during dialysis, at home, and in the community. This research will determine for whom Fit for Dialysis is effective, why, and under what conditions. If Fit for Dialysis is proven beneficial to patients, nephrology

  10. Vigorous Dynamics Underlie a Stable Population of the Endangered Snow Leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Koustubh; Bayrakcismith, Rana; Tumursukh, Lkhagvasumberel; Johansson, Orjan; Sevger, Purevsuren; McCarthy, Tom; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-01-01

    Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (λ = 1.08+−0.25). Comparison of model results with the “known population” of radio-collared snow leopards suggested high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female) during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+−0.08) and that of young was 0.83 (SE+−0.15) and 0.77 (SE +−0.2) respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +−0.19 and 0.68, SE +−0.32 before and after the age of 2 years) though not the adults (0.02 SE+−0.07). While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation. PMID:25006879

  11. P2-34: Similar Dimensions Underlie Emotional and Conversational Expressions in Korean and German Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyoung Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although facial expressions are one of the most important ways of communication in human society, most studies in the field focus only on the emotional aspect of facial expressions. The communicative/conversational aspects of expressions remain largely neglected. In addition, whereas it is known that there are culturally universal emotional expressions, less is known about how conversational expressions are perceived across cultures. Here, we investigate the underlying dimensions of the complex space of emotional and conversational expressions in a cross-cultural context. For the experiments, we used 620 video sequences of the KU facial expression database (62 expressions of 10 Korean actors, and 540 video sequences of the MPI facial expression database (54 expressions of 10 German actors. Four groups of native German and Korean participants were asked to group the sequences of the German or Korean databases into clusters based on similarity, yielding a fully crossed design across cultural contexts and databases. The confusion matrices created from the grouping data showed similar structure for both databases, but also yielded significantly less confusion for own-culture judgments. Interestingly, multidimensional scaling of the confusion matrices showed that for all four participant groups, two dimensions explained the data sufficiently. Most importantly, post-hoc analyses identified these two dimensions as valence and arousal, respectively, for all cultural contexts and databases. We conclude that although expressions from a familiar background are more effectively grouped, the evaluative dimensions for both German and Korean cultural contexts are exactly the same, showing that cultural universals exist even in this complex space.

  12. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  13. Repetition suppression and repetition enhancement underlie auditory memory-trace formation in the human brain: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recasens, Marc; Leung, Sumie; Grimm, Sabine; Nowak, Rafal; Escera, Carles

    2015-03-01

    The formation of echoic memory traces has traditionally been inferred from the enhanced responses to its deviations. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an auditory event-related potential (ERP) elicited between 100 and 250ms after sound deviation is an indirect index of regularity encoding that reflects a memory-based comparison process. Recently, repetition positivity (RP) has been described as a candidate ERP correlate of direct memory trace formation. RP consists of repetition suppression and enhancement effects occurring in different auditory components between 50 and 250ms after sound onset. However, the neuronal generators engaged in the encoding of repeated stimulus features have received little interest. This study intends to investigate the neuronal sources underlying the formation and strengthening of new memory traces by employing a roving-standard paradigm, where trains of different frequencies and different lengths are presented randomly. Source generators of repetition enhanced (RE) and suppressed (RS) activity were modeled using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in healthy subjects. Our results show that, in line with RP findings, N1m (~95-150ms) activity is suppressed with stimulus repetition. In addition, we observed the emergence of a sustained field (~230-270ms) that showed RE. Source analysis revealed neuronal generators of RS and RE located in both auditory and non-auditory areas, like the medial parietal cortex and frontal areas. The different timing and location of neural generators involved in RS and RE points to the existence of functionally separated mechanisms devoted to acoustic memory-trace formation in different auditory processing stages of the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imri Ben-Israel

    Full Text Available Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1 in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  15. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style.

  16. Pathological changes in hippocampal neuronal circuits underlie age-associated neurodegeneration and memory loss: positive clue toward SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P; Premkumar, P; Priyanka, R; Jayachandran, K S; Anusuyadevi, M

    2015-08-20

    Among vertebrates hippocampus forms the major component of the brain in consolidating information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Aging is considered as the major risk factor for memory impairment in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) like pathology. Present study thus aims at investigating whether age-specific degeneration of neuronal-circuits in hippocampal formation (neural-layout of Subiculum-hippocampus proper-dentate gyrus (DG)-entorhinal cortex (EC)) results in cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol (RSV) was attempted to study in the formation of hippocampal neuronal-circuits. Radial-Arm-Maze was conducted to evaluate hippocampal-dependent spatial and learning memory in control and experimental rats. Nissl staining of frontal cortex (FC), subiculum, hippocampal-proper (CA1→CA2→CA3→CA4), DG, amygdala, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, layers of temporal and parietal lobe of the neocortex were examined for pathological changes in young and aged wistar rats, with and without RSV. Hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (EC layerII→DG→CA3→CA1) forming new memory and monosynaptic circuit (EC→CA1) that strengthen old memories were found disturbed in aged rats. Loss of Granular neuron observed in DG and polymorphic cells of CA4 can lead to decreased mossy fibers disturbing neural-transmission (CA4→CA3) in perforant pathway. Further, intensity of nissl granules (stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM)-SR-SO) of CA3 pyramidal neurons was decreased, disturbing the communication in schaffer collaterals (CA3-CA1) during aging. We also noticed disarranged neuronal cell layer in Subiculum (presubiculum (PrS)-parasubiculum (PaS)), interfering output from hippocampus to prefrontal cortex (PFC), EC, hypothalamus, and amygdala that may result in interruption of thought processes. We conclude from our observations that poor memory performance of aged rats as evidenced through radial arm maze (RAM) analysis was due to the

  17. Interlinked nonlinear subnetworks underlie the formation of robust cellular patterns in Arabidopsis epidermis: a dynamic spatial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Longoria Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamical models are instrumental for exploring the way information required to generate robust developmental patterns arises from complex interactions among genetic and non-genetic factors. We address this fundamental issue of developmental biology studying the leaf and root epidermis of Arabidopsis. We propose an experimentally-grounded model of gene regulatory networks (GRNs that are coupled by protein diffusion and comprise a meta-GRN implemented on cellularised domains. Results Steady states of the meta-GRN model correspond to gene expression profiles typical of hair and non-hair epidermal cells. The simulations also render spatial patterns that match the cellular arrangements observed in root and leaf epidermis. As in actual plants, such patterns are robust in the face of diverse perturbations. We validated the model by checking that it also reproduced the patterns of reported mutants. The meta-GRN model shows that interlinked sub-networks contribute redundantly to the formation of robust hair patterns and permits to advance novel and testable predictions regarding the effect of cell shape, signalling pathways and additional gene interactions affecting spatial cell-patterning. Conclusion The spatial meta-GRN model integrates available experimental data and contributes to further understanding of the Arabidopsis epidermal system. It also provides a systems biology framework to explore the interplay among sub-networks of a GRN, cell-to-cell communication, cell shape and domain traits, which could help understanding of general aspects of patterning processes. For instance, our model suggests that the information needed for cell fate determination emerges from dynamic processes that depend upon molecular components inside and outside differentiating cells, suggesting that the classical distinction of lineage versus positional cell differentiation may be instrumental but rather artificial. It also suggests that interlinkage

  18. Functionally distinct phospho-forms underlie incremental activation of protein kinase-regulated Cl- conductance in mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, T C; Horie, M; Gadsby, D C

    1993-05-01

    The regulation of cardiac Cl- conductance by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cellular phosphatases was studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes by using wide-tipped, perfused pipettes to record whole-cell currents. Exposure to forskolin (Fsk) or isoproterenol (Iso) elicits a Cl- conductance that results exclusively from PKA-dependent phosphorylation because it can be completely abolished, or its activation fully prevented, by switching to pipette solution containing PKI, a synthetic peptide inhibitor of PKA. The Cl- conductance activated by micromolar concentrations of either agonist reached its steady-state amplitude in 1-2 min and was deactivated promptly and entirely, usually within 2 min, upon washing out the agonist, implying a continuous high level of activity of endogenous protein phosphatases. Accordingly, intracellular application of okadaic acid or microcystin, both potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, during exposure to Fsk enhanced the steady-state Cl- conductance and slowed its deactivation after washing out the Fsk. Maximal potentiation of the conductance, by approximately 60%, was obtained with pipette concentrations of approximately 10 microM okadaic acid (or approximately 5 microM microcystin) and did not result from an increase in the apparent affinity for Fsk. In the presence of maximally effective concentrations of okadaic acid and/or microcystin, deactivation of the enhanced Cl- conductance upon washout of agonist was incomplete, with about half of the conductance persisting indefinitely. That residual conductance did not reflect continued action of PKA because it was insensitive to PKI, but was identified as a fraction of the activated Cl- conductance by its biophysical characteristics. The results suggest that complete deactivation of the PKA-regulated cardiac Cl- conductance requires dephosphorylation by a type 1 and/or 2A phosphatase, but that partial deactivation can be accomplished by activity of some

  19. Large Blooms ofBacillales(Firmicutes) Underlie the Response to Wetting of Cyanobacterial Biocrusts at Various Stages of Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoz, Ulas; Couradeau, Estelle; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Lim, Hsiao-Chien; Northen, Trent; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Brodie, Eoin L

    2018-03-06

    and global significance. Ecosystem succession toward maturity has been associated with both resistance and resilience to disturbance. Recent work has shown that the impacts of both climate change and physical disturbance on biocrusts increase the potential for successional resetting. A larger proportion of biocrusts are expected to be at an early developmental stage, hence increasing susceptibility to changes in precipitation frequencies. Therefore, it is essential to characterize how biocrusts respond to wetting across early developmental stages. In this study, we document the wetting response of microbial communities from a biocrust chronosequence. Overall, our results suggest that the cumulative effects of altered precipitation frequencies on the stability of biocrusts will depend on biocrust maturity. Copyright © 2018 Karaoz et al.

  20. THE MODEL OF INFORMATION AND ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH BASED ON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS OF OPEN ACCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Spirin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experience of using electronic open access systems for information and analytical support of pedagogical research, which positively influences the quality of scientific research. A well-founded system of information and analytical support of pedagogical research based on electronic open access systems corresponds to the scientific and pedagogical needs for implementation: the publication, dissemination and use of information resources. The use of this system will improve the quality of scientific and pedagogical research conducted at the institutions of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, and will effectively implement their results in the scientific and educational sphere of Ukraine. The model of information and analytical support of scientific research is substantiated and developed. Specific features of the functioning of the prototype of an electronic scientific journal on the platform of open journal systems are determined. The stages of implementation of the prototype on the platform of open journal systems that can be used by scientific institutions and higher educational institutions for the publication of scientific professional journals and collections are described.

  1. Lack of research-based standards for accessible housing: problematization and exemplification of consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Aase; Slaug, Björn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how definitions of standards for housing design influence the proportion of dwellings not meeting the standards and the proportion of individuals defined as having accessibility problems. The sample included old people and their dwellings in three European countries (N = 1,150). Frequencies and percentages were reported and empirical distribution functions were used. Depending on the functional profile and standards in question, the magnitude of influence of the standards differs in extent, e.g., the existing standard for door openings at the entrance (defined ≥75 cm) implied that the proportion of dwellings not meeting it was 11.3% compared to 64.4%, if the standard was set to ≥83 cm. The proportion of individuals defined as having accessibility problems for profiles not using mobility devices was 4-5, 57% for profiles using them and 1-3% for the total sample if the standard was set to 90 cm. Research-based standard definitions for housing design are necessary to ensure that they actually lead to enhanced accessibility, which is a prerequisite for the independence and health of persons with functional limitations.

  2. Research-Based Teacher Education and Professional Development. Achievements and Contributions of EDiTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Małgorzata Ligus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s aim is to describe some of the sources of the European debate over the third cycle studies in teacher education in Europe. Then it will introduce the international Project EDiTE as one of the collaborative initiatives concerning the European scientific proposal of the teachers’ lifelong learning development. Next, some good practices of promoting the doctoral research based teacher education on national levels will be presented. Finally, in the article, there will be revealed selected findings of the EDiTE team that are focused on the current needs in teacher education that have been pointed by different stakeholders of five European countries represented by the project consortium, while interviewing them in 2013 y. The main goal of this article is to involve the stakeholders in a thought provoking debate for future roles of teachers in Europe, but not through looking for a ‘standardized teacher model’ or to create a ‘European super teacher’, but to see the dilemmas that should be shared while questioning ‘What makes a teacher European?,’ as Michael Schratz underlines, in a diversity of national identities and in the face of challenges of 21st century.

  3. New approach to generating insights for aging research based on literature mining and knowledge integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeondae Kwon

    Full Text Available The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from. We demonstrate that our approach provides useful information that deepens insights on future trends which differs from data obtained conventionally, and this methodology is already paving the way for a new field in aging-related research based on literature mining. One compelling example of this is how our new approach can be a useful tool in drug repositioning.

  4. Realization of Deflection-type Bridge instruments to determine soil moisture using Research-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliza, E.; Munir, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    It is clear that the quality of education is directly related to the quality of teachers and the teaching methods. One of the teaching methods that can improve the quality of education is research-based learning (RBL) method. In this method, students act as the center of learning while teachers become the guides that provide direction and advice. RBL is a learning method that combines cooperative learning, problem solving, authentic learning, contextual case study and inquiry approach discovery. The main goal of this method is to construct a student that can think critically, analyze and evaluate problems, and find a new science from these problems (learning by doing). In this paper, RBL is used to improve the understanding about measurement using deflection-type Bridge that is implemented in the determination of ground water changes. In general, there are three stages that have been done. Firstly the exposure stage, then the experience stage and lastly the capstone stage. The exposure stage aims to increase the knowledge and the comprehension of student about the topic through understanding the basics concepts, reviewing the literature and others. The understanding gained in the exposure stage is being used for application and analysis at the experience stage. While the final stage is the publication of research results both verbally and in writing. Based on the steps that have been conducted, it can be showed that deflection-type Bridge can be utilized in soil moisture meter.

  5. Phenomenological shifts for healthcare professionals after experiencing a research-based drama on living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Mitchell, Gail J; Carson, Jennifer; Whyte, Colleen; Dupuis, Sherry; Gillies, Jennifer

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this article is to report research findings describing phenomenological shifts, that is, changes in patterns of lived experience, for healthcare professionals who attended a performance of a research-based drama, called I'm Still Here. The research drama, based on six studies, was created to help change the ways persons understand, think about and relate with persons living with dementia. In 2006-2007, 50 healthcare professionals from various disciplines and eight nursing students participated in this study. Participants were recruited from four Canadian cities in the province of Ontario where focus groups were held before and after engaging in a live performance of I'm Still Here. Analysis of focus group transcripts showed shifts in patterns of lived experience for the healthcare professional participants as evident in the participants' descriptions. The phenomenological shifts reflected a move from descriptions of 'diminishing humanness to discerning humanness', from 'disengaged care/mundane relating to reflexive relating in the now', and 'terrifying portrayals of loss to awakening to hopeful possibility'. The shifts described herein are supported with examples from the focus group transcripts. Findings reveal the power of drama as a vibrant and meaningful means of shifting understandings, images and intended actions of healthcare professions which have the potential to affect the lived experiences, relationships and quality of life of persons with dementia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Research-based learning for nuclear engineering education in Gadjah Mada University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Kusnanto; Harto, Andang Widi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education in Gadjah Mada University has been operated since 1977 in order to prepare Indonesian people facing up nuclear era in Indonesia. Until 1995, most of the alumni work in National Nuclear Energy Board, but recently many of them have been taking advanced study abroad. To improve our quality of education, since the last 3 years Gadjah Mada University has implemented Research-Based Learning (RBL). RBL for nuclear engineering student is conducted by providing challenges to the student related to the critical issues in public acceptance of nuclear power plant (NPP) in Indonesia that is waste management. Students should join in a group to complete the assignment. Within the group, they discuss and produce new idea in order to manage radioactive waste of new generation NPP. So, they are stimulated to think the future based on the state of the art of waste technology. This method could increase student's knowledge and soft skills, simultaneously. Some students also continue to explore and to refine the task as their thesis topic. Therefore, implementation of RBL also succeeds in increasing student's efficiency study. (author)

  7. A Proposal for a Research-based Constructivist Physics-and-Pedagogy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Esther

    2006-12-01

    This poster proposes a research-based science-and-pedagogy course that will combine the learning of fundamental physics concepts with methods of how to teach these concepts. Entitled “Understanding the Cosmos: From Antiquity to the Modern Day,” the course will explore how people learn science concepts through the ages, and from childhood through adulthood. This course will use the historical-constructivist approach to illustrate how our understanding of scientific phenomena advanced as we progressed from simple 2-dimensional thinking (starting with the flat Earth concept) to 3-D thinking (learning about the structure of the solar system) to 4-D thinking (understanding space-time and theories about the Big Bang). While transitioning from Impetus to Aristotelian to Newtonian to Einsteinian thinking, students will learn the essence of scientific thinking and inquiry. The overall goal of this course is to excite students in the process of scientific discovery, help them develop scientific reasoning skills, and provide them with fulfilling experiences of truly understanding science concepts. This will be done by employing active engagement techniques (e.g., peer tutoring, Socratic dialogue, and think/pair/share methods) and by challenging students to articulate their thoughts clearly and persuasively. This course could be of value for anybody wanting to enter the teaching profession or simply for anybody who would like to deepen their science understanding.

  8. A research-based child welfare employee selection protocol: strengthening retention of the workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J; Ellett, Chad D; Ellis, Jacquelyn; Lerner, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial implementation of a new employee selection protocol (ESP) for child welfare grounded in the results of recent large-scale employee retention studies and a set of research-based, minimally essential knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. The complete ESP consists of a sequenced set of Web- and site-based assessment processes and procedures for potential applicants. Using the ESP, applicants and employers make informed decisions about the goodness of fit between the applicant and the demands of a career in child welfare. To date, the new ESP has been piloted in three Georgia Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS) regions and implemented by all nine colleges and universities participating in IV-E child welfare education programs. Evaluation data collected from students and new employees in one DFCS region strongly support the value of the ESP Web-based activities to make a more informed decision about whether to apply for the IV-E stipends and child welfare positions. Feedback from trained ESP assessors supports the value of various ESP activities. A major goal of implementing the ESP is to select more professionally committed and highly qualified applicants to strengthen employee retention and outcomes for children and families.

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlie Genome Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Technological and methodological advances, in particular next-generation sequencing and chromatin profiling, has led to a deluge of data on epigenetic mechanisms and processes. Epigenetic regulation in the brain is no exception. In this commentary, Ehud Lamm writes that extending existing frameworks for thinking about psychological development to…

  10. NbIT--a new information theory-based analysis of allosteric mechanisms reveals residues that underlie function in the leucine transporter LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Michael V; Weinstein, Harel

    2014-05-01

    Complex networks of interacting residues and microdomains in the structures of biomolecular systems underlie the reliable propagation of information from an input signal, such as the concentration of a ligand, to sites that generate the appropriate output signal, such as enzymatic activity. This information transduction often carries the signal across relatively large distances at the molecular scale in a form of allostery that is essential for the physiological functions performed by biomolecules. While allosteric behaviors have been documented from experiments and computation, the mechanism of this form of allostery proved difficult to identify at the molecular level. Here, we introduce a novel analysis framework, called N-body Information Theory (NbIT) analysis, which is based on information theory and uses measures of configurational entropy in a biomolecular system to identify microdomains and individual residues that act as (i)-channels for long-distance information sharing between functional sites, and (ii)-coordinators that organize dynamics within functional sites. Application of the new method to molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of the occluded state of the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT identifies a channel of allosteric coupling between the functionally important intracellular gate and the substrate binding sites known to modulate it. NbIT analysis is shown also to differentiate residues involved primarily in stabilizing the functional sites, from those that contribute to allosteric couplings between sites. NbIT analysis of MD data thus reveals rigorous mechanistic elements of allostery underlying the dynamics of biomolecular systems.

  11. Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children With and Without Reading Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; Orosco, Michael J; Kudo, Milagros

    This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, WM, naming speed, and inhibition), vocabulary, and reading measures in Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Two important findings occurred: First, growth in the WM executive component was significantly related to growth in English word identification and passage comprehension when competing measures (phonological processing, naming speed, inhibition, and fluid intelligence) were entered into the multilevel growth model. Second, children defined as at risk for RD in Wave 1 had lower intercepts than children not at risk at Wave 3 across several measures of cognition, language, and achievement. However, except on measures of the executive component of WM, no significant group differences in linear growth emerged. These findings suggest that growth in L2 reading was tied to growth in the executive system of WM.

  12. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  13. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents.

  14. Towards a model for research-based exhibition development using design-based research as a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Zachariassen, Maria; Thiel Sandholdt, Cathrina

    2018-01-01

    that facilitates an iterative research-based development process and that emphasises focusing on learning elements. We present a new model for developing research-based exhibitions and provide an accompanying analysis based on PULSE, a four-year project involving the development of a health promotion exhibition......This paper argues that a higher level of research activity is necessary at all levels in the creation of science centre exhibitions. Science centres focus greatly on their role as an informal learning space but rarely integrate learning theories or develop documented knowledge in their exhibition...... practices. A research-based approach can expand understanding of exhibitions as a media, encouraging a more systematised, theory-based and documented practice. This premise forms the basis for creating a model for collaboration between research and exhibition development in a science centre context...

  15. Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

    connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

  16. ELT RESEARCH PAPERS AS AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN TEACHING RESEARCH-BASED ARTICLE WRITING: A CASE IN INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are strong shreds of evidence that the choice of instructional materials has large effects on students’ achievement. This study was to assess the efficacy of using ELT research papers as authentic materials in teaching research-based article writing. This study was aimed at revealing whether or not there is a significant difference in students’ writing skill in terms of ELT research paper writing between the students who were taught by using ELT research papers as authentic materials and those who were taught by using textbook materials provided by the faculty. This study belongs to a quasi-experimental study with an experimental and control group pretest-posttest design. The population of this study was 75 students from the fourth semester of English Education Study Program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. The sample was selected through cluster random sampling and consisted of 50 students that were divided into two groups. The instrument used to collect the data was a writing test. Consequently, normality and homogeneity of the data were tested. A t-test was used to compare the mean of the two groups. The hypothesis was designed and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in students’ academic writing skill between the students who were taught by using the ELT research papers as authentic materials and those who were taught by using textbook materials. The t-test revealed that t-value is higher than t-table (6.07>2.01. Therefore it is concluded that the authentic instructional materials could significantly improve students’ academic writing skill.

  17. Research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: revealing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, S; Benzies, K; Serrett, K; Hayden, K A

    2007-07-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy can result in a continuum of effects including growth deficits, dysmorphology and/or complex patterns of behavioural and cognitive difficulties that influence an individual's functioning throughout their lifespan. We conducted a systematic review to identify research-based interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and areas for future study. We identified the substantive literature by searching 40 peer-reviewed and 23 grey literature databases, as well as reference lists. We hand-searched eight relevant journals, and undertook a systematic search of Internet sites and review of reports and documents received from key stakeholders. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality, and extracted data. Given the small number of studies that met all inclusion criteria, both experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included. Ten intervention studies were identified, of which three were experimental or quasi-experimental, and four were non-experimental. Despite multiple attempts, three studies (two in foreign languages and one unpublished) could not be acquired. A meta-analysis could not be undertaken because the included studies examined different interventions or outcomes. Interventions targeted in the included studies were as follows: (i) psychostimulant medications (methyphenidate, pemoline and dextroamphetamine); and (ii) Cognitive Control Therapy. The identified studies were limited by very small sample sizes and weak designs. There is limited scientific evidence upon which to draw recommendations regarding efficacious interventions for children and youth with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Clinicians, researchers, service providers, educators, policy makers, affected children and youth and their families, and others need to urgently collaborate to develop a comprehensive research agenda for this population.

  18. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  19. The Implementation of Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar Course in Biology Education Study Program of FKIP UMRAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, T.

    2018-04-01

    Biology Seminar is a course in Biology Education Study Program of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Maritim Raja Ali Haji (FKIP UMRAH) that requires students to have the ability to apply scientific attitudes, perform scientific writing and undertake scientific publications on a small scale. One of the learning strategies that can drive the achievement of learning outcomes in this course is Research-Based Learning. Research-Based Learning principles are considered in accordance with learning outcomes in Biology Seminar courses and generally in accordance with the purpose of higher education. On this basis, this article which is derived from a qualitative research aims at describing Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar course. Based on a case study research, it was known that Research-Based Learning on Biology Seminar courses is applied through: designing learning activities around contemporary research issues; teaching research methods, techniques and skills explicitly within program; drawing on personal research in designing and teaching courses; building small-scale research activities into undergraduate assignment; and infusing teaching with the values of researchers.

  20. Establishing a Common Language: The Meaning of Research-Based and Evidence-Based Programming (in the Human Sciences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Debra M.; Schainker, Lisa M.; Lockhart, Peggy; Yeh, Hsiu Chen

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and exploratory evaluation of a professional development series that addressed educators' knowledge and use of the terms "research-based" and "evidence-based" within Human Sciences Extension and Outreach at one university. Respondents to a follow-up survey were more likely…

  1. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  2. "Research-Based" and "Profession-Oriented" as Prominent Knowledge Discourses in Curriculum Restructuring of Professional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde W.

    2017-01-01

    This article questions what kind of actors become involved and analyzes what forms of knowledge are activated, when discourses such as "research-based" and "profession-oriented" become basic preconditions in national curriculum change processes in Norway. A "mapping" is conducted, comprised of actors and ideas, played…

  3. Angiogenic imbalance and diminished matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 underlie regional decreases in uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental growth in hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Carlos A; Chen, Juanjuan; Cui, Ning; Chiang, Charles L; Zhu, Minglin; Ren, Zongli; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Khalil, Raouf A

    2017-12-15

    Preeclampsia is a form of hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) with unclear mechanism. Generalized reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) could be an initiating event leading to uteroplacental ischemia, angiogenic imbalance, and HTN-Preg. Additional regional differences in uteroplacental blood flow could further affect the pregnancy outcome and increase the risk of preeclampsia in twin or multiple pregnancy, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. To test the hypothesis that regional differences in angiogenic balance and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) underlie regional uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental development, we compared fetal and placental growth, and placental and myoendometrial vascularization in the proximal, middle and distal regions of the uterus (in relation to the iliac bifurcation) in normal pregnant (Preg) and RUPP rats. Maternal blood pressure and plasma anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PIGF) ratio were higher, and average placentae number, placenta weight, litter size, and pup weight were less in RUPP than Preg rats. The placenta and pup number and weight were reduced, while the number and diameter of placental and adjacent myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activity were increased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was decreased in distal vs proximal uterus of Preg rats. In RUPP rats, the placenta and pup number and weight, the number and diameter of placental and myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and -9 levels/activity were decreased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was increased in distal vs proximal uterus. Treatment with sFlt-1 or RUPP placenta extract decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 in distal segments of Preg uterus, and treatment with PIGF or Preg placenta extract restored MMP levels in distal segments of RUPP uterus. Thus, in addition to the general reduction in placental and fetal growth during uteroplacental ischemia, localized angiogenic imbalance and diminished MMP-2

  4. Microhomology-mediated mechanisms underlie non-recurrent disease-causing microdeletions of the FOXL2 gene or its regulatory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Verdin

    Full Text Available Genomic disorders are often caused by recurrent copy number variations (CNVs, with nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR as the underlying mechanism. Recently, several microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms--such as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ, fork stalling and template switching (FoSTeS, microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR, serial replication slippage (SRS, and break-induced SRS (BISRS--were described in the etiology of non-recurrent CNVs in human disease. In addition, their formation may be stimulated by genomic architectural features. It is, however, largely unexplored to what extent these mechanisms contribute to rare, locus-specific pathogenic CNVs. Here, fine-mapping of 42 microdeletions of the FOXL2 locus, encompassing FOXL2 (32 or its regulatory domain (10, serves as a model for rare, locus-specific CNVs implicated in genetic disease. These deletions lead to blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES, a developmental condition affecting the eyelids and the ovary. For breakpoint mapping we used targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, quantitative PCR (qPCR, long-range PCR, and Sanger sequencing of the junction products. Microhomology, ranging from 1 bp to 66 bp, was found in 91.7% of 24 characterized breakpoint junctions, being significantly enriched in comparison with a random control sample. Our results show that microhomology-mediated repair mechanisms underlie at least 50% of these microdeletions. Moreover, genomic architectural features, like sequence motifs, non-B DNA conformations, and repetitive elements, were found in all breakpoint regions. In conclusion, the majority of these microdeletions result from microhomology-mediated mechanisms like MMEJ, FoSTeS, MMBIR, SRS, or BISRS. Moreover, we hypothesize that the genomic architecture might drive their formation by increasing the susceptibility for DNA breakage or promote replication fork stalling. Finally, our locus-centered study

  5. Barriers to the use of research-based instructional strategies: The influence of both individual and situational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Many proven research-based instructional strategies have been developed for introductory college-level physics. Significant efforts to disseminate these strategies have focused on convincing individual instructors to give up their traditional practices in favor of particular research-based practices. Yet evidence suggests that the findings of educational research are, at best, only marginally incorporated into typical introductory physics courses. In this paper we present partial results of an interview study designed to generate new ideas about why proven strategies are slow to integrate in mainstream instruction. Specifically we describe the results of open-ended interviews with five physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. We found that these instructors have conceptions about teaching and learning that are more compatible with educational research than with their self-described instructional practices. Instructors often blamed this discrepancy on situational factors that favor traditional instruction. A theoretical model is introduced to explain these findings.

  6. Generic advertising for fish: Results from a research-based campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    , and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N =641), significant determinants of consumption frequency were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, availabiity in shops and meal......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...... preparation skills lost their influence in the post-campaign survey (effective N = 523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect (mediated by intention to buy) influences on consumption frequency. Mean levels of intention to buy and consumption frequency were significantly higher after...

  7. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  8. "Met" Made Simple: Building Research-Based Teacher Evaluations. Issue Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Teacher Project, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Groundbreaking new findings from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project hold the potential to answer crucial questions about how to assess teachers' performance. For the past two years, MET researchers have conducted a research project of unprecedented scope, involving 3,000 teachers in six school…

  9. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  10. Research-Based Program Development: Refining the Service Model for a Geographic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, David J.; Lovorn, Carley

    2018-01-01

    Research conducted in 2013 identified the perceptions that K-12 teachers and administrators hold with respect to: (1) the perceived needs in education, (2) the professional audiences that are most important to reach, and (3) the service models that are most effective. The specific purpose of the research was to refine and improve the services that…

  11. Central Computer Science Concepts to Research-Based Teacher Training in Computer Science: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The significance of computer science for economics and society is undisputed. In particular, computer science is acknowledged to play a key role in schools (e.g., by opening multiple career paths). The provision of effective computer science education in schools is dependent on teachers who are able to properly represent the discipline and whose…

  12. The utilization of research-based information: Moving beyond communicating assessments of (climate) impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R.; Cohen, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    Societal impacts of changing environments include primary or direct effects (increased soil moisture, loss of life, crop and building damage etc.), secondary or indirect effects (displacement, illness) and, higher order or systemic effects (debt, loss of livelihood). Vulnerability to such events is constructed from: (1) the timing, magnitude, spatial extent, and duration of the physical hazard i.e. risk of occurrence; (2) exposure in regions of risk e.g. population, property; and, (3) factors that pre-condition the degree of impact and the capacity to respond and recover. The call for better articulated decision support and services components is rising on par with more traditional axes of assessments i.e. characterizing the integrated physical system and its social and environmental impacts. The expectation is that increasing the rate at which policy makers and resource managers acquire knowledge about environment-society interactions will result in improvements in the quality of public and private decisions (a decidedly idealized view). Much recent work has shown that this expectation is most difficult to meet when decision stakes are high, uncertainty is great, technologies are new, experience is limited, and there are unequal distributions of burdens and benefits. We review generalized frames of reference on the use of climate information identified in independent studies undertaken by the authors in different river basins of North America. As shown in these (and other) studies, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners (public and private) operate on different time-lines, use different languages, and most importantly respond to different problem definitions and accountability incentives. The process of communication is increasingly recognized to be complex, transactional, and heavily dependent on the potential user's pre-existing knowledge, beliefs and experiences. We outline differing approaches to risk communication and their associated assumptions

  13. [The Mie scattering lidar return signal denoising research based on EMD-DISPO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Kun; Ma, Xiao-Chang; Hua, Deng-Xin; Chen, Hao; Liu, Cai-Xuan

    2011-11-01

    Lidar echo signal is a typical non-steady-state, non-stationary signal, and difficult to be dealt with by the traditional filtering methods. As a new signal processing theory proposed in recent years, empirical mode decomposition method can adaptively divide the lidar echo signal into different intrinsic mode function (IMF) components according to different time scale, and noise mainly concentrates in the high-frequency component. However, when filtered with simply removing high frequency component, the useful signal will be possibly reduced. In the present paper, a new method which combines empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with Savitzky-Golay filter is proposed. With experiments, it is indicated that our approach not only removes the noise component effectively but also maintains the useful signal, then will improve the accuracy in the next phase of data processing.

  14. From research to practice: one organisational model for promoting research based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a framework used by the National Institute for Nursing in Oxford to integrate research, development and practice. With the increasing attention given to the topic of how research findings are implemented into clinical practice, it was felt important to share the challenges that have arisen in attempting to combine traditional research activities with more practice based development work. The emerging conceptual framework, structures and functions are described highlighting the variety of partnerships to be established in order to achieve the goal of integrating research into practice. While the underpinning principles of the framework--generating knowledge, implementing research into practice and evaluating the effectiveness of programmes--are not new, it is the way they have been combined within an organisational structure that could be helpful to others considering such a strategy. Both the strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed, a number of conclusions drawn as to its robustness and consideration given to its replication.

  15. Farzana's Journey: A Children's Book for Research-based, Educational Outreach in Remote Communities of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.; Hornberger, G. M.; Machado, M.

    2017-12-01

    Academics are encouraged to integrate their environmental research with education and societal outreach, but the methods of doing so can be transient and insubstantial. Here, we use a children's book to create a sustainable relationship with vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Farzana's Journey is a children's book based on current multidisciplinary Vanderbilt University research on the coupling and coevolution of the physical and human systems in coastal Bangladesh. Written, illustrated, and freely distributed in the Bengali-language, the book is a place-based tool to teach rural Bangladesh communities about the natural world and disseminate our scientific findings. The narrative follows a young girl, Farzana, who must walk a long distance to fetch her family's water. Her usual journey develops into an adventure as she meets a variety of animal characters, who relay a story about her ever-changing environment and the subsequent human adaptation. After exploring environmental topics, such as geomorphology, water availability, and climate, Farzana appreciates the uniqueness of her local environment and the adaptations of her ancestors and future generations. Through the development and distribution of the book, we encouraged dialogue, collaboration, and public outreach with scientists, artists, and students concerned with enhancing educational and social opportunity in rural communities. We also ensure a tangible tie through the book itself after the culmination of the research project. The book achieves the primary goal of sparking children's curiosity in the local environment, while also demonstrating an effective means for sustainable educational outreach with impoverished, remote communities.

  16. A recognition method research based on the heart sound texture map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhong Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Heart Sound recognition rate and reduce the recognition time, in this paper, we introduces a new method for Heart Sound pattern recognition by using Heart Sound Texture Map. Based on the Heart Sound model, we give the Heart Sound time-frequency diagram and the Heart Sound Texture Map definition, we study the structure of the Heart Sound Window Function principle and realization method, and then discusses how to use the Heart Sound Window Function and the Short-time Fourier Transform to obtain two-dimensional Heart Sound time-frequency diagram, propose corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map according to the characteristics of Heart Sound. The simulation results show that the Heart Sound Window Function compared with the traditional window function makes the first (S1 and the second (S2 Heart Sound texture clearer. And the corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map can significantly improve the recognition rate and reduce the expense, which is an effective Heart Sound recognition method.

  17. A method for high throughput bioelectrochemical research based on small scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Call, Douglas F.

    2011-07-01

    There is great interest in studying exoelectrogenic microorganisms, but existing methods can require expensive electrochemical equipment and specialized reactors. We developed a simple system for conducting high throughput bioelectrochemical research using multiple inexpensive microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) built with commercially available materials and operated using a single power source. MECs were small crimp top serum bottles (5mL) with a graphite plate anode (92m 2/m 3) and a cathode of stainless steel (SS) mesh (86m 2/m 3), graphite plate, SS wire, or platinum wire. The highest volumetric current density (240A/m 3, applied potential of 0.7V) was obtained using a SS mesh cathode and a wastewater inoculum (acetate electron donor). Parallel operated MECs (single power source) did not lead to differences in performance compared to non-parallel operated MECs, which can allow for high throughput reactor operation (>1000 reactors) using a single power supply. The utility of this method for cultivating exoelectrogenic microorganisms was demonstrated through comparison of buffer effects on pure (Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens) and mixed cultures. Mixed cultures produced current densities equal to or higher than pure cultures in the different media, and current densities for all cultures were higher using a 50mM phosphate buffer than a 30mM bicarbonate buffer. Only the mixed culture was capable of sustained current generation with a 200mM phosphate buffer. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this inexpensive method for conducting in-depth examinations of pure and mixed exoelectrogenic cultures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Research-based evidence in stroke rehabilitation: an investigation of its implementation by physiotherapists and occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Jones, Dorrie Lee; Lund, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is a multidimensional process that is designed to facilitate restoration of and/or adaptation to loss of functioning. The use of research-based evidence in informed decision-making is insufficient. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy constitute important contributions to rehabilitation. The study aim was to investigate characteristics of the implementation of research-based evidence in stroke rehabilitation by occupational therapists and physiotherapists, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a conceptual framework. A prospective cohort study, including all service levels within stroke rehabilitation. Consecutive patients with stroke admitted to a university hospital between May and December 2012 were enrolled by 13 therapists. Documentation of daily practice was collected from medical records. Analysis compared the therapists' documentation with the national clinical guidelines for physiotherapy and occupational therapy in the rehabilitation of adults with brain injury. The study included 131 patients. The therapists' praxis was seen to be in agreement with the majority of the national clinical guidelines. However, joint goal-setting and evaluation using standardized measures were seldom documented. Although the therapists recognize evidence-based practice as a framework for achieving quality in rehabilitation, findings suggest that they do not employ research-based evidence to the fullest extent. Implications for Rehabilitation In order to individualize the rehabilitation offered, more attention and focus on involving and giving words to patients' expectations, perceptions, experiences, and perspectives is needed. With the intention of enabling meaningful participation the health professionals need to pay more attention to the importance of environmental factors. Both guidelines and clinical practice should consider all components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and

  19. A Research-Based Science Teacher Education Program for a Competitive Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, R. M.; Hamil, B.; Beard, D. J.; Chevalier, D.; Dunne, J.; Saebo, S.

    2009-12-01

    A united commitment between the College of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences at Mississippi State University, in partnership with local high-need school districts, has the goal of increasing the number of highly qualified science teachers through authentic science research experiences. The departments of Geosciences, Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Physics offer undergraduate pre-service teachers laboratory experiences in science research laboratories, including 1) paleontological investigations of Cretaceous environments, 2) NMR studies of the conformation of tachykinin peptides, 3) FHA domains as regulators of cell signaling in plants, 4) intermediate energy nuclear physics studies, and 5) computational studies of cyclic ketene acetals. Coordinated by the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, these research experiences involve extensive laboratory training in which the pre-teacher participants matriculate through a superior education curriculum prior to administrating their individual classrooms. Participants gain valuable experience in 1) performing literature searches and reviews; 2) planning research projects; 3) recording data; 4) presenting laboratory results effectively; and 5) writing professional scientific manuscripts. The research experience is available to pre-service teachers who are science education majors with a declared second major in a science (i.e., geology, biology, physics, or chemistry). Students are employed part-time in various science university laboratories, with work schedules arranged around their individual course loads. While the focus of this endeavor is upon undergraduate pre-service teachers, the researchers also target practicing science teachers from the local high-need school districts. A summer workshop provides practicing science teachers with a summative laboratory experience in several scientific disciplines. Practicing teachers also are provided lesson plans and ideas to transform their classrooms into

  20. Research based teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jakob; Tofteskov, Jens

     Spørgsmålet i denne artikel drejer sig om, hvordan man kan kombinere teori og praksis, når undervisningen drejer sig om matematisk kommunikation og refleksion. Hovedformålet er at afklare relationen mellem forskning og undervisning. Hvad vil det sige at en undervisning er forskningsbaseret? Hvor...

  1. Using a Research-based Approach to Transform Upper-division Courses in Classical and Quantum Mechanics and E&M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steven

    2013-04-01

    At most universities, including the University of Colorado, upper-division physics courses are taught using a traditional lecture approach that does not make use of many of the instructional techniques that have been found to improve student learning at the introductory level. We are transforming several upper-division courses using principles of active engagement and learning theory, guided by the results of observations, interviews, and analysis of student work at CU and elsewhere. In this talk I outline these transformations, including the development of faculty consensus learning goals, clicker questions, tutorials, modified homeworks, and more. We present evidence of the effectiveness of these transformations relative to traditional courses, based on student grades, interviews, and through research-based assessments of student conceptual mastery and student attitudes. Our results suggest that many of the tools that have been effective in introductory courses are effective for our majors, and that further research is warranted in the upper-division environment. (See www.colorado.edu/sei/departments/physics.htm for materials)

  2. Curriculum development in studio-style university physics and implications for dissemination of research-based reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen T. Foote

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that students learn best in engaging, interactive, collaborative, and inquiry-based environments. However, most college science classes are still taught with traditional methods suggesting the existing selection of research-based instructional materials has not widely transformed undergraduate education. SCALE-UP is a renovated pedagogy and classroom environment that has achieved a greater impact than most, used extensively throughout the United States and abroad. SCALE-UP is not a simple collection of lesson plans or a textbook that can be easily adopted, and instead instructors are encouraged to customize main pedagogical principles to their unique instructional situation. This flexibility along with promotion of instructor autonomy may have assisted its spread. This paper uses case studies of five successful secondary implementations in the United States to examine how instructors gather information about reform, create a curriculum, and achieve sustained use. Many people learned about research-based resources that formed the composite of their curricula through interpersonal connections. Time constraints and misunderstandings between developers and instructors limited which resources were chosen and how they were used. Once instructors created a “working form” of the curriculum, three out of five instructors did not make significant changes. This could lead to the preservation of a more conservative curriculum. Implications include that disseminators should articulate core principles of the reform that should be retained to uphold the integrity of the reform as well as the areas where adopters have flexibility to innovate. Strategically involving other secondary users in the dissemination process could facilitate important interpersonal exchanges that could provide an additional layer of support for faculty.

  3. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3-6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. © 2014 A. Eeds et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Curriculum development in studio-style university physics and implications for dissemination of research-based reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kathleen T.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that students learn best in engaging, interactive, collaborative, and inquiry-based environments. However, most college science classes are still taught with traditional methods suggesting the existing selection of research-based instructional materials has not widely transformed undergraduate education. SCALE-UP is a renovated pedagogy and classroom environment that has achieved a greater impact than most, used extensively throughout the United States and abroad. SCALE-UP is not a simple collection of lesson plans or a textbook that can be easily adopted, and instead instructors are encouraged to customize main pedagogical principles to their unique instructional situation. This flexibility along with promotion of instructor autonomy may have assisted its spread. This paper uses case studies of five successful secondary implementations in the United States to examine how instructors gather information about reform, create a curriculum, and achieve sustained use. Many people learned about research-based resources that formed the composite of their curricula through interpersonal connections. Time constraints and misunderstandings between developers and instructors limited which resources were chosen and how they were used. Once instructors created a "working form" of the curriculum, three out of five instructors did not make significant changes. This could lead to the preservation of a more conservative curriculum. Implications include that disseminators should articulate core principles of the reform that should be retained to uphold the integrity of the reform as well as the areas where adopters have flexibility to innovate. Strategically involving other secondary users in the dissemination process could facilitate important interpersonal exchanges that could provide an additional layer of support for faculty.

  5. Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Underlie a Tradeoff between Semantic and Structural Processing Difficulty during Language Comprehension: An ERP Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert E.; Oines, Leif; Miyake, Akira

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the processes reflected in the widely observed N400 and P600 event-related potential (ERP) effects and tested the hypothesis that the N400 and P600 effects are functionally linked in a tradeoff relationship, constrained in part by individual differences in cognitive ability. Sixty participants read sentences, and ERP…

  6. Developing a User-Centred Planning Tool for Young Adults with Development Disorders: A Research-Based Teaching Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribu, Kirsten; Patel, Tulpesh

    2016-01-01

    People with development disorders, for instance autism, need structured plans to help create predictability in their daily lives. Digital plans can facilitate enhanced independency, learning, and quality of life, but existing apps are largely general purpose and lack the flexibility required by this specific but heterogeneous user group. Universal design is both a goal and a process and should be based on a holistic approach and user-centered design, interacting with the users in all stages of the development process. At Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) we conducted a research-based teaching project in co-operation with the Department of Neuro-habilitation at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) with two employees acting as project managers and students as developers. Three groups of Computer Science bachelor students developed digital prototypes for a planning tool for young adults with pervasive development disorders, who live either with their families or in supervised residences, and do not receive extensive public services. The students conducted the initial planning phase of the software development process, focusing on prototyping the system requirements, whilst a professional software company programmed the end solution. The goal of the project was to develop flexible and adaptive user-oriented and user-specific app solutions for tablets that can aid this diverse user group in structuring daily life, whereby, for example, photos of objects and places known to the individual user replace general pictures or drawings, and checklists can be elaborate or sparse as necessary. The three student groups worked independently of each other and created interactive working prototypes based on tests, observations and short interviews with end users (both administrators and residents) and regular user feedback from the project managers. Three very different solutions were developed that were of high enough quality that an external software company were able to

  7. THE EXPERIENCE AND OPPORTUNITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH-BASED ACADEMIC EDUCATION AT TRADE CO-OPERATIVE UNIVERSITY OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa SAVGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Strategy and Lisbon 2010+ proposed to transform the EU economy in the most competitive and dynamic one, based on knowledge and capable of an economic and sustainable increase, with better jobs and an increased social cohesion. The Consumer Co-operation of the Republic of Moldova proposed itself a similar objective – to become a durable, competitive and efficient sector of the national economy and to recover its previous position. Consumer Co-operatives of the Republic of Moldova have their own educational system with its own education institution, which offers educational and professional development programs in the field of co-operation. University researchers continuously monitor co-operative development problems and provide solutions for the improvement of co-operative activity. In this paper, we will present several aspects of our experience in implementing research-based education at our University, focusing on the mission and on the image of co-operative system of our country.

  8. The Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Introductory Physics: Where do Faculty Leave the Innovation-Decision Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Niewiadomska-Bugaj, Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    During the Fall of 2008 a web survey was completed by a representative sample of 722 United States physics faculty. In this talk we will briefly present summary statistics to describe faculty knowledge about and use of 24 specific research-based instructional strategies (RBIS). We will then analyze the results based on a four stage model of the innovation-decision process: knowledge, trial, continuation, and high use. The largest losses occur at the continuation stage, with approximately 1/3 of faculty discontinuing use of all RBIS after trying one or more of these strategies. These results suggest that common dissemination strategies are good at creating knowledge about RBIS and motivation to try a RBIS, but more work is needed to support faculty during implementation and continued use of RBIS. Based on a logistic regression analysis, only nine of the 20 potential predictor variables measured were statistically significant when controlling for other variables. Faculty age, institutional type, and percentage of job related to teaching were not found to be correlated with knowledge or use at any stage. High research productivity and large class sizes were not found to be barriers to use of at least some RBIS. Supported by NSF #0715698.

  9. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term mechanisms of toxic action of airborne particulates underlie dose-rate dependent health risks and support control of one-hour airborne particle levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, R.A.; Kleinman, M.T.

    1999-07-01

    Twenty-four-hour airborne particle mass levels permissible under the NAAQS have been associated with mortality and morbidity in communities, motivating reconsideration of the standard. Reports of shorter-term mechanisms of toxic action exerted by airborne PM and PM constituents are emerging. The mechanisms are diverse, but have in common a short time frame of toxic action, from minutes to hours. In view of documented PM excursions also lasting minutes to hours, this study inquires whether such short-term mechanisms might contribute to explaining daily morbidity and mortality. Toxicology experiments have demonstrated the harmfulness of brief exposure to PM levels in the range of observed excursions. This suggests that toxicological processes initiated by short-term inhalation of PM may exert clinically important effects, and that weak associations of 24-hour-average particle mass with mortality and morbidity may represent artifacts of stronger, shorter-term associations whose full magnitude remains to be quantified. In one study, the area of lung surface developing lesions was elevated in rats breathing the same four-hour dose of aerosols, when the four-hour average rate of aerosol delivery included a short-term (five-minute) burst fifty percent above the average dose rate. Elevations were observed with each of two aerosols tested. The magnitude of the effect was higher with one of the two aerosols, whose dose rate included four excursions rather than just one excursion. Particulate matter inhaled or instilled intratracheally has produced morbidity in animals, including apnea and electrophysiological effects in dogs. Other studies reveal that PM can kill rats via electrophysiological and possibly other mechanisms. PM has also adversely affected asthmatic people in controlled clinical settings during exercise or, in one study, at rest.

  11. KLIMA 2050: a research-based innovation centre for risk reduction through climate adaptation of infrastructure and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Anders; Time, Berit; Kvande, Tore; Sivertsen, Edvard; Cepeda, Jose; Lappegard Hauge, Åshild; Bygballe, Lena; Almås, Anders-Johan

    2016-04-01

    Klima 2050 - Risk reduction through climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a Centre for Research based Innovation (SFI), funded jointly by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and the partners of the centre. The aim of Klima 2050 is to reduce the societal risks associated with climate changes, including enhanced precipitation and flood water exposure within the built environment. The Centre will strengthen companies' innovation capacity through a focus on long-term research. It is also a clear objective to facilitate close cooperation between Research & Development, performing companies, public entities, and prominent research groups. Emphasis will be placed on development of moisture-resilient buildings, storm-water management, blue-green solutions, mitigation measures for water-triggered landslides, socio-economic incentives and decision-making processes. Both extreme weather and gradual climatic changes will be addressed. The Centre consists of a consortium of 18 partners from three sectors: industry, public entities and research/education organizations. The partners from the industry/private sector include a variety of companies from the building industry. The public entities comprise the most important infrastructure owners in Norway (public roads, railroads, buildings, airports), as well as the directorate for water and energy. The research and education partners are SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, the Norwegian Business School, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. This contribution presents the main research plans and activities of this Centre, which was started in 2015 and will run for 8 years, until 2023. The presentation also includes options for international cooperation in the Centre via PhD and postdoctoral positions, MSc projects and guest-researcher stays with Klima 2050 partners.

  12. Climate Literacy Through Learning-by-Doing: Engaging Communities in the Production of Accessible Research-Based Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, M.; Charriere, M. K. M.; Bolduc, C.

    2016-12-01

    This talk presents a case of a learning-by-doing approach used by the Climanosco organisation to produce research-based information written in a language accessible to a large public. In this model, engagement (the "doing") of members of the general public, alongside climate scientists, is fostered at various levels of this production of knowledge. In particular, this engagement plays a key role in our extended peer-review process as non-scientific referees are requested to review the accessibility of manuscripts for a large public. Members of the general public also participate to the scientific inquiry by inviting scientists to write on a particular topic or by co-authoring articles. Importantly, their participation, side-by-side with climate scientists, allows them to naturally raise their climate literacy (the "learning"). This model was tested in the context of a scientific challenge organised for the launch of Climanosco where climate scientists were invited to re-frame their research for the general public. This competition started in the fall 2015 and is due to end in September 2016. It led to 11 published articles and engaged the participation of 24 members of the general public. Six non-scientists participated to the jury alongside six climate scientists and evaluated the 11 articles. Their perceived increase in climate knowledge, as evaluated though a survey, will be presented in this talk. One important challenge now is to evaluate the potential of this model to support the teaching of climate sciences at schools. For that purpose, we are starting a dialog with various teachers in several countries. Progresses on this side will also be discussed in this talk.

  13. The Capacity Development of Non-Profit Organizations in the Growth Stage (An Action Research Based on the SSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Nenobais

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable.  Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.

  14. Use of research-based instructional strategies in introductory physics: Where do faculty leave the innovation-decision process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the fall of 2008 a web survey, designed to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices, was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (50.3% response rate. This paper presents partial results to describe how 20 potential predictor variables correlate with faculty knowledge about and use of research-based instructional strategies (RBIS. The innovation-decision process was conceived of in terms of four stages: knowledge versus no knowledge, trial versus no trial, continuation versus discontinuation, and high versus low use. The largest losses occur at the continuation stage, with approximately 1/3 of faculty discontinuing use of all RBIS after trying one or more of these strategies. Nine of the predictor variables were statistically significant for at least one of these stages when controlling for other variables. Knowledge and/or use of RBIS are significantly correlated with reading teaching-related journals, attending talks and workshops related to teaching, attending the physics and astronomy new faculty workshop, having an interest in using more RBIS, being female, being satisfied with meeting instructional goals, and having a permanent, full-time position. The types of variables that are significant at each stage vary substantially. These results suggest that common dissemination strategies are good at creating knowledge about RBIS and motivation to try a RBIS, but more work is needed to support faculty during implementation and continued use of RBIS. Also, contrary to common assumptions, faculty age, institutional type, and percentage of job related to teaching were not found to be barriers to knowledge or use at any stage. High research productivity and large class sizes were not found to be barriers to use of at least some RBIS.

  15. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-10-01

    Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality. This finding accords well with other epidemiology correlating relatively high protein intakes with lower risk for loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly. Increased efficiency of protein translation reflecting increased leucine intake and consequent greater mTORC1 activity may play a role in this effect; however, at present there is little solid evidence that leucine supplementation provides important long-term benefits to the elderly. Aside from its potential pro-anabolic impact, higher dietary protein intakes may protect the elderly in another way-by providing increased amino acid substrate for synthesis of key protective factors. There is growing evidence, in both rodents and humans, that glutathione synthesis declines with increasing age, likely reflecting diminished function of Nrf2-dependent inductive mechanisms that boost expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis. Intracellular glutathione blunts the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell health and functions both by acting as an oxidant scavenger and by opposing the pro-inflammatory influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling. Fortunately, since GCL's K m for cysteine is close to intracellular cysteine levels, increased intakes of cysteine-achieved from whole proteins or via supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-can achieve a

  16. RNA Sequencing Reveals that Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Disruption of Membrane Integrity Underlie Dimethyl Trisulfide Toxicity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunwu Zuo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of banana, a destructive disease that affects banana production, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4. In a previous study, we confirmed the strong inhibitory effects of Chinese leek (Allium tuberosum on the incidence of this disease. Sulfur compounds are the primary antifungal constituents of Chinese leek. Among these, dimethyl trisulfide (DT was the most abundant and exhibited the strongest inhibition of Foc TR4 growth and development. In the present study, the global gene expression profiles of Foc TR4 isolates treated with DT at 4,000-folds dilution (concentration of 1/4,000, v/v for 1.5, 6, and 12 h were investigated by using RNA sequencing. The expression patterns of 15 DEGs were validated based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR assay. Untreated sample presented 2,556, 1,691, and 1,150 differentially expressed genes (DEGs at 1.5, 6, and 12 h after the onset of the experiment, respectively, whereas DT-treated isolates presented 2,823, 3,546, and 6,197 DEGs. Based on Gene Ontology (GO annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis, DEGs involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, glycosylation, and steroid biosynthesis were significantly inhibited by DT exposure. The similar expressional patterns of 15 DEGs between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR assays indicated the reliability of the RNA-seq data. In conclusion, ER stress related to glycosylation inhibition and damage to cell membrane integrity might contribute to the toxicity of DT against Foc TR4. As the results presented here evidenced changes in gene expression associated with DT exposure, which might be used to develop new approaches for controlling FWB.

  17. Grief, Anger, and Relationality: The Impact of a Research-Based Theater Intervention on Emotion Work Practices in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Pia; Miller, Karen-Lee; Colantonio, Angela; Cott, Cheryl

    2014-02-01

    Therapeutic emotion work is performed by health care providers as they manage their own feelings as well as those of colleagues and patients as part of efforts to improve the physical and psychosocial health outcomes of patients. It has yet to be examined within the context of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. To evaluate the impact of a research-based theater intervention on emotion work practices of neurorehabilitation staff. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 12 months postintervention in the inpatient neurorehabilitation units of two rehabilitation hospitals in central urban Canada. Participants (N = 33) were recruited from nursing, psychology, allied health, recreational therapy, and chaplaincy. Naturalistic observations (N = 204.5 hr) of a range of structured and unstructured activities in public and private areas, and semistructured interviews (N = 87) were conducted. Preintervention analysis indicated emotion work practices were characterized by stringent self-management of empathy, suppression of client grief, adeptness with client anger, and discomfort with reactions of family and spouses. Postintervention analysis indicated significant staff changes in a relationality orientation, specifically improvements in outreach to homosexual and heterosexual family care partners, and support for sexual orientation and intimacy expression. No improvements were demonstrated in grief support. Emotion work has yet to be the focus of initiatives to improve neurorehabilitative care. Our findings suggest the dramatic arts are well positioned to improve therapeutic emotion work and effect cultures of best practice. Recommendations are made for interprofessional educational initiatives to improve responses to client grief and potential intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. How Static Is the Statics Classroom? An Investigation into How Innovations, Specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, Are Adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…

  19. Research-Based Learning for Undergraduate Students in Soil and Water Sciences: A Case Study of Hydropedology in an Arid-Zone Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Ismaily, Said; Kacimov, Anvar

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the efficacy of a research-based learning (RBL) exercise on hydropedology of arid zones, with guided and open research projects (OPR) carried out by teams of undergraduate students in Oman. A range of activities and assessments was used to support student learning during the three-month course. Assessment included monitoring…

  20. Evaluation of Parallel Authentic Research-Based Courses in Human Biology on Student Experiences at Stanford University and the University of Gothenburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Jacob; Annerstedt, Claes; Besier, Thor; Matheson, Gordon O.; Rydmark, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Under a previous grant (2005-08), researchers and teachers at Stanford University (SU) and the University of Gothenburg (GU) co-designed a ten-week interdisciplinary, research-based laboratory course in human biology to be taught online to undergraduate students. Essentials in the subject were taught during the first four weeks of this course.…

  1. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  2. Professional development of teachers using a research based approach to clarify their challenges in multicultural classrooms: a case study of Dutch senior secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry den Brok; dr.ir. Quinta Kools; Kennedy Tielman

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a descriptive study on regarding the use of a research-based approach by teachers to clarify problems they encountered in multicultural classrooms. It analyses the outcomes of a training in which seven teachers from a Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education school

  3. Drawing/Writing: A Brain Research-Based Writing Program Designed to Develop Descriptive, Analytical and Inferential Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan Rich

    1990-01-01

    The research and the study focus on the problem of dissociated learning. Why do students fail to connect with knowledge? The purposes of the study are: to summarize research pertaining to brain growth; to describe educational approaches and tactics consistent with this research; to test a brain research-based program designed to connect children…

  4. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J.; Williams, Frances M. K.

    Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n = 8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry

  5. Do convergent developmental mechanisms underlie convergent phenotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Convergence is a pervasive evolutionary process, affecting many aspects of phenotype and even genotype. Relatively little is known about convergence in developmental processes, however, nor about the degree to which convergence in development underlies convergence in anatomy. A switch in the ecology of sea urchins from feeding to nonfeeding larvae illustrates how convergence in development can be associated with convergence in anatomy. Comparisons to more distantly related taxa, however, suggest that this association may be limited to relatively close phylogenetic comparisons. Similarities in gene expression during development provide another window into the association between convergence in developmental processes and convergence in anatomy. Several well-studied transcription factors exhibit likely cases of convergent gene expression in distantly related animal phyla. Convergence in regulatory gene expression domains is probably more common than generally acknowledged, and can arise for several different reasons. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Self-reported facilitators of, and impediments to maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviours following a supervised research-based lifestyle intervention programme in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, T P; Mohr, P; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M; Brinkworth, G D

    2012-05-01

    Sustainability of healthy lifestyle behaviours following participation in a research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme is often poor. This study aimed to document factors reported by overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes as enhancing or impeding sustainability of lifestyle behaviours following participation in such a programme. Thirty patients who completed a 16-week research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme, incorporating a structured energy restricted diet with or without supervised resistance-exercise training underwent a semi-structured qualitative interview about their experiences in maintaining programme components after 1 year. Participants maintained 8.8 ± 8.9 kg of the 13.9 ± 6.6 kg weight loss achieved with the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme. Only 23% of participants indicated continuation of the complete diet programme. Desire for 'variety' (33%) and increased portion size (27%) were the most commonly reported reasons for discontinuation. Participants who undertook supervised exercise training during the programme indicated access to appropriate programmes/facilities (38%), more affordable gym membership (21%) and having a personal trainer/motivator (17%) would have facilitated exercise continuation. In overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes, success of the research-based supervised lifestyle intervention programme was perceived as being primarily due to high levels of professional support and supervision, the discontinuation of which subsequently presented difficulties. The interview data provide insight into what people experience following the completion of a research-based intensive lifestyle intervention programme and suggest that programmes assembled for research purposes with the emphasis on compliance may not necessarily promote sustainable change. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  7. Motor and extra-motor gray matter integrity may underlie neurophysiologic parameters of motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a combined voxel-based morphometry and transcranial stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Velonakis, Georgios; Rentzos, Michail; Zambelis, Thomas; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Xirou, Sophia; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-07

    The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density. We also conducted regression analysis to examine correlations between GM density and the following TMS parameters: motor evoked potential (MEP)/M ratio and central motor conduction time (CMCT). We found significantly decreased GM density in ALS patients in several frontal, temporal, parietal/occipital and cerebellar regions (p motor area (negative association). CMCT was associated with GM density in (a) inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulated gyrus (positive association) and (b) superior parietal lobule; cuneus and cerebellum (negative association). Our findings support a significant interaction between motor and extra-motor structural and functional changes and highlight that motor and extra-motor GM integrity may underlie TMS parameters of motor function in ALS patients.

  8. Designing strategies to implement research-based policies and procedures: a set of recommendations for nurse leaders based on the PARiHS framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Reay, Trish; Moralejo, Donna; Lefort, Sandra M; Hutchinson, Alison M; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2012-05-01

    Organizational policies and procedures are one vehicle for translating research into nursing practice and improving quality and patient and organizational outcomes. However, their existence alone is not sufficient to ensure use. In this article, we describe the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and how nurse leaders can use the framework to support the implementation of research-based policies and procedures.

  9. Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: Future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Monz; David N. Cole; Yu-Fai Leung; Jeffrey L. Marion

    2009-01-01

    Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological...

  10. Sustaining visitor use in protected areas: Future opportunities in recreation ecology research based on the USA experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monz, Christopher A.; Cole, David N.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Recreation ecology, the study of environmental consequences of outdoor recreation activities and their effective management, is a relatively new field of scientific study having emerged over the last 50 years. During this time, numerous studies have improved our understanding of how use-related, environmental and managerial factors affect ecological conditions and processes. Most studies have focused on vegetation and soil responses to recreation-related trampling on trails and recreation sites using indicators such as percent vegetation cover and exposed mineral soil. This applied approach has and will continue to yield important information for land managers. However, for the field to advance, more attention needs to be given to other ecosystem attributes and to the larger aspects of environmental conservation occurring at landscape scales. This article is an effort at initiating a dialog on needed advances in the field. We begin by reviewing broadly generalizable knowledge of recreation ecology, to separate what is known from research gaps. Then, based on the authors’ perspective of research in the USA and North America, several research directions are suggested as essential for continued progress in this field including theoretical development, broadening scale, integration with other disciplines, and examination of synergistic effects.

  11. Tracing the scientific outputs in the field of Ebola research based on publications in the Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fengyun; Yang, Pin; Sheng, Huifeng

    2016-04-15

    Ebola virus disease (hereafter EVD or Ebola) has a high fatality rate. The devastating effects of the current epidemic of Ebola in West Africa have put the global health response in acute focus. In response, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". A small proportion of scientific literature is dedicated to Ebola research. To identify global research trends in Ebola research, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science™ database was used to search for data, which encompassed original articles published from 1900 to 2013. The keyword "Ebola" was used to identify articles for the purposes of this review. In order to include all published items, the database was searched using the Basic Search method. The earliest record of literature about Ebola indexed in the Web of Science is from 1977. A total of 2477 publications on Ebola, published between 1977 and 2014 (with the number of publications increasing annually), were retrieved from the database. Original research articles (n = 1623, 65.5%) were the most common type of publication. Almost all (96.5%) of the literature in this field was in English. The USA had the highest scientific output and greatest number of funding agencies. Journal of Virology published 239 papers on Ebola, followed by Journal of Infectious Diseases and Virology, which published 113 and 99 papers, respectively. A total of 1911 papers on Ebola were cited 61,477 times. This analysis identified the current state of research and trends in studies about Ebola between 1977 and 2014. Our bibliometric analysis provides a historical perspective on the progress in Ebola research.

  12. An organizational framework and strategic implementation for system-level change to enhance research-based practice: QUERI Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; McQueen, Lynn; Demakis, John; Mittman, Brian S

    2008-05-29

    The continuing gap between available evidence and current practice in health care reinforces the need for more effective solutions, in particular related to organizational context. Considerable advances have been made within the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA) in systematically implementing evidence into practice. These advances have been achieved through a system-level program focused on collaboration and partnerships among policy makers, clinicians, and researchers. The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) was created to generate research-driven initiatives that directly enhance health care quality within the VA and, simultaneously, contribute to the field of implementation science. This paradigm-shifting effort provided a natural laboratory for exploring organizational change processes. This article describes the underlying change framework and implementation strategy used to operationalize QUERI. QUERI used an evidence-based organizational framework focused on three contextual elements: 1) cultural norms and values, in this case related to the role of health services researchers in evidence-based quality improvement; 2) capacity, in this case among researchers and key partners to engage in implementation research; 3) and supportive infrastructures to reinforce expectations for change and to sustain new behaviors as part of the norm. As part of a QUERI Series in Implementation Science, this article describes the framework's application in an innovative integration of health services research, policy, and clinical care delivery. QUERI's experience and success provide a case study in organizational change. It demonstrates that progress requires a strategic, systems-based effort. QUERI's evidence-based initiative involved a deliberate cultural shift, requiring ongoing commitment in multiple forms and at multiple levels. VA's commitment to QUERI came in the form of visionary leadership, targeted allocation of resources, infrastructure refinements

  13. An organizational framework and strategic implementation for system-level change to enhance research-based practice: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittman Brian S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuing gap between available evidence and current practice in health care reinforces the need for more effective solutions, in particular related to organizational context. Considerable advances have been made within the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA in systematically implementing evidence into practice. These advances have been achieved through a system-level program focused on collaboration and partnerships among policy makers, clinicians, and researchers. The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI was created to generate research-driven initiatives that directly enhance health care quality within the VA and, simultaneously, contribute to the field of implementation science. This paradigm-shifting effort provided a natural laboratory for exploring organizational change processes. This article describes the underlying change framework and implementation strategy used to operationalize QUERI. Strategic approach to organizational change QUERI used an evidence-based organizational framework focused on three contextual elements: 1 cultural norms and values, in this case related to the role of health services researchers in evidence-based quality improvement; 2 capacity, in this case among researchers and key partners to engage in implementation research; 3 and supportive infrastructures to reinforce expectations for change and to sustain new behaviors as part of the norm. As part of a QUERI Series in Implementation Science, this article describes the framework's application in an innovative integration of health services research, policy, and clinical care delivery. Conclusion QUERI's experience and success provide a case study in organizational change. It demonstrates that progress requires a strategic, systems-based effort. QUERI's evidence-based initiative involved a deliberate cultural shift, requiring ongoing commitment in multiple forms and at multiple levels. VA's commitment to QUERI came in the

  14. Exploring the possibilities for radical pair effects in cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Chandler, Danielle E.; Schulten, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The ability of some animals to sense magnetic fields has long captured the human imagination. In our recent paper, we explored how radical pair effects in the protein cryptochrome may underlie the magnetic orientation sense of migratory birds. Here we explain our model and discuss its relationship...

  15. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  16. Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Clara

    2006-01-01

    School library media specialists have four primary responsibilities: teacher, instructional partner, information specialist, and program administrator. As instructional partners, school library media specialists collaborate in designing instruction and learning activities that "reflect the best in current research and practice." Researchers at the…

  17. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  18. Results of a survey on applied quality standards in non-interventional studies among the members of the German Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Ruppert, Thorsten; Bethke, Thomas D.; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    After the regulatory approval has been obtained, epidemiological studies are acknowledged scientific medical research methods for a new drug which provide additional knowledge about routine application of the drug in clinical daily routine. These studies are performed according to the recommendations of both international and national expert associations, the recommendations of the higher federal authorities in Germany and according to the recommendations of the associations of the pharmaceutical industry. Two surveys among the member companies of the Association of Research-based Pharmaceutical Companies investigated the status of the implementation of the recommendations in the years 2008 and 2010 and compared the results with each other. It could be shown that these recommendations were implemented successfully and were fully adhered to during the conduct of non-interventional studies in Germany. The recommendations define a quality standard which justifies a high level of confidence in the validity of the data collected and the results from these investigations. PMID:21063466

  19. Increasing Skills in Writing Literature Study on Research-Based Learning Through Authentical Assessment Lecturing in Innovation Class of Social Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Sulistya Wardani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether the improvement of literature review skills on research-based learning can be pursued through the authentic assessment of the lectures of the Innovation of Learning IPS of PGSD students. This type of research is a classroom action research, using a spiral model of C. Kemmis and Robin Mc. Taggart. The research procedure uses 2 cycles, each cycle consists of 3 stages namely, 1 action planning 2 implementation of action and observation, 3 reflection. The subjects of the study were all students of PGSD Class 2014 E of the subjects of Innovation of IPS Learning as much as 27 students consisting of 7 male students and 20 female students. Data collection techniques use observation and product assessment. Data analysis technique is a percentage technique that compares literacy review writing skills through authentic assessment in IPS lectures between cycles. The result of the research shows that there is an improvement of writing skill of study lecture study of IPS learning innovation, which is pursued through authentic assessment. This is evident from the improvement of writing skills worthy of achievement from cycle 1 to cycle 2 ie from 62.14% of 27 students increased to 72.60% of all students in cycle 2. Writing skills in research-based learning is a skill to express the idea of the problem , Organizing facts, concepts and principles, use of EYD grammar and grammar. Authentic assessment is an assessment consisting of connection aspects, reflection aspects, and feedback aspects

  20. How To Make Effective Presentations. Survival Skills for Scholars, Volume 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Elizabeth P.

    This guide for scholars presents a step-by-step process for planning and delivering an effective presentation. Chapter 1 discusses the four principles that underlie all presentations: (1) responsibility to the audience; (2) making conscious decisions about what to present; (3) making decisions before, during, and after the presentation; and (4)…

  1. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  2. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, D.; Flynn, D.F.B.; Deyn, de G.B.; Petermann, J.S.; Schmid, B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally-observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. However, little is

  3. The Homophone Effect in Written French: The Case of Verb-Noun Inflection Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largy, Pierre; Fayol, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the production of homophone confusions in writing. The article overviews five experiments demonstrating that the homophone effect can be experimentally induced in French adults. Findings are interpreted in the framework of an activation model. (45 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Effects of Phonological Abilities and Linguistic Comprehension on the Development of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2002-01-01

    Examines specific effects of phonological abilities and linguistic comprehension on the development of word-decoding ability and reading comprehension, respectively, of 141 Dutch children from the end of first grade to the end of third grade. Finds that partly different determinants underlie the development of word-decoding ability and reading…

  5. Using a Molecular-Genetic Approach to Investigate Bacterial Physiology in a Continuous, Research-Based, Semester-Long Laboratory for Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Foster Ault

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing investigative laboratory exercises that encourage critical thinking, problem solving, and independent thought for upper-division biology courses is a difficult but worthwhile task. In an effort to do so, we developed a semester-long, continuous, research-based investigative laboratory that integrates numerous genetic and molecular biology methods into the investigation of a bacterial physiological process. In this lab, students use random Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to create prodigiosin pigment mutants in the bacterium, Serratia marcescens. This is followed by phenotypic characterization, cloning, and sequencing the Tn insertion site to identify genes involved in pigment biosynthesis. During this lab, students gain ample experience performing basic lab techniques while learning about — and applying — methods for elucidating gene function. The approach to the laboratory and the outcomes are intimately integrated into the teaching of many fundamental physiological processes underlying prodigiosin production in bacteria. The result is a cohesive course that integrates the theory and application of molecular genetic techniques with the study of bacterial physiology. Assessments of student learning objectives demonstrated that students greatly improved their understanding of both physiological processes and the genetic techniques used to investigate them. In addition, students felt that this semester-long exercise provided the necessary laboratory experience they needed and desired in preparation for careers in molecular biology, microbiology, and biochemistry.

  6. Combined effect of external and internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy

  7. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…

  8. Effects of Prenatal Sensory-Evoked Arousal on Postnatal Behavior and Perceptual Responsiveness in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Gregory Durelle

    2002-01-01

    Prenatal sensory stimulation can have facilitative or interfering effects upon subsequent perceptual learning and development in bobwhite quail. Exposure to moderate amounts of unimodal prenatal sensory stimulation has been shown to accelerate early intersensory responsiveness, while exposure to concurrent prenatal bimodal sensory stimulation has been shown to interfere with perceptual learning and development. An immediate mechanism that may underlie this developmental intersensory interfe...

  9. What Administrators Should Know about a Research-Based Oral Language Development Intervention for English Language Learners: A Description of Story Retelling and Higher Order Thinking for English Language and Literacy Acquisition--STELLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Beverly; Quiros, Ana M.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Rodriguez, Linda; Mathes, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Campus administrators need to have a good understanding of strategies that work with diverse populations they serve. In this paper, the authors share a research-based intervention from a longitudinal randomized trial study funded by the Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The intervention is Story Retelling and Higher…

  10. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  11. Cross-Setting Complementary Staff- and Parent-Mediated Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Research-Based Comprehensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Although, recent reviews and outcome research support empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in University and community settings, research has also indicated that not all intensive behavioral service provisions are equally effective. Therefore, it was necessary to comprehend key variables that are common to empirically…

  12. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  13. The Effect of Negative Affect on Cognition: Anxiety, Not Anger, Impairs Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Grant S.; Moons, Wesley G.; Tewell, Carl A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these two affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in parti...

  14. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  15. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  16. Similar genetic mechanisms underlie the parallel evolution of floral phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The repeated origin of similar phenotypes is invaluable for studying the underlying genetics of adaptive traits; molecular evidence, however, is lacking for most examples of such similarity. The floral morphology of neotropical Malpighiaceae is distinctive and highly conserved, especially with regard to symmetry, and is thought to result from specialization on oil-bee pollinators. We recently demonstrated that CYCLOIDEA2-like genes (CYC2A and CYC2B are associated with the development of the stereotypical floral zygomorphy that is critical to this plant-pollinator mutualism. Here, we build on this developmental framework to characterize floral symmetry in three clades of Malpighiaceae that have independently lost their oil bee association and experienced parallel shifts in their floral morphology, especially in regard to symmetry. We show that in each case these species exhibit a loss of CYC2B function, and a strikingly similar shift in the expression of CYC2A that is coincident with their shift in floral symmetry. These results indicate that similar floral phenotypes in this large angiosperm clade have evolved via parallel genetic changes from an otherwise highly conserved developmental program.

  17. Positive and Negative Emotions Underlie Motivation for L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions ("joy," "gratitude," "serenity," "interest," "hope," "pride," "amusement," "inspiration," "awe," and "love")…

  18. Different genetic factors underlie fear conditioning and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, Mats; Annas, Peter; Hettema, John M

    2015-08-01

    Fear conditioning seems to account for the acquisition of post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas conscious recall of events in aftermath of trauma reflects episodic memory. Studies show that both fear conditioning and episodic memory are heritable, but no study has evaluated whether they reflect common or separate genetic factors. To this end, we studied episodic memory and fear conditioning in 173 healthy twin pairs using visual stimuli predicting unconditioned electric shocks. Fear conditioning acquisition and extinction was determined using conditioned visual stimuli predicting unconditioned mild electric shocks, whereas electrodermal activity served as the fear learning index. Episodic memory was evaluated using cued recall of pictorial stimuli unrelated to conditioning. We used multivariate structural equation modeling to jointly analyze memory performance and acquisition as well as extinction of fear conditioning. Best-fit twin models estimated moderate genetic loadings for conditioning and memory measures, with no genetic covariation between them. Individual differences in fear conditioning and episodic memory reflect distinct genetically influenced processes, suggesting that the genetic risk for learning-induced anxiety disorders includes at least two memory-related genetic factors. These findings are consistent with the facts that the two separate learning forms are distant in their evolutionary development, involve different brain mechanisms, and support that genetically independent memory systems are pivotal in the development and maintenance of syndromes related to fear learning.

  19. Developmental timing differences underlie armor loss across threespine stickleback populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Mark C; Bassham, Susan; Perry, Stephen; Cresko, William A

    2017-11-01

    Comparing ontogenetic patterns within a well-described evolutionary context aids in inferring mechanisms of change, including heterochronies or deletion of developmental pathways. Because selection acts on phenotypes throughout ontogeny, any within-taxon developmental variation has implications for evolvability. We compare ontogenetic order and timing of locomotion and defensive traits in three populations of threespine stickleback that have evolutionarily divergent adult forms. This analysis adds to the growing understanding of developmental genetic mechanisms of adaptive change in this evolutionary model species by delineating when chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in two derived populations begin to deviate from the developmental pattern in their immediate ancestors. We found that differences in adult defensive morphologies arise through abolished or delayed initiation of these traits rather than via an overall heterochronic shift, that intra-population ontogenetic variation is increased for some derived traits, and that altered armor developmental timing differentiates the derived populations from each other despite parallels in adult lateral plate armor phenotypes. We found that changes in ossified elements of the pelvic armor are linked to delayed and incomplete development of an early-forming pelvic cartilage, and that this disruption likely presages the variable pelvic vestiges documented in many derived populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What Factors Underlie Vertical and Horizontal Export Diversification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University

    2 Ethiopian Economic Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute, P.O. Box 34282, Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia ... is one of the coffee producing countries most affected by recent downturn of green coffee prices .... The key interest of the paper is to test the hypothesis that coffee farmers use forests as a safety net to ...

  1. Individual Differences in Premotor Brain Systems Underlie Behavioral Apathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Manohar, Sanjay; Behrens, Tim; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical engagement, productivity, and initiative—so-called “behavioral apathy”—is a common problem with significant impact, both personal and economic. Here, we investigate whether there might be a biological basis to such lack of motivation using a new effort and reward-based decision-making paradigm, combined with functional and diffusion-weighted imaging. We hypothesized that behavioral apathy in otherwise healthy people might be associated with differences in brain systems underlying either motivation to act (specifically in effort and reward-based decision-making) or in action processing (transformation of an intention into action). The results demonstrate that behavioral apathy is associated with increased effort sensitivity as well as greater recruitment of neural systems involved in action anticipation: supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor zones. In addition, decreased structural and functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and SMA were associated with increased behavioral apathy. These findings reveal that effort sensitivity and translation of intentions into actions might make a critical contribution to behavioral apathy. We propose a mechanism whereby inefficient communication between ACC and SMA might lead to increased physiological cost—and greater effort sensitivity—for action initiation in more apathetic people. PMID:26564255

  2. Neural events that underlie remembering something that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, B; Paller, K A

    2000-12-01

    We induced people to experience a false-memory illusion by first asking them to visualize common objects when cued with the corresponding word; on some trials, a photograph of the object was presented 1800 ms after the cue word. We then tested their memory for the photographs. Posterior brain potentials in response to words at encoding were more positive if the corresponding object was later falsely remembered as a photograph. Similar brain potentials during the memory test were more positive for true than for false memories. These results implicate visual imagery in the generation of false memories and provide neural correlates of processing differences between true and false memories.

  3. What Factors Underlie Vertical and Horizontal Export Diversification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University

    can increase their revenues from investment in the production of products with market growth potential. Studies have been also revealed that unstable export earnings make it difficult for a country to plan capital imports, destabilize consumption, and can adversely affect export earnings trends (Maizels, 1987). Secondly, the ...

  4. Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Woo Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory.Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both.These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference theory. Since variables in these patterns have been associated with reward circuitry structure and function, they may provide a method for quantitative phenotyping of normative and pathological function (e.g., psychiatric illness.

  5. What Factors Underlie Vertical and Horizontal Export Diversification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University

    forms of energy. Even now, around two billion people have no access to electricity, relying instead on traditional fuels such as dung and fuel-wood. Those who are fortunate in developing countries enough to have electricity, on average spend 12% of their income on energy; more than five times the average for people living ...

  6. Variables that underlie cost efficacy of prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Wendy L; Morrell, Kristie; Vintzileos, Anthony M

    2002-06-01

    As genetic research and technology continues to expand, carrier testing for an increasing number of single gene disorders is becoming available. Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis are two common recessive conditions with large-scale health implications. Tay-Sachs disease was the first genetic disorder for which community-based screening efforts were utilized and has provided a foundation for the development of other screening programs. Cystic fibrosis testing, on the other hand, has additional complexities and the implementation of population-based screening has been under debate. The many issues (technical, educational, social, psychological and economical) which must be considered as preconceptional and prenatal genetic screening is incorporated into clinical practice are discussed here in the context of Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis.

  7. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  8. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Sciences (UCAR-SOARS) program: A paradigm case for a research based analysis of elements and attributes of a highly successful research experience for undergraduate (REU) program designed to broaden participation in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    REU (research experience for undergraduate) programs in science serve as a centerpiece for: recruitment improved learning, retention and increased graduation rates among students in STEM fields. Structured REUs are highly effective programs for broadening participation and remedying inequities, to increase and diversify the STEM talent pool and professional workforce. Now in its 16th year, SOARS is dedicated to broadening participation in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS is an undergraduate through graduate program built on the structure of: a summer research internship, mentoring by professional scientists, and a supportive learning community. SOARS is an exemplar. Its structure serves as a paradigm case for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of students from underserved populations. This research-based examination of SOARS explores its program elements and identifies attributes and practices that contribute to its impact and lasting outcomes.

  9. WellStar Paulding Hospital intensive care unit case study: achieving a research-based, patient-centered design using a collaborative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Georgeann B; Hogue, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the processes and tools used by WellStar Paulding Hospital to plan and design a new intensive care unit (ICU) as part of a 108-bed replacement hospital on a new site. Seeking to create a culture of safety centered around patient care, quality, and efficiency, the team used multiple external resources to increase their effectiveness as participants in the design process and to ensure that the new ICU achieves the functional performance goals identified at the beginning of planning and design. Specific focus on evidence-based design was assisted through participation in the Center for Health Design's Pebble Project process as well as the Joint Commission International Safe Health Design Learning Academy Pilot Program.

  10. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Heys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB. To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed towards identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in entorhinal cortex that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in entorhinal cortex that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in entorhinal cortex that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in entorhinal cortex. Finally, the local circuits of entorhinal cortex demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of entorhinal cortex to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory.

  11. Using a Forest Health Index as an Outreach Tool for Improving Public Understanding of Ecosystem Dynamics and Research-Based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenga, E. C.; Cundiff, J.; Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Taylor, J. R.; Jack-Scott, E.

    2015-12-01

    An interactive tool called the Forest Health Index (FHI) has been developed for the Roaring Fork watershed of Colorado, with the purpose of improving public understanding of local forest management and ecosystem dynamics. The watershed contains large areas of White River National Forest, which plays a significant role in the local economy, particularly for recreation and tourism. Local interest in healthy forests is therefore strong, but public understanding of forest ecosystems is often simplified. This can pose challenges for land managers and researchers seeking a scientifically informed approach to forest restoration, management, and planning. Now in its second iteration, the FHI is a tool designed to help bridge that gap. The FHI uses a suite of indicators to create a numeric rating of forest functionality and change, based on the desired forest state in relation to four categories: Ecological Integrity, Public Health and Safety, Ecosystem Services, and Sustainable Use and Management. The rating is based on data derived from several sources including local weather stations, stream gauge data, SNOTEL sites, and National Forest Service archives. In addition to offering local outreach and education, this project offers broader insight into effective communication methods, as well as into the challenges of using quantitative analysis to rate ecosystem health. Goals of the FHI include its use in schools as a means of using local data and place-based learning to teach basic math and science concepts, improved public understanding of ecological complexity and need for ongoing forest management, and, in the future, its use as a model for outreach tools in other forested communities in the Intermountain West.

  12. TRIM59 is a novel potential prognostic biomarker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: A research based on bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ling; Du, Boyu; Xi, Xueyan

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and its prognosis is poor. Few effective biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been translated into the clinical practice aiming to assist in the treatment plan design and prognosis evaluation. The aim of the present study was to identify novel potential prognostic biomarkers for NSCLC. Tripartite motif 59 (TRIM59) was identified from a microarray dataset of matched-samples and was verified as an aberrantly upregulated gene in NSCLC tissue. The expression level of TRIM59 in NSCLC subtypes was observed to be significantly increased in large cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as compared with that in adenocarcinoma. Its expression correlated with several clinicopathological features, including gender, smoking habits, and unfavorable tumor node and pathological stages. Notably, TRIM59 demonstrated a negative correlation with survival time and its overexpression indicated a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analyses indicated that TRIM59 was an independent prognostic factor in tumor tissue as compared with age, gender, tumor stage, node stage, and metastasis. Gene set enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network construction revealed that TRIM59 was associated with oncogenic mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (EIF4E) signaling through ubiquitin C binding. In conclusion, it was revealed that TRIM59 is a novel prognostic biomarker modulating oncogenic MTOR and EIF4E signaling pathways in NSCLC. These findings provided a novel insight into the clinical application of TRIM59. Therefore, TRIM59 may serve as an independent predictor for prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC.

  13. The research based on intelligent night-time elimination of "red explosion" and "white explosion" vehicle license plate capturing and identifying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Yu; Duanmu, Qing-Duo; Liu, Jing; Wu, Bo-Qi

    2018-03-01

    At night, high-speed road/all levels of road electronic cameras need to pass the white light flash can be used to obtain the road vehicle license plate and car appearance and the other related information, in order to solve the problems of the drivers' short dazzle caused by the flash of the camera, this paper shows a novel method to eliminate the "red explosion" and "white explosion" dazzle vehicle license plate capture and recognition system. This paper is based on the inconsistent principle of the absorption characteristics of the reflective film layer dye in the overlapping reflection process of the multispectral spectrums. The relationship between the wavelength of the reflective film and the back layer dye in different wavelength and the absorption/reflection is analyzed, and a dual-band active illumination method is developed. The system utilizes the visual features of human eyes in the sensitive insensitive area near infrared 390 nm 810 nm band, combining the enhanced Hough and Canny operator to preprocess the captured images, effectively obtains the license information of the fast moving vehicle at night or low illumination, and accurately locates the vehicle contour features, The high contour gray color rendering with the wavelet and Fourier filtering is used to distinguish the authenticity of the license plate quickly. To achieve the rapid statistics on the number of vehicles and containers on ground mobile vehicles and logistics sites, and provide a reliable technical guarantee for road security, because of its small weight and high intelligence, it's suitable for a variety of loading installations, and has a wide application foreground in the future.

  14. Alcohol and Group Formation: A Multimodal Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol on Emotion and Social Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Sayette, Michael A.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Dimoff, John D.; Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Kirchner, Thomas R.; Levine, John M.; Moreland, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We integrated research on emotion and on small groups to address a fundamental and enduring question facing alcohol researchers: What are the specific mechanisms that underlie the reinforcing effects of drinking? In one of the largest alcohol-administration studies yet conducted, we employed a novel group-formation paradigm to evaluate the socioemotional effects of alcohol. Seven hundred twenty social drinkers (360 male, 360 female) were assembled into groups of 3 unacquainted persons each an...

  15. Protective Effects of Two Constituents of Chinese Herbs on Spinal Motor Neurons from Embryonic Rats with Hypoxia Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian-feng; Fan, Jian; Tian, Xiao-wu; Tang, Tian-si

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprotective agents are becoming significant tools in the repair of central nervous system injuries. In this study, we determined whether ginkgolides (Gin, extract of GinkgoBiloba) and Acanthopanax senticosus saponins (ASS, flavonoids extracted from Acanthopanax herbal preparations) have protective effects on rat spinal cords exposed to anoxia and we explored the mechanisms that underlie the protective effects. Spinal motor neurons (SMNs) from rat spinal cords were obtained and divided int...

  16. Research development, current hotspots, and future directions of water research based on MODIS images: a critical review with a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Yao, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    local scales; (2) accurately predict the effect of global change and human activities on evapotranspiration and the water cycle; and (3) determine the evolutionary process of the water environment (i.e., water quality, macrophytes, cyanobacteria, etc.), ascertaining its dominant factors and driving mechanisms. By focusing on these three aspects, researchers will be able to provide timely monitoring and evaluation of water quality and its response to global change and human activities.

  17. The Effectiveness Of Physics Based Research In Learning Engineering Physics

    OpenAIRE

    -, Usmeldi

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to know the effect of implementation the research based learning to master properly physics concepts and students' generic ability. This research used experiment method with pretest-posttest group control design. The results of this research were the research based learning was effective to improving students' mastery of physics concepts and it was also developing the students' generic ability. The recommendation suggested to lecturer of engineering physics is implementing ...

  18. Astronomy in Research-Based Science Education (A-RBSE): A Review of a Decade of Professional Development Programs in Support of Teacher and Student Research at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, S. M.; Garmany, C. D.; Walker, C. E.; Croft, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    We will review the evolution of the Research Based Science Education (RBSE) and Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science (TLRBSE) programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory over the last eleven years. The program has evolved from an NSF-funded program in teacher enhancement to an observatory-supported core education initiative. The present manifestation of our program is an umbrella of programs designed to aid teachers in doing research with astronomical data archives, small telescopes, large research-grade telescopes, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The professional development program has addressed basic questions on the nature of research, best techniques to bring it into the classroom, the value of authentic research, and the mix of on-line versus in- person professional development. The current program is used to test new models of teacher professional development that for outreach programs for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope program, the Thirty-Meter Telescope program, and the National Virtual Observatory program. We will describe a variety of lessons learned (and relearned) and try to describe best practices in promoting teacher and student research. The TLRBSE Program has been funded by the National Science Foundation under ESI 0101982, funded through the AURA/NSF Cooperative Agreement AST-9613615. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  19. Comprehension instruction research-based best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2015-01-01

    All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr

  20. Research-based approaches to nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Carpenter, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching nuclear power requires an expert to communicate a significant number of abstract concepts from diverse disciplines, and assemble these into a larger intellectual framework for the students. Scholarly education research, particularly in individual science disciplines, has provided significant advances in teaching core subject material by breaking away from traditional lecturing. Thus far, however,little work has applied these results to introductory nuclear power classes. This paper explores a method of engaging introductory nuclear students deeply by using a combination of Socratic and mastery methods of teaching. Students develop conceptual understanding of the material through the group work and the use of diverse resources, including textbooks, online references, and computer models that encourage free exploration of these concepts. Marks have improved considerably, and students engage with the material at a significantly deeper level than in previous lecture-based iterations of this course. (author)

  1. The Effects of Television Consumption on Social Percrptions: The Use of Priming Procedures to Investigate Psychological Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shrum, L J; Wyer, Robert S, Jr; O'Guinn, Thomas C

    1998-01-01

    Two studies investigated the extent to which heavy television viewing affects consumers perceptions of social reality and the cognitive processes that underlie these effects. Both studies found evidence heavy viewers beliefs about social reality are more consistent with the content of television programming than are those of light viewers. The use of a priming methodology provided support for the notion that television is a causal factor in the formation of these beliefs and that a failure to...

  2. Serial-Position Effects on a Free-Recall Task in Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jeewon; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined mechanisms that underlie free-recall performance in bilinguals? first language (L1) and second language (L2) through the prism of serial-position effects. On free-recall tasks, a typical pattern of performance follows a U-shaped serial-position curve, where items from the beginning of the list (the primacy effect) and items from the end of the list (the recency effect) are recalled with higher accuracy than items from the middle of the list. The present study contra...

  3. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...... the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition of conjugation genes...

  4. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  5. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: Experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12th Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation.With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee, the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I–IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated.This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  6. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany – results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V, the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote. In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008.Methods: Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared.Results: Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18 took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I–IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI in 2011.In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007 was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007. The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007 to 1,574 (2011 resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007 vs. 6.3 (2011 objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent

  7. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany--results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Jost, Bertfried; Bethke, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V), the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs)/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs) in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote). In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC) in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa) was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared. Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18) took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I-IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI) in 2011. In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007) was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007). The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007) to 1,574 (2011) resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007) vs. 6.3 (2011) objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent form followed in descending order by trial

  8. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany: experience of applicants with the review of requests for opinion of the Ethics Committees - results of a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Hagen; Busta, Susanne; Riedel, Axel; Zöllner, Gereon; Jost, Bertfried

    2009-07-16

    The review of requests for a positive opinion of the ethics committees (application procedure) as a requirement to start a clinical trial in Germany has been completely redesigned with the transposition of EU Directive 2001/20/EC in the 12(th) Amendment of the German Medicines Act in August 2004. The experience of applicants (sponsors, legal representatives of sponsors in the EU and persons or organizations authorized by the sponsors to make the application, respectively) in terms of interactions with the ethics committees in Germany has been positive overall, especially with respect to ethics committee adherence to the statutory timelines applicable for review of requests. However, inconsistencies between ethics committees exist in terms of the form and content of the requirements for application documents and their evaluation. With the objective of further improving both the quality of applications and the evaluation of those applications by ethics committees, a survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA) was conducted from January to April 2008. Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective ethics committee in charge of the coordinating principal investigator (coordinating ethics committee), the type and frequency of formal and content-related objections to applications according to section sign 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Regulation were systematically documented, and qualitative and quantitative analyses performed. 21 out of 44 members of the VFA participated in the survey. 288 applications for Phase I-IV studies submitted between January and December 2007 to 40 ethics committees were evaluated. This survey shows that about one in six applications is incomplete and has formal and/or content objections, respectively, especially those that pertain to documents demonstrating the qualification of the investigator and/or suitability of the facilities. These objections are attributable to

  9. Effectiveness of energy policy covenants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; De Jong, J.M.; Spijkerman, M.; Tanis, O.

    2009-10-01

    The Netherlands are relying heavily on covenants to realize a trend break in energy use and their related emissions. The question rises how effective these covenants really are, how their effectiveness relates to other instruments (such as taxes, regulation and grants) and if their effectiveness depends on the shaping of these covenants. This study answers all these questions based on an analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature and on own empirical research based on OECD data. The main conclusion of the study is that there is little to no evidence that these covenants are really effective. [nl

  10. Brand effect versus competitiveness in hypernetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A few of evolving models in hypernetworks have been proposed based on uniform growth. In order to better depict the growth mechanism and competitive aspect of real hypernetworks, we propose a model in term of the non-uniform growth. Besides hyperdegrees, the other two important factors are introduced to underlie preferential attachment. One dimension is the brand effect and the other is the competitiveness. Our model can accurately describe the evolution of real hypernetworks. The paper analyzes the model and calculates the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork by using Poisson process theory and a continuous technique. We also address the limit in which this model has a condensation. The theoretical analyses agree with numerical simulations. Our model is universal, in that the standard preferential attachment, the fitness model in complex networks and scale-free model in hypernetworks can all be seen as degenerate cases of the model.

  11. Brand effect versus competitiveness in hypernetworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A few of evolving models in hypernetworks have been proposed based on uniform growth. In order to better depict the growth mechanism and competitive aspect of real hypernetworks, we propose a model in term of the non-uniform growth. Besides hyperdegrees, the other two important factors are introduced to underlie preferential attachment. One dimension is the brand effect and the other is the competitiveness. Our model can accurately describe the evolution of real hypernetworks. The paper analyzes the model and calculates the stationary average hyperdegree distribution of the hypernetwork by using Poisson process theory and a continuous technique. We also address the limit in which this model has a condensation. The theoretical analyses agree with numerical simulations. Our model is universal, in that the standard preferential attachment, the fitness model in complex networks and scale-free model in hypernetworks can all be seen as degenerate cases of the model.

  12. Effects of Longwall subsidence on escarpment stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea-Albin, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing pressure from State and Federal agencies to mitigate mining-induced subsidence damage to overlying structures has presented a unique problem to the coal industry in the western United States. Because sandstone escarpments are an environmental issue, millions of tons of coal reserves that underlie these escarpments risk being classified as unminable by regulatory agencies. At this time, the effect of subsidence on escarpments has not been well documented or characterized. The Bureau of Mines is using numerical modeling techniques to analyze escarpment response to longwall mining. Two- and three-dimensional finite element models have been constructed for a study area near Price, Utah, where longwall panels were mined near an escarpment. This paper includes preliminary results showing that the pattern of subsidence surrounding the escarpment can be simulated through numerical modeling

  13. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  14. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  15. Measuring teacher effectiveness in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Judith E

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the research base on teacher effectiveness in physical education from a historical perspective and explores the implications of the recent emphasis on student performance and teacher observation systems to evaluate teachers for physical education. The problems and the potential positive effects of using student performance scores as well as establishing a comprehensive evaluation program are explored with supportive evidence that some level of accountability is necessary in our field to make significant change.

  16. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-05-08

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  17. [Neuroendocrine effect of sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a generalization of data and the results of own experiments on influence ovarian steroids on the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction. Ovarian hormones have widespread effects throughout the brain: on catecholaminergic neurons and serotonergic pathways and the basal forebrain cholinergic system, as well as the hipocampus, spinal cord, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system, in addition to glial cells and blood-brain barrier. The widespread influences of these various neuronal systems ovarian steroids have measurable effects on mood and affect as well as on cognition, with implications for dementia. There are developmentally programmed sex differenced in hippocampal structure that may help to explain differences in the strategies which male and female rats use to solve spatial navigation problems. The multiple sites and mechanisms of estrogen action in brain underlie a variety of importants effects on cognitive and other brain functions--coordination of movement, pain, affective state, as well as possible protection in Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen withdrawal after natural or surgical menopause can lead to a host of changes in brain function and behavior.

  18. Effects of gravitational and optical stimulation on the perception of target elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.; Stoper, A. E.; Welch, R. B.; DeRoshia, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    To examine the combined effects of gravitational and optical stimulation on perceived target elevation, we independently altered gravitational-inertial force and both the orientation and the structure of a background visual array. While being exposed to 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 Gz in the human centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center, observers attempted to set a target to the apparent horizon. The target was viewed against the far wall of a box that was pitched at various angles. The box was brightly illuminated, had only its interior edges dimly illuminated, or was kept dark. Observers lowered their target settings as Gz was increased; this effect was weakened when the box was illuminated. Also, when the box was visible, settings were displaced in the same direction as that in which the box was pitched. We attribute our results to the combined influence of otolith-oculomotor mechanisms that underlie the elevator illusion and visual-oculomotor mechanisms (optostatic responses) that underlie the perceptual effects of viewing pitched visual arrays.

  19. Neuro-, Cardio-, and Immunoplasticity: Effects of Early Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulak, Eric; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen

    2018-01-04

    The relationship between early adversity and outcomes across the lifespan is apparent in a striking range of measures. Evidence suggests that many of these outcomes can be traced to the impacts of early adversity on multiple and integrated biological systems mediated by the brain. In this review, we integrate empirical and theoretical advances in the understanding of relationships among the brain and the functions of the endocrine, autonomic, and immune systems. We emphasize the effects of environmental experiences related to caregiver relationships because it is these experiences, in particular, that shape regulatory and threat response systems in ways that increase vulnerability and may underlie the wide range of poor outcomes associated with early adversity. Thus, we metaphorically extend the concept of plasticity to highlight our goal of a broader consideration of these interconnected mechanisms. We conclude by discussing implications for neurobiologically informed interventions that can potentially ameliorate the broad and costly effects of early adversity.

  20. Effects of confidence and anxiety on flow state in competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Confidence and anxiety are important variables that underlie the experience of flow in sport. Specifically, research has indicated that confidence displays a positive relationship and anxiety a negative relationship with flow. The aim of this study was to assess potential direct and indirect effects of confidence and anxiety dimensions on flow state in tennis competition. A sample of 59 junior tennis players completed measures of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2d and Flow State Scale-2. Following predictive analysis, results showed significant positive correlations between confidence (intensity and direction) and anxiety symptoms (only directional perceptions) with flow state. Standard multiple regression analysis indicated confidence as the only significant predictor of flow. The results confirmed a protective function of confidence against debilitating anxiety interpretations, but there were no significant interaction effects between confidence and anxiety on flow state.

  1. Animal models to explore the effects of glucocorticoids on skeletal growth and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire L; Soucek, Ondrej; Wong, Sze C; Zaman, Farasat; Farquharson, Colin; Savendahl, Lars; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are effective for the treatment of many chronic conditions, but their use is associated with frequent and wide-ranging adverse effects including osteoporosis and growth retardation. The mechanisms that underlie the undesirable effects of GCs on skeletal development are unclear, and there is no proven effective treatment to combat them. An in vivo model that investigates the development and progression of GC-induced changes in bone is, therefore, important and a well-characterized pre-clinical model is vital for the evaluation of new interventions. Currently, there is no established animal model to investigate GC effects on skeletal development and there are pros and cons to consider with the different protocols used to induce osteoporosis and growth retardation. This review will summarize the literature and highlight the models and techniques employed in experimental studies to date. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  3. Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, screen time has become a more complicated concept, with an ever-expanding variety of electronic media devices available throughout the world. Television remains the predominant type of screen-based activity among children. However, computer use, video games and ownership of devices, such as tablets and smart phones, are occurring from an increasingly young age. Screen time, in particular, television viewing, has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety. The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health outcomes are unclear. This review discusses the positive and negative effects of screen time on the physiological and psychological development of children. Furthermore, recommendations are offered to parents and clinicians. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Long-term effects of directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2018-03-01

    The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay. The forget cue reduced the number of items that were recalled from L1. Experiment 2 implemented a 12-h delay between encoding and test that was either filled with day-time wakefulness or night-time sleep. Replicating the findings of Exp. 1, recall of L1 was reduced in the forget in comparison to the remember condition. Sleep in comparison to wakefulness significantly strengthened L1 memory in the remember group only. Taken together, the present study shows that the intention to forget can have long-lasting consequences. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie the short- and long-term effects of DF, with long-term effects potentially reflecting the preferential consolidation of information that has been identified as important during encoding.

  5. Competitiveness in Urban Europe: research based, practice led

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogerbrugge, Marloes

    2011-01-01

    Metropolitan regions and cities are often coined as the ‘motors of the economy'. The performance of national economies – and even the EU in general – is increasingly dependent on the cumulative performance of metropolitan regions and/or cities. All around the world, cities are increasingly in competition with one another; interconnected in a network of criss-cross relations between firms and institutions. With respect to urban competitiveness, numerous activities of benchmarking and ‘...

  6. Research-Based Integrated Reading and Writing Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Calisa A.

    2017-01-01

    With the continuing national emphases on acceleration and completion, an integrated reading and writing course (a combined developmental reading and developmental writing course, with all levels compressed into a single course) is one way to move students more quickly and efficiently through the developmental sequence while still maintaining…

  7. Research-Based Options for Education Policymaking: Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William

    2012-01-01

    Publicly supported, high-quality preschool education is among the most successful and well-documented of education reforms. There is near-universal agreement that high-quality preschool programs more than pay for themselves in economic and social benefits. Program quality is absolutely critical. While no one factor can be considered determinative,…

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Operator Reliability Research Based on Fuzzy Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of the concept and theory of fuzzy number in fuzzy mathematics, to research for the response time of operator in accident of Chinese nuclear power plant. Through the quantitative analysis for the performance shape factors (PSFs which influence the response time of operators, the formula of the operator response time is obtained based on the possibilistic fuzzy linear regression model which is used for the first time in this kind of research. The research result shows that the correct research method can be achieved through the analysis of the information from a small sample. This method breaks through the traditional research method and can be used not only for the reference to the safe operation of nuclear power plant, but also in other areas.

  9. Research-Based Vocabulary Instruction for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie F.

    2012-01-01

    A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language learners and English-only students. In order for ELLs to experience school success, they must achieve English language proficiency. This article presents why vocabulary acquisition plays the most vital role in ELLs' learning of the English language. Factors include the severity and…

  10. XML documents cluster research based on frequent subpatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tienan; Li, Wei; Li, Xiongfei

    2015-12-01

    XML data is widely used in the information exchange field of Internet, and XML document data clustering is the hot research topic. In the XML document clustering process, measure differences between two XML documents is time costly, and impact the efficiency of XML document clustering. This paper proposed an XML documents clustering method based on frequent patterns of XML document dataset, first proposed a coding tree structure for encoding the XML document, and translate frequent pattern mining from XML documents into frequent pattern mining from string. Further, using the cosine similarity calculation method and cohesive hierarchical clustering method for XML document dataset by frequent patterns. Because of frequent patterns are subsets of the original XML document data, so the time consumption of XML document similarity measure is reduced. The experiment runs on synthetic dataset and the real datasets, the experimental result shows that our method is efficient.

  11. Did the American Herbartians Have a Research Base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Barry H.

    The origins of the Herbartian Movement began with the writings of Johan Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841), a German philosopher and educator. He believed that, through instruction, the mind and morals of the child could be molded. For this purpose, ideas are available from two sources: experience, which furnishes knowledge of nature, and social…

  12. Research based activities in teacher professional development on optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, Marisa; Stefanel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how teachers take ownership of content given them in formative intervention modules and transform it into suggestions and materials for teaching. To this end a module on optics was designed for a group of kindergarten, primary and lower secondary school teachers which sought to integrate meta-cultural, experiential and situated approaches with various context specific factors. The study investigated how teachers deal with conceptual difficulties in the module and how they adapt it to their school situations with data being gathered through a variety of tools. It emerged that the most difficult concepts teachers encountered at the formative stage were those they most often incorporated into their materials. The steps taken in this process of appropriation were then reviewed via a collaborative discussion among the teachers themselves on the materials they had produced.

  13. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from...... the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case...

  14. Culinary and hospitality teaching as a research-based profession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is not just an academic paper, it is a resource. It addresses the topic of how hospitality and tourism education is likely to change in 5, 10 and 15 years' time. The principal function of a hospitality academy is to design, plan, prepare and deliver a programme of learning in ways that foster and support student learning.

  15. Paraprofessionals Implementing a Research-Based Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Leanne; Konza, Deslea; Mulcahy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In many schools in Australia students often begin their primary years with limited preparation for reading. "All hands on deck" are required to ensure the best possible student success rate for learning to read. In this project, Education Assistants, often under-utilised in schools, were used to implement a reading intervention to…

  16. Lack of research-based standards for accessible housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Slaug, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To increase the understanding of how definitions of standards for housing design influence the proportion of dwellings not meeting the standards and the proportion of individuals defined as having accessibility problems. Methods The sample was old people and their dwellings in ...

  17. Research-Based Practices in Afterschool Mentoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Yarbrough, Anna-Margaret; Besnoy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Most communities have afterschool programs that give school-aged students a safe place to go after the dismissal bell rings. The next step after simply providing a safe haven is to create a nurturing environment that develops young people's talents and supports their needs. A formal mentoring program can help to achieve this goal. In order to…

  18. Obesity research based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    of the obesity epidemic, and the long-term health consequences of birth weight as well as body size and growth in childhood. CONCLUSION: Research using this unique register is ongoing, and its contributions to the study of obesity as well as other topics will continue for years to come.......INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from...... the capital city of Denmark. Additional information on the cohort members has been obtained via linkages with population studies and national registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: Studies using data from the register have made important contributions in the areas of the aetiology of obesity, the development...

  19. Environment exploration and SLAM experiment research based on ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhize; Zheng, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Robots need to get the information of surrounding environment by means of map learning. SLAM or navigation based on mobile robots is developing rapidly. ROS (Robot Operating System) is widely used in the field of robots because of the convenient code reuse and open source. Numerous excellent algorithms of SLAM or navigation are ported to ROS package. hector_slam is one of them that can set up occupancy grid maps on-line fast with low computation resources requiring. Its characters above make the embedded handheld mapping system possible. Similarly, hector_navigation also does well in the navigation field. It can finish path planning and environment exploration by itself using only an environmental sensor. Combining hector_navigation with hector_slam can realize low cost environment exploration, path planning and slam at the same time

  20. Assisted Diagnosis Research Based on Improved Deep Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang-Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep Autoencoder has the powerful ability to learn features from large number of unlabeled samples and a small number of labeled samples. In this work, we have improved the network structure of the general deep autoencoder and applied it to the disease auxiliary diagnosis. We have achieved a network by entering the specific indicators and predicting whether suffering from liver disease, the network using real physical examination data for training and verification. Compared with the traditional semi-supervised machine learning algorithm, deep autoencoder will get higher accuracy.

  1. School Integration Matters: Research-Based Strategies to Advance Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica, Ed.; Garces, Liliana M., Ed.; Hopkins, Megan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    More than 60 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision declared segregated schooling inherently unequal, this timely book sheds light on how and why U.S. schools are experiencing increasing segregation along racial, socioeconomic, and linguistic lines. It offers policy and programmatic alternatives for advancing equity and…

  2. Students’ expectations to and experiences of research based teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Elmeskov, Dorte Christiansen

    Teaching and learning are often competing activities, and this leads to frustrations and may compromise the quality of teaching. As part of a university wide initiative, three modules were redesigned to engage students in research or research-like activities. In order to evaluate this, we developed....... This can be explained by the students experiencing too little outcome in relation to time spent. A redesign has been made, and results from this will be reported. In our judgement, the instrument provided valuable input to the evaluation of the modules involved. A factor analysis identified four factors...

  3. CREATIV: Research-based innovation for industry energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Hemmingsen, Anne Karin T.; Neksa, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Improved energy efficiency is imperative to minimise the greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure future energy security. It is also a key to continued profitability in energy consuming industry. The project CREATIV is a research initiative for industry energy efficiency focusing on utilisation of surplus heat and efficient heating and cooling. In CREATIV, international research groups work together with key vendors of energy efficiency equipment and an industry consortium including the areas metallurgy, pulp and paper, food and fishery, and commercial refrigeration supermarkets. The ambition of CREATIV is to bring forward technology and solutions enabling Norway to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 25% within 2020. The main research topics are electricity production from low temperature heat sources in supercritical CO 2 cycles, energy efficient end-user technology for heating and cooling based on natural working fluids and system optimisation, and efficient utilisation of low temperature heat by developing new sorption systems and compact compressor-expander units. A defined innovation strategy in the project will ensure exploitation of research results and promote implementation in industry processes. CREATIV will contribute to the recruitment of competent personnel to industry and academia by educating PhD and post doc candidates and several MSc students. The paper presents the CREATIV project, discusses its scientific achievements so far, and outlines how the project results can contribute to reducing industry energy consumption. - Highlights: → New technology for improved energy efficiency relevant across several industries. → Surplus heat exploitation and efficient heating and cooling are important means. → Focus on power production from low temperature heat and heat pumping technologies. → Education and competence building are given priority. → The project consortium includes 20 international industry companies and research institutions.

  4. Cases on Research-Based Teaching Methods in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Eugene, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    While the great scientists of the past recognized a need for a multidisciplinary approach, today's schools often treat math and science as subjects separate from the rest. This not only creates a disinterest among students, but also a potential learning gap once students reach college and then graduate into the workforce. "Cases on…

  5. Culinary and hospitality teaching as a research-based profession

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly) and similar institutions such as the Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education (CHRIE), the International Journal of Hospitality Management and the Journal of Culinary Science and Technology. The latter is approaching only its tenth year of publication ...

  6. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers if approval from ethics committee was obtained and if written informed consent was taken from the participant or legal guardian.

  7. Research-Based Personas: Teaching Empathy in Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students enrolled in professional education degree programs are increasingly challenged by the need to acquire the complex skills/competencies of their respective professions on the one hand, while retaining empathy for the individuals they will be serving on the other hand. This paper suggests a technique which uses the Persona, a…

  8. Effective Teamwork Practical Lessons from Organizational Research

    CERN Document Server

    West, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques

  9. Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-11-15

    Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of sociocultural factors that may underlie differences in African American and European American anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Patricia D; Shook, Natalie J

    2017-06-01

    Preliminary evidence indicates there may be differences in the prevalence and severity of anxiety in African Americans and European Americans. A number of sociocultural risk and protective factors have been suggested to contribute to these group differences, such as salience of physical illnesses, discrimination, stigma toward mental illness, religiosity, and ethnic identity. In this paper, the literature concerning each of these factors is reviewed. Overall, the strongest evidence was found for ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness as factors underlying group differences in anxiety. Ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness consistently differed by racial group and were associated with anxiety in African Americans. Ethnic identity may buffer against the negative consequences of anxiety, reducing prevalence rates in African Americans. Stigma toward mental illness may decrease African Americans willingness to report anxiety symptoms, reducing overall prevalence rates but increasing the severity of treated cases. The research regarding discrimination, salience of physical illnesses, and religiosity was less clear. Much more research is required, but the findings of this review suggest that future studies should put particular emphasis on stigma toward mental illness and ethnic identity as important factors in understanding African American anxiety outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech-Evidence from deep transfer learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho

    Full Text Available Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other. In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies-the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain.

  12. Connected Gene Communities Underlie Transcriptional Changes in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, Imène; Fournier, Éric; Baguette, Audrey; Vallée, Maxime; Lamaze, Fabien C; Droit, Arnaud; Bilodeau, Steve

    2017-09-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a complex multisystem developmental disorder caused by mutations in cohesin subunits and regulators. While its precise molecular mechanisms are not well defined, they point toward a global deregulation of the transcriptional gene expression program. Cohesin is associated with the boundaries of chromosome domains and with enhancer and promoter regions connecting the three-dimensional genome organization with transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that connected gene communities, structures emerging from the interactions of noncoding regulatory elements and genes in the three-dimensional chromosomal space, provide a molecular explanation for the pathoetiology of CdLS associated with mutations in the cohesin-loading factor NIPBL and the cohesin subunit SMC1A NIPBL and cohesin are important constituents of connected gene communities that are centrally positioned at noncoding regulatory elements. Accordingly, genes deregulated in CdLS are positioned within reach of NIPBL- and cohesin-occupied regions through promoter-promoter interactions. Our findings suggest a dynamic model where NIPBL loads cohesin to connect genes in communities, offering an explanation for the gene expression deregulation in the CdLS. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Global transcriptional disturbances underlie Cornelia de Lange syndrome and related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Pehlivan, Davut; Karaca, Ender; Patel, Nisha; Charng, Wu-Lin; Gambin, Tomasz; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Sutton, V Reid; Yesil, Gozde; Bozdogan, Sevcan Tug; Tos, Tulay; Koparir, Asuman; Koparir, Erkan; Beck, Christine R; Gu, Shen; Aslan, Huseyin; Yuregir, Ozge Ozalp; Al Rubeaan, Khalid; Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Alshammari, Muneera J; Bayram, Yavuz; Atik, Mehmed M; Aydin, Hatip; Geckinli, B Bilge; Seven, Mehmet; Ulucan, Hakan; Fenercioglu, Elif; Ozen, Mustafa; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2015-02-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that presents with extensive phenotypic variability, including facial dysmorphism, developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), abnormal extremities, and hirsutism. About 65% of patients harbor mutations in genes that encode subunits or regulators of the cohesin complex, including NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and HDAC8. Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS), which shares CdLS phenotypic features, is caused by mutations in lysine-specific methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A). Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 2 male siblings clinically diagnosed with WDSTS; this revealed a hemizygous, missense mutation in SMC1A that was predicted to be deleterious. Extensive clinical evaluation and WES of 32 Turkish patients clinically diagnosed with CdLS revealed the presence of a de novo heterozygous nonsense KMT2A mutation in 1 patient without characteristic WDSTS features. We also identified de novo heterozygous mutations in SMC3 or SMC1A that affected RNA splicing in 2 independent patients with combined CdLS and WDSTS features. Furthermore, in families from 2 separate world populations segregating an autosomal-recessive disorder with CdLS-like features, we identified homozygous mutations in TAF6, which encodes a core transcriptional regulatory pathway component. Together, our data, along with recent transcriptome studies, suggest that CdLS and related phenotypes may be "transcriptomopathies" rather than cohesinopathies.

  14. Beyond the Electrocardiogram: Mutations in Cardiac Ion Channel Genes Underlie Nonarrhythmic Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Roston

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac ion channelopathies are an important cause of sudden death in the young and include long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, and short QT syndrome. Genes that encode ion channels have been implicated in all of these conditions, leading to the widespread implementation of genetic testing for suspected channelopathies. Over the past half-century, researchers have also identified systemic pathologies that extend beyond the arrhythmic phenotype in patients with ion channel gene mutations, including deafness, epilepsy, cardiomyopathy, periodic paralysis, and congenital heart disease. A coexisting phenotype, such as cardiomyopathy, can influence evaluation and management. However, prior to recent molecular advances, our understanding and recognition of these overlapping phenotypes were poor. This review highlights the systemic and structural heart manifestations of the cardiac ion channelopathies, including their phenotypic spectrum and molecular basis.

  15. Specific developmental pathways underlie host specificity in the parasitic plant Orobanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic angiosperms are an ecologically and economically important group of plants. However our understanding of the basis for host specificity in these plants is embryonic. Recently we investigated host specificity in the parasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor, and demonstrated that this host generalist parasite comprises genetically defined races that are physiologically adapted to specific hosts. Populations occurring naturally on red clover (Trifolium pratense) and sea carrot (Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) respectively, showed distinct patterns of host specificity at various developmental stages, and a higher fitness on their natural hosts, suggesting these races are locally adapted. Here we discuss the implications of our findings from a broader perspective. We suggest that differences in signal responsiveness and perception by the parasite, as well as qualitative differences in signal production by the host, may elicit host specificity in this parasitic plant. Together with our earlier demonstration that these O. minor races are genetically distinct based on molecular markers, our recent data provide a snapshot of speciation in action, driven by host specificity. Indeed, host specificity may be an underestimated catalyst for speciation in parasitic plants generally. We propose that identifying host specific races using physiological techniques will complement conventional molecular marker-based approaches to provide a framework for delineating evolutionary relationships among cryptic host-specific parasitic plants. PMID:20081361

  16. Pectin-induced changes in cell wall mechanics underlie organ initiation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaucelle, Alexis; Braybrook, Siobhan A; Le Guillou, Laurent; Bron, Emeric; Kuhlemeier, Cris; Höfte, Herman

    2011-10-25

    Tissue mechanics have been shown to play a key role in the regulation of morphogenesis in animals [1-4] and may have an equally important role in plants [5-9]. The aerial organs of plants are formed at the shoot apical meristem following a specific phyllotactic pattern [10]. The initiation of an organ from the meristem requires a highly localized irreversible surface deformation, which depends on the demethylesterification of cell wall pectins [11]. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate whether these chemical changes lead to changes in tissue mechanics. By mapping the viscoelasticity and elasticity in living meristems, we observed increases in tissue elasticity, correlated with pectin demethylesterification, in primordia and at the site of incipient organs. Measurements of tissue elasticity at various depths showed that, at the site of incipient primordia, the first increases occurred in subepidermal tissues. The results support the following causal sequence of events: (1) demethylesterification of pectin is triggered in subepidermal tissue layers, (2) this contributes to an increase in elasticity of these layers-the first observable mechanical event in organ initiation, and (3) the process propagates to the epidermis during the outgrowth of the organ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying mechanisms that underlie links between COMT genotype and aggression in male adolescents with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Langley, Kate; Northover, Clare; Hubble, Kelly; Rubia, Katya; Schepman, Karen; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Thapar, Anita

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health. Background: There is a known strong genetic contribution to aggression in those with ADHD. In a previous investigation of a large population cohort, impaired 'emotional/social cognitive' processing, assessed by questionnaire, was observed to mediate the link between COMT Val158Met and aggression in individuals with ADHD. We set out to replicate and extend this finding in a clinical sample, using task-based and physiological assessment...

  18. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  20. Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd C Andringa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.

  1. Central Synaptic Mechanisms Underlie Short-Term Olfactory Habituation in "Drosophila" Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Aoife; Karak, Somdatta; Priya, Rashi; Das, Abhijit; Ayyub, Champakali; Ito, Kei; Rodrigues, Veronica; Ramaswami, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Naive "Drosophila" larvae show vigorous chemotaxis toward many odorants including ethyl acetate (EA). Chemotaxis toward EA is substantially reduced after a 5-min pre-exposure to the odorant and recovers with a half-time of [image omitted]20 min. An analogous behavioral decrement can be induced without odorant-receptor activation through…

  2. Do Characteristics of Faces That Convey Trustworthiness and Dominance Underlie Perceptions of Criminality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested whether the 2D face evaluation model proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov can parsimoniously account for why some faces are perceived as more criminal-looking than others. The 2D model proposes that trust and dominance are spontaneously evaluated from features of faces. These evaluations have adaptive significance from an evolutionary standpoint because they indicate whether someone should be approached or avoided. Method Participants rated the emotional state, personality traits, and criminal appearance of faces shown in photographs. The photographs were of males and females taken under naturalistic conditions (i.e., police mugshots) and highly controlled conditions. In the controlled photographs, the emotion display of the actor was systematically varied (happy expression, emotionally neutral expression, or angry expression). Results Both male and female faces rated high in criminal appearance were perceived as less trustworthy and more dominant in police mugshots as well as in photographs taken under highly controlled conditions. Additionally, emotionally neutral faces were deemed as less trustworthy if they were perceived as angry, and more dominant if they were morphologically mature. Systematically varying emotion displays also affected criminality ratings, with angry faces perceived as the most criminal, followed by neutral faces and then happy faces. Conclusion The 2D model parsimoniously accounts for criminality perceptions. This study extends past research by demonstrating that morphological features that signal high dominance and low trustworthiness can also signal high criminality. Spontaneous evaluations regarding criminal propensity may have adaptive value in that they may help us to avoid someone who is physically threatening. On the other hand, such evaluations could inappropriately influence decision making in criminal identification lineups. Hence, additional research is needed to discover whether and how people can avoid making evaluations regarding criminality from a person’s facial appearance. PMID:22675479

  3. Distinct Transcriptional Programs Underlie Sox9 Regulation of the Mammalian Chondrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ohba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sox9 encodes an essential transcriptional regulator of chondrocyte specification and differentiation. When Sox9 nuclear activity was compared with markers of chromatin organization and transcriptional activity in primary chondrocytes, we identified two distinct categories of target association. Class I sites cluster around the transcriptional start sites of highly expressed genes with no chondrocyte-specific signature. Here, Sox9 association reflects protein-protein association with basal transcriptional components. Class II sites highlight evolutionarily conserved active enhancers that direct chondrocyte-related gene activity through the direct binding of Sox9 dimer complexes to DNA. Sox9 binds through sites with sub-optimal binding affinity; the number and grouping of enhancers into super-enhancer clusters likely determines the levels of target gene expression. Interestingly, comparison of Sox9 action in distinct chondrocyte lineages points to similar regulatory strategies. In addition to providing insights into Sox family action, our comprehensive identification of the chondrocyte regulatory genome will facilitate the study of skeletal development and human disease.

  4. Heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function mutations underlie an unexpectedly broad clinical phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toubiana, J.; Okada, S.; Hiller, J.; Oleastro, M.; Lagos Gomez, M.; Aldave Becerra, J.C.; Ouachee-Chardin, M.; Fouyssac, F.; Girisha, K.M.; Etzioni, A.; Montfrans, J. van; Camcioglu, Y.; Kerns, L.A.; Belohradsky, B.; Blanche, S.; Bousfiha, A.; Rodriguez-Gallego, C.; Meyts, I.; Kisand, K.; Reichenbach, J.; Renner, E.D.; Rosenzweig, S.; Grimbacher, B.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.; Picard, C.; Marodi, L.; Morio, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Lilic, D.; Milner, J.D.; Holland, S.; Casanova, J.L.; Puel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274

  5. MicroRNA-mediated networks underlie immune response regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Tsung; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2014-09-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy with low death rate but increased incidence and recurrence in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with diverse regulatory capacities in eukaryotes and have been frequently implied in human cancer. Despite current progress, however, a panoramic overview concerning miRNA regulatory networks in PTC is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the expression datasets of PTC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal and demonstrate for the first time that immune responses are significantly enriched and under specific regulation in the direct miRNA-target network among distinctive PTC variants to different extents. Additionally, considering the unconventional properties of miRNAs, we explore the protein-coding competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and the modulatory networks in PTC and unexpectedly disclose concerted regulation of immune responses from these networks. Interestingly, miRNAs from these conventional and unconventional networks share general similarities and differences but tend to be disparate as regulatory activities increase, coordinately tuning the immune responses that in part account for PTC tumor biology. Together, our systematic results uncover the intensive regulation of immune responses underlain by miRNA-mediated networks in PTC, opening up new avenues in the management of thyroid cancer.

  6. Different brain strategies underlie the categorical perception of foreign and native phonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Mori, Koichi; Sato, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    The present study using near-infrared spectroscopy examined the neuronal correlates of Japanese long/short vowel contrast discrimination and its relationship with behavioral performance by comparing native Japanese (L1) subjects and Korean subjects learning Japanese as a second language (L2). Phoneme-specific responses were predominantly observed in the left auditory area only in the L1 subjects, although the behavioral scores of the L2 subjects indicated categorical perception (CP) that was indistinguishable from that of the L1 subjects. These inconsistent relationships were more evident in the correlation coefficients between the brain recording and behavior. However, slower reaction times and non-specific brain responses in the L2 listeners suggest differences in their cortical processes from those of the L1 subjects. These findings suggest that the CP of L2 phonemes as determined by behavioral scores alone does not always predict a language-specific neural processing as employed by the L1 listeners.

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Christine E; Enriquez, Ana B; Cohn, Martin J

    2016-11-22

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development.

  8. Broad defects in the energy metabolism of leukocytes underlie immunoparalysis in sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shih Chin; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Arts, Rob J W; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Lachmandas, Ekta; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Kox, Matthijs; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Wagenaars, Jori A L; Cremer, Olaf L.; Leentjens, Jenneke; van der Meer, Anne J.; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Bonten, Marc J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Willems, Peter H G M; Pickkers, Peter; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Poll, Tom; Netea, Mihai G.

    The acute phase of sepsis is characterized by a strong inflammatory reaction. At later stages in some patients, immunoparalysis may be encountered, which is associated with a poor outcome. By transcriptional and metabolic profiling of human patients with sepsis, we found that a shift from oxidative

  9. Broad defects in the energy metabolism of leukocytes underlie immunoparalysis in sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Arts, Rob J. W.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Lachmandas, Ekta; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Kox, Matthijs; Manjeri, Ganesh R.; Wagenaars, Jori A. L.; Cremer, Olaf L.; Leentjens, Jenneke; van der Meer, Anne J.; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Bonten, Marc J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Willems, Peter H. G. M.; Pickkers, Peter; Joosten, Leo A. B.; van der Poll, Tom; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of sepsis is characterized by a strong inflammatory reaction. At later stages in some patients, immunoparalysis may be encountered, which is associated with a poor outcome. By transcriptional and metabolic profiling of human patients with sepsis, we found that a shift from oxidative

  10. A follow-up investigation into the mechanisms that underlie improved recognition of dysarthric speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Stephanie A; McAuliffe, Megan J; Liss, Julie M; O'Beirne, Greg A; Anderson, Tim J

    2012-08-01

    Differences in perceptual strategies for lexical segmentation of moderate hypokinetic dysarthric speech, apparently related to the conditions of the familiarization procedure, have been previously reported [Borrie et al., Language and Cognitive Processes (2012)]. The current follow-up investigation examined whether this difference was also observed when familiarization stimuli highlighted syllabic strength contrast cues. Forty listeners completed an identical transcription task following familiarization with dysarthric phrases presented under either passive or explicit learning conditions. Lexical boundary error patterns revealed that syllabic strength cues were exploited in both familiarization conditions. Comparisons with data previously reported afford further insight into perceptual learning of dysarthric speech.

  11. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  12. Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark I McCormick

    Full Text Available Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained.

  13. Sequence Polymorphisms at the REDUCED DORMANCY5 Pseudophosphatase Underlie Natural Variation in Arabidopsis Dormancy1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yong; Song, Baoxing; Née, Guillaume; Kramer, Katharina; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy controls the timing of germination, which regulates the adaptation of plants to their environment and influences agricultural production. The time of germination is under strong natural selection and shows variation within species due to local adaptation. The identification of genes underlying dormancy quantitative trait loci is a major scientific challenge, which is relevant for agricultural and ecological goals. In this study, we describe the identification of the DELAY OF GERMINATION18 (DOG18) quantitative trait locus, which was identified as a factor in natural variation for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). DOG18 encodes a member of the clade A of the type 2C protein phosphatases family, which we previously identified as the REDUCED DORMANCY5 (RDO5) gene. DOG18/RDO5 shows a relatively high frequency of loss-of-function alleles in natural accessions restricted to northwestern Europe. The loss of dormancy in these loss-of-function alleles can be compensated for by genetic factors like DOG1 and DOG6, and by environmental factors such as low temperature. RDO5 does not have detectable phosphatase activity. Analysis of the phosphoproteome in dry and imbibed seeds revealed a general decrease in protein phosphorylation during seed imbibition that is enhanced in the rdo5 mutant. We conclude that RDO5 acts as a pseudophosphatase that inhibits dephosphorylation during seed imbibition. PMID:27288362

  14. Structural genomic changes underlie alternative reproductive strategies in the ruff (Philomachus pugnax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhaney, Sangeet; Fan, Guangyi; Widemo, Fredrik; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Thalmann, Doreen Schwochow; Hoeppner, Marc P; Kerje, Susanne; Gustafson, Ulla; Shi, Chengcheng; Zhang, He; Chen, Wenbin; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Leihuan; Wang, Jiahao; Liang, Enjing; Wu, Qiong; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Xu, Xun; Höglund, Jacob; Liu, Xin; Andersson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The ruff is a Palearctic wader with a spectacular lekking behavior where highly ornamented males compete for females. This bird has one of the most remarkable mating systems in the animal kingdom, comprising three different male morphs (independents, satellites and faeders) that differ in behavior, plumage color and body size. Remarkably, the satellite and faeder morphs are controlled by dominant alleles. Here we have used whole-genome sequencing and resolved the enigma of how such complex phenotypic differences can have a simple genetic basis. The Satellite and Faeder alleles are both associated with a 4.5-Mb inversion that occurred about 3.8 million years ago. We propose an evolutionary scenario where the Satellite chromosome arose by a rare recombination event about 500,000 years ago. The ruff mating system is the result of an evolutionary process in which multiple genetic changes contributing to phenotypic differences between morphs have accumulated within the inverted region.

  15. Distinct physiological responses underlie defoliation tolerance in African lawn and bunch grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T.M.; Kumordzi, B.B.; Fokkema, W.; Valls Fox, H.; Olff, H.

    Premise of research. African grass communities are dominated by two distinct functional types: tall, caespitose bunch grasses and short, spreading lawn grasses. Functional type coexistence has been explained by differences in defoliation tolerance, because lawn grasses occur in intensively grazed

  16. Psychosocial risk factors underlie the link between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and overweight at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Reinhardt, Alexander; Bagus, Elena; Wollenberg, Birgit; Schroer, Andrea; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The link between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and increased body weight is well established, while the underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. Since increased body weight and ADHD symptoms have been found to be associated with psychosocial risk factors in childhood, we analyzed whether the psychosocial risks explain the association between the two conditions. The sample consisted of 360 children (age range 6-7 years, 173 boys) attending the obligatory medical health exam before school entry. The childrens' height and weight were measured during the examination. ADHD symptoms were ascertained by parent-report questionnaires. Psychosocial risks were ascertained by a structured interview. The link between ADHD symptoms and body weight could be completely explained by cumulative psychosocial risks while controlling for gender, symptoms of depression/anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder of the child, maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental body mass index, and potential diagnosis of ADHD in the parents. In current models pertaining to the etiology of overweight/obesity and ADHD, chronic stress caused by psychosocial adversity is assumed to act as a trigger for these conditions. Psychosocial risks experienced during childhood may activate processes that specifically lead to the combined ADHD-overweight phenotype.

  17. Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Bosch, Kirsten A. Van Den; Wijermans, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind. PMID:25954212

  18. Does biology underlie the oldest profession? Prostitution and sex disparities in john behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, J Eagle; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Higgins, George E; Tewksbury, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study considers a biosocial explanation of why johns, the purchasers of commercial sex exchanges, are almost exclusively male. Trivers's theory of parental investment and sexual selection predicts that differential parental investment by biological sex will lead to divergent sex-based reproductive instincts. The sex bearing the larger parental investment will tend to be choosier whereas the sex bearing the lesser investment will tend to be relatively indiscriminate and competitive for access to sexual resources. We hypothesized that men are more likely than women to offer objects of value in exchange for access to sexual resources. Using self-reports of sex-purchasing from Add Health data (N = 14,544), we found that maleness was a robust predictor of john behavior even after controlling for well-known criminogenic risk factors.

  19. Interacting adaptive processes with different timescales underlie short-term motor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice A Smith

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple processes may contribute to motor skill acquisition, but it is thought that many of these processes require sleep or the passage of long periods of time ranging from several hours to many days or weeks. Here we demonstrate that within a timescale of minutes, two distinct fast-acting processes drive motor adaptation. One process responds weakly to error but retains information well, whereas the other responds strongly but has poor retention. This two-state learning system makes the surprising prediction of spontaneous recovery (or adaptation rebound if error feedback is clamped at zero following an adaptation-extinction training episode. We used a novel paradigm to experimentally confirm this prediction in human motor learning of reaching, and we show that the interaction between the learning processes in this simple two-state system provides a unifying explanation for several different, apparently unrelated, phenomena in motor adaptation including savings, anterograde interference, spontaneous recovery, and rapid unlearning. Our results suggest that motor adaptation depends on at least two distinct neural systems that have different sensitivity to error and retain information at different rates.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Christine E.; Enriquez, Ana B.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development. PMID:27821748

  1. Different mechanisms underlie post-menarcheal increase in depression and weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Junilla Larsen; PhD Judith Dubas; MD E.J.M. Wouters; PhD Rinie Geenen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression and being overweight are correlated health problems in adulthood. Adolescence is a significant period for the onset and increase of depression and obesity, especially among girls. Pubertal development also occurs with concomitant increases in weight. Thus, it is not yet clear

  2. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R; Dixon, M J

    2000-06-12

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells.

  3. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS...... remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous...... of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells....

  4. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  5. Annual rhythms that underlie phenology : Biological time-keeping meets environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Barbara; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Sheriff, Michael J; Hut, Roelof A; Foster, Russell; Barnes, Brian M; Dominoni, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal recurrence of biological processes (phenology) and its relationship to environmental change is recognized as being of key scientific and public concern, but its current study largely overlooks the extent to which phenology is based on biological time-keeping mechanisms. We highlight the

  6. Biallelic Mutations in CRB1 Underlie Autosomal Recessive Familial Foveal Retinoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ajoy; Ng, Judith; Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Tavares, Erika; Maynes, Jason T; Wright, Thomas; Tiwari, Amit; Tumber, Anupreet; Li, Shuning; Hanson, James V M; Bahr, Angela; MacDonald, Heather; Bähr, Luzy; Westall, Carol; Berger, Wolfgang; Cremers, Frans P M; den Hollander, Anneke I; Héon, Elise

    2016-05-01

    To identify the genetic cause of autosomal recessive familial foveal retinoschisis (FFR). A female sibship with FFR was identified (Family-A; 17 and 16 years, respectively); panel based genetic sequencing (132 genes) and comparative genome hybridization (142 genes) were performed. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on both siblings using the Illumina-HiSeq-2500 platform. A sporadic male (Family-B; 35 years) with FFR underwent WES using Illumina NextSeq500. All three affected subjects underwent detailed ophthalmologic evaluation including fundus photography, autofluorescence imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and full-field electroretinogram (ERG). Panel-based genetic testing identified two presumed disease causing variants in CRB1 (p.Gly123Cys and p.Cys948Tyr) in Family-A sibship; no deletion or duplication was detected. WES analysis in the sibship identified nine genes with two or more shared nonsynonymous rare coding sequence variants; CRB1 remained a strong candidate gene, and CRB1 variants segregated with the disease. WES in Family-B identified two presumed disease causing variants in CRB1 (p.Ile167_Gly169del and p.Arg764Cys) that segregated with the disease phenotype. Distance visual acuity was 20/40 or better in all three affected except for the left eye of the older subject (Family-B), which showed macular atrophy. Fundus evaluation showed spoke-wheel appearance at the macula in five eyes. The SD-OCT showed macular schitic changes in inner and outer nuclear layers in all cases. The ERG responses were normal in all subjects. This is the first report to implicate CRB1 as the underlying cause of FFR. This phenotype forms the mildest end of the spectrum of CRB1-related diseases.

  7. Polymorphisms in the yeast galactose sensor underlie a natural continuum of nutrient-decision phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Julius

    2017-01-01

    In nature, microbes often need to "decide" which of several available nutrients to utilize, a choice that depends on a cell’s inherent preference and external nutrient levels. While natural environments can have mixtures of different nutrients, phenotypic variation in microbes’ decisions of which nutrient to utilize is poorly studied. Here, we quantified differences in the concentration of glucose and galactose required to induce galactose-responsive (GAL) genes across 36 wild S. cerevisiae strains. Using bulk segregant analysis, we found that a locus containing the galactose sensor GAL3 was associated with differences in GAL signaling in eight different crosses. Using allele replacements, we confirmed that GAL3 is the major driver of GAL induction variation, and that GAL3 allelic variation alone can explain as much as 90% of the variation in GAL induction in a cross. The GAL3 variants we found modulate the diauxic lag, a selectable trait. These results suggest that ecological constraints on the galactose pathway may have led to variation in a single protein, allowing cells to quantitatively tune their response to nutrient changes in the environment. PMID:28542190

  8. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  9. Distinct endothelial pathways underlie sexual dimorphism in vascular auto-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Melissa V; Bubb, Kristen J; Noyce, Alastair; Villar, Inmaculada C; Duchene, Johan; Hobbs, Adrian J; Scotland, Ramona S; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pre-menopausal females have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with age-matched males, implying differences in the mechanisms and pathways regulating vasoactivity. In small arteries, myogenic tone (constriction in response to raised intraluminal pressure) is a major determinant of vascular resistance. Endothelium-derived dilators, particularly NO, tonically moderate myogenic tone and, because the endothelium is an important target for female sex hormones, we investigated whether NO-mediated moderation of myogenic tone differed between the sexes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pressure–diameter or relaxation concentration–response curves to the NO donor spermine-NO or soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation (BAY41-2272) were constructed before and following drug intervention in murine mesenteric resistance arteries. Hypotensive responses to activators of the NO-sGC pathway were determined. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used for expression analysis. KEY RESULTS NO synthase inhibition enhanced myogenic tone of arteries of both sexes while block of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) enhanced responses in arteries of females only. Spermine-NO concentration-dependently relaxed mesenteric arteries isolated from either sex. However, while inhibition of sGC activity attenuated responses of arteries from male mice only, endothelial denudation attenuated responses of arteries from females only. BAY41-2272 and spermine-NO-induced vasodilatation and hypotension were greater in males than in females. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS NO moderated myogenic tone in arteries of male mice by a sGC-dependent pathway while EDHF was the predominant endothelial regulator in arteries of females. This is a potentially important sexual dimorphism in NO-mediated reactivity and further implicates EDHF as the predominant endothelial vasodilator in female resistance arteries. PMID:22540539

  10. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  11. Integrating Diverse Types of Genomic Data to Identify Genes that Underlie Adverse Pregnancy Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Hirbo

    Full Text Available Progress in understanding complex genetic diseases has been bolstered by synthetic approaches that overlay diverse data types and analyses to identify functionally important genes. Pre-term birth (PTB, a major complication of pregnancy, is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. A major obstacle in addressing PTB is that the mechanisms controlling parturition and birth timing remain poorly understood. Integrative approaches that overlay datasets derived from comparative genomics with function-derived ones have potential to advance our understanding of the genetics of birth timing, and thus provide insights into the genes that may contribute to PTB. We intersected data from fast evolving coding and non-coding gene regions in the human and primate lineage with data from genes expressed in the placenta, from genes that show enriched expression only in the placenta, as well as from genes that are differentially expressed in four distinct PTB clinical subtypes. A large fraction of genes that are expressed in placenta, and differentially expressed in PTB clinical subtypes (23-34% are fast evolving, and are associated with functions that include adhesion neurodevelopmental and immune processes. Functional categories of genes that express fast evolution in coding regions differ from those linked to fast evolution in non-coding regions. Finally, there is a surprising lack of overlap between fast evolving genes that are differentially expressed in four PTB clinical subtypes. Integrative approaches, especially those that incorporate evolutionary perspectives, can be successful in identifying potential genetic contributions to complex genetic diseases, such as PTB.

  12. Global Epigenetic Changes May Underlie Ethnic Differences and Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    changes may represent the integration of environmental or lifestyle exposures and genetic predisposition to prostate cancer . Such events may differ...somatic epigenetic alterations may appear earlier during cancer development, as well as more commonly and consistently, than genetic changes.3 Furthermore...40. Other groups have reported aberrant expression of FZD1 in colon cancer ,41 breast cancer cells42 and in neuroblastoma,43 suggesting a potential role

  13. Four themes that underlie the high-level nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1982, after years of deliberation and in response to mounting pressures from environmental, industrial, and other groups, the US Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, which was signed into law by the President in January 1983. That legislation signified a major milestone in the nation's management of high-level nuclear waste, since it represented a consensus among the nation's lawmakers to tackle a problem that had evaded solution for decades. Implementation of the NWPA has proven to be exceedingly difficult, as attested by the discord generated by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) geologic repository and monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility siting activities. The vision that motivated the crafters of the 1982 act became blurred as opposition to the law increased. After many hearings that underscored the public's concern with the waste management program, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act), which steamlined and focused the program, while establishing three independent bodies: the MRS Review Commission, the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, and the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator. Yet, even as the program evolves, several themes characterizing the nation's effort to solve the waste management problem continue to prevail. The first of these themes has to do with social consciousness, and the others that follow deal with technical leadership, public involvement and risk perceptions, and program conservatism

  14. Homozygous sequence variants in the WNT10B gene underlie split hand/foot malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Ullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, also known as ectrodactyly is a rare genetic disorder. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of limb malformations characterized by absence/hypoplasia and/or median cleft of hands and/or feet. To date, seven genes underlying SHFM have been identified. This study described four consanguineous families (A-D segregating SHFM in an autosomal recessive manner. Linkage in the families was established to chromosome 12p11.1–q13.13 harboring WNT10B gene. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous nonsense variant (p.Gln154* in exon 4 of the WNT10B gene in two families (A and B. In the other two families (C and D, a previously reported variant (c.300_306dupAGGGCGG; p.Leu103Argfs*53 was detected. This study further expands the spectrum of the sequence variants reported in the WNT10B gene, which result in the split hand/foot malformation.

  15. UV-Associated Mutations Underlie the Etiology of MCV-Negative Merkel Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Q; Waldeck, Kelly; Vergara, Ismael A; Schröder, Jan; Madore, Jason; Wilmott, James S; Colebatch, Andrew J; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Li, Jason; Lupat, Richard; Semple, Timothy; Arnau, Gisela Mir; Fellowes, Andrew; Leonard, J Helen; Hruby, George; Mann, Graham J; Thompson, John F; Cullinane, Carleen; Johnston, Meredith; Shackleton, Mark; Sandhu, Shahneen; Bowtell, David D L; Johnstone, Ricky W; Fox, Stephen B; McArthur, Grant A; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Scolyer, Richard A; Gill, Anthony J; Hicks, Rodney J; Tothill, Richard W

    2015-12-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon, but highly malignant, cutaneous tumor. Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV) has been implicated in a majority of MCC tumors; however, viral-negative tumors have been reported to be more prevalent in some geographic regions subject to high sun exposure. While the impact of MCV and viral T-antigens on MCC development has been extensively investigated, little is known about the etiology of viral-negative tumors. We performed targeted capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing of 619 cancer genes to compare the gene mutations and copy number alterations in MCV-positive (n = 13) and -negative (n = 21) MCC tumors and cell lines. We found that MCV-positive tumors displayed very low mutation rates, but MCV-negative tumors exhibited a high mutation burden associated with a UV-induced DNA damage signature. All viral-negative tumors harbored mutations in RB1, TP53, and a high frequency of mutations in NOTCH1 and FAT1. Additional mutated or amplified cancer genes of potential clinical importance included PI3K (PIK3CA, AKT1, PIK3CG) and MAPK (HRAS, NF1) pathway members and the receptor tyrosine kinase FGFR2. Furthermore, looking ahead to potential therapeutic strategies encompassing immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD-L1, we also assessed the status of T-cell-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 in MCC tumors. A subset of viral-negative tumors exhibited high TILs and PD-L1 expression, corresponding with the higher mutation load within these cancers. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the underlying biology of viral-negative MCC and paves the road for further investigation into new treatment opportunities. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Disruptions in the left frontoparietal network underlie resting state endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Richter, Anja; Wolter, Sarah; Goya-Maldonado, Roberto; Gruber, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Advances in functional brain imaging have improved the search for potential endophenotypic markers in schizophrenia. Here, we employed independent component analysis (ICA) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) in resting state fMRI on a sample of 35 schizophrenia patients, 20 first-degree relatives and 35 control subjects. Analysis on ICA-derived networks revealed increased functional connectivity between the left frontoparietal network (FPN) and left temporal and parietal regions in schizophrenia patients (P schizophrenia patients from all other nodes of the left FPN (P schizophrenia has been previously associated with a range of abnormalities, including formal thought disorder, working memory dysfunction and sensory hallucinations. Our analysis uncovered new potential endophenotypic markers of schizophrenia and shed light on the organization of the left FPN in patients and their first-degree relatives. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1741-1750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtens, Denise M.; Bain, James R.; Reisetter, Anna C.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Lowe, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ?28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregna...

  18. Distinct brain networks underlie cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Paul J.; Niethammer, Martin; Sako, Wataru; Tang, Chris C.; Nazem, Amir; Gordon, Marc L.; Brandt, Vicky; Dhawan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) derives from the same network pathology. Methods: We analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scans from 40 patients with AD and 40 age-matched healthy controls from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and scanned an additional 10 patients with AD and 10 healthy controls at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research to derive an AD-related metabolic pattern (ADRP) analogous to our previously established PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) and PD motor-related pattern (PDRP). We computed individual subject expression values for ADRP and PDCP in 89 patients with PD and correlated summary scores for cognitive functioning with network expression. We also evaluated changes in ADRP and PDCP expression in a separate group of 15 patients with PD scanned serially over a 4-year period. Results: Analysis revealed a significant AD-related metabolic topography characterized by covarying metabolic reductions in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and parietal and temporal association regions. Expression of ADRP, but not PDCP, was elevated in both AD groups and correlated with worse cognitive summary scores. Patients with PD showed slight ADRP expression, due to topographic overlap with the network underlying PD motor-related pattern degeneration, but only their PDCP expression values increased as cognitive function and executive performance declined. Longitudinal data in PD disclosed an analogous dissociation of network expression. Conclusions: Cognitive dysfunction in PD is associated with a specific brain network that is largely spatially and functionally distinct from that seen in relation to AD. PMID:27708130

  19. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Foley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS for Parkinson’s disease (PD. The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results. As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion. Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS.

  20. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Bahl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  1. Statistical Learning and Adaptive Decision-Making Underlie Human Response Time Variability in Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response time (RT is an oft-reported behavioral measure in psychological and neurocognitive experiments, but the high level of observed trial-to-trial variability in this measure has often limited its usefulness. Here, we combine computational modeling and psychophysics to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in this noisy measure reflect dynamic computations in human statistical learning and corresponding cognitive adjustments. We present data from the stop-signal task, in which subjects respond to a go stimulus on each trial, unless instructed not to by a subsequent, infrequently presented stop signal. We model across-trial learning of stop signal frequency, P(stop, and stop-signal onset time, SSD (stop-signal delay, with a Bayesian hidden Markov model, and within-trial decision-making with an optimal stochastic control model. The combined model predicts that RT should increase with both expected P(stop and SSD. The human behavioral data (n=20 bear out this prediction, showing P(stop and SSD both to be significant, independent predictors of RT, with P(stop being a more prominent predictor in 75% of the subjects, and SSD being more prominent in the remaining 25%. The results demonstrate that humans indeed readily internalize environmental statistics and adjust their cognitive/behavioral strategy accordingly, and that subtle patterns in RT variability can serve as a valuable tool for validating models of statistical learning and decision-making. More broadly, the modeling tools presented in this work can be generalized to a large body of behavioral paradigms, in order to extract insights about cognitive and neural processing from apparently quite noisy behavioral measures. We also discuss how this behaviorally validated model can then be used to conduct model-based analysis of neural data, in order to help identify specific brain areas for representing and encoding key computational quantities in learning and decision-making.

  2. Receptor May Underlie Gender Differences in Response to Smoking Cessation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Categories Basic Science Bulletin Board Director's Perspective Narrative of Discovery NIDA @ Work Prevention Public Health Treatment ... Students Employees Hispanics or Latinos Inmates and Parolees International Populations LGBT Populations Low Income Populations Men Military ...

  3. Coupled neural systems underlie the production and comprehension of naturalistic narrative speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Lauren J; Honey, Christopher J; Simony, Erez; Poeppel, David; Hasson, Uri

    2014-10-28

    Neuroimaging studies of language have typically focused on either production or comprehension of single speech utterances such as syllables, words, or sentences. In this study we used a new approach to functional MRI acquisition and analysis to characterize the neural responses during production and comprehension of complex real-life speech. First, using a time-warp based intrasubject correlation method, we identified all areas that are reliably activated in the brains of speakers telling a 15-min-long narrative. Next, we identified areas that are reliably activated in the brains of listeners as they comprehended that same narrative. This allowed us to identify networks of brain regions specific to production and comprehension, as well as those that are shared between the two processes. The results indicate that production of a real-life narrative is not localized to the left hemisphere but recruits an extensive bilateral network, which overlaps extensively with the comprehension system. Moreover, by directly comparing the neural activity time courses during production and comprehension of the same narrative we were able to identify not only the spatial overlap of activity but also areas in which the neural activity is coupled across the speaker's and listener's brains during production and comprehension of the same narrative. We demonstrate widespread bilateral coupling between production- and comprehension-related processing within both linguistic and nonlinguistic areas, exposing the surprising extent of shared processes across the two systems.

  4. Lineage-specific gene radiations underlie the evolution of novel betalain pigmentation in Caryophyllales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel F; Yang, Ya; Gandia-Herrero, Fernando; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane K S; Moore, Michael J; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Betalain pigments are unique to the Caryophyllales and structurally and biosynthetically distinct from anthocyanins. Two key enzymes within the betalain synthesis pathway have been identified: 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA) that catalyzes the formation of betalamic acid and CYP76AD1, a cytochrome P450 gene that catalyzes the formation of cyclo-DOPA. We performed phylogenetic analyses to reveal the evolutionary history of the DODA and CYP76AD1 lineages and in the context of an ancestral reconstruction of pigment states we explored the evolution of these genes in relation to the complex evolution of pigments in Caryophylalles. Duplications within the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages arose just before the origin of betalain pigmentation in the core Caryophyllales. The duplications gave rise to DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α isoforms that appear specific to betalain synthesis. Both betalain-specific isoforms were then lost or downregulated in the anthocyanic Molluginaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Our findings suggest a single origin of the betalain synthesis pathway, with neofunctionalization following gene duplications in the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages. Loss of DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α in anthocyanic taxa suggests that betalain pigmentation has been lost twice in Caryophyllales, and exclusion of betalain pigments from anthocyanic taxa is mediated through gene loss or downregulation. [Correction added after online publication 13 May 2015: in the last two paragraphs of the Summary the gene name CYP761A was changed to CYP76AD1.]. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Mullen, Sean P

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group, suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted predation studies in Costa Rica using artificial butterfly facsimiles. Specifically, we predicted that nontoxic, palatable Adelpha species that do not feed on host plants in the family Rubiaceae would benefit from sharing a locally convergent wing pattern with the presumably toxic Rubiaceae-feeding species via reduced predation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the presumed mimic was attacked significantly more than its locally convergent model at a frequency paralleling attack rates on both novel and palatable prey. Although these data reveal the first evidence for protection from avian predators by the supposed toxic, Rubiaceae-feeding Adelpha species, we conclude that imprecise mimetic patterns have high costs for Batesian mimics in the tropics. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Different brain circuits underlie motor and perceptual representations of temporal intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueti, Doemnica; Walsh, Vincent; Frith, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    In everyday life, temporal information is used for both perception and action, but whether these two functions reflect the operation of similar or different neural circuits is unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of processing temporal...... information when either a motor or a perceptual representation is used. Participants viewed two identical sequences of visual stimuli and used the information differently to perform either a temporal reproduction or a temporal estimation task. By comparing brain activity evoked by these tasks and control...... conditions, we explored commonalities and differences in brain areas involved in reproduction and estimation of temporal intervals. The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were commonly active in both temporal tasks, consistent with suggestions that perception and production of time are subserved by the same...

  7. Which Second Language Learning Theories Underlie Language Courses Offered by Slovene Private Language Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marša Meznarič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with language courses offered by private language schools in Slovenia. It examines who the people in charge of the language schools are, what criteria new teachers have to meet to become an employee of a school, whether the methodology applied (if any has been carefully chosen, what the teaching techniques are and who chooses them. Second language method discoveries have been subjected to perennial criticism and scepticism over the last half of century. Teachers around the globe have been confused by the constant shifts in the popularity of different methods. The article examines the con sequences of the abovementioned circumstances. The 15 interviews conducted with private language schools’ managers have generated valuable information on the level of professionalism in this area of business. The results have shown that most of the randomly chosen schools are managed by language professionals or by economists who employ a linguist for controlling the teaching and learning processes and that the majority of schools does adopt a particular approach or method of teaching. Teacher trainees receive a lot of support and guidance prior to teaching in a school. In most cases, teachers are free to choose techniques of teaching according to their preferences, providing the techniques are not in conflict with the general schools’ principles. The criteria for employment vary considerably. Nearly all managers would employ a professional language teacher with experience only, but others demand that the teacher be a native speaker regardless of his/her education. Several stress the importance of personal characteristics and would consider employing only lighthearted and energetic teachers. Teachers’ work and students’ progress are often evaluated.

  8. Habitat type and dispersal mode underlie the capacity for plant migration across an intermittent seaway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, J R P; Holland, B R; Beeton, N J; Schönfeld, B; Rossetto, M; Vaillancourt, R E; Jordan, G J

    2017-10-17

    Investigating species distributions across geographic barriers is a commonly utilized method in biogeography to help understand the functional traits that allow plants to disperse successfully. Here the biogeographic pattern analysis approach is extended by using chloroplast DNA whole-genome 'mining' to examine the functional traits that have impacted the dispersal of widespread temperate forest species across an intermittent seaway, the 200 km wide Bass Strait of south-eastern Australia. Multiple, co-distributed species of both dry and wet forests were sampled from five regions on either side of the Strait to obtain insights into past dispersal of these biomes via seed. Using a next-generation sequencing-based pool-seq method, the sharing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was estimated between all five regions in the chloroplast genome. A total of 3335 SNPs were detected in 20 species. SNP sharing patterns between regions provided evidence for significant seed-mediated gene flow across the study area, including across Bass Strait. A higher proportion of shared SNPs in dry forest species, especially those dispersed by birds, compared with wet forest species suggests that dry forest species have undergone greater seed-mediated gene flow across the study region during past climatic oscillations and sea level changes associated with the interglacial/glacial cycles. This finding is consistent with a greater propensity for long-distance dispersal for species of open habitats and proxy evidence that expansive areas of dry vegetation occurred during times of exposure of Bass Strait during glacials. Overall, this study provides novel genetic evidence that habitat type and its interaction with dispersal traits are major influences on dispersal of plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Piezo- and Flexoelectric Membrane Materials Underlie Fast Biological Motors in the Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Breneman, Kathryn D.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear is remarkably sensitive to quiet sounds, exhibits over 100dB dynamic range, and has the exquisite ability to discriminate closely spaced tones even in the presence of noise. This performance is achieved, in part, through active mechanical amplification of vibrations by sensory hair cells within the inner ear. All hair cells are endowed with a bundle of motile microvilli, stereocilia, located at the apical end of the cell, and the more specialized outer hair cells (OHC’...

  10. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry, designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cry(b mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain-as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass.

  11. Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Justin; Pham, Truc T.; Hill, Nichola J.; Hussein, Islam T. M.; Ma, Eric J.; Easterday, Bernard C.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David E.; Kayali, Ghazi; Krauss, Scott; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.; Swartz, Michael D.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study, we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic to wild bird populations was restricted to within a geographic region. In contrast, spillover from wild to domestic populations occurred both within and between regions. Wild birds mediated long-distance dispersal at intercontinental scales whereas viral spread among poultry populations was a major driver of regional spread. Viral spread between poultry flocks frequently originated from persistent lineages circulating in regions of intensive poultry production. Our analysis of long-term surveillance data demonstrates that meaningful insights can be inferred from integrating ecosystem into phylogeographic reconstructions that may be consequential for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection. PMID:27166585

  12. Compound heterozygous NOTCH1 mutations underlie impaired cardiogenesis in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Jeanne L; Hrstka, Sybil C L; Evans, Jared M; O'Byrne, Megan M; de Andrade, Mariza; O'Leary, Patrick W; Nelson, Timothy J; Olson, Timothy M

    2015-09-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart defect (CHD) that necessitates staged, single ventricle surgical palliation. An increased frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been observed among relatives. We postulated number of mutant alleles as a molecular basis for variable CHD expression in an extended family comprised of an HLHS proband and four family members who underwent echocardiography and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Dermal fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were procured from the proband-parent trio and bioengineered into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac phenotyping revealed aortic valve atresia and a slit-like left ventricular cavity in the HLHS proband, isolated bicuspid pulmonary valve in his mother, BAV in a maternal 4° relative, and no CHD in his father or sister. Filtering of WGS for rare, functional variants that segregated with CHD and were compound heterozygous in the HLHS proband identified NOTCH1 as the sole candidate gene. An unreported missense mutation (P1964L) in the cytoplasmic domain, segregating with semilunar valve malformation, was maternally inherited and a rare missense mutation (P1256L) in the extracellular domain, clinically silent in the heterozygous state, was paternally inherited. Patient-specific iPSCs exhibited diminished transcript levels of NOTCH1 signaling pathway components, impaired myocardiogenesis, and a higher prevalence of heterogeneous myofilament organization. Extended, phenotypically characterized families enable WGS-derived variant filtering for plausible Mendelian modes of inheritance, a powerful strategy to discover molecular underpinnings of CHD. Identification of compound heterozygous NOTCH1 mutations and iPSC-based functional modeling implicate mutant allele burden and impaired myogenic potential as mechanisms for HLHS.

  13. Weakly-bound Dimers that Underlie the Crystal Nucleation Precursors in Lysozyme Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Mohammad; Lubchenko, Vassiliy; Conrad, Jacinta; Vekilov, Peter; Mccabe, Jacob; Angel, Laurence; Hawke, David; Byington, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Protein crystallization is central to understanding of molecular structure in biology, a vital part of processes in the pharmaceutical industry, and a crucial component of numerous disease pathologies. Crystallization starts with nucleation and how nucleation proceeds determines the crystallization rate and essential properties of the resulting crystal population. Recent results with several proteins indicate that crystals nucleate within preformed mesoscopic protein-rich clusters. The origin...

  14. Gender-Specific Molecular and Clinical Features underlie Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Assunta De; Archer, Michael A.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Dao, Nhien; Sciaranghella, Daniele; Sideris, Antonios C.; Zheng, Yifan; Holman, Alexander G.; Wang, Yaoyu E.; Dal Cin, Paola S.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Rubio, Renee; Croft, Larry; Quackenbush, John; Sugarbaker, Peter E.; Munir, Kiara J.; Battilana, Jesse R.; Gustafson, Corinne E.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Ching, Soo Meng; Wong, James; Tay, Liang Chung; Rudd, Stephen; Hercus, Robert; Sugarbaker, David J.; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that occurs more frequently in men, but is associated with longer survival in women. Insight into the survival advantage of female patients may advance the molecular understanding of MPM and identify therapeutic interventions that will improve the prognosis for all MPM patients. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing of tumor specimens from 10 MPM patients and matched control samples to identify potential driver mutations underlying MPM. We identified molecular differences associated with gender and histology. Specifically, single-nucleotide variants of BAP1 were observed in 21% of cases, with lower mutation rates observed in sarcomatoid MPM (p<0.001). Chromosome 22q loss was more frequently associated with the epithelioid than that non-epitheliod histology (p=0.037), whereas CDKN2A deletions occurred more frequently in non-epithelioid subtypes among men (p=0.021) and were correlated with shorter overall survival for the entire cohort (p=0.002) and for men (p=0.012). Furthermore, women were more likely to harbor TP53 mutations (p=0.004). Novel mutations were found in genes associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway, including MYH9 and RHOA. Moreover, expression levels of BAP1, MYH9, and RHOA were significantly higher in non-epithelioid tumors, and were associated with significant reduction in survival of the entire cohort and across gender subgroups. Collectively, our findings indicate that diverse mechanisms highly related to gender and histology appear to drive MPM. PMID:26554828

  15. Disrupted sensorimotor and social–cognitive networks underlie symptoms in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; McAdams, Harrison M.; Greenstein, Dede; Lalonde, Francois; Clasen, Liv; Watsky, Rebecca E.; Shora, Lorie; Ordonez, Anna E.; Raznahan, Armin; Martin, Alex; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith

    2016-01-01

    See Lancaster and Hall (doi:10.1093/awv330) for a scientific commentary on this article. Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered connectivity among brain networks. In the current study we examined large-scale network interactions in childhood-onset schizophrenia, a severe form of the disease with salient genetic and neurobiological abnormalities. Using a data-driven analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging fluctuations, we characterized data from 19 patients with schizophrenia and 26 typically developing controls, group matched for age, sex, handedness, and magnitude of head motion during scanning. This approach identified 26 regions with decreased functional correlations in schizophrenia compared to controls. These regions were found to organize into two function-related networks, the first with regions associated with social and higher-level cognitive processing, and the second with regions involved in somatosensory and motor processing. Analyses of across- and within-network regional interactions revealed pronounced across-network decreases in functional connectivity in the schizophrenia group, as well as a set of across-network relationships with overall negative coupling indicating competitive or opponent network dynamics. Critically, across-network decreases in functional connectivity in schizophrenia predicted the severity of positive symptoms in the disorder, such as hallucinations and delusions. By contrast, decreases in functional connectivity within the social-cognitive network of regions predicted the severity of negative symptoms, such as impoverished speech and flattened affect. These results point toward the role that abnormal integration of sensorimotor and social-cognitive processing may play in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of schizophrenia. PMID:26493637

  16. The Influence of Interactions Between Music and Lyrics: What Factors Underlie the Intelligibility of Sung Text?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ginsborg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This document provides a brief commentary on Johnson, Huron and Collister's (2013 article entitled "Music and lyrics interactions and their influence on recognition of sung words: An investigation of word frequency, rhyme, metric stress, vocal timbre and repetition priming." The commentary is written from the point of view of someone who is not only a fellow researcher in the field, but also a former professional singer and singing teacher. It begins by summarizing a previous study by two of the authors and the research of two further teams of investigators in the field. It concludes by focusing on each of the authors' eight hypotheses, findings and discussion in turn.

  17. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech-Evidence from deep transfer learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence) in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech) and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other). In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies-the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders) for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain.

  18. Shared acoustic codes underlie emotional communication in music and speech—Evidence from deep transfer learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Music and speech exhibit striking similarities in the communication of emotions in the acoustic domain, in such a way that the communication of specific emotions is achieved, at least to a certain extent, by means of shared acoustic patterns. From an Affective Sciences points of view, determining the degree of overlap between both domains is fundamental to understand the shared mechanisms underlying such phenomenon. From a Machine learning perspective, the overlap between acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech opens new possibilities to enlarge the amount of data available to develop music and speech emotion recognition systems. In this article, we investigate time-continuous predictions of emotion (Arousal and Valence) in music and speech, and the Transfer Learning between these domains. We establish a comparative framework including intra- (i.e., models trained and tested on the same modality, either music or speech) and cross-domain experiments (i.e., models trained in one modality and tested on the other). In the cross-domain context, we evaluated two strategies—the direct transfer between domains, and the contribution of Transfer Learning techniques (feature-representation-transfer based on Denoising Auto Encoders) for reducing the gap in the feature space distributions. Our results demonstrate an excellent cross-domain generalisation performance with and without feature representation transfer in both directions. In the case of music, cross-domain approaches outperformed intra-domain models for Valence estimation, whereas for Speech intra-domain models achieve the best performance. This is the first demonstration of shared acoustic codes for emotional expression in music and speech in the time-continuous domain. PMID:28658285

  19. Shared mushroom body circuits underlie visual and olfactory memories in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katrin; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Dylla, Kristina V; Knapek, Stephan; Aso, Yoshinori; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    In nature, animals form memories associating reward or punishment with stimuli from different sensory modalities, such as smells and colors. It is unclear, however, how distinct sensory memories are processed in the brain. We established appetitive and aversive visual learning assays for Drosophila that are comparable to the widely used olfactory learning assays. These assays share critical features, such as reinforcing stimuli (sugar reward and electric shock punishment), and allow direct comparison of the cellular requirements for visual and olfactory memories. We found that the same subsets of dopamine neurons drive formation of both sensory memories. Furthermore, distinct yet partially overlapping subsets of mushroom body intrinsic neurons are required for visual and olfactory memories. Thus, our results suggest that distinct sensory memories are processed in a common brain center. Such centralization of related brain functions is an economical design that avoids the repetition of similar circuit motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02395.001 PMID:25139953

  20. Dynamic 3D cell rearrangements guided by a fibronectin matrix underlie somitogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Martins

    Full Text Available Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development. In chick embryos, segmentation of a new pair of somites occurs every 90 minutes and involves a mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition of cells from the presomitic mesoderm. Little is known about the cellular rearrangements involved, and, although it is known that the fibronectin extracellular matrix is required, its actual role remains elusive. Using 3D and 4D imaging of somite formation we discovered that somitogenesis consists of a complex choreography of individual cell movements. Epithelialization starts medially with the formation of a transient epithelium of cuboidal cells, followed by cell elongation and reorganization into a pseudostratified epithelium of spindle-shaped epitheloid cells. Mesenchymal cells are then recruited to this medial epithelium through accretion, a phenomenon that spreads to all sides, except the lateral side of the forming somite, which epithelializes by cell elongation and intercalation. Surprisingly, an important contribution to the somite epithelium also comes from the continuous egression of mesenchymal cells from the core into the epithelium via its apical side. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix assembly first slows down the rate, and then halts somite formation, without affecting pseudopodial activity or cell body movements. Rather, cell elongation, centripetal alignment, N-cadherin polarization and egression are impaired, showing that the fibronectin matrix plays a role in polarizing and guiding the exploratory behavior of somitic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first 4D in vivo recording of a full mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition. This approach brought new insights into this event and highlighted the importance of the extracellular matrix as a guiding cue during morphogenesis.

  1. Biallelic Mutations in CRB1 Underlie Autosomal Recessive Familial Foveal Retinoschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, A.; Ng, J.; Gerth-Kahlert, C.; Tavares, E.; Maynes, J.T.; Wright, T.; Tiwari, A.; Tumber, A.; Li, S.; Hanson, J.V.; Bahr, A.; MacDonald, H.; Bahr, L.; Westall, C.; Berger, W.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den; Heon, E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the genetic cause of autosomal recessive familial foveal retinoschisis (FFR). METHODS: A female sibship with FFR was identified (Family-A; 17 and 16 years, respectively); panel based genetic sequencing (132 genes) and comparative genome hybridization (142 genes) were performed.

  2. Identifying Childhood Characteristics that Underlie Pre-Morbid Risk for Substance Use Disorders: Socialization and Boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal twin study (N = 2510), we identified the child characteristics present prior to initiation of substance use that best predicted later substance use disorders. Two independent traits accounted for the majority of pre-morbid risk: socialization (conformity to rules and conventional values) and boldness (sociability and social assurance, stress resilience, and thrill seeking). Low socialization was associated with disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity, and exhibited moderate genetic (.45) and shared environmental influences (.30). Boldness was highly heritable (.71) and associated with less internalizing distress and environmental adversity. Together, these traits exhibited robust associations with adolescent and young adult substance use disorders (R = .48 and .50, respectively), and incremental prediction over disruptive behavior disorders, parental externalizing disorders, and environmental adversity. Results were replicated in an independent sample. Socialization and boldness offer a novel conceptualization of underlying risk for substance use disorders that has the potential to improve prediction and theory with implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:24280373

  3. Novelties of the flowering plant pollen tube underlie diversification of a key life history stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of flowering plants has puzzled evolutionary biologists, dating back to Charles Darwin. Since that time a number of key life history and morphological traits have been proposed as developmental correlates of the extraordinary diversity and ecological success of angiosperms. Here, I identify several innovations that were fundamental to the evolutionary lability of angiosperm reproduction, and hence to their diversification. In gymnosperms pollen reception must be near the egg largely because sperm swim or are transported by pollen tubes that grow at very slow rates (pollen tube growth rates of taxa in ancient angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nuphar, and Austrobaileya) range from ≈80 to 600 μm/h. Comparative analyses point to accelerated pollen tube growth rate as a critical innovation that preceded the origin of the true closed carpel, long styles, multiseeded ovaries, and, in monocots and eudicots, much faster pollen tube growth rates. Ancient angiosperm pollen tubes all have callosic walls and callose plugs (in contrast, no gymnosperms have these features). The early association of the callose-walled growth pattern with accelerated pollen tube growth rate underlies a striking repeated pattern of faster and longer-distance pollen tube growth often within solid pathways in phylogenetically derived angiosperms. Pollen tube innovations are a key component of the spectacular diversification of carpel (flower and fruit) form and reproductive cycles in flowering plants. PMID:18678915

  4. Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor underlie intrastrain, but not interstrain, social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, A H; Lee, H-J; Edds, J; Young, W S

    2009-07-01

    We studied three lines of oxytocin (Oxt) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) knockout (KO) male mice [Oxt(-/-), total Oxtr(-/-) and partial forebrain Oxtr (Oxtr(FB/FB))] with established deficits in social recognition to further refine our understanding of their deficits with regard to stimulus female's strain. We used a modified social discrimination paradigm in which subjects are singly housed only for the duration of the test. Additionally, stimulus females are singly housed throughout testing and are presented within corrals for rapid comparison of investigation by subject males. Wild-type (WT) males from all three lines discriminated between familiar and novel females of three different strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss-Webster). No KO males discriminated between familiar and novel BALB/c or C57BL/6 females. Male Oxt(-/-) and Oxtr(-/-) mice, but not Oxtr(FB/FB) mice, discriminated between familiar and novel Swiss-Webster females. As this might indicate a global deficit in individual recognition for Oxtr(FB/FB) males, we examined their ability to discriminate between females from different strains and compared performance with Oxtr(-/-) males. WT and KO males from both lines were able to distinguish between familiar and novel females from different strains, indicating the social recognition deficit is not universal. Instead, we hypothesize that the Oxtr is involved in 'fine' intrastrain recognition, but is less important in 'broad' interstrain recognition. We also present the novel finding of decreased investigation across tests, which is likely an artifact of repeated testing and not because of stimulus female's strain or age of subject males.

  5. Both genetic and dietary factors underlie individual differences in DNA damage levels and DNA repair capacity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slyšková, Jana; Lorenzo, Y.; Karlsen, A.; Carlsen, M. H.; Novosadová, Vendula; Blomhoff, R.; Vodička, Pavel; Collins, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 2014 (2014), s. 66-73 ISSN 1568-7864 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1585 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : DNA damage * DNA repair capacity * diet Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (BTO-N) Impact factor: 3.111, year: 2014

  6. Differences in orientation behaviour underlie interclonal differences in phototaxis in Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gool, E.

    1999-01-01

    I studied the orientation direction of the body and the eye in response to contrasts in Daphnia magna. The orientation of the body was studied on pinned, but freely rotating daphnids, and on freely swimming daphnids. The orientation direction of the eye was studied on daphnids with a fixed position

  7. Nonapical symmetric divisions underlie horizontal cell layer formation in the developing retina in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho, Leanne; Williams, Philip R.; Claassen, Yvonne; Provost, Elayne; Leach, Steven D.; Kamermans, Maarten; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2007-01-01

    Symmetric cell divisions have been proposed to rapidly increase neuronal number late in neurogenesis, but how critical this mode of division is to establishing a specific neuronal layer is unknown. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging methods, we discovered that in the laminated zebrafish retina, the

  8. Recessive mutations in LEPREL1 underlie a recognizable lens subluxation phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Alsharif, Hadeel; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-03-01

    To uncover the homozygous recessive gene mutation underlying familial lens subluxation and/or juvenile lens opacities in four sisters from a consanguineous family. Prospective family study (clinical phenotyping; homozygosity-analysis-guided candidate gene testing). The proband was a 14-year-old girl with long-standing poor vision, bilateral temporal lens subluxation, lens opacities, and axial high myopia. There were no syndromic findings, and fibrillin-1 sequencing was normal. Three sisters, also non-syndromic, had undergone bilateral juvenile lens surgery (two for juvenile cataract, 1 for lens subluxation) within the first two decades of life. Both sisters who had cataract surgery developed bilateral post-operative retinal detachments and one had documented lens instability during cataract surgery. Genetic analysis revealed the phenotype to segregate with a novel homozygous recessive mutation in LEPREL1 (c.292delC; p.Gly100Alafs*104). Recessive mutations in this gene were recently highlighted as a cause for axial myopia and early-onset cataract in two families for whom some affected members also had ectopia lentis and/or post-operative retinal detachments. Recessive LEPREL1 mutations should be recognized as part of the differential diagnosis of lens subluxation. The associated phenotype is non-syndromic and distinguishable from other causes of ectopia lentis in the context of its additional features: juvenile lens opacities, axial myopia, and a predisposition to retinal tears/detachment following intraocular surgery.

  9. A core eating network and its modulations underlie diverse eating phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jing; Papies, Esther K.; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a core eating network and its modulations account for much of what is currently known about the neural activity underlying a wide range of eating phenomena in humans (excluding homeostasis and related phenomena). The core eating network is closely adapted from a network that Kaye,

  10. T-lymphocyte-expressing inflammatory cytokines underlie persistence of proteinuria in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Fábio Tadeu Lourenço; Melo, Gustavo Eustáquio Brito Alvim de; Cordeiro, Thiago Macedo; Feracin, Victor; Vieira, Etel Rocha; Pereira, Wagner de Fátima; Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Miranda, Aline Silva; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina

    2017-09-28

    There is evidence of an important role of immune system changes in the triggering and maintenance of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cytokines in lymphocyte populations of patients with INS in comparison to healthy individuals, according to proteinuria. This cross-sectional study included 44 patients with INS and eight healthy children, matched for age and sex (controls). Patients were subdivided according to proteinuria: persistent proteinuria or partial remission (PP≥300mg/24h, n=17) and low proteinuria or complete remission (LP<300mg/24h, n=27). Ex vivo analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry was performed using surface markers for T-lymphocytes, TCD4, TCD8, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT, and B-lymphocytes. Frequencies of intracellular cytokines were analyzed in these cells. The frequencies of B-lymphocytes, NK cells, and NKT cells were lower in INS than in controls, whereas INS patients had a higher frequency of CD4 + tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α + cells than controls. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes expressing IFN-γ were lower in INS than in controls. Patients with PP showed higher frequencies of CD4-T-lymphocytes expressing IFN-γ and TNF-α than controls. CD8-lymphocytes expressing TNF-α were increased in PP group when compared with LP and controls, while CD8 + interferon (IFN)-γ + cells were lower than in LP and in controls. Regardless the level of proteinuria, INS patients had increased expression of TNF-α in CD4-lymphocytes and reduced expression of IFN-γ in CD8-lymphocytes. Persistence of proteinuria was associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase mutations underlie fatal infantile Alpers encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elo, Jenni M; Yadavalli, Srujana S; Euro, Liliya

    2012-01-01

    the mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase (mtPheRS) in two patients with fatal epileptic mitochondrial encephalopathy. The mutations affected highly conserved amino acids, p.I329T and p.D391V. Recently, a homozygous FARS2 variant p.Y144C was reported in a Saudi girl with mitochondrial...... encephalopathy, but the pathogenic role of the variant remained open. Clinical features, including postnatal onset, catastrophic epilepsy, lactic acidemia, early lethality and neuroimaging findings of the patients with FARS2 variants, resembled each other closely, and neuropathology was consistent with Alpers...... was impaired. Our results imply that the three FARS2 mutations directly impair aminoacylation function and stability of mtPheRS, leading to a decrease in overall tRNA charging capacity. This study establishes a new genetic cause of infantile mitochondrial Alpers encephalopathy and reports a new mitochondrial...

  12. Dissociable neural representations of reinforcement and belief prediction errors underlie strategic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lusha; Mathewson, Kyle E; Hsu, Ming

    2012-01-31

    Decision-making in the presence of other competitive intelligent agents is fundamental for social and economic behavior. Such decisions require agents to behave strategically, where in addition to learning about the rewards and punishments available in the environment, they also need to anticipate and respond to actions of others competing for the same rewards. However, whereas we know much about strategic learning at both theoretical and behavioral levels, we know relatively little about the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we show using a multi-strategy competitive learning paradigm that strategic choices can be characterized by extending the reinforcement learning (RL) framework to incorporate agents' beliefs about the actions of their opponents. Furthermore, using this characterization to generate putative internal values, we used model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural computations underlying strategic learning. We found that the distinct notions of prediction errors derived from our computational model are processed in a partially overlapping but distinct set of brain regions. Specifically, we found that the RL prediction error was correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. In contrast, activity in the ventral striatum, as well as the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), was correlated with a previously uncharacterized belief-based prediction error. Furthermore, activity in rACC reflected individual differences in degree of engagement in belief learning. These results suggest a model of strategic behavior where learning arises from interaction of dissociable reinforcement and belief-based inputs.

  13. Do agonistic interactions underlie the segregation and relative abundances between two Loxosceles species (Araneae: Sicariidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marta L; Diniz, Suzana; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2014-05-01

    The medically important spiders Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) are segregated in Curitiba, southern Brazil, where L. intermedia is more abundant and widespread than L. laeta. Because they share similar microhabitat preferences and wander in search of web sites, agonistic encounters are likely to occur. The purposes of this study were to describe agonistic interactions and interpret their consequences for the relative abundances and spatial segregation of L. intermedia and L. laeta. Experimental contests were performed between residents and intruders. Asymmetries between contestants included sex, age, species, weight, and residence status. Nine behavioral categories were defined. Through discriminant analyses, it was possible to differentiate spider sex, species, and residence based on their agonistic behaviors. Intruders, juveniles, and L. intermedia individuals were better characterized by exploratory behaviors, whereas L. laeta females were differentiated by aggressiveness. By performing a multiple logistic regression, with winning or defeat as a dependent variable of sex, age, species, size, weight, and residence, it was possible to say that residents and L. intermedia individuals had the highest winning odds in contests, whereas juveniles had lower winning odds than adults. Advantages of the prior residence may help to explain the predominance of L. laeta in old colonization sites, whereas the higher winning odds of L. intermedia and less aggressive behavior toward conspecifics may lead to a successful establishment of dense populations in new sites. A better understanding of agonistic interactions as a mechanism of spacing, segregation, and species replacement among spiders may be helpful for control purposes.

  14. Lenticulostriate arterial distribution pathology may underlie pediatric anoxic brain injury in drowning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ishaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drowning is a leading cause of neurological morbidity and mortality in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI can result from nonfatal drowning and typically entails substantial neurological impairment. The neuropathology of drowning-induced pediatric ABI is not well established. Specifically, quantitative characterization of the spatial extent and tissue distribution of anoxic damage in pediatric nonfatal drowning has not previously been reported but could clarify the underlying pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. To this end, we used voxel-based morphometric (VBM analyses to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of consistent, between-subject alterations in gray and white matter volume. Whole-brain, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic ABI and 11 age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls (4–12 years. Group-wise VBM analyses demonstrated predominantly central subcortical pathology in the ABI group in both gray matter (bilateral basal ganglia nuclei and white matter (bilateral external and posterior internal capsules (P < 0.001; minimal damage was found outside of these deep subcortical regions. These highly spatially convergent gray and white matter findings reflect the vascular distribution of perforating lenticulostriate arteries, an end-arterial watershed zone, and suggest that vascular distribution may be a more important determinant of tissue loss than oxygen metabolic rate in pediatric ABI. Further, these results inform future directions for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  15. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Denise M; Bain, James R; Reisetter, Anna C; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Newgard, Christopher B; Lowe, William L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Sequential Online Wellness Programming Is an Effective Strategy to Promote Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, Lindsay R.; Francis, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of United States youth and adults categorized as overweight or obese illustrates a need for research-based family wellness interventions. Sequential, online, Extension-delivered family wellness interventions offer a time- and cost-effective approach for both participants and Extension educators. The 6-week, online Healthy…

  17. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  18. "Piensa" twice: on the foreign language effect in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Arnon, Inbal; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we assess to what extent decision making is affected by the language in which a given problem is presented (native vs. foreign). In particular, we aim to ask whether the impact of various heuristic biases in decision making is diminished when the problems are presented in a foreign language. To this end, we report four main studies in which more than 700 participants were tested on different types of individual decision making problems. In the first study, we replicated Keysar et al.'s (2012) recent observation regarding the foreign language effect on framing effects related to loss aversion. In the second section, we assessed whether the foreign language effect is present in other types of framing problems that involve psychological accounting biases rather than gain/loss dichotomies. In the third section, we studied the foreign language effect in several key aspects of the theory of decision making under risk and uncertainty. In the fourth study, we assessed the presence of a foreign language effect in the cognitive reflection test, a test that includes logical problems that do not carry emotional connotations. The absence of such an effect in this test suggests that foreign language leads to a reduction of heuristic biases in decision making across a range of decision making situations and provide also some evidence about the boundaries of the phenomenon. We explore several potential factors that may underlie the foreign language effect in decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenylketonuria: Direct and indirect effects of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Gudrun; Scholz, Ralf; Ullrich, Kurt; Santer, René; Rune, Gabriele M

    2016-07-01

    High phenylalanine concentrations in the brain due to dysfunctional phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah) are considered to account for mental retardation in phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we treated hippocampal cultures with the amino acid in order to determine the role of elevated levels of phenylalanine in PKU-related mental retardation. Synapse density and dendritic length were dramatically reduced in hippocampal cultures treated with phenylalanine. Changes in cofilin expression and phosphorylation status, which were restored by NMDA, as well as reduced activation of the small GTPase Rac1, likely underlie these structural alterations. In the Pah(enu2) mouse, which carries a mutated Pah gene, we previously found higher synaptic density due to delayed synaptic pruning in response to insufficient microglia function. Microglia activity and C3 complement expression, both of which were reduced in the Pah(enu2) mouse, however, were unaffected in hippocampal cultures treated with phenylalanine. The lack of a direct effect of phenylalanine on microglia is the key to the opposite effects regarding synapse stability in vitro and in the Pah(enu2) mouse. Judging from our data, it appears that another player is required for the inactivation of microglia in the Pah(enu2) mouse, rather than high concentrations of phenylalanine alone. Altogether, the data underscore the necessity of a lifelong phenylalanine-restricted diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  1. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12. The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  2. Three-Week Bright-Light Intervention Has Dose-Related Effects on Threat-Related Corticolimbic Reactivity and Functional Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Madsen, Martin K; Mc Mahon, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bright-light intervention is reported to successfully treat depression, in particular seasonal affective disorder, but the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms mediating its effects are unclear. An amygdala-prefrontal cortex corticolimbic circuit regulates responses to salient...... environmental stimuli (e.g., threat) and may underlie these effects. Serotonin signaling modulates this circuit and is implicated in the pathophysiology of seasonal and other affective disorders. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of a bright-light intervention protocol on threat-related corticolimbic reactivity......-related amygdala and prefrontal reactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, amygdala-prefrontal and intraprefrontal functional coupling increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Genotype status significantly moderated bright-light intervention effects on intraprefrontal functional coupling...

  3. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7–12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi’s effect on adolescents’ problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed. PMID:28912744

  4. The Effect of Psychological Suzhi on Problem Behaviors in Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Subjective Social Status and Self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangzeng; Zhang, Dajun; Pan, Yangu; Ma, Yuanxiao; Lu, Xingyue

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined subjective social status (SSS) and self-esteem as potential mediators between the association of psychological suzhi and problem behaviors in a sample of 1271 Chinese adolescents (44.5% male, grades 7-12). The results showed that SSS and self-esteem were fully mediating the relationship between psychological suzhi and problem behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effect was stronger via self-esteem than via SSS. These findings perhaps provide insight into the preliminary effect that SSS and self-esteem underlie psychological suzhi 's effect on adolescents' problem behaviors, and also are important in helping school-teachers and administrators to develop a better understanding of problem behaviors in their schools as a pre-requisite to the development of more effective behaviors management practices from the perspective of psychological suzhi. Implications and limitations in the present study have also been discussed.

  5. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  6. Selective effects of aniracetam across receptor types and forms of synaptic facilitation in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, P; Staubli, U; Kessler, M; Lynch, G

    1991-10-01

    Aniracetam reversibly increased synaptic responses mediated by the AMPA but not the NMDA subclass of glutamate receptors in hippocampus and was considerably more potent than structurally similar nootropics. The drug had greater effects on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the dentate gyrus and CA1 region than it did in the CA3 region, suggesting that it differentiates between variants of the AMPA receptor. Ligand binding to glutamate receptors in synaptosomal membrane fractions was minimally changed by aniracetam. Finally, the percent facilitation produced by aniracetam in the CA1 region was not reduced by any of three treatments (4-aminopyridine, changes in extracellular calcium concentrations, paired-pulse stimulation) that affect release but, in accord with a previous report, was substantially decreased by long-term potentiation. These results support the conclusion that aniracetam selectively increases the conductance of a subgroup of synaptic AMPA receptors in hippocampus and suggest that receptor changes underlie the expression of long-term potentiation.

  7. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle-School Students of Varying Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie; Krawec, Jennifer; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a mathematical problem-solving intervention on students' problem-solving performance and math achievement were measured in a randomized control trial with 1,059 7th-grade students. The intervention, "Solve It!," is a research-based cognitive strategy instructional intervention that was shown to improve the problem-solving…

  8. The Effects of School System Superintendents, School Boards and Their Interactions on Longitudinal Measures of Districts' Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    The research base on the relationships among superintendents, school board members and student achievement results is strikingly small. Most research on student achievement has focused at the student-, teacher- and school-levels. This study focused at the district level, and specifically at the effects of school boards and superintendents. The…

  9. The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire : A multidimensional instrument of multicultural effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, KI; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    2000-01-01

    In today's global business environment, executive work is becoming more international in orientation. Several skills and traits may underlie executive success in an inter national environment. The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire was developed as a multidimensional instrument aimed at

  10. Cod liver oil/honey mixture: An effective treatment of equine complicated lower leg wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda mahmoud Ali and Khaled Radad

    Full Text Available Wounds are of great concern in animals as they affect animal productivity and their treatment represents an economic burden to the owners particularly in developing countries. The present study investigated the beneficial role of a mixture of cod liver oil and honey in treatment of old wounds in equines. In which, 3 horses and 7 donkeys were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt with old wounds at the metacarpus (5 cases and metatarsus (3 cases and at the level of fetlock and carpal joints (one case each. Treatment of these wounds with cod liver oil/honey mixture markedly decreased their sizes and resulted in formation of a healthy scar after one month of treatment. To explain the mechanisms that underlie the effects of this mixture, 9 surgically-induced wounds at the metacarpus in 9 donkeys were treated with honey, cod liver oil or the mixture (3 wounds each and compared with parallel untreated control wounds at the metatarsus. It was found that treatment of wounds with honey, cod liver oil and the mixture apparently decreased the size of wounds. Histopathological examination revealed that treated wounds with honey or cod liver oil showed complete epithelization over the wound areas. On the other hand, epithelization process was not complete in wounds treated with the mixture. Granulation tissue showed some variability between different treatments. Of which, wounds treated with the mixture showed a higher degree of maturity with increasing numbers of fibrocytes and parallel collagenous fibers. This could underlie the good results obtained in case studied wounds with the mixture. In conclusion, mixture of cod liver oil and honey is beneficial in treatment of old traumatized wounds in equine and this effect is primarily mediated by formation of healthy and mature scars. Cod liver oil or honey alone is beneficial for healing of recent and surgical wounds as they facilitate epithelization process. [Vet

  11. Effects of 4-week treatment with lithium and olanzapine on levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein in the sub-regions of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Michael D; Shim, Seong S

    2009-08-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that lithium, the prototype mood stabilizer in the treatment of bipolar disorder, has diverse neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions, and the actions are associated with its efficacy in treating bipolar disorder. It has been suggested that up-regulation of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) may underlie these neuroplastic actions of the drug. Olanzapine, an atypical anti-psychotic drug, has been shown to be an effective mood stabilizer. Olanzapine also has neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions, and these actions may underlie the efficacy of the drug for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanism by which the drug produces the neuroplastic actions is poorly understood. To understand a common molecular mechanism underlying the neuroplastic actions of lithium and olanzapine, we assessed the effect of 4-week lithium and olanzapine treatment on the levels of BDNF, Bcl-2 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor involved in expression of BDNF and Bcl-2, in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area CA1. Our results show that 4-week treatment with both olanzapine and lithium increases the levels of Bcl-2 and CREB in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal area CA1. Four-week lithium treatment up-regulates BDNF in the dentate gyrus, and 4-week olanzapine treatment marginally did so. Neither drug altered BDNF levels in area CA1. These results suggest that the up-regulation of Bcl-2 and CREB may underlie the neuroplastic actions of olanzapine and lithium.

  12. Multifactorial Determinants of the Neurocognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Choi, Jimmy; Deng, Zhi-De; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation after each session, anterograde amnesia for recently learned information, and retrograde amnesia for previously learned information. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive effects and underlying mechanisms of action of ECT remain poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the multiple moderating and mediating factors that are thought to underlie the neurocognitive effects of ECT into a coherent model. Such factors include demographic and neuropsychological characteristics, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ECT technical parameters, and ECT associated neurophysiological changes. Future research is warranted to evaluate and test this model, so that these findings may support the development of more refined clinical seizure therapy delivery approaches and efficacious cognitive remediation strategies to improve the utility of this important and widely used intervention tool for neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24820942

  13. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma”

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  14. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect

  15. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  16. Prognostic ability of EndoPredict compared to research-based versions of the PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. A GEICAM/9906 sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Brase, Jan C; Ruiz, Amparo; Prat, Aleix; Kronenwett, Ralf; Calvo, Lourdes; Petry, Christoph; Bernard, Philip S; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Weber, Karsten E; Rodriguez, César A; Alvarez, Isabel M; Segui, Miguel A; Perou, Charles M; Casas, Maribel; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    There are several prognostic multigene-based tests for managing breast cancer (BC), but limited data comparing them in the same cohort. We compared the prognostic performance of the EndoPredict (EP) test (standardized for pathology laboratory) with the research-based PAM50 non-standardized qRT-PCR assay in node-positive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-negative (HER2-) BC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy (ET) in the GEICAM/9906 trial. EP and PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores [based on subtype (ROR-S) and on subtype and proliferation (ROR-P)] were compared in 536 ER+/HER2- patients. Scores combined with clinical information were evaluated: ROR-T (ROR-S, tumor size), ROR-PT (ROR-P, tumor size), and EPclin (EP, tumor size, nodal status). Patients were assigned to risk-categories according to prespecified cutoffs. Distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. ROR-S, ROR-P, and EP scores identified a low-risk group with a relative better outcome (10-year MFS: ROR-S 87 %; ROR-P 89 %; EP 93 %). There was no significant difference between tests. Predictors including clinical information showed superior prognostic performance compared to molecular scores alone (10-year MFS, low-risk group: ROR-T 88 %; ROR-PT 92 %; EPclin 100 %). The EPclin-based risk stratification achieved a significantly improved prediction of MFS compared to ROR-T, but not ROR-PT. All signatures added prognostic information to common clinical parameters. EPclin provided independent prognostic information beyond ROR-T and ROR-PT. ROR and EP can reliably predict risk of distant metastasis in node-positive ER+/HER2- BC patients treated with chemotherapy and ET. Addition of clinical parameters into risk scores improves their prognostic ability.

  17. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  18. Dynamic effective connectivity in resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Friston, Karl J; Pae, Chongwon; Park, Bumhee; Razi, Adeel

    2017-11-20

    Context-sensitive and activity-dependent fluctuations in connectivity underlie functional integration in the brain and have been studied widely in terms of synaptic plasticity, learning and condition-specific (e.g., attentional) modulations of synaptic efficacy. This dynamic aspect of brain connectivity has recently attracted a lot of attention in the resting state fMRI community. To explain dynamic functional connectivity in terms of directed effective connectivity among brain regions, we introduce a novel method to identify dynamic effective connectivity using spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM). We used parametric empirical Bayes (PEB) to model fluctuations in directed coupling over consecutive windows of resting state fMRI time series. Hierarchical PEB can model random effects on connectivity parameters at the second (between-window) level given connectivity estimates from the first (within-window) level. In this work, we used a discrete cosine transform basis set or eigenvariates (i.e., expression of principal components) to model fluctuations in effective connectivity over windows. We evaluated the ensuing dynamic effective connectivity in terms of the consistency of baseline connectivity within default mode network (DMN), using the resting state fMRI from Human Connectome Project (HCP). To model group-level baseline and dynamic effective connectivity for DMN, we extended the PEB approach by conducting a multilevel PEB analysis of between-session and between-subject group effects. Model comparison clearly spoke to dynamic fluctuations in effective connectivity - and the dynamic functional connectivity these changes explain. Furthermore, baseline effective connectivity was consistent across independent sessions - and notably more consistent than estimates based upon conventional models. This work illustrates the advantage of hierarchical modelling with spDCM, in characterizing the dynamics of effective connectivity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  19. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [EMDR as a psychotherapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic pain : Is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing an effective therapy for patients with chronic pain who do not suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicking, M; Maier, C; Tesarz, J; Bernardy, K

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) has been demonstrated for posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite promising research, it is still not clear if EMDR is a similarly effective treatment for chronic pain. Controlled trials are lacking and whether specific mechanisms underlie the effects remains unknown. The treatment of chronic pain aims at a reduction of subjective pain sensations. To achieve this goal without the usage of pain medications, i. e. through psychotherapy, is desirable for many reasons (e. g. reduction of treatment costs and side effects). Whether or not EMDR is an effective intervention for all chronic pain patients (or just a specific subgroup) constitutes an important question for psychological pain research.

  1. Does suppression of oscillatory synchronisation mediate some of the therapeutic effects of DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Cagnan, Hayriye; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for exaggerated oscillatory neuronal synchronisation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, oscillations at around 20 Hz, in the so-called beta frequency band, relate to the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can significantly improve these motor impairments. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of beta oscillations concurrent with alleviation of PD motor symptoms, raising the possibility that suppression of aberrant activity may mediate the effects of DBS. Here we review the evidence supporting suppression of pathological oscillations during stimulation and discuss how this might underlie the efficacy of DBS. We also consider how beta activity may provide a feedback signal suitable for next generation closed-loop and intelligent stimulators.

  2. Does suppression of oscillatory synchronisation mediate some of the therapeutic effects of DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eEusebio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for exaggerated oscillatory neuronal synchronisation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In particular, oscillations at around 20 Hz, in the so-called beta frequency band, relate to the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia and rigidity. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can significantly improve these motor impairments. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of beta oscillations concurrent with alleviation of PD motor symptoms, raising the possibility that suppression of aberrant activity may mediate the effects of DBS. Here we review the evidence supporting suppression of pathological oscillations during stimulation and discuss how this might underlie the efficacy of DBS. We also consider how beta activity may provide a feedback signal suitable for next generation closed loop and intelligent stimulators.

  3. The Effects of Project APPLE (Autistic Preadolescent Proactive Learning Environments) on Academic, Behavioral, and Transitional Needs of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayce, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the effects of Project APPLE, an intervention created by the researcher and supported by the Guide to Project APPLE, a handbook which provided research-based teaching strategies, modificaitons to the learning environment, and transitional supports for students with ASD, and the teachers with whom their care and education is…

  4. Generalisation, decision making, and embodiment effects in mental rotation: A neurorobotic architecture tested with a humanoid robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepanomwan, Kristsana; Caligiore, Daniele; Cangelosi, Angelo; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Mental rotation, a classic experimental paradigm of cognitive psychology, tests the capacity of humans to mentally rotate a seen object to decide if it matches a target object. In recent years, mental rotation has been investigated with brain imaging techniques to identify the brain areas involved. Mental rotation has also been investigated through the development of neural-network models, used to identify the specific mechanisms that underlie its process, and with neurorobotics models to investigate its embodied nature. Current models, however, have limited capacities to relate to neuro-scientific evidence, to generalise mental rotation to new objects, to suitably represent decision making mechanisms, and to allow the study of the effects of overt gestures on mental rotation. The work presented in this study overcomes these limitations by proposing a novel neurorobotic model that has a macro-architecture constrained by knowledge held on brain, encompasses a rather general mental rotation mechanism, and incorporates a biologically plausible decision making mechanism. The model was tested using the humanoid robot iCub in tasks requiring the robot to mentally rotate 2D geometrical images appearing on a computer screen. The results show that the robot gained an enhanced capacity to generalise mental rotation to new objects and to express the possible effects of overt movements of the wrist on mental rotation. The model also represents a further step in the identification of the embodied neural mechanisms that may underlie mental rotation in humans and might also give hints to enhance robots' planning capabilities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Serial-position effects on a free-recall task in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeewon; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined mechanisms that underlie free-recall performance in bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2) through the prism of serial-position effects. On free-recall tasks, a typical pattern of performance follows a U-shaped serial-position curve, where items from the beginning of the list (the primacy effect) and items from the end of the list (the recency effect) are recalled with higher accuracy than items from the middle of the list. The present study contrasted serial-position effects on the free-recall task in Korean-English bilinguals' L1 vs. L2 and examined the relationship between an independent working memory (WM) measure and serial-position effects in bilinguals' two languages. Results revealed stronger pre-recency (primacy and middle) effects in L1 than in L2, but similar recency effects in the two languages. A close association was observed between WM and recall performance in the pre-recency region in the L1 but not in the L2. Together, these findings suggest that linguistic knowledge constrains free-recall performance in bilinguals, but only in the pre-recency region.

  6. The PCA learning effect: An emerging correlate of face memory during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Maurer, Daphne; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-10-01

    Human adults implicitly learn the prototype and the principal components of the variability distinguishing faces (Gao & Wilson, 2014). Here we measured the implicit learning effect in adults and 9-year-olds, and with a modified child-friendly procedure, in 7-year-olds. All age groups showed the implicit learning effect by falsely recognizing the average (the prototype effect) and the principal component faces as having been seen (the PCA learning effect). The PCA learning effect, but not the prototype effect increased between 9years of age and adulthood and at both ages was the better predictor of memory for the actually studied faces. In contrast, for the 7-year-olds, the better predictor of face memory was the prototype effect. The pattern suggests that there may be a developmental change between ages 7 and 9 in the mechanism underlying memory for faces. We provide the first evidence that children as young as age 7 can extract the most important dimensions of variation represented by principal components among individual faces, a key ability that grows stronger with age and comes to underlie memory for faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Immunosenescence: Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Espino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-associated deterioration in the immune system, which is referred to as immunosenescence, contributes to an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer in the elderly. A summary of major changes associated with aging in immune system is described in this paper. In general, immunosenescence is characterized by reduced levels of peripheral naïve T cells derived from thymus and the loss of immature B lineage cells in the bone marrow. As for macrophages and granulocytes, they show functional decline with advancing age as evidenced by their diminished phagocytic activity and impairment of superoxide generation. The indole melatonin is mainly secreted in the pineal gland although it has been also detected in many other tissues. As circulating melatonin decreases with age coinciding with the age-related decline of the immune system, much interest has been focused on melatonin’s immunomodulatory effect in recent years. Here, we underlie the antioxidant and immunoenhancing actions displayed by melatonin, thereby providing evidence for the potential application of this indoleamine as a “replacement therapy” to limit or reverse some of the effects of the changes that occur during immunosenescence.

  8. Effects of oxaliplatin on mouse myenteric neurons and colonic motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah eWafai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin, an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, commonly causes gastrointestinal side-effects such as constipation, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Damage to enteric neurons may underlie some of these gastrointestinal side-effects, as the enteric nervous system controls the functions of the bowel. In this study, neuronal loss and changes to the structure and immunoreactivity of myenteric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS neurons were examined in colonic segments from mice following exposure to oxaliplatin ex vivo and following repeated intraperitoneal injections of oxaliplatin over 3 weeks in vivo, using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Significant morphological alterations and increases in the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons were associated with both short-term oxaliplatin exposure and long-term oxaliplatin administration, confirming that oxaliplatin causes changes to the myenteric neurons. Long-term oxaliplatin administration induced substantial neuronal loss that was correlated with a reduction in both the frequency and propagation speed of colonic migrating motor complexes in vitro. Similar changes probably produce some symptoms experienced by patients undergoing oxaliplatin treatment.

  9. Neural correlates of the numerical distance effect in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eMussolin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In number comparison tasks, the performance is better when the distance between the two numbers to compare increases. During development this so-called numerical distance effect decreases with age and the neuroanatomical correlates of these age-related changes are poorly known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded the brain activity changes in children aged from 8 to 14 years while they performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits and a control colour comparison task on non-numerical symbols. On the one hand, we observed developmental changes in the recruitment of frontal regions and the left intraparietal sulcus, with lower activation as the age increased. On the other hand, we found that a behavioural index of selective sensitivity to the numerical distance effect was positively correlated with higher brain activity in a right lateralized occipito-temporo-parietal network including the intraparietal sulcus. This leads us to propose that the left intraparietal sulcus would be engaged in the refinement of cognitive processes involved in number comparison during development, while the right intraparietal sulcus would underlie the semantic representation of numbers and its activation would be mainly affected by the numerical proximity between them.

  10. Effects of Interleukin 17 on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Marie; Miossec, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death worldwide and account for most of the premature mortality observed in chronic inflammatory diseases. Common mechanisms underlie these two types of disorders, where the contribution of Interleukin (IL)-17A, the founding member of the IL-17 family, is highly suspected. While the local effects of IL-17A in inflammatory disorders have been well described, those on the cardiovascular system remain less studied. This review focuses on the effects of IL-17 on the cardiovascular system both on isolated cells and in vivo. IL-17A acts on vessel and cardiac cells, leading to inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. In vivo and clinical studies have shown its involvement in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction that occur prematurely in chronic inflammatory disorders. As new therapeutic approaches are targeting the IL-17 pathway, this review should help to better understand their positive and negative outcomes on the cardio-vascular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  12. Effects of promethazine and midodrine on orthostatic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shang-Jin; Platts, Steven H; Ziegler, Michael G; Meck, Janice V

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience both orthostatic hypotension and space motion sickness during re-entry. Midodrine, an alpha1-adrenergic agonist, is used to treat orthostatic hypotension. Promethazine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, is prescribed for space motion sickness. Many astronauts need both midodrine and promethazine. This study evaluated the interactive effects of midodrine and promethazine on hemodynamic responses to upright tilt. Subjects (5 men; 3 women) were studied four times: control (no drug); midodrine only; promethazine only; or midodrine plus promethazine. Hemodynamic parameters, plasma norepinephrine, renin activity, and aldosterone were measured supine and upright. Rates of presyncope were 38% with no drug; 0% with midodrine alone; 100% with promethazine alone; and 63% with both drugs. Supine to upright decreases in systolic pressure were greater with promethazine alone than control (P midodrine (P midodrine alone (P midodrine plus promethazine (P midodrine. Inhibition of sympathetic responses, likely via enhancement of the inhibitive effects of GABA, by promethazine may underlie the increased orthostatic hypotension. Promethazine also appears to inhibit responses of the renin angiotensisn system during orthostatic challenge.

  13. Intranasal oxytocin effects on social cognition: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon L; Dal Monte, Olga; Noble, Pamela; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-09-11

    The last decade has seen a large number of published findings supporting the hypothesis that intranasally delivered oxytocin (OT) can enhance the processing of social stimuli and regulate social emotion-related behaviors such as trust, memory, fidelity, and anxiety. The use of nasal spray for administering OT in behavioral research has become a standard method, but many questions still exist regarding its action. OT is a peptide that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, and it has yet to be shown that it does indeed reach the brain when delivered intranasally. Given the evidence, it seems highly likely that OT does affect behavior when delivered as a nasal spray. These effects may be driven by at least three possible mechanisms. First, the intranasally delivered OT may diffuse directly into the CNS where it directly engages OT receptors. Second, the intranasally delivered OT may trigger increased central release via an indirect peripheral mechanism. And third, the indirect peripheral effects may directly lead to behavioral effects via some mechanism other than increased central release. Although intranasally delivered OT likely affects behavior, there are conflicting reports as to the exact nature of those behavioral changes: some studies suggest that OT effects are not always "pro-social" and others suggest effects on social behaviors are due to a more general anxiolytic effect. In this critique, we draw from work in healthy human populations and the animal literature to review the mechanistic aspects of intranasal OT delivery, and to discuss intranasal OT effects on social cognition and behavior. We conclude that future work should control carefully for anxiolytic and gender effects, which could underlie inconsistencies in the existing literature. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effects of feedback reliability on feedback-related brain activity: A feedback valuation account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2018-04-06

    Adaptive decision making relies on learning from feedback. Because feedback sometimes can be misleading, optimal learning requires that knowledge about the feedback's reliability be utilized to adjust feedback processing. Although previous research has shown that feedback reliability indeed influences feedback processing, the underlying mechanisms through which this is accomplished remain unclear. Here we propose that feedback processing is adjusted by the adaptive, top-down valuation of feedback. We assume that unreliable feedback is devalued relative to reliable feedback, thus reducing the reward prediction errors that underlie feedback-related brain activity and learning. A crucial prediction of this account is that the effects of feedback reliability are susceptible to contrast effects. That is, the effects of feedback reliability should be enhanced when both reliable and unreliable feedback are experienced within the same context, as compared to when only one level of feedback reliability is experienced. To evaluate this prediction, we measured the event-related potentials elicited by feedback in two experiments in which feedback reliability was varied either within or between blocks. We found that the fronto-central valence effect, a correlate of reward prediction errors during reinforcement learning, was reduced for unreliable feedback. But this result was obtained only when feedback reliability was varied within blocks, thus indicating a contrast effect. This suggests that the adaptive valuation of feedback is one mechanism underlying the effects of feedback reliability on feedback processing.

  15. Phase stability, physical properties of rhenium diboride under high pressure and the effect of metallic bonding on its hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Ming-Min; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Shao, Peng; Ding, Li-Ping; Huang, Xiao-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The transition pressure P t between the ReB 2 –ReB 2 and MoB 2 –ReB 2 phases is firstly determinate. •The single-bonded B–B feather remains in ReB 2 compounds. •A semiempirical method to evaluate the hardness of crystals with partial metallic bond is presented. •The large hardness (39.1 GPa) of ReB 2 –ReB 2 indicate that it is a superhard material. •The zigzag interconnected B–Re and B–B covalent bonds underlie the ultraincompressibilities. -- Abstract: Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, thermodynamic property and structural phase transition of rhenium diboride under pressure are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method, as well as the effect of metallic bond on its hardness. Eight candidate structures of known transition-metal compounds are chosen to probe for rhenium diboride ReB 2 . The calculated lattice parameters are consistent with the experimental and theoretical values. Based on the third order Birch–Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure P t between the ReB 2 –ReB 2 and MoB 2 –ReB 2 phases is firstly determinate. Elastic constants, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Debye temperature are derived. The single-bonded B–B feather remains in ReB 2 compounds. Furthermore, according to Mulliken overlap population analysis, a semiempirical method to evaluate the hardness of multicomponent crystals with partial metallic bond is presented. Both strong covalency and a zigzag topology of interconnected bonds underlie the ultraincompressibilities. In addition, the superior performance and large hardness (39.1 GPa) of ReB 2 –ReB 2 indicate that it is a superhard material

  16. The potent effect of mycolactone on lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, Milène; Bénarouche, Anaïs; Maniti, Ofelia; Marion, Estelle; Marsollier, Laurent; Géan, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Cavalier, Jean-François; Canaan, Stéphane; Girard-Egrot, Agnès P

    2018-01-01

    Mycolactone is a lipid-like endotoxin synthesized by an environmental human pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer disease. Mycolactone has pleiotropic effects on fundamental cellular processes (cell adhesion, cell death and inflammation). Various cellular targets of mycolactone have been identified and a literature survey revealed that most of these targets are membrane receptors residing in ordered plasma membrane nanodomains, within which their functionalities can be modulated. We investigated the capacity of mycolactone to interact with membranes, to evaluate its effects on membrane lipid organization following its diffusion across the cell membrane. We used Langmuir monolayers as a cell membrane model. Experiments were carried out with a lipid composition chosen to be as similar as possible to that of the plasma membrane. Mycolactone, which has surfactant properties, with an apparent saturation concentration of 1 μM, interacted with the membrane at very low concentrations (60 nM). The interaction of mycolactone with the membrane was mediated by the presence of cholesterol and, like detergents, mycolactone reshaped the membrane. In its monomeric form, this toxin modifies lipid segregation in the monolayer, strongly affecting the formation of ordered microdomains. These findings suggest that mycolactone disturbs lipid organization in the biological membranes it crosses, with potential effects on cell functions and signaling pathways. Microdomain remodeling may therefore underlie molecular events, accounting for the ability of mycolactone to attack multiple targets and providing new insight into a single unifying mechanism underlying the pleiotropic effects of this molecule. This membrane remodeling may act in synergy with the other known effects of mycolactone on its intracellular targets, potentiating these effects.

  17. Sex-Specific Neurotoxic Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides Across the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Nicole; Re, Diane B

    2017-12-01

    This review discusses the sex-specific effects of exposure to various organophosphate (OP) pesticides throughout the life course and potential reasons for the differential vulnerabilities observed across sexes. Sex is a crucial factor in the response to toxicants, yet the sex-specific effects of OP exposure, particularly in juveniles and adults, remain unresolved. This is largely due to study design and inconsistencies in exposure and outcome assessments. Exposure to OPs results in multiple adverse outcomes influenced by many factors including sex. Reported sex-specific effects suggest that males are more susceptible to OPs, which reflects the sex-dependent prevalence of various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), in which males are at greater risk. Thus, this review proposes that the biological sex-specific effects elicited by OP exposure may in part underlie the dimorphic susceptibilities observed in neurological disorders. Understanding the immediate and long-term effects of OP exposure across sexes will be critical in advancing our understanding of OP-induced neurotoxicity and disease.

  18. A strategy for effective latent HIV reactivation using subtherapeutic drug doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterell, James; Neely, G Gregory

    2017-11-30

    Cell state switches underlie a plethora of biological phenomena and disease treatment strategies. Hence the ability to efficiently switch states in a chosen direction is of central importance in a number of scenarios. Increasing the concentration of an effector that results in a given switch is often limited by side effects. Approaches are thus increasingly sought to bypass these constraints, increasing the frequency of state switching without increasing the frequency of the side effect. Here, we employ dynamical systems theory to uncover a simple strategy as to how to maximize the probability of reactivating latent Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) whilst maintaining minimal side effects. We demonstrate that continuous supply of an effector is significantly more likely to result in a switch with minimal side effects than the same effector supplied in temporally discrete doses. Importantly this continual dosage is likely to occur far below the Minimum effective dose at a concentration that has classically been thought subtherapeutic. We therefore suggest that in many interventional settings there exists potential to reduce drug dose much further than has previously been thought possible yet still maintaining efficacy.

  19. Effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor agonists and their interaction on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Mariam; Komaki, Alireza; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Taheri, Masoumeh; Komaki, Hamidreza; Etaee, Farshid

    2017-04-01

    Despite previous findings on the effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory, the effects of the combined stimulation of these 2 systems on learning and memory have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we tested the interactive effects of cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on learning and memory in rats by using passive avoidance learning (PAL) tests. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: (1) control (DMSO+saline), (2) WIN55,212-2, (3) capsaicin, and (4) WIN55,212-2 + capsaicin. On test day, capsaicin, a vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, or WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor (CB 1 /CB 2 ) agonist, or both substances were injected intraperitoneally. Compared to the control group, the group treated with capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) had better scores in the PAL acquisition and retention test, whereas treatment with WIN55,212-2 (CB 1 /CB 2 agonist) decreased the test scores. Capsaicin partly reduced the effects of WIN55,212-2 on PAL and memory. We conclude that the acute administration of a TRPV1 agonist improves the rats' cognitive performance in PAL tasks and that a vanilloid-related mechanism may underlie the agonistic effect of WIN55,212-2 on learning and memory.

  20. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  1. Emotional stimuli exert parallel effects on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Ziegler, Marilyne; Hawksworth, Jade; Lalani, Safina; Herman, C Peter; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Because emotional and neutral stimuli typically differ on non-emotional dimensions, it has been difficult to determine conclusively which factors underlie the ability of emotional stimuli to enhance immediate long-term memory. Here we induced arousal by varying participants' goals, a method that removes many potential confounds between emotional and non-emotional items. Hungry and sated participants encoded food and clothing images under divided attention conditions. Sated participants attended to and recalled food and clothing images equivalently. Hungry participants performed worse on the concurrent tone-discrimination task when they viewed food relative to clothing images, suggesting enhanced attention to food images, and they recalled more food than clothing images. A follow-up regression analysis of the factors predicting memory for individual pictures revealed that food images had parallel effects on attention and memory in hungry participants, so that enhanced attention to food images did not predict their enhanced memory. We suggest that immediate long-term memory for food is enhanced in the hungry state because hunger leads to more distinctive processing of food images rendering them more accessible during retrieval.

  2. Psychological characteristics of Internet dating service users: the effect of self-esteem, involvement, and sociability on the use of Internet dating services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyoung; Kwon, Kyoung-Nan; Lee, Mira

    2009-08-01

    This study explores the three major consumer characteristics that underlie the use of Internet dating services: self-esteem, involvement in romantic relationships, and sociability. A significant three-way interaction effect among these factors emerged. Among sociable people, individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to use Internet dating services than are those with low self-esteem when they are highly involved in romantic relationships. The opposite pattern was revealed for sociable people, however, when they are less involved in romantic relationships. That is, individuals with low self-esteem used Internet dating services more often than did those with high self-esteem when romantic relationships were not important. The implications for academic researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  3. Psychophysiological effects of aging : developing a functional age index for pilots. II., Taxonomy of psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    One of the major objectives of gerontological aviation psychology is to determine the psychological variables, functions, abilities, skills, and factors that underlie, constitute or are associated with pilot performance and proficiency. They must be ...

  4. Effects of early life stress on rodent hippocampal synaptic plasticity : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Nienke AV; Krugers, Harm J; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Joëls, Marian; Sarabdjitsingh, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Early life stress shapes brain development and animal behavior. Neurophysiological properties such as signal transmission and synaptic plasticity are thought to underlie the animal's behavioral performance. We carried out a systematic review to determine how early life stress relates to

  5. Parallel and costly changes to cellular immunity underlie the evolution of parasitoid resistance in three Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, John E; Leitão, Alexandre B; Ommeslag, Sarah; Smith, Sophie; Day, Jonathan P; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-10-01

    A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids. However, the different species achieve this in different ways, with D. melanogaster moving sessile hemocytes into circulation while the other species simply produce more cells. Therefore, the convergent evolution of the immune phenotype has different developmental bases. These changes are costly, as resistant populations of all three species had greatly reduced larval survival. In all three species resistance is only costly when food is in short supply, and resistance was rapidly lost from D. melanogaster populations when food is restricted. Furthermore, evolving resistance to L. boulardi resulted in cross-resistance against other parasitoids. Therefore, whether a population evolves resistance will depend on ecological conditions including food availability and the presence of different parasite species.

  6. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi eTakaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The arcuate fasciculus (AF in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca’s area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homologue of Broca’s area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca’s area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca’s area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca’s area, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  7. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  8. Gravitational and Dynamic Components of Muscle Torque Underlie Tonic and Phasic Muscle Activity during Goal-Directed Reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erienne V. Olesh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human reaching movements require complex muscle activations to produce the forces necessary to move the limb in a controlled manner. How gravity and the complex kinetic properties of the limb contribute to the generation of the muscle activation pattern by the central nervous system (CNS is a long-standing and controversial question in neuroscience. To tackle this issue, muscle activity is often subdivided into static and phasic components. The former corresponds to posture maintenance and transitions between postures. The latter corresponds to active movement production and the compensation for the kinetic properties of the limb. In the present study, we improved the methodology for this subdivision of muscle activity into static and phasic components by relating them to joint torques. Ten healthy subjects pointed in virtual reality to visual targets arranged to create a standard center-out reaching task in three dimensions. Muscle activity and motion capture data were synchronously collected during the movements. The motion capture data were used to calculate postural and dynamic components of active muscle torques using a dynamic model of the arm with 5 degrees of freedom. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was then applied to muscle activity and the torque components, separately, to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Muscle activity was also reconstructed from gravitational and dynamic torque components. Results show that the postural and dynamic components of muscle torque represent a significant amount of variance in muscle activity. This method could be used to define static and phasic components of muscle activity using muscle torques.

  9. Mutations in SDR9C7 gene encoding an enzyme for vitamin A metabolism underlie autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Yohya; Okuda, Shujiro; Nemer, Georges; Chedraoui, Adele; Hayashi, Ryota; Bitar, Fadi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Abbas, Ossama; Daou, Laetitia; Abe, Riichiro; Sleiman, Maria Bou; Kibbi, Abdul Ghani; Kurban, Mazen; Shimomura, Yutaka

    2016-10-15

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary skin disorder characterized by an aberrant cornification of the epidermis. ARCI is classified into a total of 11 subtypes (ARCI1-ARCI11) based on their causative genes or loci. Of these, the causative gene for only ARCI7 has not been identified, while it was previously mapped on chromosome 12p11.2-q13.1. In this study, we performed genetic analyses for three Lebanese families with ARCI, and successfully determined the linkage interval to 9.47 Mb region on chromosome 12q13.13-q14.1, which was unexpectedly outside of the ARCI7 locus. Whole-exome sequencing and the subsequent Sanger sequencing led to the identification of missense mutations in short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C, member 7 (SDR9C7) gene on chromosome 12q13.3, i.e. two families shared an identical homozygous mutation c.599T > C (p.Ile200Thr) and one family had another homozygous mutation c.214C > T (p.Arg72Trp). In cultured cells, expression of both the mutant SDR9C7 proteins was markedly reduced as compared to wild-type protein, suggesting that the mutations severely affected a stability of the protein. In normal human skin, the SDR9C7 was abundantly expressed in granular and cornified layers of the epidermis. By contrast, in a patient’s skin, its expression in the cornified layer was significantly decreased. It has previously been reported that SDR9C7 is an enzyme to convert retinal into retinol. Therefore, our study not only adds a new gene responsible for ARCI, but also further suggests a potential role of vitamin A metabolism in terminal differentiation of the epidermis in humans.

  10. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  11. Distinct Properties Underlie Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation in a Novel Electron Transfer Flavoprotein FixAB from Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Paul W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lubner, Carolyn E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duan, H. Diessel [University of Kentucky; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika [Montana State University; Gauss, George H. [Montana State University; Bothner, Brian [Montana State University; Peters, John W. [Washington State University; Miller, Anne-Frances [University of Kentucky

    2018-02-09

    A newly-recognized third fundamental mechanism of energy conservation in biology, electron bifurcation, uses free energy from exergonic redox reactions to drive endergonic redox reactions. Flavin-based electron bifurcation furnishes low potential electrons to demanding chemical reactions such as reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia. We employed the heterodimeric flavoenzyme FixAB from the diazotrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris to elucidate unique properties that underpin flavin-based electron bifurcation.

  12. Few Mendelian genes underlie the quantitative response of a forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus, to a natural fungal epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Vaillancourt, René E

    2008-01-01

    Foliar fungal pathogens from the genus Mycosphaerella affect eucalyptus in natural forests and plantations worldwide. QTL analysis was conducted to dissect the genetic control of resistance in Eucalyptus globulus to a natural infection by Mycosphaerella leaf disease, using a clonally replicated outbred F2 family (112 genotypes) planted in a field trial. Two major QTL, with high LOD support (20.2 and 10.9) and high genomewide significance, explained a large proportion (52%) of the phenotypic variance in the severity of damage by Mycosphaerella cryptica, which may be indicative of oligogenic control. Both QTL were validated in a second F2 family and one was validated in a third F2 family. The mean values of different genotype classes at both major QTL argue for Mendelian inheritance with resistance dominant over susceptibility. There were strong correlations between the levels of Mycosphaerella damage in related genetic material planted in three widely separated locations in Tasmania. These findings together provide evidence that the genes controlling resistance to Mycosphaerella damage are stable in different genetic backgrounds and across different environments.

  13. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all three conditions. Conclusively, coordinated activation of hip abductors and ankle dorsiflexors during APA displaces the CoP towards the swing leg, and sets the contact position for the swing foot.

  14. Increased Laforin and Laforin Binding to Glycogen Underlie Lafora Body Formation in Malin-deficient Lafora Disease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberia, Erica; Turnbull, Julie; Wang, Tony; Ruggieri, Alessandra; Zhao, Xiao-Chu; Pencea, Nela; Israelian, Johan; Wang, Yin; Ackerley, Cameron A.; Wang, Peixiang; Liu, Yan; Minassian, Berge A.

    2012-01-01

    The solubility of glycogen, essential to its metabolism, is a property of its shape, a sphere generated through extensive branching during synthesis. Lafora disease (LD) is a severe teenage-onset neurodegenerative epilepsy and results from multiorgan accumulations, termed Lafora bodies (LB), of abnormally structured aggregation-prone and digestion-resistant glycogen. LD is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B gene, encoding the interacting laforin phosphatase and malin E3 ubiquitin ligase enzymes, respectively. The substrate and function of malin are unknown; an early counterintuitive observation in cell culture experiments that it targets laforin to proteasomal degradation was not pursued until now. The substrate and function of laforin have recently been elucidated. Laforin dephosphorylates glycogen during synthesis, without which phosphate ions interfere with and distort glycogen construction, leading to LB. We hypothesized that laforin in excess or not removed following its action on glycogen also interferes with glycogen formation. We show in malin-deficient mice that the absence of malin results in massively increased laforin preceding the appearance of LB and that laforin gradually accumulates in glycogen, which corresponds to progressive LB generation. We show that increasing the amounts of laforin in cell culture causes LB formation and that this occurs only with glycogen binding-competent laforin. In summary, malin deficiency causes increased laforin, increased laforin binding to glycogen, and LB formation. Furthermore, increased levels of laforin, when it can bind glycogen, causes LB. We conclude that malin functions to regulate laforin and that malin deficiency at least in part causes LB and LD through increased laforin binding to glycogen. PMID:22669944

  15. Distinct defects in collagen microarchitecture underlie vessel-wall failure in advanced abdominal aneurysms and aneurysms in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.H.N.; Ashcroft, B.A.; Beenakker, J.-W.M.; Es, M. van; Koekkoek, N.B.R.; Prins, F.A.; Tielemans, J.F.; Abdul-Hussien, H.; Bank, R.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    An aneurysm of the aorta is a common pathology characterized by segmentalweakeningof the artery.Althoughit isgenerally accepted that the vessel-wall weakening is caused by an impaired collagen metabolism, a clear association has been demonstrated only for rare syndromes such as the vascular type

  16. Germline variants in ETV6 underlie reduced platelet formation, platelet dysfunction and increased levels of circulating CD34+ progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Marjorie; Canault, Matthias; Favier, Marie; Turro, Ernest; Saultier, Paul; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Baccini, Veronique; Vidal, Lea; Mezzapesa, Anna; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Mohand-Oumoussa, Badreddine; Falaise, Céline; Favier, Rémi; Ouwehand, Willem H; Fiore, Mathieu; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre Emmanuel; Saut, Noémie; Bernot, Denis; Greinacher, Andreas; BioResource, Nihr; Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita; Freson, Kathleen; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Raslova, Hana; Alessi, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Variants in ETV6, which encodes a transcription repressor of the E26 transformation-specific family, have recently been reported to be responsible for inherited thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancy. We sequenced the DNA from cases with unexplained dominant thrombocytopenia and identified six likely pathogenic variants in ETV6, of which five are novel. We observed low repressive activity of all tested ETV6 variants, and variants located in the E26 transformation-specific binding domain (encoding p.A377T, p.Y401N) led to reduced binding to corepressors. We also observed a large expansion of megakaryocyte colony-forming units derived from variant carriers and reduced proplatelet formation with abnormal cytoskeletal organization. The defect in proplatelet formation was also observed in control CD34 + cell-derived megakaryocytes transduced with lentiviral particles encoding mutant ETV6. Reduced expression levels of key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton CDC42 and RHOA were measured. Moreover, changes in the actin structures are typically accompanied by a rounder platelet shape with a highly heterogeneous size, decreased platelet arachidonic response, and spreading and retarded clot retraction in ETV6 deficient platelets. Elevated numbers of circulating CD34 + cells were found in p.P214L and p.Y401N carriers, and two patients from different families suffered from refractory anemia with excess blasts, while one patient from a third family was successfully treated for acute myeloid leukemia. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the role of ETV6 as a driver of cytoskeletal regulatory gene expression during platelet production, and the impact of variants resulting in platelets with altered size, shape and function and potentially also in changes in circulating progenitor levels. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage and mutagenesis activated by nitric oxide underlie the inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chen; Chou, Han-Yi E; Shen, Tang-Long; Chang, Wei-Jer; Tai, Pei-Han; Li, Tsai-Kun

    2013-04-01

    Both cancer-suppressing and cancer-promoting properties of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) have been suggested to play a role in tumor pathology, particularly those activities associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we address the impact of nitric oxide (NO) on the induction of DNA damage and genome instability with a specific focus on the involvement of topoisomerase II (TOP2). We also investigate the contribution of NO to the formation of skin melanoma in mice. Similar to the TOP2-targeting drug, etoposide (VP-16), the NO-donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), induces skin melanomas formation in 7,12-dimethyl- benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated mice. To explore the mechanism(s) underlying this NO-induced tumorigenesis, we use a co-culture model system to demonstrate that inflamed macrophages with inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression cause γ-H2AX activation, p53 phosphorylation, and chromosome DNA breaks in the target cells. Inhibitor experiments revealed that NO and TOP2 isozymes are responsible for the above described cellular phenotypes. Notably, NO, unlike VP-16, preferentially induces the formation of TOP2β cleavable complexes (TOP2βcc) in cells. Moreover, GSNO induced TOP2-dependent DNA sequence rearrangements and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the incidences of GSNO- and VP-16-induced skin melanomas were also observed to be lower in the skin-specific top2β-knockout mice. Our results suggest that TOP2 isozymes contribute to NO-induced mutagenesis and subsequent cancer development during chronic inflammation. We provide the first experimental evidence for the functional role of TOP2 in NO-caused DNA damage, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Notably, these studies contribute to our molecular understanding of the cancer-promoting actions of RNOS during chronic inflammation.

  18. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W.; Barnes, Vernon A.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system. PMID:26379573

  19. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder eJerath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information is filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  20. A unified 3D default space consciousness model combining neurological and physiological processes that underlie conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerath, Ravinder; Crawford, Molly W; Barnes, Vernon A

    2015-01-01

    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default space is composed of all cells of the body, which communicate via gap junctions and electrical potentials to create this unified space. We use 3D illustrations to explain how both visual and non-visual sensory information may be filled-in within this dynamic space, creating a unified seamless conscious experience. This neural sensory memory space is likely generated by baseline neural oscillatory activity from the default mode network, other salient networks, brainstem, and reticular activating system.

  1. Adaptation and inhibition underlie responses to time-varying interaural phase cues in a model of inferior colliculus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Alla; Semple, Malcolm N; Rinzel, John

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical model was developed for exploring the sensitivity of low-frequency inferior colliculus (IC) neurons to interaural phase disparity (IPD). The formulation involves a firing-rate-type model that does not include spikes per se. The model IC neuron receives IPD-tuned excitatory and inhibitory inputs (viewed as the output of a collection of cells in the medial superior olive). The model cell possesses cellular properties of firing rate adaptation and postinhibitory rebound (PIR). The descriptions of these mechanisms are biophysically reasonable, but only semi-quantitative. We seek to explain within a minimal model the experimentally observed mismatch between responses to IPD stimuli delivered dynamically and those delivered statically (McAlpine et al. 2000; Spitzer and Semple 1993). The model reproduces many features of the responses to static IPD presentations, binaural beat, and partial range sweep stimuli. These features include differences in responses to a stimulus presented in static or dynamic context: sharper tuning and phase shifts in response to binaural beats, and hysteresis and "rise-from-nowhere" in response to partial range sweeps. Our results suggest that dynamic response features are due to the structure of inputs and the presence of firing rate adaptation and PIR mechanism in IC cells, but do not depend on a specific biophysical mechanism. We demonstrate how the model's various components contribute to shaping the observed phenomena. For example, adaptation, PIR, and transmission delay shape phase advances and delays in responses to binaural beats, adaptation and PIR shape hysteresis in different ranges of IPD, and tuned inhibition underlies asymmetry in dynamic tuning properties. We also suggest experiments to test our modeling predictions: in vitro simulation of the binaural beat (phase advance at low beat frequencies, its dependence on firing rate), in vivo partial range sweep experiments (dependence of the hysteresis curve on parameters), and inhibition blocking experiments (to study inhibitory tuning properties by observation of phase shifts).

  2. Caspase-2 and oxidative stress underlie the immunogenic potential of high hydrostatic pressure-induced cancer cell death

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moserová, I.; Truxová, I.; Garg, A.D.; Tomala, Jakub; Agostinis, P.; Cartron, P.F.; Vošahlíková, Š.; Kovář, Marek; Spíšek, R.; Fučíková, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-35, č. článku e1258505. ISSN 2162-4011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Caspases * ecto-CALR * ER stress Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  3. Insufficient Chunk Concatenation May Underlie Changes in Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Motor Sequence Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottary, Ryan; Sonni, Akshata; Wright, David; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep enhances motor sequence learning (MSL) in young adults by concatenating subsequences ("chunks") formed during skill acquisition. To examine whether this process is reduced in aging, we assessed performance changes on the MSL task following overnight sleep or daytime wake in healthy young and older adults. Young adult performance…

  4. Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatani, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Experts have the superior cognitive capability of quickly understanding complex information in their domain; however, little is known about the neural processes underlying this ability. Here, using a board game named shogi (Japanese chess), we investigated the brain activity in expert players that was involved in their quick understanding of board-game patterns. The frontal area responded only to meaningful game positions, whereas the temporal area responded to both game and random positions ...

  5. Does Animal Behavior Underlie Covariation Between Hosts' Exposure to Infectious Agents and Susceptibility to Infection? Implications for Disease Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawley, Dana M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal behavior is unique in influencing both components of the process of transmission of disease: exposure to infectious agents, and susceptibility to infection once exposed. To date, the influence of behavior on exposure versus susceptibility has largely been considered separately. Here, we ask

  6. Different Neural Mechanisms Underlie Deficits in Mental Flexibility in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Compared to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Mental flexibility is a core executive function that underlies the ability to adapt to changing situations and respond to new information. Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) complain of a number of executive function difficulties, one of which is mental inflexibility or an inability to switch between concepts. While the behavioral presentation of mental inflexibility is similar in those with PTSD or mTBI, we hypothesized that the differences in their etiology would manifest as differences in their underlying brain processing. The neural substrates of mental flexibility have been examined with a number of neuroimaging modalities. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has elucidated the brain regions involved, whereas electroencephalography has been applied to understand the timing of the brain activations. Magnetoencephalography, with its high temporal and spatial resolution, has more recently been used to delineate the spatiotemporal progression of brain processes involved in mental flexibility and has been applied to the study of clinical populations. In a number of separate studies, our group has compared the source localization and brain connectivity during a mental flexibility set-shifting task in a group of soldiers with PTSD and civilians with an acute mTBI. In this article, we review the results from these studies and integrate the data between groups to compare and contrast differences in behavioral, neural, and connectivity findings. We show that the different etiologies of PTSD and mTBI are expressed as distinct neural profiles for mental flexibility that differentiate the groups despite their similar clinical presentations.

  7. Amenable epigenetic traits of dental pulp stem cells underlie high capability of xeno-free episomal reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkeparambil Chandrabose, Srijaya; Sriram, Sandhya; Subramanian, Subha; Cheng, Shanshan; Ong, Wee Kiat; Rozen, Steve; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Sugii, Shigeki

    2018-03-20

    While a shift towards non-viral and animal component-free methods of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is preferred for safer clinical applications, there is still a shortage of reliable cell sources and protocols for efficient reprogramming. Here, we show a robust episomal and xeno-free reprogramming strategy for human iPS generation from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which renders good efficiency (0.19%) over a short time frame (13-18 days). The robustness of DPSCs as starting cells for iPS induction is found due to their exceptional inherent stemness properties, developmental origin from neural crest cells, specification for tissue commitment, and differentiation capability. To investigate the epigenetic basis for the high reprogramming efficiency of DPSCs, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and found that the epigenetic signature of DPSCs associated with pluripotent, developmental, and ecto-mesenchymal genes is relatively close to that of iPS and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Among these genes, it is found that overexpression of PAX9 and knockdown of HERV-FRD improved the efficiencies of iPS generation. In conclusion, our study provides underlying epigenetic mechanisms that establish a robust platform for efficient generation of iPS cells from DPSCs, facilitating industrial and clinical use of iPS technology for therapeutic needs.

  8. Declines in Drp1 and parkin expression underlie DNA damage-induced changes in mitochondrial length and neuronal death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David B.; Garden, Gwenn A.; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Wyles, Cody; Babazadeh, Nasim; Sopher, Bryce; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Morrison, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining proper mitochondrial length is essential for normal mitochondrial function in neurons. Mitochondrial fragmentation has been associated with neuronal cell death caused by a variety of experimental toxic stressors. Despite the fact that oxidative stress is a hallmark of neurodegenerative conditions and aging and the resulting activation of p53 is believed to contribute to the neuropathology, little is still known regarding changes in mitochondrial morphology in p53-dependent neuronal death. Therefore, we specifically addressed the relationship between genotoxic stress, p53 activation and the regulation of mitochondrial morphology in neurons. In cultured postnatal mouse cortical neurons, treatment with the DNA damaging agent camptothecin (CPT) resulted in elongated mitochondria, in contrast to fragmented mitochondria observed upon staurosporine and glutamate treatment. In fibroblasts, however, CPT resulted in fragmented mitochondria. CPT treatment in neurons suppressed expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin. The presence of elongated mitochondria and the declines in Drp1 and parkin expression occurred prior to the commitment point for apoptosis. The CPT-induced changes in Drp1 and parkin were not observed in p53-deficient neurons, while p53 overexpression alone was sufficient to reduce the expression of the two proteins. Elevating Drp1 and parkin expression prior to CPT treatment enhanced neuronal viability and restored a normal pattern of mitochondrial morphology. The present findings demonstrate that genotoxic stress in neurons results in elongated mitochondria in contrast to fission induced by other forms of stress, and p53-dependent declines in Drp1 and parkin levels contribute to altered mitochondrial morphology and cell death. PMID:23345212

  9. Serial gene losses and foreign DNA underlie size and sequence variation in the plastid genomes of diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Elizabeth C; Nakov, Teofil; Jansen, Robert K; Theriot, Edward C; Alverson, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthesis by diatoms accounts for roughly one-fifth of global primary production, but despite this, relatively little is known about their plastid genomes. We report the completely sequenced plastid genomes for eight phylogenetically diverse diatoms and show them to be variable in size, gene and foreign sequence content, and gene order. The genomes contain a core set of 122 protein-coding genes, with 15 additional genes exhibiting complex patterns of 1) gene losses at varying phylogenetic scales, 2) functional transfers to the nucleus, 3) gene duplication, divergence, and differential retention of paralogs, and 4) acquisitions of putatively functional recombinase genes from resident plasmids. The newly sequenced genomes also contain several previously unreported genes, highlighting how poorly characterized diatom plastid genomes are overall. Genome size variation reflects major expansions of the inverted repeat region in some cases but, more commonly, large-scale expansions of intergenic regions, many of which contain unique open reading frames of likely foreign origin. Although many gene clusters are conserved across species, rearrangements appear to be frequent in most lineages.

  10. Shifts of spatial attention underlie numerical comparison and mental arithmetic: Evidence from a patient with right unilateral neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro; Coyette, Françoise; Andres, Michael; Dormal, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Recent findings suggest that mental arithmetic involves shifting attention on a mental continuum in which numbers would be ordered from left to right, from small to large numbers, with addition and subtraction causing rightward or leftward shifts, respectively. Neuropsychological data showing that brain-damaged patients with left neglect experience difficulties in solving subtraction but not addition problems support this hypothesis. However, the reverse dissociation is needed to establish the causal role of spatial attention in mental arithmetic. R.H., a 65-year-old left-brain-damaged patient exhibiting right unilateral visuospatial and representational neglect, was tested with various numerical tasks including numerical comparison, arithmetic problem-solving, and numerical interval bisection. In numerical comparison, R.H. showed a selective response latency increase when judging numbers larger than the references whereas his performance was normal for numbers smaller than the references. In the arithmetic task, R.H. was impaired in solving addition but not subtraction problems. In contrast, performance in number bisection shows a deviation toward larger numbers. These results establish a double dissociation between subtraction and addition solving in patients with left versus right neglect and demonstrate clear evidence that attentional mechanisms are crucial for mental arithmetic. We suggest that attention shifts are involved whenever a number is represented relative to another on a mental continuum, be it during numerical comparison or arithmetic problem-solving. R.H.'s performance in numerical interval bisection indicates that this task involves processes that are distinct from those involved in number comparison and mental arithmetic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

    2012-02-01

    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Four USH2A founder mutations underlie the majority of Usher syndrome type 2 cases among non-Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslender, Noa; Bandah, Dikla; Rizel, Leah; Behar, Doron M; Shohat, Mordechai; Banin, Eyal; Allon-Shalev, Stavit; Sharony, Reuven; Sharon, Dror; Ben-Yosef, Tamar

    2008-06-01

    Type 2 Usher syndrome (USH2) is a recessively inherited disorder, characterized by the combination of early onset, moderate-to-severe, sensorineural hearing loss, and vision impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa. From 74% to 90% of USH2 cases are caused by mutations of the USH2A gene. USH2A is composed of 72 exons, encoding for usherin, an extracellular matrix protein, which plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neurosensory cells in both retina and cochlea. To date, over 70 pathogenic mutations of USH2A have been reported in individuals of various ethnicities. Many of these mutations are rare private mutations segregating in single families. The aim of the current work was to investigate the genetic basis for USH2 among Jews of various origins. We found that four USH2A mutations (c.239-240insGTAC, c.1000C>T, c.2209C>T, and c.12067-2A>G) account for 64% of mutant alleles underlying USH2 in Jewish families of non-Ashkenazi descent. Considering the very large size of the USH2A gene and the high number of mutations detected in USH2 patients worldwide, our findings have significant implications for genetic counseling and carrier screening in various Jewish populations.

  13. Mutations in the Human Orthologue of the Mouse underwhite Gene (uw) Underlie a New Form of Oculocutaneous Albinism, OCA4

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, J. M.; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Gardner, John M.; Davisson, Muriel T.; King, Richard A.; Brilliant, Murray H.

    2001-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) affects ∼1/20,000 people worldwide. All forms of OCA exhibit generalized hypopigmentation. Reduced pigmentation during eye development results in misrouting of the optic nerves, nystagmus, alternating strabismus, and reduced visual acuity. Loss of pigmentation in the skin leads to an increased risk for skin cancer. Two common forms and one infrequent form of OCA have been described. OCA1 (MIM 203100) is associated with mutations of the TYR gene encoding tyrosinas...

  14. Mutations in the human orthologue of the mouse underwhite gene (uw) underlie a new form of oculocutaneous albinism, OCA4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J M; Cohen-Barak, O; Hagiwara, N; Gardner, J M; Davisson, M T; King, R A; Brilliant, M H

    2001-11-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) affects approximately 1/20,000 people worldwide. All forms of OCA exhibit generalized hypopigmentation. Reduced pigmentation during eye development results in misrouting of the optic nerves, nystagmus, alternating strabismus, and reduced visual acuity. Loss of pigmentation in the skin leads to an increased risk for skin cancer. Two common forms and one infrequent form of OCA have been described. OCA1 (MIM 203100) is associated with mutations of the TYR gene encoding tyrosinase (the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of melanin pigment) and accounts for approximately 40% of OCA worldwide. OCA2 (MIM 203200), the most common form of OCA, is associated with mutations of the P gene and accounts for approximately 50% of OCA worldwide. OCA3 (MIM 203290), a rare form of OCA and also known as "rufous/red albinism," is associated with mutations in TYRP1 (encoding tyrosinase-related protein 1). Analysis of the TYR and P genes in patients with OCA suggests that other genes may be associated with OCA. We have identified the mouse underwhite gene (uw) and its human orthologue, which underlies a new form of human OCA, termed "OCA4." The encoded protein, MATP (for "membrane-associated transporter protein") is predicted to span the membrane 12 times and likely functions as a transporter.

  15. Serotonin-dependent kinetics of feeding bursts underlie a graded response to food availability in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Iwanir, Shachar; Kopito, Ronen B; Scholz, Monika; Calarco, John A; Biron, David; Levine, Erel

    2017-02-01

    Animals integrate physiological and environmental signals to modulate their food uptake. The nematode C. elegans, whose food uptake consists of pumping bacteria from the environment into the gut, provides excellent opportunities for discovering principles of conserved regulatory mechanisms. Here we show that worms implement a graded feeding response to the concentration of environmental bacteria by modulating a commitment to bursts of fast pumping. Using long-term, high-resolution, longitudinal recordings of feeding dynamics under defined conditions, we find that the frequency and duration of pumping bursts increase and the duration of long pauses diminishes in environments richer in bacteria. The bioamine serotonin is required for food-dependent induction of bursts as well as for maintaining their high rate of pumping through two distinct mechanisms. We identify the differential roles of distinct families of serotonin receptors in this process and propose that regulation of bursts is a conserved mechanism of behaviour and motor control.

  16. A failure of conflict to modulate dual-stream processing may underlie the formation and maintenance of delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speechley, W J; Murray, C B; McKay, R M; Munz, M T; Ngan, E T C

    2010-03-01

    Dual-stream information processing proposes that reasoning is composed of two interacting processes: a fast, intuitive system (Stream 1) and a slower, more logical process (Stream 2). In non-patient controls, divergence of these streams may result in the experience of conflict, modulating decision-making towards Stream 2, and initiating a more thorough examination of the available evidence. In delusional schizophrenia patients, a failure of conflict to modulate decision-making towards Stream 2 may reduce the influence of contradictory evidence, resulting in a failure to correct erroneous beliefs. Delusional schizophrenia patients and non-patient controls completed a deductive reasoning task requiring logical validity judgments of two-part conditional statements. Half of the statements were characterized by a conflict between logical validity (Stream 2) and content believability (Stream 1). Patients were significantly worse than controls in determining the logical validity of both conflict and non-conflict conditional statements. This between groups difference was significantly greater for the conflict condition. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that delusional schizophrenia patients fail to use conflict to modulate towards Stream 2 when the two streams of reasoning arrive at incompatible judgments. This finding provides encouraging preliminary support for the Dual-Stream Modulation Failure model of delusion formation and maintenance. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  18. What Factors Underlie Associative and Categorical Memory Illusions? The Roles of Backward Associative Strength and Interitem Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that affect categorical and associative false memory illusions were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, backward associative strength (BAS) from the list word to the critical lure and interitem connectivity were manipulated in Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) and category list types. For both recall and recognition tasks, the…

  19. Hippocampal activation of microglia may underlie the shared neurobiology of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Zhang, Zuoxia; Lei, Yishan; Liu, Yue; Lu, Cui'e; Rong, Hui; Sun, Yu'e; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity. We showed that rats exposed to single prolonged stress, an established posttraumatic stress disorder model, exhibited persistent mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior, which were accompanied by increased activation of microglia and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal activation of microglia was significantly correlated with mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Our data also showed that both intraperitoneal and intra-hippocampal injection of minocycline suppressed single prolonged stress-induced microglia activation and inflammatory cytokines accumulation in the hippocampus, and attenuated both single prolonged stress-induced mechanical allodynia and anxiety-like behavior. Taken together, the present study suggests that stress-induced microglia activation in the hippocampus may serve as a critical mechanistic link in the comorbid relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. The novel concept introduces the possibility of cotreating chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Cholesterol-Induced Hepatic Inflammation Does Not Underlie the Predisposition to Insulin Resistance in Dyslipidemic Female LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, Nanda; Funke, Anouk; Kloosterhuis, Niels J.; Schreurs, Marijke; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Havinga, Rick; Houten, Sander M.; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; van de Sluis, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Hofker, Marten H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered a causal risk factor predisposing to insulin resistance. However, evidence is accumulating that inflammation confined to the liver may not be causal to metabolic dysfunction. To investigate this, we assessed if hepatic inflammation explains the predisposition

  1. Parallel and costly changes to cellular immunity underlie the evolution of parasitoid resistance in three Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McGonigle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids. However, the different species achieve this in different ways, with D. melanogaster moving sessile hemocytes into circulation while the other species simply produce more cells. Therefore, the convergent evolution of the immune phenotype has different developmental bases. These changes are costly, as resistant populations of all three species had greatly reduced larval survival. In all three species resistance is only costly when food is in short supply, and resistance was rapidly lost from D. melanogaster populations when food is restricted. Furthermore, evolving resistance to L. boulardi resulted in cross-resistance against other parasitoids. Therefore, whether a population evolves resistance will depend on ecological conditions including food availability and the presence of different parasite species.

  2. What Physical Attributes Underlie Self-Reported vs. Observed Ability to Walk 400 m in Later Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kiely, Dan K.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Bean, Jonathan F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate and contrast the physical attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed ability to walk 400 m among older adults. Design Analysis of baseline and 3-yr data from 1026 participants 65 yrs or older in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti) study was conducted. Observed and self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline and at 3 yrs were primary outcomes. Predictors included leg speed, leg strength, leg strength symmetry, range of motion, balance, and kyphosis. Results Balance, leg speed, leg strength, kyphosis, leg strength symmetry, and knee range of motion were associated with self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline (P leg speed, and knee range of motion were associated with observed 400-m walk (P leg speed and leg strength were predictive of both self-reported (P vs. observed walking ability differ. The factor most consistently associated with current and future walking ability is leg speed. These results draw attention to important foci for rehabilitation. PMID:24322434

  3. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  4. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Ange Amorim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  5. Complex modulation by stress of the effect of seizures on long term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Nicola; Shavit Stein, Efrat; Segal, Menahem

    2017-08-01

    Stress has a profound effect on ability to express neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. Likewise, epileptic seizures lead to massive changes in brain connectivity, and in ability to undergo long term changes in reactivity to afferent stimulation. In this study, we analyzed possible long lasting interactions between a stressful experience and reactivity to pilocarpine, on the ability to produce long term potentiation (LTP) in a mouse hippocampus. Pilocarpine lowers paired pulse potentiation as well as LTP in CA1 region of the mouse hippocampal slice. When stress experience precedes exposure to pilocarpine, it protects the brain from the lasting effect of pilocarpine. When stress follows pilocarpine, it exacerbates the effect of the drug, to produce a long lasting reduction in LTP. These changes are accompanied by a parallel change in blood corticosterone level. A single exposure to selective mineralo- or gluco-corticosterone (MR and GR, respectively) agonists and antagonists can mimic the stress effects, indicating that GR's underlie the lasting detrimental effects of stress whereas MRs are instrumental in counteracting the effects of stress. These studies open a new avenue of understanding of the interactive effects of stress and epileptic seizures on brain plasticity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. One hormone, two actions: anti- and pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Cidlowski, John A

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. Since their discovery in the 1940s, glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed to treat inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. In the traditional view, glucocorticoids are regarded as anti-inflammatory molecules; however, emerging evidence suggests that glucocorticoid actions are more complex than previously anticipated. The anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids is attributed to the repression of pro-inflammatory genes through signal transduction by their steroid receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanisms modulating the pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are not well understood. In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide insights into the mechanism by which GR signaling can play a dual role in the regulation of the immune response. We hypothesize that these apparently opposite processes are working together to prepare the immune system to respond to a stressor (pro-inflammatory effects) and subsequently restore homeostasis (anti-inflammatory effects). Finally, we propose that determining the mechanisms which underlie the tissue-specific effects of glucocorticoids will provide an excellent tool to develop more efficient and selective glucocorticoid therapies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. One Hormone Two Actions: Anti- and Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Cidlowski, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. Since their discovery in the 1940’s, glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed to treat inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. In the traditional view, glucocorticoids are regarded as anti-inflammatory molecules; however, emerging evidence suggests that glucocorticoid actions are more complex than previously anticipated. The anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids is attributed to the repression of pro-inflammatory genes through signal transduction by their steroid receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanisms modulating the pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are not well understood. In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide insights into the mechanism by which GR signaling can play a dual role in the regulation of the immune response. We hypothesize that these apparently opposite processes are working together to prepare the immune system to respond to a stressor (pro-inflammatory effects) and subsequently restore homeostasis (anti-inflammatory effects). Finally, we propose that determining the mechanisms which underlie the tissue-specific effects of glucocorticoids will provide an excellent tool to develop more efficient and selective glucocorticoid therapies. PMID:25227506

  8. Effects of D-cycloserine on the extinction of appetitive operant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurbic, Drina; Gold, Benjamin; Bouton, Mark E

    2011-08-01

    Four experiments with rat subjects examined whether D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA agonist, facilitates the extinction of operant lever-pressing reinforced by food. Previous research has demonstrated that DCS facilitates extinction learning with methods that involve Pavlovian extinction. In the current experiments, operant conditioning occurred in Context A, extinction in Context B, and then testing occurred in both the extinction and conditioning contexts. Experiments 1A and 1B tested the effects of three doses of DCS (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) on the extinction of lever pressing trained as a free operant. Experiment 2 examined their effects when extinction of the free operant was conducted in the presence of nonresponse-contingent deliveries of the reinforcer (that theoretically reduced the role of generalization decrement in suppressing responding). Experiment 3 examined their effects on extinction of a discriminated operant, that is, one that had been reinforced in the presence of a discriminative stimulus, but not in its absence. A strong ABA renewal effect was observed in all four experiments during testing. However, despite the use of DCS doses and a drug administration procedure that facilitates the extinction of Pavlovian learning, there was no evidence in any experiment that DCS facilitated operant extinction learning assessed in either the extinction or the conditioning context. DCS may primarily facilitate learning processes that underlie Pavlovian, rather than purely operant, extinction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  10. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  11. Interactive effects of music and prefrontal cortex stimulation in modulating response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad Alizadeh; Acevedo, Nicola; Illipparampil, Rosin; Fehring, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-12-22

    Influential hypotheses propose that alterations in emotional state influence decision processes and executive control of behavior. Both music and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex affect emotional state, however interactive effects of music and tDCS on executive functions remain unknown. Learning to inhibit inappropriate responses is an important aspect of executive control which is guided by assessing the decision outcomes such as errors. We found that high-tempo music, but not low-tempo music or low-level noise, significantly influenced learning and implementation of inhibitory control. In addition, a brief period of tDCS over prefrontal cortex specifically interacted with high-tempo music and altered its effects on executive functions. Measuring event-related autonomic and arousal response of participants indicated that exposure to task demands and practice led to a decline in arousal response to the decision outcome and high-tempo music enhanced such practice-related processes. However, tDCS specifically moderated the high-tempo music effect on the arousal response to errors and concomitantly restored learning and improvement in executive functions. Here, we show that tDCS and music interactively influence the learning and implementation of inhibitory control. Our findings indicate that alterations in the arousal-emotional response to the decision outcome might underlie these interactive effects.

  12. Satiety in the obese Zucker rat: effects of carbohydrate type and acarbose (Bay g 5421).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Vasselli, J R

    1989-09-01

    Despite the obese Zucker rat's hyperphagia on carbohydrate diets such as laboratory chow, this laboratory has found that its satiety response to glucose and other simple sugars is comparable to that of its lean control rat. To further investigate carbohydrate satiety in the Zucker rat, the short-term feeding behavior of obese and lean rats was observed following intragastric infusions (7.2 kcal in 10 ml) of corn starch and the starch hydrolysates Polycose and dextrin. There were no reliable between-genotype differences in the feeding inhibitory effects of Polycose and dextrin. However, in obese rats, the satiety effect of corn starch was delayed and reduced compared to that observed in lean rats (p less than 0.04). To modify the effect of corn starch, rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mg/infusion of the carbohydrate digestive inhibitor acarbose (Bay g 5421). Acarbose significantly reduced the satiety effect of corn starch in lean rats (p less than 0.001), and further attenuated satiety in obese rats (p less than 0.02). Since secretion of pancreatic amylase, the enzyme that initiates starch digestion, is decreased in obese rats, this result suggests that alterations of digestive and/or absorptive processes may underlie the obese rat's impaired satiety response to complex carbohydrate.

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effects and the DNA paradigm: An 'out of field' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there has been increasing evidence that cells and the progeny of cells surviving a very low dose of ionizing radiation [μ-mGy] can exhibit a wide range of non-monotonic effects such as adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity and other delayed effects. These effects are inconsistent with the expected dose-response, when based on extrapolation of high dose data and cast doubt on the reliability of extrapolating from high dose data to predict low dose effects. Recently the cause of many of these effects has been tentatively ascribed to so-called 'bystander effects'. These are effects that occur in cells not directly hit by an ionizing track but which are influenced by signals from irradiated cells and are thus highly relevant in situations where the dose is very low. Not all bystander effects may be deleterious although most endpoints measured involve cell damage or death. In this commentary, we consider how these effects impact the historical central dogma of radiobiology and radiation protection, which is that DNA double strand breaks are the primary radiation-induced lesion which can be quantifiably related to received dose and which determine the probability that a cancer will result from a radiation exposure. We explore the low dose issues and the evidence and conclude that in the very low dose region, the primary determinant of radiation exposure outcome is the genetic and epigenetic background of the individual and not solely the dose. What this does is to dissociate dose from effect as a quantitative relationship, but it does not necessarily mean that the effect is ultimately unrelated to DNA damage. The fundamental thesis we present is that at low doses fundamentally different mechanisms underlie radiation action and that at these doses, effect is not quantitatively related to dose

  14. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  15. Relationship between drug discrimination and ratings of subjective effects: implications for assessing and understanding the abuse potential of D-amphetamine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (reffects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse.

  16. Effects of therapy for dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijens, Laura W J; Speyer, Renée

    2009-03-01

    This systematic review explores the effects of dysphagia treatment for Parkinson's disease. The review includes rehabilitative, surgical, pharmacologic, and other treatments. Only oropharyngeal dysphagia is selected for this literature search, excluding dysphagia due to esophageal or gastric disorders. The effects of deep brain stimulation on dysphagia are not included. In general, the literature concerning dysphagia treatment in Parkinson's disease is rather limited. Most effect studies show diverse methodologic problems. Multiple case studies and trials are identified by searching biomedical literature databases PubMed and Embase, and by hand-searching reference lists. The conclusions of most studies cannot be compared with one another because of heterogeneous therapy methods and outcome measures. Further research based on randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of different therapies for dysphagia in Parkinson's disease is required.

  17. Effects of Electrode Material on the Voltage of a Tree-Based Energy Generator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Hao

    Full Text Available The voltage between a standing tree and its surrounding soil is regarded as an innovative renewable energy source. This source is expected to provide a new power generation system for the low-power electrical equipment used in forestry. However, the voltage is weak, which has caused great difficulty in application. Consequently, the development of a method to increase the voltage is a key issue that must be addressed in this area of applied research. As the front-end component for energy harvesting, a metal electrode has a material effect on the level and stability of the voltage obtained. This study aimed to preliminarily ascertain the rules and mechanisms that underlie the effects of electrode material on voltage. Electrodes of different materials were used to measure the tree-source voltage, and the data were employed in a comparative analysis. The results indicate that the conductivity of the metal electrode significantly affects the contact resistance of the electrode-soil and electrode-trunk contact surfaces, thereby influencing the voltage level. The metal reactivity of the electrode has no significant effect on the voltage. However, passivation of the electrode materials markedly reduces the voltage. Suitable electrode materials are demonstrated and recommended.

  18. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  20. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).