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Sample records for underlie behavioral functions

  1. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering

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    Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L.; Sikora, Chamonix O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca’s area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS. PMID:28759567

  2. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering.

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    Jianping Qiao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS and typically developing (TD fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area, caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.

  3. Individual Differences in Premotor Brain Systems Underlie Behavioral Apathy

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    Bonnelle, Valerie; Manohar, Sanjay; Behrens, Tim; Husain, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Lack of physical engagement, productivity, and initiative—so-called “behavioral apathy”—is a common problem with significant impact, both personal and economic. Here, we investigate whether there might be a biological basis to such lack of motivation using a new effort and reward-based decision-making paradigm, combined with functional and diffusion-weighted imaging. We hypothesized that behavioral apathy in otherwise healthy people might be associated with differences in brain systems underlying either motivation to act (specifically in effort and reward-based decision-making) or in action processing (transformation of an intention into action). The results demonstrate that behavioral apathy is associated with increased effort sensitivity as well as greater recruitment of neural systems involved in action anticipation: supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor zones. In addition, decreased structural and functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and SMA were associated with increased behavioral apathy. These findings reveal that effort sensitivity and translation of intentions into actions might make a critical contribution to behavioral apathy. We propose a mechanism whereby inefficient communication between ACC and SMA might lead to increased physiological cost—and greater effort sensitivity—for action initiation in more apathetic people. PMID:26564255

  4. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

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    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior

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    Tjeerd C Andringa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.

  6. Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior

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    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Bosch, Kirsten A. Van Den; Wijermans, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind. PMID:25954212

  7. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

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    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

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    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  9. Does biology underlie the oldest profession? Prostitution and sex disparities in john behavior.

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    Shutt, J Eagle; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Higgins, George E; Tewksbury, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study considers a biosocial explanation of why johns, the purchasers of commercial sex exchanges, are almost exclusively male. Trivers's theory of parental investment and sexual selection predicts that differential parental investment by biological sex will lead to divergent sex-based reproductive instincts. The sex bearing the larger parental investment will tend to be choosier whereas the sex bearing the lesser investment will tend to be relatively indiscriminate and competitive for access to sexual resources. We hypothesized that men are more likely than women to offer objects of value in exchange for access to sexual resources. Using self-reports of sex-purchasing from Add Health data (N = 14,544), we found that maleness was a robust predictor of john behavior even after controlling for well-known criminogenic risk factors.

  10. Heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function mutations underlie an unexpectedly broad clinical phenotype

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    Toubiana, J.; Okada, S.; Hiller, J.; Oleastro, M.; Lagos Gomez, M.; Aldave Becerra, J.C.; Ouachee-Chardin, M.; Fouyssac, F.; Girisha, K.M.; Etzioni, A.; Montfrans, J. van; Camcioglu, Y.; Kerns, L.A.; Belohradsky, B.; Blanche, S.; Bousfiha, A.; Rodriguez-Gallego, C.; Meyts, I.; Kisand, K.; Reichenbach, J.; Renner, E.D.; Rosenzweig, S.; Grimbacher, B.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.; Picard, C.; Marodi, L.; Morio, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Lilic, D.; Milner, J.D.; Holland, S.; Casanova, J.L.; Puel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery in patients with autosomal dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in 2011, heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations have increasingly been identified worldwide. The clinical spectrum associated with them needed to be delineated. We enrolled 274

  11. Functional and structural changes in internal pudendal arteries underlie erectile dysfunction induced by androgen deprivation

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    Rhéure Alves-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is strongly associated with erectile dysfunction (ED. Inadequate penile arterial blood flow is one of the major causes of ED. The blood flow to the corpus cavernosum is mainly derived from the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs; however, no study has evaluated the effects of androgen deprivation on IPA′s function. We hypothesized that castration impairs IPAs reactivity and structure, contributing to ED. In our study, Wistar male rats, 8-week-old, were castrated and studied 30 days after orchiectomy. Functional and structural properties of rat IPAs were determined using wire and pressure myograph systems, respectively. Protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Plasma testosterone levels were determined using the IMMULITE 1000 Immunoassay System. Castrated rats exhibited impaired erectile function, represented by decreased intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased phenylephrine- and electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contraction and decreased acetylcholine- and EFS-induced vasodilatation. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased internal diameter, external diameter, thickness of the arterial wall, and cross-sectional area. Castration decreased nNOS and α-actin expression and increased collagen expression, p38 (Thr180/Tyr182 phosphorylation, as well as caspase 3 cleavage. In conclusion, androgen deficiency is associated with impairment of IPA reactivity and structure and increased apoptosis signaling markers. Our findings suggest that androgen deficiency-induced vascular dysfunction is an event involving hypotrophic vascular remodeling of IPAs.

  12. NbIT--a new information theory-based analysis of allosteric mechanisms reveals residues that underlie function in the leucine transporter LeuT.

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    LeVine, Michael V; Weinstein, Harel

    2014-05-01

    Complex networks of interacting residues and microdomains in the structures of biomolecular systems underlie the reliable propagation of information from an input signal, such as the concentration of a ligand, to sites that generate the appropriate output signal, such as enzymatic activity. This information transduction often carries the signal across relatively large distances at the molecular scale in a form of allostery that is essential for the physiological functions performed by biomolecules. While allosteric behaviors have been documented from experiments and computation, the mechanism of this form of allostery proved difficult to identify at the molecular level. Here, we introduce a novel analysis framework, called N-body Information Theory (NbIT) analysis, which is based on information theory and uses measures of configurational entropy in a biomolecular system to identify microdomains and individual residues that act as (i)-channels for long-distance information sharing between functional sites, and (ii)-coordinators that organize dynamics within functional sites. Application of the new method to molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of the occluded state of the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT identifies a channel of allosteric coupling between the functionally important intracellular gate and the substrate binding sites known to modulate it. NbIT analysis is shown also to differentiate residues involved primarily in stabilizing the functional sites, from those that contribute to allosteric couplings between sites. NbIT analysis of MD data thus reveals rigorous mechanistic elements of allostery underlying the dynamics of biomolecular systems.

  13. Linking Cellular Mechanisms to Behavior: Entorhinal Persistent Spiking and Membrane Potential Oscillations May Underlie Path Integration, Grid Cell Firing, and Episodic Memory

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    Michael E. Hasselmo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex plays an important role in spatial memory and episodic memory functions. These functions may result from cellular mechanisms for integration of the afferent input to entorhinal cortex. This article reviews physiological data on persistent spiking and membrane potential oscillations in entorhinal cortex then presents models showing how both these cellular mechanisms could contribute to properties observed during unit recording, including grid cell firing, and how they could underlie behavioural functions including path integration. The interaction of oscillations and persistent firing could contribute to encoding and retrieval of trajectories through space and time as a mechanism relevant to episodic memory.

  14. Does Animal Behavior Underlie Covariation Between Hosts' Exposure to Infectious Agents and Susceptibility to Infection? Implications for Disease Dynamics

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    Hawley, Dana M.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal behavior is unique in influencing both components of the process of transmission of disease: exposure to infectious agents, and susceptibility to infection once exposed. To date, the influence of behavior on exposure versus susceptibility has largely been considered separately. Here, we ask

  15. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

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    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  16. CDKN2A/B Deletion and Double-hit Mutations of the MAPK Pathway Underlie the Aggressive Behavior of Langerhans Cell Tumors.

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    Xerri, Luc; Adélaïde, José; Popovici, Cornel; Garnier, Séverine; Guille, Arnaud; Mescam-Mancini, Lenaïg; Laurent, Camille; Brousset, Pierre; Coze, Carole; Michel, Gérard; Chaffanet, Max; Bouabdallah, Reda; Coso, Diane; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has a mostly favorable outcome, whereas Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) is an aggressive tumor. It is still unclear whether any specific molecular alterations could underlie the aggressive behavior of Langerhans cell proliferations. We used targeted next-generation sequencing and array-comparative genomic hybridization to profile 22 LCH samples from different patients together with 3 LCS samples corresponding to different relapses from the same patient. The third LCS relapse was a composite tumor including both B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and LCS components. The 22 LCH samples were mostly of bone origin and showed classic histophenotypical features. Array-comparative genomic hybridization showed in all 3 LCS samples a similar homozygous somatic loss affecting the CDKN2A/B locus, whereas the 17 informative LCH samples did not show any detectable abnormality. In the 3 LCS samples, targeted next-generation sequencing of 495 cancer genes detected common mutations in KMT2D/MLL2 and in both MAP2K1 and NRAS genes, whereas BRAF was not mutated. A NOTCH1 mutation was acquired in 2 LCS samples. The composite LCS/B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia tumor showed the same genetic profile in its 2 components. LCH samples showed mutually exclusive mutations of BRAF (8/20) and MAP2K1 (4/19), but no mutation of KMT2D, NRAS nor NOTCH1. These results suggest that CDKN2A/B deletion and/or simultaneous mutations of MAP2K1 and NRAS may underlie the aggressive behavior of Langerhans cell tumors, and thus could be useful for the diagnosis of malignancy in histiocytic neoplasms. The MAPK pathway "double hit" profile provides a basis for targeted therapy in LCS patients.

  17. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

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    Shigetoshi eTakaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The arcuate fasciculus (AF in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca’s area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homologue of Broca’s area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca’s area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca’s area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca’s area, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  18. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain.

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    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  19. Individual differences in brain structure and resting brain function underlie cognitive styles: evidence from the Embedded Figures Test.

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    Hao, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive styles can be characterized as individual differences in the way people perceive, think, solve problems, learn, and relate to others. Field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important and widely studied dimension of cognitive styles. Although functional imaging studies have investigated the brain activation of FDI cognitive styles, the combined structural and functional correlates with individual differences in a large sample have never been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of individual differences in FDI cognitive styles by analyzing the correlations between Embedded Figures Test (EFT) score and structural neuroimaging data [regional gray matter volume (rGMV) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)]/functional neuroimaging data [resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)] throughout the whole brain. Results showed that the increased rGMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was associated with the EFT score, which might be the structural basis of effective local processing. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between ALFF and EFT score was found in the fronto-parietal network, including the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We speculated that the left IPL might be associated with superior feature identification, and mPFC might be related to cognitive inhibition of global processing bias. These results suggested that the underlying neuroanatomical and functional bases were linked to the individual differences in FDI cognitive styles and emphasized the important contribution of superior local processing ability and cognitive inhibition to field-independent style.

  20. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

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    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  1. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

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    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  2. Functional Thinking for Managing Challenging Behavior

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    Allday, R. Allan

    2018-01-01

    Challenging student behavior remains one of the biggest trials for classroom teachers. Understanding why a student performs a specific behavior is important in determining how to develop an intervention that targets the function of the behavior. This column focuses on how thinking functionally about behavior can help teachers understand why…

  3. Reducing Behavior Problems through Functional Communication Training.

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    Carr, Edward G.; Durand, V. Mark

    1985-01-01

    Results of two experiments on choosing replacement behaviors for behavior problems in developmentally disabled students were consistent with the hypothesis that some behavior problems may be viewed as nonverbal communication and that behavior problems and verbal communicative acts may be equivalent in function. Therefore, strengthening the latter…

  4. Motor and extra-motor gray matter integrity may underlie neurophysiologic parameters of motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a combined voxel-based morphometry and transcranial stimulation study.

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    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Velonakis, Georgios; Rentzos, Michail; Zambelis, Thomas; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Xirou, Sophia; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-07

    The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density. We also conducted regression analysis to examine correlations between GM density and the following TMS parameters: motor evoked potential (MEP)/M ratio and central motor conduction time (CMCT). We found significantly decreased GM density in ALS patients in several frontal, temporal, parietal/occipital and cerebellar regions (p motor area (negative association). CMCT was associated with GM density in (a) inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulated gyrus (positive association) and (b) superior parietal lobule; cuneus and cerebellum (negative association). Our findings support a significant interaction between motor and extra-motor structural and functional changes and highlight that motor and extra-motor GM integrity may underlie TMS parameters of motor function in ALS patients.

  5. Social Dynamics Management and Functional Behavioral Assessment

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    Lee, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.

  6. [Executive function and behavior in university drinkers].

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    Salcedo Palacios, Dii Dayana; Ramírez Nova, Yeimy Johanna; Acosta Barreto, María Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Establish the profile of executive function and behavior in fifty consumers of alcohol are located in a high-risk level according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and which belong to different universities in the city of Bogota. Was used analytical transverse design, and were taken as study variables executive function (inhibition, monitoring, sequencing, planning, cognitive flexibility, working memory, attentional control, categorization and concept formation) and executive behavior (decision making, impulse control, emotional feedback, empathy and theory of mind). Results showed that there is a greater number of cognitive domains of executive function involved in contrast to those of executive behavior. Such is for inhibition, sequencing, attention control (processing speed), categorization, cognitive flexibility, self monitoring and planning. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

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    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. ELDERLY DRIVING BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

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    Etsuo HORIKAWA

    2009-01-01

    Discussions: Of the 30 items monitored in the study, significant differences were evident in only a few. Because the evidence did not suggest a particular link to accident experience, it will be necessary to obtain objective data from other cognitive function tests and driving behavior for reassessment. various problems related to elderly driving in Japan were discussed.

  9. Functional Analysis of Behavior and Its Clinical Application

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    Kaasim Fatih Yavuz; Furkan Bahadir Alptekin

    2017-01-01

    Many approaches to psychology and psychiatry have tried to explain behaviors etiologically. Functional contextualism, followed by radical behaviorism, and its application functional analysis of behavior can be considered as an alternative to mainstream approaches. Functional analysis, in analyzing a particular behavior, takes into account the context in which behavior itself present and suggests that it focus on contextual factors that influence behavior in the direction of learning principle...

  10. Functional analysis of verbal behavior: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Normand, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    A variation of the preintervention functional analysis of problem behavior has recently been extended to identify the function of verbal behavior emitted by children with autism. Recent research suggests that a functional analysis of verbal behavior might be beneficial in evaluating previous instruction and guiding the selection of future educational targets and instructional procedures. The present paper reviews previous literature on the functional analysis of verbal behavior and identifies avenues for future research. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  12. Cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment: Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia L.F. Chaves

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the evidence on cognitive, functional and behavioral assessment for the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD is presented with revision and broadening of the recommendations on the use of tests and batteries in Brazil for the diagnosis of dementia due to AD. A systematic review of the literature (MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO database was carried out by a panel of experts. Studies on the validation and/or adaptation of tests, scales and batteries for the Brazilian population were analyzed and classified according to level of evidence. There were sufficient data to recommend the IQCODE, DAFS-R, DAD, ADL-Q and Bayer scale for the evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living, and the Katz scale for the assessment of basic activities of daily living. For the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and the CAMDEX were found to be useful, as was the Cornell scale for depression in dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination has clinical utility as a screening test, as do the multifunctional batteries (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-COG, CERAD and MDRS for brief evaluations of several cognitive domains. There was sufficient evidence to recommend the CDR scale for clinical and severity assessment of dementia. Tests for Brazilian Portuguese are recommended by cognitive domain based on available data.

  13. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  14. A Comparison of Functional Behavioral Assessment and Functional Analysis Methodology among Students with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.; Harvey, Kristin; Green, Ambra; McKenzie, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and functional analyses (FA) are grounded in the applied behavior analysis principle that posits problem behavior is functionally related to the environment in which it occurs and is maintained by either providing access to reinforcing outcomes or allowing the individual to avoid or escape that which they…

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Multiply Controlled Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Fredrick, Laura D.; Reed, Gregory K.; Rivas, Kristi D.; Kadey, Heather J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses identified children whose inappropriate mealtime behavior was maintained by escape and adult attention. Function-based extinction procedures were tested individually and in combination. Attention extinction alone did not result in decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior or a significant increase in acceptance. By contrast,…

  16. Emerging Themes in the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.

    1994-01-01

    The successful application of functional analysis to problem behavior suggests the need to examine: additional functional properties of behavior involving social avoidance, biological reinforcement, and respondent conditioning; the role of context (including social factors and biological factors); and the multidimensional character of assessment…

  17. Functional Analysis of Behavior and Its Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaasim Fatih Yavuz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches to psychology and psychiatry have tried to explain behaviors etiologically. Functional contextualism, followed by radical behaviorism, and its application functional analysis of behavior can be considered as an alternative to mainstream approaches. Functional analysis, in analyzing a particular behavior, takes into account the context in which behavior itself present and suggests that it focus on contextual factors that influence behavior in the direction of learning principles. These factors are environment in which a particular behavior occurs, internal/external stimuli, and consequences of that behavior. In this review, we will first explain the topographic analysis that focuses on the shape and features of behavior and the structural analysis that reveals the time, duration, frequency, intensity, deficit or excess, and will discuss the existing differences between these and functional analysis. Then the learning principles, habituation, respondent conditioning, operant conditioning, social learning and derived relational response will be briefly explained. And after functional analysis of behavior and its clinical examples will be focused. Taken together, these three analyzes can create an objective and useful background in clinical practice and research processes –independent of theoretical approaches. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 88-94

  18. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  19. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  20. Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudnut, Steven

    2001-01-01

    This final report is to document a summary of Ph.D. Student, Mr. Steven Hudnut who was supported by this ASSERT Grant, working on design of Piezo Actuators with Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM). Mr...

  1. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  2. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  3. Psychological Functioning and Behavior of Sexually Abused Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbender, Alison J.; Friedrich, William N.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological functioning and behavior of 46 sexually abused girls (ages 6-14) with that of 46 nonabused girls matched on age, race, family income, and family constellation. Found that sexually abused children demonstrated heightened sexual preoccupation and behavior problems, lower cognitive abilities and school achievement, and more…

  4. Intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning in children with syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliepaard, M.; Mathijssen, I.M.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Okkerse, J.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine intellectual, behavioral, and emotional functioning of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis and to explore differences between diagnostic subgroups. METHODS: A national sample of children who have syndromic craniosynostosis participated in this study. Intellectual,

  5. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  6. A Comparison of Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C.; Kramer, Nanette A.

    In order to ascertain the extent to which older persons' levels of behavioral functioning parallel their levels of intellectual functioning, 42 female patients, aged 61-99, of an outpatient comprehensive care geriatric clinic, completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), the…

  7. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  8. Decisions Regarding Functions of Behavior: Scientific Versus Informal Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Carie J.; Simpson, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the role of functional analysis as the basis for development of behavior management programs for three preschool boys with developmental disabilities. The maintaining factors for all three boys were relatively easily identified during formal functional analysis assessment and effective intervention programs were designed and…

  9. Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnöve; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child Behavior Checklist. The studied dimensions of EF were cognitive efficiency/speed, working memory/attention and inhibitory control. Strong age effects were found for these cognitive abilities (p values working hard and behaving well), academic performance and less psychiatric symptoms (p values <0.05), specially in 8-9-year-old children. In this youngest age group low inhibitory control was also associated with teacher-reported inattention (p = 0.042). Low inhibitory control was associated with teacher- and parent-reported internalizing symptoms (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maturational factors may underlie low adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms during early school years. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between inhibition and emotional symptoms.

  10. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Lamanna, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fascio, M.L., E-mail: mfascio@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  11. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, A.; Lamanna, M.; Goyanes, S.; D'Accorso, N.B.; Fascio, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  12. Structural hemispheric asymmetries underlie verbal Stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallesi, Antonino; Mazzonetto, Ilaria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Babcock, Laura; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Arbula, Sandra; Tarantino, Vincenza; Semenza, Carlo; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2017-09-29

    Performance on tasks involving cognitive control such as the Stroop task is often associated with left lateralized brain activations. Based on this neuro-functional evidence, we tested whether leftward structural grey matter asymmetries would also predict inter-individual differences in combatting Stroop interference. To check for the specificity of the results, both a verbal Stroop task and a spatial one were administered to a total of 111 healthy young individuals, for whom T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were also acquired. Surface thickness and area estimations were calculated using FreeSurfer. Participants' hemispheres were registered to a symmetric template and Laterality Indices (LI) for the surface thickness and for the area at each vertex in each participant were computed. The correlation of these surface LI measures with the verbal and spatial Stroop effects (incongruent-congruent difference in trial performance) was assessed at each vertex by means of general linear models at the whole-brain level. We found a significant correlation between performance and surface area LI in an inferior posterior temporal cluster (overlapping with the so-called visual word form area, VWFA), with a more left-lateralized area in this region associated with a smaller Stroop effect only in the verbal task. These results point to an involvement of the VWFA for higher-level processes based on word reading, including the suppression of this process when required by the task, and could be interpreted in the context of cross-hemispheric rivalry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of operator team behavior. Introduction of emotional function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Naoko

    1997-01-01

    Operator's behavior may be influenced by the atmosphere in a control room. Therefore, it is important to consider operator's emotions especially when abnormal situations occur in a plant. SYBORG (Simulation System for the Behavior of an Operating Group) is a system for simulating the behavior of an operator team. Based on 1) Investigations of how operators feel the situations in a control room and 2) biological and psychological similarities between emotion and immunity, an emotional function was tried to be incorporated into SYBORG using immune algorithm. (author)

  14. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy among Mothers with Children with Disruptive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Romero-Porras

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental problems remain one of the central topics in governments’ agendas because of their negative impact at social and economic levels. The present paper is a single case study, with A-B design with concurrent control through behaviors and participants, aimed to identify the effect of the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP on four mothers who informed about their children’s disruptive behaviors in the school setting. A case-control who received psychoeducation-based intervention was included in order to observe outcome differences among participants regarding the implemented treatment. Using the FIAT-Q and functional analysis, participants’ problematic behaviors were identified. Mothers treated with FAP were expected to display behavioral changes within the sessions and generalized them to the natural context in the interaction with their children in order to promote children’s prosocial behaviors. Results indicated that FAP reduced the frequency of mothers’ problematic behaviors and, in turn, children reduced disruptive behaviors. Implications of the study results are discussed both at theoretical and applied levels.

  15. Assessing and Treating Stereotypical Behaviors in Classrooms Using a Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison L.; Balint-Langel, Kinga; Troughton, Leonard; Langan, Sean; Lodge, Kelsey; Kortemeyer, Sara

    2015-01-01

    For years, the assumption has been that stereotypical behaviors functioned only to provide sensory or automatic reinforcement. However, these behaviors also may serve social functions. Given the unsettled debate, functional behavior assessment and functional analysis can be used to identify the exact function of stereotypical behavior and design…

  16. Neural regions that underlie reinforcement learning are also active for social expectancy violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lasana T; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    Prediction error, the difference between an expected and an actual outcome, serves as a learning signal that interacts with reward and punishment value to direct future behavior during reinforcement learning. We hypothesized that similar learning and valuation signals may underlie social expectancy violations. Here, we explore the neural correlates of social expectancy violation signals along the universal person-perception dimensions trait warmth and competence. In this context, social learning may result from expectancy violations that occur when a target is inconsistent with an a priori schema. Expectancy violation may activate neural regions normally implicated in prediction error and valuation during appetitive and aversive conditioning. Using fMRI, we first gave perceivers high warmth or competence behavioral information that led to dispositional or situational attributions for the behavior. Participants then saw pictures of people responsible for the behavior; they represented social groups either inconsistent (rated low on either warmth or competence) or consistent (rated high on either warmth or competence) with the behavior information. Warmth and competence expectancy violations activate striatal regions that represent evaluative and prediction error signals. Social cognition regions underlie consistent expectations. These findings suggest that regions underlying reinforcement learning may work in concert with social cognition regions in warmth and competence social expectancy. This study illustrates the neural overlap between neuroeconomics and social neuroscience.

  17. Relationships among Repetitive Behaviors, Sensory Features, and Executive Functions in High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Holtzclaw, Tia; Baranek, Grace T.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory processing issues in school-aged children with high functioning autism (HFA). Children with HFA (N = 61) were compared to healthy, typical controls (N = 64) to determine the relationship between these behavioral classes and to examine whether executive dysfunction…

  18. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  19. The Shape of Utility Functions and Organizational Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.E. Pennings; A. Smidts (Ale)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBased on measurements with 332 owner-managers, the global shape of the utility function (i.e., S-shaped versus concave or convex over the total range of outcomes) appears to discriminate organizational behavior. Whereas the degree of risk aversion, based on the local shape of the utility

  20. Dynamic behavior of chemical reactivity indices in density functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic behaviors of chemical concepts in density functional theory such as frontier orbitals (HOMO/LUMO), chemical potential, hardness, and electrophilicity index have been investigated in this work in the context of Bohn-Oppenheimer quantum molecular dynamics in association with molecular conformation changes.

  1. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls)

  2. Functional Behaviorism: A Plan for Unity in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Gregory Adams

    1999-01-01

    Examines conflicts resulting from the splintering of psychology as a discipline. Discusses conflict resolution (empiricism versus intuition, analysis versus holism, psychological versus biological causality, and splintering of the discipline). Describes functional behaviorism, suggesting that psychology must be behavioristic to be a science.…

  3. Distinctive Pattern of Behavioral Functioning in Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jane A.; Feldman, Maurice A.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 27 participants with Angelman syndrome to clinical and community participants (n=948) with developmental disabilities of mixed etiology to determine whether Angelman syndrome is associated with a distinctive patterns of behavioral functioning. Those with Angelman syndrome had significantly lower scores on measures of irritability…

  4. REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AND PERSONALITY ORGANIZATION: ASSOCIATIONS WITH NEGATIVE MATERNAL BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Rousseau, Marie-Eve; Biberdzic, Marko; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether mothers who manifest insensitive and disconnected behaviors in interaction with their infants differ in terms of maternal reflective functioning (RF), personality organization, and histories of abuse. A total of 86 mother-infant dyads, 28 of them with histories of abuse, participated in the study. RF was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1985), and personality organization was assessed with the self-report Inventory of Personality Organization (M.F. Lenzenweger, J.F. Clarkin, O.F. Kernberg, & P.A. Foelsh, 2001; L. Normandin et al., 2002), before the birth of the baby. Maternal behaviors were assessed using the Disconnected and Extremely Insensitive Parenting measure when the infants were 15 to 18 months old. The results of multivariate analyses of covariance indicate that both RF and personality organization were associated with disconnected and extremely insensitive maternal behaviors. Mothers classified as presenting intrusive/aggressive behaviors had significantly lower RF as well as significantly more difficulties in personality organization, including reality testing, identity, and defense mechanisms. Withdrawn and disconnected maternal behaviors were associated with the combination of difficulties in mentalization and personality organization rather than difficulties in one specific area. In sum, the study provides new evidence regarding the importance of a mentalizing stance about early attachment relationships for the modulation of maternal behaviors, especially intrusive/aggressive behaviors. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Executive function in preschool children: examination through everyday behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isquith, Peter K; Gioia, Gerard A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2004-01-01

    Clinical assessment of executive function in preschool-age children is challenging given limited availability of standardized tasks and preschoolers' variable ability to participate in lengthy formal evaluation procedures. Given the benefits of ecological validity of measuring behavior by rating scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) was modified for use with children ages 2 through 5 years to assess executive functions in an everyday context. The scale development process, based on samples of 460 parents and 302 teachers, yielded a single 63-item measure with 5 related, but nonoverlapping, scales, with good internal consistency and temporal stability. Exploratory factor analyses identified 3 consistent factors: Emergent Metacognition, Flexibility, and Inhibitory Self-Control across parent and teacher samples. In a second study with a mixed sample of preschool children with various developmental disorders, parents and teachers rated these preschool children as having greater executive difficulties in most domains than matched controls. Such rating-scale methodology may be a useful complementary tool by which to reliably assess executive functions in preschool children via everyday behaviors in the natural environment.

  6. INTERVIEW GUIDELINE FOR FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS IN TRANSSEXUAL PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Rodríguez Molina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transsexuality is an emerging phenomenon. There are therefore few psychological assessment tools for it. The purpose of this article is to show the professional clinical psychology and social intervention community a tool that could facilitate this task. We begin with a brief introduction to the phenomenon of transsexuality and psychological assessment in this field, which almost always concentrates on diagnosis or other variables, generally personality (personality traits, depression, anxiety, etc.. Then we approach the main problems found in a transsexual person during the transition. These problems are a potential or real source of psychological conflict. After this we briefly describe behavioral assessment which has been quite forgotten in this area. Finally, we propose a new instrument for this assessment. The main result is the Interview Guideline for Functional Behavior Sequence Analysis (FBSA. We conclude that there is a need for more behavior assessment in this field.

  7. Dialectical behavior therapy and domains of functioning over two years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Chelsey R.; Korslund, Kathryn E.; Harned, Melanie; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) tend to have a significant degree of functional impairment across a range of social and occupational spheres including difficulty finding and maintaining satisfying employment, housing, or relationships. Understanding what factors are associated with functional impairment will enable treatment providers to move those diagnosed with BPD beyond symptomatic recovery and toward a life worth living. This paper investigated the trajectories and predictors of functional outcomes for suicidal women with BPD (N=99) during a treatment outcome study of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Results revealed that participants had statistical and clinical improvements in functioning. Individuals with high emotion dysregulation displayed poorer psychosocial functioning at the subsequent assessment period and slower rates of change, which was also seen in reverse for one psychosocial functioning variable. Skills use was not related to individual trajectories in functioning. This study highlights the relationship of emotion dysregulation to functioning within a sample of suicidal women with BPD as well as the importance researching multiple domains in functioning. PMID:26764586

  8. Relationships between neuropsychological measures of executive function and behavioral measures of ADHD symptoms and comorbid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, Solveig; Bouma, Anke; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EFs), as measured by neuropsychological tests, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid behavior, as rated by parents and teachers. As intelligence and language ability

  9. Functional buckling behavior of silicone rubber shells for biomedical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Houwen, E B; Kuiper, L H; Burgerhof, J G M; van der Laan, B F A M; Verkerke, G J

    2013-12-01

    The use of soft elastic biomaterials in medical devices enables substantial function integration. The consequent increased simplification in design can improve reliability at a lower cost in comparison to traditional (hard) biomaterials. Functional bi-stable buckling is one of the many new mechanisms made possible by soft materials. The buckling behavior of shells, however, is typically described from a structural failure point of view: the collapse of arches or rupture of steam vessels, for example. There is little or no literature about the functional elastic buckling of small-sized silicone rubber shells, and it is unknown whether or not theory can predict their behavior. Is functional buckling possible within the scale, material and pressure normally associated with physiological applications? An automatic speech valve is used as an example application. Silicone rubber spherical shells (diameter 30mm) with hinged and double-hinged boundaries were subjected to air pressure loading. Twelve different geometrical configurations were tested for buckling and reverse buckling pressures. Data were compared with the theory. Buckling pressure increases linearly with shell thickness and shell height. Reverse buckling shows these same relations, with pressures always below normal buckling pressure. Secondary hinges change normal/reverse buckling pressure ratios and promote symmetrical buckling. All tested configurations buckled within or closely around physiological pressures. Functional bi-stable buckling of silicone rubber shells is possible with adjustable properties in the physiological pressure range. Results can be predicted using the proposed relations and equations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implicit function with natural behavior over entire domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To generate a smooth implicit function that behaves naturally over an entire domain, a method to smoothly combine an implicit function f(x) with a global support function g(x) has been proposed. The proposed method can be applied to large scattered point data, since the implicit function f(x) is generated by a partition-of-unity-based method. The global support function g(x) is generated by a radial basis function-based method or by the least-squares method. To ensure a smooth combination of f(x) and g(x), an appropriate weight function is employed. In numerical experiments, the proposed method is applied to large point data. The results illustrate that the proposed method can generate a smooth implicit function F(x) with natural behavior over the entire domain. In addition, on the given points, the accuracy of F(x) is exactly the same as that of f(x). Furthermore, the computational cost for generation of F(x) is almost the same as that of f(x). (author)

  11. WEC Farm Functions: Defining the Behaviors of the Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture Ltd, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics, and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Malins, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture Ltd, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Capabilities and functions are hierarchical structures (i.e. taxonomies) that are used in a systems engineering framework to identify complimentary requirements for the system: what the system must do to achieve what it must be. In the case of capabilities, the taxonomy embodies the list of characteristics that are desired, from the perspective of the stakeholders, for the system to be successful. In terms of the functions, the hierarchy represents the solution agnostic (i.e. independent of specific design embodiments) elements that are needed to meet the stakeholder requirements. This paper will focus on the development of the functions. The functions define the fundamental elements of the solution that must be provided in order to achieve the mission and deliver the capabilities. They identify the behaviors the farm must possess, i.e. the farm must be able to generate and deliver electricity from wave power. High-level functions are independent of the technology or design used to implement the function. However, detailed functions may begin to border on specific design choices. Hence a strong effort has been made to maintain functions that are design agnostic.

  12. The Use of a Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Self Management Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…

  13. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  14. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.

  16. Using Videoconferencing to Conduct Functional Analysis of Challenging Behavior and Develop Classroom Behavioral Support Plans for Students with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.B.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the

  17. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  18. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Incentive Processing in Persistent Disruptive Behavior and Psychopathic Traits: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; Veltman, Dick J; Pape, Louise E; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Popma, Arne

    2015-11-01

    Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient incentive processing. However, little is known about the relation between deficient incentive processing and persistence of antisocial behavior into adulthood or its relation with callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the neural correlates of incentive processing and both DBD persistence and psychopathic traits. In a sample of 128 adolescents (mean age 17.7) with a history of criminal offending before age 12, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a monetary incentive delay task designed to assess neural responses during incentive processing. Neural activation during incentive processing was then associated with DBD persistence and psychopathic traits, measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Compared with both healthy control subjects and youths who had desisted from DBD, persistent DBD subjects showed lower neural responses in the ventral striatum during reward outcomes and higher neural responses in the amygdala during loss outcomes. Callous-unemotional traits were related to lower neural responses in the amygdala during reward outcomes, while other psychopathic traits were not related to incentive processing. In the current study, aberrant incentive processing is related to persistence of childhood antisocial behavior into late adolescence and to callous-unemotional traits. This mechanism may underlie treatment resistance in a subgroup of antisocial youth and provide a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  1. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  2. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  3. Behavior and function of tissue-resident memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariotti, Silvia; Haanen, John B; Schumacher, Ton N

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of memory T cell function in mice and men is to date in large part restricted to the behavior of circulating memory T cells. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that in addition to such systemic memory T cell populations, a separate population of locally confined memory T cells is generated at former sites of antigen encounter. Here, we discuss the potential function of these long-term tissue-resident memory T cells (T(TRM)), how such local T cell memory can be maintained for prolonged periods of time, and how the induction of long-term tissue-resident memory T cells may potentially be exploited during vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Woo Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory.Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both.These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a relative preference theory. Since variables in these patterns have been

  5. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  6. Neurocognitive functions and behavioral profiles in children with nephropathic cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with nephropathic cystinosis (NCTN have evidence of defective intellec-tual functions and behavioral disorders. This prospective study was performed to detect the cognitive dysfunctions in patients with this rare hereditary lysosomal storage disease, define their behavioral phenotypes, and study the findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. Thirteen patients with confirmed diagnosis of cystinosis (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 3.0, range 1.5 - 12 years were subjected to the Stanford Binet test, Porteus Maze test, Child Behavior Checklist, and MRI brain. Thirteen age- and sex-matched children served as the control subjects (mean age ± SD 5.9 ± 2.9, range 1.7 - 12 years. The intelligence quotient (IQ was significantly lower in patients with cystinosis (P <0.001, with a significant defect in verbal (language, memory, and compre-hension and non-verbal abilities (visual perception and visiospatial and motor performance. A discrepancy between both abilities was detected - the non-verbal ability being lower; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, analysis revealed the visiospatial ability to be significantly lower compared to the visual perception. In comparison to healthy controls, children with NCTN had evidence of increased incidence of behavioral problems, mainly social (P = 0.023. An MRI of the brain revealed varying degrees of atrophic changes in seven patients. Patients with NCTN need a wider scope of attention and care, encompassing not only the metabolic multisystem derangement, but also the neuropsychological impairment in the context of multidisciplinary management. This approach is crucial in formulating comprehensive plans for social and educational rehabilitation.

  7. The wave function behavior of the open topological string partition function on the conifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the topological string partition function to all genus on the conifold, in the presence of branes. We demonstrate that the partition functions for different brane backgrounds (smoothly connected along a quantum corrected moduli space) can be interpreted as the same wave function in different polarizations. This behavior has a natural interpretation in the Chern-Simons target space description of the topological theory. Our detailed analysis however indicates that non-perturbatively, a modification of real Chern-Simons theory is required to capture the correct target space theory of the topological string. We perform our calculations in the framework of a free fermion representation of the open topological string, demonstrating that this framework extends beyond the simple C 3 geometry. The notion of a fermionic brane creation operator arises in this setting, and we study to what extent the wave function properties of the partition function can be extended to this operator

  8. Further Evaluations of Functional Communication Training and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Multiple Functions of Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Muething, Colin S.; Gainey, Summer; Hoffman, Katherine; Fragale, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated functional communication training (FCT) combined with a chained schedule of reinforcement procedure for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism. Following functional analyses that suggested that challenging behavior served multiple functions for both participants,…

  9. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Individuals with Autism and Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Martin, Christian A.; Bliss, Sacha A.

    2014-01-01

    Discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) is an experimental method for determining the variables maintaining problem behavior in the context of natural routines. Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective method for replacing problem behavior, once identified, with a functionally equivalent response. We implemented these procedures…

  10. Evaluating the function of applied behavior analysis a bibliometric analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of scholarly citations involving behavioral journals reveals that, consistent with its mission, applied behavior analysis research frequently references the basic behavioral literature but, as some have suspected, exerts narrow scholarly influence.

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Lowers Elevated Functional Connectivity in Depressed Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayanti Chattopadhyay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies have implicated altered functional connectivity in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD. Whether similar dysfunction is present in adolescent patients is unclear. The degree of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC may reflect abnormalities within emotional (‘hot’ and cognitive control (‘cold’ neural systems. Here, we investigate rsFC of these systems in adolescent patients and changes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was acquired from adolescent patients before CBT, and 24-weeks later following completed therapy. Similar data were obtained from control participants. Cross-sectional Cohort: From 82 patients and 34 controls at baseline, rsFC of the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and pre-frontal cortex (PFC was calculated for comparison. Longitudinal Cohort: From 17 patients and 30 controls with longitudinal data, treatment effects were tested on rsFC. Patients demonstrated significantly greater rsFC to left amygdala, bilateral supragenual ACC, but not with PFC. Treatment effects were observed in right insula connected to left supragenual ACC, with baseline case-control differences reduced. rsFC changes were significantly correlated with changes in depression severity. Depressed adolescents exhibited heightened connectivity in regions of ‘hot’ emotional processing, known to be associated with depression, where treatment exposure exerted positive effects, without concomitant differences in areas of ‘cold’ cognition.

  12. Multifractal formalism by enforcing the universal behavior of scaling functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukli, Peter; Nagy, Zoltan; Eke, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Despite its solid foundations, multifractal analysis is still a challenging task. The 'inversed' singularity spectrum is a major pitfall in standard multifractal analyses especially for empirical signals. To resolve this issue, we identified the fan-like convergent geometry of scaling functions yielding a limit value (termed focus) for all moments at the largest scale. Building on this behavior of scaling, we introduce the novel concept of focus-based multifractal formalism. It relies on enforcing this universal behavior when the moment-wise scaling exponents are assessed for the scaling functions. Besides developing focus-based variants of the established multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and the wavelet leader method, we present a novel analytical tool of multifractal signal summation conversion. All methods are extensively tested on exact multifractal signals synthesized by the generalized binomial multifractal model in terms of precision and incidence of 'inversed' singularity spectra. Our focus-based variants never yielded 'inversed' spectra and their precision was found similar to that of standard methods. Our approach allowed computing a moment-wise and a global error parameter describing the impact of finite size effect and degree of multifractality as compared to that of the fitted exact multifractal model. We demonstrate that the standard approach to multifractal analyses contains a central element that is essentially monofractal due to its regression scheme assessing the scaling exponents for each and every moment, separately. Hence these methods can yield reliable estimates only for ideally behaving multifractal signals. In contrast, our focus-based variants due to their genuine multifractal model fitting always yield reliable estimates accompanied by goodness-of-fit statistics. The presented novel multifractal tools offer means of dealing with the consequences of endogenous impurities of potentially multifractal empirical signals.

  13. Income and children's behavioral functioning: a sequential mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N; Gardner, Frances

    2014-12-01

    Children from low-income households tend to exhibit higher levels of conduct problems and emotional problems, yet the pathways linking economic disadvantage to children's behavioral functioning are not well understood. This study uses data from the Early Steps Multisite (ESM) project (N = 731) to investigate associations between family income in early childhood and children's conduct problems and emotional problems in middle childhood. The study explores whether the associations from income to child conduct problems and emotional problems operate through maternal depressive symptoms and 3 family risk factors in early childhood-harsh parenting, parenting hassles, and chaos in the home environment. Results of a sequential mediation model revealed significant indirect effects of family income on children's conduct problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles and indirect effects of family income on children's emotional problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms, chaos in the home environment, and parenting hassles. Implications of these findings for understanding processes through which income influences child functioning are discussed.

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy for functional dysphonia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidou, Paressa; Carding, Paul; Wilson, Janet; Drinnan, Michael; Deary, Vincent

    2007-10-01

    We sought to investigate whether a brief period of training in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can improve the treatment of functional dysphonia by a speech and language therapist and ameliorate the psychological distress associated with this condition. In a consecutive cohort design, a speech and language therapist treated a small cohort (n = 15) of dysphonic patients with voice therapy alone. After a brief period of CBT training, she treated the next cohort of dysphonic patients (n = 13) with CBT-enhanced voice therapy. Pretreatment and posttreatment measures were taken of voice quality and voice-related quality of life. The General Health Questionnaire 28 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess psychological distress and general well-being. All voice measures improved significantly in both cohorts. Both groups improved significantly on the General Health Questionnaire 28, with the CBT group improving significantly more than the control group. Only the CBT group improved significantly on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (depression subscale). Despite limitations of size, design, and between-group baseline differences, the results support the hypothesis that the addition of CBT skills to existing voice therapy is both feasible and clinically effective in the treatment of functional dysphonia.

  15. Study the Relationship of Executive Functions with Behavioral Symptoms in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Shiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between autism disorder’s symptoms and cognitive capabilities can help with a better phenotype description of this disorder and can facilitate its pathological evaluation and treatment. Destruction of executive functions seems to be one of the cognitive reasons of potential phenotype in autism disorder. Thus, the present paper aims to study the relationship between executive dysfunction and autism disorder’s symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 50 children with high-functioning autism were selected using convenience sampling method from Behara, Tehranpars and Roshd centers. Then, the GARS test and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire was completed by therapists and neuropsychological tests of Strop and continuous performance test and shift attention were taken by the subjects. Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variant regression were used for data analysis. Results: There is a significant positive relationship between selective attention with communicative and social interaction symptoms, sustained attention with social interaction symptoms and repetitive behaviors, shifting attention with communicative, social interaction and repetitive behavior symptoms (P<0.001 (P<0.01 (P<0.05. In addition, the results of regression analysis also revealed that selective attention and shifting attention can predict communication, and sustained attention can predict social interaction and repetitive behaviors symptoms (P<0.01 (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained by this study indicate the significant role of executive functions in autistic symptoms. Thus, it is recommended to consider new treatment interventions in repairing executive functions for treatment of children with autistic disorder.

  16. Bodily mood expression : Recognize moods from functional behaviors of humanoid robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Broekens, J.; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to develop bodily mood expression that can be used during the execution of functional behaviors for humanoid social robots. Our model generates such expression by stylizing behaviors through modulating behavior parameters within functional bounds. We have applied this approach to two

  17. Functional Behavior Assessment in Classroom Settings: Scaling Down to Scale Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; McQuillan, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment (FBA), although mandated by federal law in situations involving students with emotional and behavioral disorders, is not well defined in the literature in terms of how it should best be undertaken in widespread practice in schools. Functional behavior assessment can be defined as a process for determining the reason…

  18. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  19. Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement for Problem Behavior during Functional Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsdell, April S.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Kahng, Sung Woo

    2000-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing problem behavior of 5 individuals with severe mental retardation and in strengthening alternative behavior. Four participants shifted response allocation from problem to alternative behavior as the schedule of reinforcement of problem behavior became more…

  20. Deficiency in the Heat Stress Response Could Underlie Susceptibility to Metabolic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Robert S; Morris, E Matthew; Wheatley, Joshua L; Archer, Ashley E; McCoin, Colin S; White, Kathleen S; Wilson, David R; Meers, Grace M E; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Geiger, Paige C

    2016-11-01

    Heat treatment (HT) effectively prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The positive metabolic actions of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), which include increased oxidative capacity and enhanced mitochondrial function, underlie the protective effects of HT. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of HSP72 induction to mitigate the effects of consumption of a short-term 3-day HFD in rats selectively bred to be low-capacity runners (LCRs) and high-capacity runners (HCRs)-selective breeding that results in disparate differences in intrinsic aerobic capacity. HCR and LCR rats were fed a chow or HFD for 3 days and received a single in vivo HT (41°C, for 20 min) or sham treatment (ST). Blood, skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissues were harvested 24 h after HT/ST. HT decreased blood glucose levels, adipocyte size, and triglyceride accumulation in liver and muscle and restored insulin sensitivity in glycolytic muscles from LCR rats. As expected, HCR rats were protected from the HFD. Importantly, HSP72 induction was decreased in LCR rats after only 3 days of eating the HFD. Deficiency in the highly conserved stress response mediated by HSPs could underlie susceptibility to metabolic disease with low aerobic capacity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Bacterial spoilers of food: behavior, fitness and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenant, Benoît; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Dousset, Xavier; Pilet, Marie-France; Zagorec, Monique

    2015-02-01

    Most food products are highly perishable as they constitute a rich nutrient source for microbial development. Among the microorganisms contaminating food, some present metabolic activities leading to spoilage. In addition to hygienic rules to reduce contamination, various treatments are applied during production and storage to avoid the growth of unwanted microbes. The nature and appearance of spoilage therefore depend on the physiological state of spoilers and on their ability to resist the processing/storage conditions and flourish on the food matrix. Spoilage also relies on the interactions between the microorganisms composing the ecosystems encountered in food. The recent rapid increase in publicly available bacterial genome sequences, as well as the access to high-throughput methods, should lead to a better understanding of spoiler behavior and to the possibility of decreasing food spoilage. This review lists the main bacterial species identified as food spoilers, their ability to develop during storage and/or processing, and the functions potentially involved in spoilage. We have also compiled an inventory of the available genome sequences of species encompassing spoilage strains. Combining in silico analysis of genome sequences with experimental data is proposed in order to understand and thus control the bacterial spoilage of food better. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional chemically modified graphene film: microstructure and electrical transport behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junsheng; Hou, Xueyan; Yu, Mingpeng; Hua, Jingzheng; Ren, Xinyu; Qiu, Hong; Wang, Rongming

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets were synthesized via a modified Hummers method. GO dispersion with a high concentration of 6 mg ml-1 was chosen to form GO hydrogel, followed by chemical reduction to derive a free-standing reduced GO (rGO) film. According to the x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, it has a [0 0 1] crystalline orientation in the film thickness direction. The rGO film has a densely stacked laminated structure and highly anisotropic characteristic of electrical conductivities. The light-weight rGO wire also demonstrates its excellent flexible and fire-retardant characteristics. Stress-strain measurements revealed the mechanical properties of the GO film can got further improved after chemical reduction. Electrical transport measurement indicates that rGO film exhibit semiconducting behavior with negative temperature coefficient characteristic. A temperature dependence of the conductivity from 20 to 297 K reveals that the carrier transport mechanism is thermally activated band conduction above 200 K and three-dimensional (3D) Mott’s variable range hopping below 100 K. The parameters such as a density of the localized electron states and a localization length of the wave function have been determined from the plot of conductivity versus (versus) temperature.

  3. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  4. A System of Assessment for Adaptive Behavior, Social Skills, Behavioral Function, Medication Side-Effects, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Laud, Rinita B.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a method of assessing individuals with mental retardation that operates within financial and human constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. Integrating the assessment results for treatment planning is…

  5. Using Stimulus Equivalence-Based Instruction to Teach Graduate Students in Applied Behavior Analysis to Interpret Operant Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Leif; Schnell, Lauren; Reeve, Kenneth F.; Sidener, Tina M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulus equivalence-based instruction (EBI) was used to teach four, 4-member classes representing functions of behavior to ten graduate students. The classes represented behavior maintained by attention (Class 1), escape (Class 2), access to tangibles (Class 3), and automatic reinforcement (Class 4). Stimuli within each class consisted of a…

  6. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  7. Influence of Assessment Setting on the Results of Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings.…

  8. Component Processes of Executive Function-Mindfulness, Self-control, and Working Memory-and Their Relationships with Mental and Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Semple, Randye J; Pokhrel, Pallav; Grenard, Jerry L

    2011-09-01

    We examined the interrelationships between higher-order cognitive functions-mindfulness, self-control, and working memory-that appear to be component processes that underlie executive function (EF) and their association with indicators of mental and behavioral health. Data were collected from first-year medical students attending a large private university in California (N=31) via a computer-based questionnaire which was administered via email hyperlink. Results indicate that self-control schedule (SCS) scores were significantly correlated with the negative dimension of positive and negative affect schedule scores (r=-0.59, pattention awareness scale (MAAS) scores (r=0.35, p≤0.10). The planful behavior dimension of the SCS was correlated with MAAS scores (r=0.38, pspan task scores (r=0.51, p<0.05), and total SCS scores (r=0.72, p<0.01). Large and significant inverse correlations were found between current meditation practice and alcohol use (r=-0.56, p<0.05) and AUDIT scores (r=-0.48, p<0.05). Findings from this pilot study suggest that an overlap exists between some component processes of EF; however, the majority of variance in the components is not shared. Moreover, these higher-order cognitive processes appear to have protective relationships with substance use and are positively associated with self-reported meditation practice.

  9. Functions of Research in Radical Behaviorism for the Further Development of Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior began as an inductively oriented, empirically based scientific field. As the field grew, its distinctive system of science--radical behaviorism--grew with it. The continuing growth of the empirical base of the field has been accompanied by the growth of the literature on radical behaviorism and its…

  10. Evaluating Treatments for Functionally Equivalent Problem Behavior Maintained by Adult Compliance with Mands during Interactive Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Bednar, Mary K.; Willse, Lena V.; Goetzel, Amanda L.; Concepcion, Anthony; Pincus, Shari M.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of behavioral interventions is to reduce dangerous or inappropriate behavior and to generalize treatment effects across various settings. However, there is a lack of research evaluating generalization of treatment effects while individuals with functionally equivalent problem behavior interact with each other. For the current study,…

  11. Communication Disorders and Challenging Behaviors: Supporting Children's Functional Communication Goals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…

  12. Improving Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Functional Behavioral Assessments Using Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Kennedy, Michael J.; Haines, Shana J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Alves, Kat D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an empirically supported intervention associated with decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. To date, few studies have examined multimedia approaches to FBA training. This paper provides the outcomes of a randomized controlled trial across three university sites and evaluates…

  13. INFLUENCE OF ASSESSMENT SETTING ON THE RESULTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings. This brief review covers 3 recent studies that examined the influence of different settings on the results of functional analyses and identifies direc...

  14. A bidirectional relationship between executive function and health behavior: evidence, implications, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Allan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco and alcohol consumption. They do this by supporting the volition, planning, performance monitoring, and inhibition necessary to enact intentions and override urges to engage in health damaging behavior. Here, we focus firstly on evidence suggesting that health-enhancing behaviors can induce improvements in executive function. We then switch our focus to findings linking executive function to the consistent performance of health-promoting behaviors and the avoidance of health risk behaviors. We suggest that executive function, health behavior, and disease processes are interdependent. In particular, we argue that a positive feedback loop may exist whereby health behavior-induced changes in executive function foster subsequent health-enhancing behaviors, which in turn help sustain efficient executive functions and good health. We conclude by outlining the implications of this reciprocal relationship for intervention strategies, the design of research studies, and the study of healthy ageing.

  15. Behavioral and EEG Correlates of Reduced Executive Functioning in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Espano, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to orphanage care or other deprived conditions represent a contributing risk factor in the development of ADHD behaviors. Upon leaving these contexts, the resting EEG patterns found in post-institutionalized (PI) children resemble the EEG profile of children with behavior problems, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Specifically, this atypical pattern consists of increased theta power relative to other power spectra and decreased alpha power. This study examined if ...

  16. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a differe...

  17. Advances in the indirect, descriptive, and experimental approaches to the functional analysis of problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Jade; Julio, Flávia; Virués-Ortega, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Experimental functional analysis is an assessment methodology to identify the environmental factors that maintain problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities and in other populations. Functional analysis provides the basis for the development of reinforcement-based approaches to treatment. This article reviews the procedures, validity, and clinical implementation of the methodological variations of functional analysis and function-based interventions. We present six variations of functional analysis methodology in addition to the typical functional analysis: brief functional analysis, single-function tests, latency-based functional analysis, functional analysis of precursors, and trial-based functional analysis. We also present the three general categories of function-based interventions: extinction, antecedent manipulation, and differential reinforcement. Functional analysis methodology is a valid and efficient approach to the assessment of problem behavior and the selection of treatment strategies.

  18. The Role of Acculturation and Family Functioning in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Delinquent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299

  19. Intimacy Is a Transdiagnostic Problem for Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Is a Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T.; Hart, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Problems with intimacy and interpersonal issues are exhibited across most psychiatric disorders. However, most of the targets in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are primarily intrapersonal in nature, with few directly involved in interpersonal functioning and effective intimacy. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral basis for…

  20. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  1. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  2. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia; Machalicek, Wendy; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors related to rituals for children with autism. After functional analyses, we used a multiple-probe design to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) plus extinction and schedule thinning as a treatment package for problem behavior and appropriate…

  3. Examining the Function of Problem Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis…

  4. Influence of assessment setting on the results of functional analyses of problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rispoli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the

  5. Use of Behavior and Influence Functions for Relay Selection in Cooperative Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a novel set of functions to model the relay selection process in a scenario of cooperative wireless communications. We define a utility function that reflects the behavior and influence that a selected relay may have on the quality of the link to be established for the forwarding...... of Influence and Behavior to assess the effect on the system performance....

  6. Some Relationships between Informant Assessment and Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Scott C.; Carr, Edward G.

    2000-01-01

    The limitations of informant assessment of problem behaviors was investigated across seven situations and three participants (ages 11-18) with cognitive impairments. Informant hypotheses about the function of problem behaviors were validated by subsequent functional analyses only when informants identified their hypotheses as involving situations…

  7. The Form and Function of Attachment Behavior in the Daily Lives of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.

    2009-01-01

    Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…

  8. Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This intervention report presents findings from a systematic review of "functional behavioral assessment-based interventions" conducted using the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook, version 3.0, and the Children Identified With or At Risk for an Emotional Disturbance review protocol, version 3.0. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)…

  9. Executive Function Is Associated With Antisocial Behavior and Aggression in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micai, Martina; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Poor executive function has been linked to increased antisocial and aggressive behavior in clinical and nonclinical populations. The present study investigated the relationship between executive and nonexecutive cognitive function and antisocial behavior in sport as well as reactive and proactive aggression. Cognitive function was assessed in young adult male and female athletes using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Antisocial behavior in sport and aggression were assessed via self-report instruments and were found to be positively correlated. Executive function (but not nonexecutive function) scores were negatively correlated with both self-reported antisocial behavior and aggression in males but not females. Our findings suggest that prefrontal deficits among male athletes could contribute to poor impulse control and difficulty in anticipating the consequences of their antisocial and aggressive behavior.

  10. Young Children's Ritualistic Compulsive-Like Behavior and Executive Function: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Ada H; Dahan, Dana

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the development of executive function in young children could add to the explained variance in child ritualistic behavior beyond child and maternal traits previously found to have explanatory power. Routinized, ritualistic behavior is common and normative in young children between the ages of 2 and 5, after which it subsides. In this cross-sectional study, maternal reports on 1345 children between the ages of 2 and 6 included child variables such as temperament, fears, and behavioral problems. Mother's characteristics included perfectionism, her attachment style, and trait anxiety. The sample included ultra-orthodox families, an understudied minority, and thus it was possible to compare their ritualistic behavior with that of children from other rearing environments. Ultraorthodox children had more ritualistic behavior than age-matched children. This finding offers support for an environmental influence on level of ritualistic behavior in children. For the entire sample, we found that young children's ritualistic behavior was associated with shy and emotional temperament, fears, pervasive developmental behavioral problems, and that executive function delays in shifting and emotion regulation had an additional contribution. Ritualistic child behavior was only weakly related to maternal variables. The results were consistent with a maturational process for the trajectory of ritualistic behavior, rather than with an environmentally induced behavior. The development of executive function may be the process mediating the decline of ritualistic behavior over development.

  11. Using video technology to disseminate behavioral procedures: a review of Functional Analysis: a Guide for Understanding Challenging Behavior (DVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James E; Fox, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    Although applied behavior analysis has generated many highly effective behavior-change procedures, the procedures have not always been effectively disseminated. One solution to this problem is the use of video technology, which has been facilitated by the ready availability of video production equipment and software and multiple distribution methods (e.g., DVD, online streaming). We review a recent DVD that was produced to disseminate the successful experimental functional analysis procedure. The review is followed by general recommendations for disseminating behavior-analytic procedures via video technology.

  12. Differentiating Tier 2 Social Behavioral Interventions According to Function of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Clare, Ann; Latimore, Tracey; Herman, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Schools implementing tiered supports for social behavior need to be systematic and thoughtful about moving to the next tier. However, schools often apply resources they have in a blanket fashion for children who demonstrate behavior problems. This practice is problematic, and there is a need for increased efforts to plan and be more careful about…

  13. Social Functioning of Students with Internalizing Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurišic, Maša M.; Gajic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The school is a period of intensive development of the child, the child's socialization, creation and formation of attitudes, opinions and behavior patterns and others. During this period, the child comes in part from the protective environment of their parents and enters the world of social relations and interactions. Through interactions with…

  14. Examining the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome: preliminary experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis methodology with 8 children with fragile X. No child met criteria for attention-maintained problem behavior, 5 children met criteria for escape-maintained problem behavior, and 4 children met criteria for tangible-maintained problem behavior. Results are discussed and compared with previous findings on the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome, and implications for intervention are discussed. It is noted that the external validity of these findings is limited by the small sample size.

  15. Functional analysis of challenging behavior in people with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Casas, C; Navarro, J I; Garcia-Gonzalez-Gordon, R; Marchena, E

    2014-12-01

    Challenging behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities often hinder the acquisition of academic, social, and life skills. Functional analysis has been useful for assessing challenging behavior in various settings. The purpose of this study was to implement an operant methodology for recognizing the functional properties of challenging behavior in people with intellectual disabilities. Four adults diagnosed with profound intellectual disability received assessment under several experimental conditions using a functional analysis methodology: social attention as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement such as the termination of demands, positive tangible reinforcements, absence of social contingencies, and escape from noisy stimuli. Results showed that different types of reinforcement or avoiding contingencies affected the rate of aggression, self-injury, disruption, stereotypy, or socially offensive behaviors, and functional analysis may potentially be a viable alternative for identifying challenging behaviors.

  16. Functional buckling behavior of silicone rubber shells for biomedical use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, E.B.; Kuiper, L.H.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of soft elastic biomaterials in medical devices enables substantial function integration. The consequent increased simplification in design can improve reliability at a lower cost in comparison to traditional (hard) biomaterials. Functional bi-stable buckling is one of the many

  17. The role of executive functions in the control of aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Krämer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive literature suggests a link between executive functions and aggressive behavior in humans, pointing mostly to an inverse relationship, i.e. increased tendencies towards aggression in individuals scoring low on executive function tests. This literature is limited, though, in terms of the groups studied and the measures of executive functions. In this paper, we present data from two studies addressing these issues. In a first behavioral study, we asked whether high trait aggressiveness is related to reduced executive functions. A sample of over 600 students performed in an extensive behavioral test-battery including paradigms addressing executive functions such as the Eriksen Flanker task, Stroop task, n-back task and Tower of London. High trait aggressive participants were found to have a significantly reduced latency score in the Tower of London, indicating more impulsive behavior compared to low trait aggressive participants. No other differences were detected. In an EEG-study, we assessed neural and behavioral correlates of error monitoring and response inhibition in participants who were characterized based on their laboratory-induced aggressive behavior in a competitive reaction time task. Participants who retaliated more in the aggression paradigm and had reduced frontal activity when being provoked did not, however, show any reduction in behavioral or neural correlates of executive control compared to the more aggressive participants. Our results question a strong relationship between aggression and executive functions at least for healthy, high-functioning people.

  18. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  19. Function of head-bobbing behavior in diving little grebes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Megu; Fujita, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Most birds show a characteristic head movement that consists of head stabilization and quick displacement. In this movement, which is analogous to saccadic eye movement in mammals, head stabilization plays an important role in stabilizing the retinal image. This head movement, called "head bobbing", is particularly pronounced during walking. Previous studies focusing on anatomical and behavioral features have pointed out that visual information is also important for diving birds, indicating its significance in the head movements of diving birds. In the present study, the kinematic and behavioral features of head bobbing in diving little grebes were described by motion analysis to identify the head movement in diving birds. The results showed that head-bobbing stroke (HBS) consisted of a thrust phase and a hold phase as is typical for head bobbing during walking birds. This suggests that HBS is related to visual stabilization under water. In HBS, grebes tended to dive with longer stroke length and smaller stroke frequency than in non-bobbing stroke. This suggests that the behavior, which is related to vision, affects the kinematic stroke parameters. This clarification of underwater head movement will help in our understanding not only of vision, but also of the kinematic strategy of diving birds.

  20. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees

    2014-05-01

    Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence for the influence of cognitive functioning on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. The databases were searched for English language papers focusing on human studies published relating cognitive functioning to sexual behavior in the aging population. Keywords included sexual behavior, sexuality, cognitive functioning, healthy elderly, elderly, aging and dementia. Eight studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five included dementia patients and/or their partners, whereas only three studies included healthy older persons. Although not consistently, results indicated a trend that older people who are not demented and continue to engage in sexual activity have better overall cognitive functioning. Cognitive decline and dementia seem to be associated with diminished sexual behavior in older persons. The association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior in the aging population is understudied. The results found are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fatigue Behavior of a Functionally-Graded Titanium Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Scott R

    2005-01-01

    Functionally-graded Titanium Matrix Composites are an attempt to utilize the high-strength properties of a titanium matrix composite with a monolithic alloy having the more practical machining qualities...

  2. A Conceptual Foundation for Measures of Physical Function and Behavioral Health Function for Social Security Work Disability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  3. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  4. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, C.; Comijs, H.; Jonker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the

  5. Acceptability of Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedures to Special Educators and School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Robert E.; Bundock, Kaitlin; Kladis, Kristin; Hawken, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study assessed the acceptability of a variety of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures (i.e., functional assessment interviews, rating scales/questionnaires, systematic direct observations, functional analysis manipulations) to a national sample of 123 special educators and a state sample of 140 school psychologists.…

  6. Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.

  7. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  8. Executive functions and social information processing in adolescents with severe behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; van Rest, M.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Vriens, A.; Oostermeijer, S.; van Bokhoven, I.; Matthys, W.

    2017-01-01

    One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other

  9. Parental Reflective Functioning Moderates the Relationship between Difficult Temperament in Infancy and Behavior Problems in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between infant negative affect, parental reflective functioning (RF), and toddler behavior problems in a sample of 84 women and their infants. Mothers provided self-report demographic data and completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised during a home visit when the infant was 7 months old. They also completed…

  10. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  11. Molar Functional Relations and Clinical Behavior Analysis: Implications for Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Thomas J.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental analysis of behavior has identified several molar functional relations that are highly relevant to clinical behavior analysis. These include matching, discounting, momentum, and variability. Matching provides a broader analysis of how multiple sources of reinforcement influence how individuals choose to allocate their time and…

  12. An Evidence-Driven, Solution-Focused Approach to Functional Behavior Assessment Report Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are to implement and report functional behavior assessments (FBAs) that are consistent with both the research literature and the law, both federal and state. However, the literature regarding how best to document the FBA process is underdeveloped. A review of applied behavior analytic and school psychology literature as…

  13. Predictors of Behavioral Regulation in Kindergarten: Household Chaos, Parenting, and Early Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral regulation is an important school readiness skill that has been linked to early executive function (EF) and later success in learning and school achievement. Although poverty and related risks, as well as negative parenting, have been associated with poorer EF and behavioral regulation, chaotic home environments may also play a role in…

  14. [Importance of sucrose in cognitive functions: knowledge and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez Llamas, Francisca

    2013-07-01

    Sucrose is not present in the internal milieu as such, so it is physically impossible that it may have a direct influence on cognitive functions, behaviour and knowledge. However, during the digestive process, disaccharides are released into monosaccharides, in the case of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which reach the liver via the portal vein. Finally, they go into bloodstream in the form of glucose and in some cases as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Brain needs almost exclusively a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream. Adult brain requires about 140 g of glucose per day, which represents up to a 50% of total carbohydrates consumed daily in the diet. The consumption of a food or beverage enriched with sucrose has been associated with improved mental alertness, memory, reaction time, attention and ability to solve mathematical problems, as well as a reduction in the feeling of fatigue, both in healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease. An adequate nutrition of brain contributes to structural and functional integrity of neurons. It has been shown that in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, nutritional deficiencies at cellular level are implicated. At present, several studies highlight the need to improve understanding of the processes involved in the deterioration of cognitive functions and mechanisms through which, the nutritive components of the diet, particularly the sucrose, may modulate such functions. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of repetitive behaviors in Aspergers Disorder and high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Michael L; Nations, Laura; Brinkley, Jason; Abramson, Ruth K; Wright, Harry H; Hall, Alicia; Gilbert, John; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2007-04-01

    In this study we compared 33 IQ and age matched pairs of individuals with Aspergers Disorder (ASP) and high functioning autism (HFA) on measures of repetitive behavior. On the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), the ASP and HFA groups showed no differences in RBS-R Intensity score (severity) score or Frequency score (number of problems present). This suggests that the two groups are similar with respect to the intensity or severity of repetitive behaviors and the presence of repetitive behaviors. At the item level there were no differences on scales typically associated with autism (Stereotyped Behavior) and ASP (Restricted Interests). Similarly, there were no differences between the groups on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Stereotypy scale. These findings add to the body of literature showing that HFA and ASP fail to differ with respect to repetitive behaviors. The implications of the findings for neurobiologic and genetic studies are discussed.

  16. Surface plasma functionalization influences macrophage behavior on carbon nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Stancu, Claudia Elena [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Luculescu, Catalin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Gheorghe [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-01

    The surfaces of carbon nanowall samples as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were treated with oxygen or nitrogen plasma to improve their wettability and to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results illustrated the effective conversion of the carbon nanowall surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and the incorporation of various amounts of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen functional groups during the treatments. The early inflammatory responses elicited by un-treated and modified carbon nanowall surfaces were investigated by quantifying tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha released by attached RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence studies were employed to investigate the changes in macrophage morphology and adhesive properties, while MTT assay was used to quantify cell proliferation. All samples sustained macrophage adhesion and growth. In addition, nitrogen plasma treatment was more beneficial for cell adhesion in comparison with un-modified carbon nanowall surfaces. Instead, oxygen plasma functionalization led to increased macrophage adhesion and spreading suggesting a more activated phenotype, confirmed by elevated cytokine release. Thus, our findings showed that the chemical surface alterations which occur as a result of plasma treatment, independent of surface wettability, affect macrophage response in vitro. - Highlights: • N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma treatments alter the CNW surface chemistry and wettability. • Cells seeded on CNW scaffolds are viable and metabolically active. • Surface functional groups, independent of surface wettability, affect cell response. • O{sub 2} plasma treatment of CNW leads to a more activated macrophage phenotype.

  17. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

  18. Decoding Pigeon Behavior Outcomes Using Functional Connections among Local Field Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Shan; Wan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). In our method, the functional connectivity strengths were first computed based on the synchronization likelihood. Second, the strength values were unwrapped into row vectors and their dimensions were then reduced by principal component analysis. Finally, the behavioral outcomes in single trials were decoded using leave-one-out combined with the k -nearest neighbor method. The results showed that the LFP functional network based on the gamma-band was related to the goal-directed behavior of pigeons. Moreover, the accuracy of the network features (74 ± 8%) was significantly higher than that of the power features (61 ± 12%). The proposed method provides a powerful tool for decoding animal behavior outcomes using a neural functional network.

  19. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  20. Relation between high leisure-time sedentary behavior and low functionality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Navarro Bertolini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p713   Sedentary behavior refers to activities with low energy expenditure, usually performed in sitting or lying positions, and includes behavior belonging to the current lifestyle, such as watching television. In the course of aging, this activity is performed for longer periods by individuals on a daily basis. This is worrying, since aging associated with sedentary behavior accentuates functionality decline. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between high leisure-time sedentary behavior and low functionality in older adults. The sample consisted of 375 older adults aged 60-97 years (70 ± 7 years, and of these, 114 (30% were men and 261 (70% women. Functionality was assessed by two functional tests and information related to sedentary behavior was obtained using the self-reported physical activity questionnaire proposed by Baecke et al. The chi-square test was used to verify the association between sedentary behavior and functionality, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to build the multiple model. Older individuals with high leisure-time sedentary behavior were more likely to have low functionality [OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.40 to 4.71] and [OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.29 to 4.29] regardless of gender, age, smoking, osteoporosis, arthritis / osteoarthritis, low back pain and physical activity. Extended permanence in sedentary behavior was associated with low functionality in older subjects. Preventive measures to stimulate the practice of physical activities and encourage the reduction of time spent in sedentary activities such as watching television should be adopted by health professionals in an attempt to maintain functionality among older adults.

  1. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p nutritional status. These associations even persisted after controlling for social adversity and parental education. Findings were not moderated by gender or ethnicity, and there was no interaction effect with parental education. A dose-response relationship was observed between degree of malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition-social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical and Cognitive Functions, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollaert, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W

    2017-12-01

    Older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience age-related declines in physical and cognitive functions that may be compounded by the disease and its progression and worsened by physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. However, the extent to which impairments in physical and cognitive functions are manifestations of MS and disease progression, reflective of the general aging process, or perhaps 2 detrimental processes exacerbating the synergistic effects of the other is relatively unknown. This study compared physical and cognitive functions, sedentary behavior, and physical activity between 40 older adults with MS (ie, 60 years of age and older) and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy older adults. We further examined whether physical activity and/or sedentary behavior explained differences between groups in physical and cognitive functions. Participants initially underwent the cognitive assessments, followed by the physical function assessments. The order of tests was standardized and participants were provided seated-rest between the administrations of the physical function assessments. Participants were then instructed to wear an accelerometer and document wear time in a log book for a 7-day period after the testing session. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that older adults with MS (n = 40) performed worse on all measures of physical function, and 1 measure of cognitive function (ie, information-processing speed), compared with healthy controls (n = 40). Older adults with MS engaged in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, more sedentary behavior, and longer duration of long sedentary bouts than healthy controls. Pearson correlations demonstrated that levels and patterns of physical activity were significantly associated with a majority of physical function variables but not cognitive function variables in both older adults with MS and healthy controls but to a greater extent in older adults with MS. Partial Pearson correlations further

  3. Parental corporal punishment in relation to children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Zhengyan

    2018-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship among paternal and maternal corporal punishment (CP), children's executive function (EF), and children's externalizing behavior problems. In total, 328 Chinese preschool-aged children and their parents and teachers participated. Paternal and maternal CP was assessed by father-reports and by mother-reports, respectively. Children's EF was assessed by the Executive Function Touch program. Children's externalizing behavior problems were assessed by mother-reports and by teacher-reports. The results of structural equation modeling generally supported working memory as a mediator linking paternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors and inhibitory control as a mediator linking maternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors. No differences by children's gender were found. The current findings highlight the importance of EF in behavioral outcomes of children who experience parental CP.

  4. A preliminary investigation on improving functional communication training by mitigating resurgence of destructive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Ashley M; Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D

    2016-12-01

    Despite the effectiveness and widespread use of functional communication training (FCT), resurgence of destructive behavior can occur if the functional communication response (FCR) contacts a challenge, such as lapses in treatment integrity. We evaluated a method to mitigate resurgence by conducting FCT using a multiple schedule of reinforcement prior to extinction. After functional analyses of 2 boys' destructive behavior and treatment with FCT (Study 1), we compared levels of resurgence during an extinction challenge either after a typical FCT sequence or after exposure to schedule thinning in the context of a multiple-schedule arrangement (Study 2). Results for both participants suggested that schedule thinning using discriminative stimuli in a multiple schedule mitigated the resurgence of destructive behavior. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M.; Kinsel, John

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings The current article explores the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers’ executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were collected using Web-based surveys and Web-based direct assessment tasks. Multilevel models revealed that higher levels of teachers’ perceptions of child behavior problems were associated with higher levels of teacher job stress and that higher teacher executive function skills were related to lower job stress. However, findings did not yield evidence for teacher executive functions as a statistical moderator. Practice or Policy Many early childhood teachers do not receive sufficient training for handling children’s challenging behaviors. Child behavior problems increase a teacher’s workload and consequently may contribute to feelings of stress. However, teachers’ executive function abilities may enable them to use effective, cognitive-based behavior management and instructional strategies during interactions with students, which may reduce stress. Providing teachers with training on managing challenging behaviors and enhancing executive functions may reduce their stress and facilitate their use of effective classroom practices, which is important for children’s school readiness skills and teachers’ health. PMID:28596698

  6. The Relation Between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both the DSM-5 and AAIDD. The article also (a) provides an update of the understanding of adaptive behavior, (b) dispels two thinking errors regarding mistaken temporal or causal link between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, (c) explains that there is a strong correlational, but no causative, relation between intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, and (d) asserts that once a question of determining intellectual disability is raised, both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior are assessed and considered jointly and weighed equally in the diagnosis of intellectual disability. We discuss the problems created by an inaccurate statement that appears in the DSM-5 regarding a causal link between deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior and propose an immediate revision to remove this erroneous and confounding statement.

  7. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  8. Low striatal glutamate levels underlie cognitive decline in the elderly: evidence from in vivo molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Mayer, Dirk; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2008-10-01

    Glutamate (Glu), the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of prefrontal cortical efferents, potentially mediates higher order cognitive processes, and its altered availability may underlie mechanisms of age-related decline in frontally based functions. Although animal studies support a role for Glu in age-related cognitive deterioration, human studies, which require magnetic resonance spectroscopy for in vivo measurement of this neurotransmitter, have been impeded because of the similarity of Glu's spectroscopic signature to those of neighboring spectral brain metabolites. Here, we used a spectroscopic protocol, optimized for Glu detection, to examine the effect of age in 3 brain regions targeted by cortical efferents--the striatum, cerebellum, and pons--and to test whether performance on frontally based cognitive tests would be predicted by regional Glu levels. Healthy elderly men and women had lower Glu in the striatum but not pons or cerebellum than young adults. In the combined age groups, levels of striatal Glu (but no other proton metabolite also measured) correlated selectively with performance on cognitive tests showing age-related decline. The selective relations between performance and striatal Glu provide initial and novel, human in vivo support for age-related modification of Glu levels as contributing to cognitive decline in normal aging.

  9. Autonomic nervous system function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tondi M

    2013-01-01

    Explore relationships among autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity in three-year-old children with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and in children healthy at birth. Children surviving complex congenital heart defects are at risk for behavior problems. ANS function is associated with behavior and with maternal sensitivity. Child ANS function (heart rate variability) and maternal sensitivity (Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment) were measured during a challenging task. Mother completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed descriptively and graphically. Children with TGA had less responsive autonomic function and more behavior problems than healthy children. Autonomic function improved with more maternal sensitivity. Alterations in ANS function may continue years after surgical correction in children with TGA, potentially impacting behavioral regulation. Maternal sensitivity may be associated with ANS function in this population. Continued research on relationships among ANS function, child behavior, and maternal sensitivity is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypersexual behavior in an online sample of males: associations with personal distress and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spenhoff, Miriam; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Kobs, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The population of individuals reporting hypersexual behavior is heterogeneous. Prior research has implicated the importance of personal distress and functional impairment, as both may serve as indicators of problem severity and relevance. Still, little is known about associations with distress and impairment following hypersexuality. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal distress and functional impairment in a community sample of male self-identified "sex addicts" and to explore the associations with related variables. Three hundred forty-nine men completed an online survey that included questions about personal distress, functional impairment, motivation for behavior change, type of hypersexual behaviors, time spent on sexual behavior, and progression of sexual urges. The survey included the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised (SAST-R) core. Specific survey questions about personal distress and functional impairment in six life areas were used to assess these variables. Chi-square and P-values were calculated to explore the interrelations among them. There were 75.3% (N = 253) who reported feeling distressed due to hypersexual behavior. Functional impairment in at least one life area was specified by 77.4% (N = 270), and most participants (56.2%) reported impairment regarding partner relationships. Personal distress and functional impairment in three areas were associated with a strong motivation for behavior change. Distress was associated with online pornography use, masturbation, and/or sexual contact with changing partners. The progression of sexual urges was related to distress, while time spent on sexual behavior was not. There were 92.9% of the distressed participants who scored above the SAST-R core scale cut-off, but also 59.0% of the participants with little or no distress scored in this range. Results underline the particular role of problems in social or intimate relationships in association with hypersexuality. Clustering

  11. Theoretical and Statistical Derivation of a Screener for the Behavioral Assessment of Executive Functions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A.; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Bandalos, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The problem of valid measurement of psychological constructs remains an impediment to scientific progress, and the measurement of executive functions is not an exception. This study examined the statistical and theoretical derivation of a behavioral screener for the estimation of executive functions in children from the well-established Behavior…

  12. Republication of "Functional Analysis of Classroom Variables for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; dePerczel, Maria; Clarke, Shelley; Wilson, Diane; Childs, Karen E.; White, Ronnie; Falk, George D.

    2018-01-01

    Functional assessment and functional analysis are processes that have been applied successfully in work with people who have developmental disabilities, but they have been used rarely with students who experience emotional or behavioral disorders. In the present study, five students in elementary school programs for severe emotional disturbance…

  13. Hand Preference and Cognitive, Motor, and Behavioral Functioning in 10-Year-Old Extremely Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Alice C; Anderson, Peter J; Joseph, Robert M; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T Michael; Kuban, Karl C K; Leviton, Alan

    2018-04-01

    The association of hand preference (left, mixed, and right) with cognitive, academic, motor, and behavioral function was evaluated in 864 extremely preterm children at 10 years of age. Left-handed and right-handed children performed similarly but mixed-handed children had greater odds of functional deficits across domains than right-handed children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Preliminary Investigation on Improving Functional Communication Training by Mitigating Resurgence of Destructive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness and widespread use of functional communication training (FCT), resurgence of destructive behavior can occur if the functional communication response (FCR) contacts a challenge, such as lapses in treatment integrity. We evaluated a method to mitigate resurgence by conducting FCT using a multiple schedule of reinforcement…

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior in Early Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian D.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Payne, Steven W.; Zonneveld, Kimberley L. M.; Harper, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses (FA) with 4 typically developing preschool children during ongoing classroom activities and evaluated treatments that were based on FA results. Results of each child's FA suggested social-positive reinforcement functions, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior plus time-out was effective in…

  16. Executive Function and Behavioral Problems in Students with Visual Impairments at Mainstream and Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Vera; Hintermair, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, executive function of school-aged children with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is examined in the context of behavioral problems and communicative competence. Methods: Teachers assessed the executive function of a sample of 226 visually impaired students from mainstream schools and…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  18. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Boop, Frederick A. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial.

  19. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, Victoria W.; Conklin, Heather M.; Boop, Frederick A.; Wu, Shengjie; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The standard of care for pediatric patients with ependymoma involves postoperative radiation therapy. Prior research suggests that conformal radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with relative sparing of cognitive and academic functioning, but little is known about the effect of CRT on emotional and behavioral functioning. Methods and Materials: A total of 113 patients with pediatric ependymoma underwent CRT using photons as part of their enrollment on an institutional trial. Patients completed annual evaluations of neurocognitive functioning during the first 5 years after CRT. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Before CRT, emotional and behavioral functioning were commensurate with those of the normative population and within normal limits. After 5 years, means remained within normal limits but were significantly below the normative mean. Linear mixed models revealed a significant increase in attention problems over time. These problems were associated with age at diagnosis/CRT, tumor location, and extent of resection. A higher-than-expected incidence of school problems was present at all assessment points after baseline. Conclusions: The use of photon CRT for ependymoma is associated with relatively stable emotional and behavioral functioning during the first 5 years after treatment. The exception is an increase in attention problems. Results suggest that intervening earlier in the survivorship period—during the first year posttreatment—may be beneficial

  20. Mastery motivation and executive functions as predictors of adaptive behavior in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy or myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschausky, Seth; Kaufman, Jacqueline N; Evitts, Michael; Schutt, William; Hurvitz, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    To examine mastery motivation and executive functions or behaviors as predictors of adaptive behavior in adolescents and young adults with congenital neurodevelopmental conditions. Participants were 2 groups of adolescents and young adults, ages 13-29, including 43 with cerebral palsy and 36 with myelomeningocele living with a parent or caregiver. Participants completed measures of mastery motivation, executive functions or behaviors, and a measure of adaptive behavior. Group differences in mastery motivation, executive functions and executive behaviors, and adaptive behavior profiles were not significant. Mastery motivation, executive functions, and executive behaviors explained a significant portion of variance in adaptive behavior. Findings highlight the importance of assessing and addressing motivational and executive needs in developing interventions to promote independence. Findings also suggest the need for more comprehensive assessment of adaptive behaviors that include the ability to self-direct others in the completion of tasks necessary for successful daily functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Executive functions and the self-regulation of eating behavior: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Simone; Diel, Katharina; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2018-05-01

    In order to pursue the long-term goal of losing weight, a dieter needs to resist the urge to eat appealing, tasty foods. Beside sufficient motivation to resist these foods, dieters also need the capacity for successful self-regulation, and this capacity is strongly related to executive functions. Executive function is an umbrella term encompassing a number of interrelated higher-order cognitive processes that allow people to take goal-directed action. In this review, we outline how basic facets of executive functioning (updating, inhibiting, and shifting) contribute to the successful self-regulation of eating behavior. Moreover, we identify aspects of the self-regulation of eating behavior that are still under-researched. We conclude by outlining the implications of the extant research for intervention strategies and the design of future research studies on the role of executive functions for the self-regulation of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Childhood Predictors of Post-Kindergarten Executive Function: Behavior, Parent-Report, and Psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Hubble, Morgan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH FINDINGS: This study examined whether children's executive functions before kindergarten would predict variance in executive functions after kindergarten. We obtained behavioral (working memory task performance), parental-reported (temperament-based inhibitory control), and psychophysiological (working memory-related changes in heart rate and brain electrical activity) measures of executive functions from a group of preschool-aged children. After children finished kindergarten, approximately 2 years later, parents were asked to complete an assessment of children's executive function skills. A regression analysis revealed that pre-kindergarten behavioral, parental-reported, and psychophysiological measures accounted for variance in post-kindergarten executive functions. Specifically, working memory task performance, temperament-based inhibitory control, and working memory-related changes in brain electrical activity accounted for unique variance in post-kindergarten executive functions. These data provide a unique contribution to the executive function literature: No other study has examined whether behavioral, psychophysiological, and parental-reported executive function measures can account for unique variance in future executive function. PRACTICE OR POLICY: These findings are discussed in relation to children's transition to school and executive function training programs.

  4. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  5. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  6. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticle Adsorption Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a critical substrate for adsorption of oxyanion species in the environment1. The nanoparticulate nature of ferrihydrite is inherent to its formation, and hence it has been called a "nano-mineral"2. The nano-scale size and unusual composition of ferrihydrite has made structural determination of this phase problematic. Michel et al.3 have proposed an atomic structure for ferrihydrite, but this model has been controversial4,5. Recent work has shown that the Michel et al.3 model structure may be reasonably accurate despite some deficiencies6-8. An alternative model has been proposed by Manceau9. This work utilizes density functional theory (DFT) calculations to model both the structure of ferrihydrite nanoparticles based on the Michel et al. 3 model as refined in Hiemstra8 and the modified akdalaite model of Manceau9. Adsorption energies of carbonate, phosphate, sulfate, chromate, arsenite and arsenate are calculated. Periodic projector-augmented planewave calculations were performed with the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP10) on an approximately 1.7 nm diameter Michel nanoparticle (Fe38O112H110) and on a 2 nm Manceau nanoparticle (Fe38O95H76). After energy minimization of the surface H and O atoms. The model will be used to assess the possible configurations of adsorbed oxyanions on the model nanoparticles. Brown G.E. Jr. and Calas G. (2012) Geochemical Perspectives, 1, 483-742. Hochella M.F. and Madden A.S. (2005) Elements, 1, 199-203. Michel, F.M., Ehm, L., Antao, S.M., Lee, P.L., Chupas, P.J., Liu, G., Strongin, D.R., Schoonen, M.A.A., Phillips, B.L., and Parise, J.B., 2007, Science, 316, 1726-1729. Rancourt, D.G., and Meunier, J.F., 2008, American Mineralogist, 93, 1412-1417. Manceau, A., 2011, American Mineralogist, 96, 521-533. Maillot, F., Morin, G., Wang, Y., Bonnin, D., Ildefonse, P., Chaneac, C., Calas, G., 2011, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 2708-2720. Pinney, N., Kubicki, J.D., Middlemiss, D.S., Grey, C.P., and Morgan, D

  7. Similar genetic mechanisms underlie the parallel evolution of floral phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The repeated origin of similar phenotypes is invaluable for studying the underlying genetics of adaptive traits; molecular evidence, however, is lacking for most examples of such similarity. The floral morphology of neotropical Malpighiaceae is distinctive and highly conserved, especially with regard to symmetry, and is thought to result from specialization on oil-bee pollinators. We recently demonstrated that CYCLOIDEA2-like genes (CYC2A and CYC2B are associated with the development of the stereotypical floral zygomorphy that is critical to this plant-pollinator mutualism. Here, we build on this developmental framework to characterize floral symmetry in three clades of Malpighiaceae that have independently lost their oil bee association and experienced parallel shifts in their floral morphology, especially in regard to symmetry. We show that in each case these species exhibit a loss of CYC2B function, and a strikingly similar shift in the expression of CYC2A that is coincident with their shift in floral symmetry. These results indicate that similar floral phenotypes in this large angiosperm clade have evolved via parallel genetic changes from an otherwise highly conserved developmental program.

  8. Measures of behavioral function predict duration of video game play: Utilization of the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Frank D; Griffiths, Mark D; Sprong, Matthew E; Lloyd, Daniel P; Sullivan, Ryan M; Upton, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Background Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling). Aims Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD's relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming. Methods A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment - Revised (VGFA-R). Results The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant. Conclusion Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.

  9. Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Sellers, Kristin K; Rudelt, Lucas; Priesemann, Viola; Hutt, Axel; Fröhlich, Flavio; Wibral, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source-such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we reconsidered past interpretations of reduced information transfer as a sign of decoupling, and asked whether impaired local information processing leads to a loss of information transfer. An important prediction of this alternative hypothesis is that changes in locally available information (signal entropy) should be at least as pronounced as changes in information transfer. We tested this prediction by recording local field potentials in two ferrets after administration of isoflurane in concentrations of 0.0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. We found strong decreases in the source entropy under isoflurane in area V1 and the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-as predicted by our alternative hypothesis. The decrease in source entropy was stronger in PFC compared to V1. Information transfer between V1 and PFC was reduced bidirectionally, but with a stronger decrease from PFC to V1. This links the stronger decrease in information transfer to the stronger decrease in source entropy-suggesting reduced source entropy reduces information transfer. This conclusion fits the observation that the synaptic targets of isoflurane are located in local cortical circuits rather than on the synapses formed by interareal axonal projections. Thus, changes in information transfer under isoflurane seem to be a consequence of changes in local processing more than of decoupling between brain areas. We suggest that source entropy changes must be considered whenever interpreting changes in information

  10. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in ne...

  11. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Barros, Anna P; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-10-23

    The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context.We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate - and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones - the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate - are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological adaptations across individual wrist

  12. Child behavior check list and Korean personality inventory for children with functional visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.

  13. Nutrition and the development of cognitive functions: interpretation of behavioral studies in animals and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Patricia E; Colombo, John

    2006-11-01

    A rapidly accumulating body of evidence on the neural basis of cognition suggests that cognition is not a unitary function but rather depends on the functions of multiple and dissociable neural systems. The nonlinear interactions in the differing trajectories of these systems during development result in changing patterns of cognitive functions over time; they may also lead to paradoxical outcomes, for which enhancement of one function through dietary intervention may be at the expense of another. This emerging understanding has important implications for the design and interpretation of studies on the cognitive effects of specific nutrients during development. It is important that researchers move away from global tests of development and strive rather to ensure that their choice of behavioral task is based on specific hypotheses of the systems expected to be altered by a dietary manipulation and on an understanding of which behavioral tests are valid, sensitive, and reliable indicators of this disruption. Furthermore, to understand whether accelerated or delayed development related to a particular cognitive function is beneficial or problematic, it is important to study the entire behavioral profile over different time points, rather than relying on one outcome measured at one time point. It is also necessary to control for sensory or motivational differences that will affect performance on the behavioral tasks. Implementation of these methodologic recommendations may contribute to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the nutrition-associated changes in cognitive functions and thereby aid in the development of an appropriate population-based dietary policy.

  14. Day-to-day variations in health behaviors and daily functioning: two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2017-04-01

    In two intensive longitudinal studies we examined the daily dynamics in health behaviors and their associations with two important indicators of young adults' daily functioning, namely, affect and academic performance. Over a period of 8 months, university students (Study 1: N = 292; Study 2: N = 304) reported sleep, physical activity, snacking, positive and negative affect, and learning goal achievement. A subsample wore an actigraph to provide an additional measurement of sleep and physical activity and participated in a controlled laboratory snacking situation. Multilevel structural equation models showed that better day-to-day sleep quality or more physical activity than usual, but not snacking, were associated with improved daily functioning, namely, affect and learning goal achievement. Importantly, self-report measurements of health behaviors correlated with behavioral measurements. These findings have the potential to inform health promotion programs aimed at supporting young adults in their daily functioning in good physical and mental health.

  15. Behavioral Enculturation and Acculturation, Psychological Functioning, and Help-Seeking Attitudes Among Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan S K; Omizo, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    The study examined behavioral enculturation to Asian culture and behavioral acculturation to the dominant European American culture and their possible relations to positive psychological functioning among Asian American adolescents. Positive psychological functioning was operationalized using measures of general self-efficacy, cognitive flexibility, collective self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking help. Based on data from 112 Asian American high school students in Hawaii, the results did not support the hypothesis that both high behavioral enculturation and acculturation would be related to positive psychological functioning. However, post hoc examination of the results revealed that enculturation was positively associated with general self-efficacy, cognitive flexibility, and the collective self-esteem dimensions of membership, private, and importance-to-identity. Also, acculturation was negatively associated with the importance-to-identity dimension. Implications for research and practice with Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  16. Combining agreement and frequency rating scales to optimize psychometrics in measuring behavioral health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Ni, Pengsheng; Chan, Leighton; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Jette, Alan M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to investigate optimal functioning of using frequency vs. agreement rating scales in two subdomains of the newly developed Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery: the Mood & Emotions and Behavioral Control scales. A psychometric study comparing rating scale performance embedded in a cross-sectional survey used for developing a new instrument to measure behavioral health functioning among adults applying for disability benefits in the United States was performed. Within the sample of 1,017 respondents, the range of response category endorsement was similar for both frequency and agreement item types for both scales. There were fewer missing values in the frequency items than the agreement items. Both frequency and agreement items showed acceptable reliability. The frequency items demonstrated optimal effectiveness around the mean ± 1-2 standard deviation score range; the agreement items performed better at the extreme score ranges. Findings suggest an optimal response format requires a mix of both agreement-based and frequency-based items. Frequency items perform better in the normal range of responses, capturing specific behaviors, reactions, or situations that may elicit a specific response. Agreement items do better for those whose scores are more extreme and capture subjective content related to general attitudes, behaviors, or feelings of work-related behavioral health functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Executive function skills and academic achievement gains in prekindergarten: Contributions of learning-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-07-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten (pre-K) predict their learning-related behaviors in the classroom and whether these behaviors then mediate associations between children's executive function skills and their pre-K literacy, language, and mathematic gains. Learning-related behaviors were quantified in terms of (a) higher levels of involvement in learning opportunities; (b) greater frequency of participation in activities that require sequential steps; (c) more participation in social-learning interactions; and (d) less instances of being unoccupied, disruptive, or in time out. Results indicated that children's learning-related behaviors mediated associations between executive function skills and literacy and mathematics gains through children's level of involvement, sequential learning behaviors, and disengagement from the classroom. The implications of the findings for early childhood education are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Integrative functions of lactational hormones in social behavior and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C S; Altemus, M

    1997-01-15

    For mammalian reproduction to succeed, self-defense and asociality must be subjugated to positive social behaviors, at least during birth, lactation, and sexual behavior. Perhaps the important task of regulating the interaction between social and agonistic behaviors is managed, in part, by interactions between two related neurochemical systems that incorporate oxytocin and vasopressin in their functions. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin participate in important reproductive functions, such as parturition and lactation, and homeostatic responses, including modulation of the adrenal axis. Recent evidence also implicates these hormones in social aspects of reproductive behaviors. For example, oxytocin is important for a variety of positive social behaviors, including the regulation of maternal-infant interactions. In adult animals, oxytocin may facilitate both social contact and selective social interactions associated with social attachment and pair bonding, and it participates in the regulation of parasympathetic functions. Vasopressin, in contrast, is associated with behaviors that might be broadly classified as "defensive" including enhanced arousal, attention, or vigilance, increased aggressive behavior, and a general increase in sympathetic functions. On the basis of the literature on the functions of these hormones and our own recent findings, we propose that dynamic interactions between oxytocin and vasopressin are components of a larger system which integrates the neuroendocrine and autonomic changes associated with mammalian social behaviors and the concurrent regulation of the stress axis. In addition, studies of lactating females provide a valuable model for understanding the more general neuroendocrinology of the stress axis. Peptide hormones, including oxytocin and vasopressin, do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier and must be administered centrally (i.c.v.) to reach the brain. Nasal sprays have been used to promote milk let down and

  19. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Entire Functions of Bounded L-Index: Its Zeros and Behavior of Partial Logarithmic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Bandura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain new sufficient conditions of boundedness of L-index in joint variables for entire function in Cn functions. They give an estimate of maximum modulus of an entire function by its minimum modulus on a skeleton in a polydisc and describe the behavior of all partial logarithmic derivatives and the distribution of zeros. In some sense, the obtained results are new for entire functions of bounded index and l-index in C too. They generalize known results of Fricke, Sheremeta, and Kuzyk.

  1. Frontal lobe function and behavioral changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, ZhenZhen; Huang, Rui; Guo, XiaoYan; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-12-01

    Despite growing interest, the frequency and characteristics of frontal lobe functional and behavioral deficits in Chinese people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as well as their impact on the survival of ALS patients, remain unknown. The Chinese version of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) were used to evaluate 126 sporadic ALS patients and 50 healthy controls. The prevalence of frontal lobe dysfunction was 32.5%. The most notable impairment domain of the FAB was lexical fluency (30.7%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that an onset age older than 45 years (OR 5.976, P = 0.002) and a lower educational level (OR 0.858, P = 0.002) were potential determinants of an abnormal FAB. Based on the FBI score, 46.0% of patients showed varied degrees of frontal behavioral changes. The most common impaired neurobehavioral domains were irritability (25.4%), logopenia (20.6%) and apathy (19.0%). The binary logistic regression model revealed that the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scale score (OR 0.127, P = 0.001) was a potential determinant of an abnormal FBI. Frontal functional impairment and the severity of frontal behavioral changes were not associated with the survival status or the progression of ALS by the cox proportional hazard model and multivariate regression analyses, respectively. Frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal behavioral changes are common in Chinese ALS patients. Frontal lobe dysfunction may be related to the onset age and educational level. The severity of frontal behavioral changes may be associated with the ALSFRS-R. However, the frontal functional impairment and the frontal behavioral changes do not worsen the progression or survival of ALS.

  2. THE CHANGES OF BEHAVIORS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS BY COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY IN THE DRUG ABUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herni Susanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to find out the effect of CBT on the behaviors i.e. depressive, agressive and antisocial behaviors as well as cognitive functions of patients who were treated in rehabilitation unit at a drug addiction hospital (Rumah Sakit Ketergantungan Obat in Jakarta. Method: The research design was Quasi experimental pre-post test without control group by providing intervention: CBT for 6 sessions (10–12 times intervention. The population was all patients in the rehabilitation unit with a nursing diagnosis: low self esteem and/or inffective coping strategies. There were 23 participants who involved in this investigation. The data was analized by using dependent and independent sample t, and anova tests. Result: The results showed that p value for depressive behaviours, agressive behaviurs, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions were 0.914; 0.001; 0.039; 0.003 respectively. The outcomes indicated that there was significant impact of CBT on agressive behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and cognitive functions (α = 0.05, p value 0.05. Discussion: It is argued that depressive symptoms might not be apparent for the users in rehabilitative phase. The findings also showed that there was significant relation between antisocial behaviors and the length of drug usage. This affirms exsiting concepts in that long drug usage brings about serious damage in the users' behaviors and cognitive functions. It is recommended, therefore, to include CBT as an important intervention for clients with drug abuse problems who are cared in rehabilitation center.

  3. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and/or externalizing behavior problems (EBPs) as compared to children with neither condition. The longitudinal sample, drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, included children who were 6 to 9 years old in Cycle 1 who were followed-up biennially in Cycles 2 and 3 (N = 3476). The associations between NDDs and/or EBPs, child and family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors (consistency and ineffective parenting), were examined across several measures of child psychosocial functioning: peer relationships, general self-esteem, prosocial behavior and anxiety-emotional problems. Children with NDDs, EBPs, and both NDDs and EBPs self-reported lower scores on general self-esteem. Children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs reported lower scores on peer relationships and prosocial behavior. Lastly, children with both NDDs and EBPs self-reported higher scores on anxiety-emotional behaviors. After considering family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors, these differences remained statistically significant only for children with both NDDs and EBPs. Child age and gender, household income and parenting behaviors were important in explaining these associations. Psychosocial functioning differs for children with NDDs and/or EBPs. Children with both NDDs and EBPs appear to report poorer psychosocial functioning compared to their peers with neither condition. However, it is important to consider the context of socio-demographic characteristics, parenting behaviors and their interactions to understand differences in children's psychosocial functioning. Implication for Rehabilitation: Practitioners may wish to consider complexity in child health by examining a comprehensive set of determinants of psychosocial outcomes as well as comorbid conditions, such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and externalizing

  4. Balancing Automatic-Controlled Behaviors and Emotional-Salience States: A Dynamic Executive Functioning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Viola, Thiago W; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding how executive functions are conceptualized in psychopathology. Since several models have been proposed, the major issue lies within the definition of executive functioning itself. Theoretical discussions have emerged, narrowing the boundaries between "hot" and "cold" executive functions or between self-regulation and cognitive control. Nevertheless, the definition of executive functions is far from a consensual proposition and it has been suggested that these models might be outdated. Current efforts indicate that human behavior and cognition are by-products of many brain systems operating and interacting at different levels, and therefore, it is very simplistic to assume a dualistic perspective of information processing. Based upon an adaptive perspective, we discuss how executive functions could emerge from the ability to solve immediate problems and to generalize successful strategies, as well as from the ability to synthesize and to classify environmental information in order to predict context and future. We present an executive functioning perspective that emerges from the dynamic balance between automatic-controlled behaviors and an emotional-salience state. According to our perspective, the adaptive role of executive functioning is to automatize efficient solutions simultaneously with cognitive demand, enabling individuals to engage such processes with increasingly complex problems. Understanding executive functioning as a mediator of stress and cognitive engagement not only fosters discussions concerning individual differences, but also offers an important paradigm to understand executive functioning as a continuum process rather than a categorical and multicomponent structure.

  5. Cognitive and behavioral functioning in Coffin-Siris syndrome and epilepsy: a case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, H Allison; Zaroff, Charles M; Karantzoulis, Stella; Nakhutina, Luba; MacAllister, William S; Luciano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The authors characterized the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral sequelae of Coffin-Siris (CS) syndrome and epilepsy in a 7.5-year-old child. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral presentation of CS. Clinical features consistent with this genetic anomaly include underdeveloped tips and nails of the fifth fingers, extended infranasal depression, and craniofacial abnormalities. MRI findings often reveal callosal agenesis. The authors conducted a neuropsychological evaluation and obtained parental ratings of behavioral and adaptive functioning. Attentional abilities were limited. As assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, receptive language abilities (age equivalent [AE]: 3-3) were relatively stronger than expressive skills (AE: 1-4). Adaptive functioning was low across all domains (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite AE: 1-9). On the Behavior Assessment for Children (BASC-2), social skills dysfunction, stereotyped and self-stimulatory behaviors, restricted interests, ritualistic play, and inappropriate object usage were noted. No significant mood disturbances were endorsed. Study findings indicate a diffuse pattern of neurobehavioral deficits in a child with CS and epilepsy. Further clinical assessment and research should include multidimensional assessment techniques, including evaluation of adaptive behavior, in an effort to capture the full range developmental sequelae in children with CS.

  6. Fracture Behavior and Properties of Functionally Graded Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, Jeffery; Bordelon, Amanda; Gaedicke, Cristian; Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio

    2008-01-01

    In concrete pavements, a single concrete mixture design is selected to resist mechanical loading without attempting to adversely affect the concrete pavement shrinkage, ride quality, or noise attenuation. An alternative approach is to design distinct layers within the concrete pavement surface which have specific functions thus achieving higher performance at a lower cost. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials (FGCM) for rigid pavements by testing and modeling the fracture behavior of different combinations of layered plain and synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete materials. Fracture parameters and the post-peak softening behavior were obtained for each FGCM beam configuration by the three point bending beam test. The peak loads and initial fracture energy between the plain, fiber-reinforced, and FGCM signified similar crack initiation. The total fracture energy indicated improvements in fracture behavior of FGCM relative to full-depth plain concrete. The fracture behavior of FGCM depended on the position of the fiber-reinforced layer relative to the starter notch. The fracture parameters of both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete were embedded into a finite element-based cohesive zone model. The model successfully captured the experimental behavior of the FGCMs and predicted the fracture behavior of proposed FGCM configurations and structures. This integrated approach (testing and modeling) demonstrates the viability of FGCM for designing layered concrete pavements system

  7. On the infrared behavior of the shear spectral function in hot Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O.Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2015-03-25

    We revisit the determination of the two-loop spectral function in the shear channel of hot Yang-Mills theory. Correcting a technical error in an earlier computation is seen to improve the infrared behavior of the quantity significantly, while a partial Hard Thermal Loop resummation is seen to have only a very minor numerical effect on the result. These facts make it possible to straightforwardly apply the spectral function to the corresponding imaginary time correlator and the shear sum rule.

  8. Cigarette smoking, suicidal behavior, and serotonin function in major psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin M; Waternaux, Christine; Haas, Gretchen L; Cooper, Thomas B; Li, Shuhua; Mann, J John

    2003-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk for suicide and attempted suicide, but psychopathological or biological explanations for this association have not been explored. Lower serotonin function and impulsive/aggressive traits are associated with suicidal acts, including completed suicide. The authors hypothesized that the relationship that may exist between cigarette smoking and suicidal behavior may be associated with lower serotonin function and the presence of impulsive/aggressive traits. Study subjects were 347 patients with a psychiatric disorder (175 with depression, 127 with schizophrenia, and 45 with other disorders). Fifty-three percent of the subjects (N=184) had a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and 47% (N=163) had never attempted suicide. Smoking behavior, lifetime suicidal behavior, and psychopathology were assessed. Serotonin function was assessed in a subgroup of patients with depression (N=162) by using a fenfluramine challenge test and/or measurement of CSF levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Among all patients, smokers were more likely to have made a suicide attempt (adjusted odds ratio=2.60, 95% confidence interval=1.60-4.23) and had higher suicidal ideation and lifetime aggression scores, compared with nonsmokers. An inverse relationship was observed between amount of cigarette smoking and both indices of serotonin function. The association between cigarette smoking and the presence and severity of suicidal behavior across major psychiatric disorders may be related to lower brain serotonin function in smokers with depression. Further investigation is required to replicate these findings, to measure serotonin function in patients with disorders other than depression, and to test potential therapeutic effects of serotonin-enhancing treatments on both smoking behavior and suicide risk.

  9. Executive functions and parenting behaviors in association with medical adherence and autonomy among youth with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lauren K; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to examine whether executive functions and parenting behaviors (acceptance, behavioral control, and psychological control) are associated with medical adherence and autonomy among preadolescents and adolescents with spina bifida (SB). Questionnaire and observational data were collected from a sample of 8-15 year olds with SB (N = 140) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Youth also completed neuropsychological testing. Youth with SB demonstrated impairment on measures of executive functions, based on questionnaire and test data. Executive functions (questionnaire data only) and parenting behaviors were associated with medical adherence, but only executive functions (test data only) were associated with medical autonomy. Analyses also suggest that maternal and paternal behavioral control and paternal psychological control moderate relations between executive functions and adherence. Interventions that target executive functions and parenting behaviors may facilitate positive health care behavior outcomes among youth with SB.

  10. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  11. Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Neuspiel, Juliana M.; Kinsel, John

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The current article explores the relationship between teachers' perceptions of child behavior problems and preschool teacher job stress, as well as the possibility that teachers' executive functions moderate this relationship. Data came from 69 preschool teachers in 31 early childhood classrooms in 4 Head Start centers and were…

  12. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…

  13. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  14. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  15. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Executive Function Both Predict Visuomotor Skills and Early Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; Miao, Alicia; Duncan, Robert; McClelland, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored direct and interactive effects between behavioral self-regulation (SR) and two measures of executive function (EF, inhibitory control and working memory), with a fine motor measure tapping visuomotor skills (VMS) in a sample of 127 prekindergarten and kindergarten children. It also examined the relative contribution of…

  16. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  17. Stability of a Jensen Type Logarithmic Functional Equation on Restricted Domains and Its Asymptotic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae-Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be the set of positive real numbers, a Banach space, and , with . We prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the Jensen type logarithmic functional inequality in restricted domains of the form for fixed with or and . As consequences of the results we obtain asymptotic behaviors of the inequality as .

  18. Behavioral Support for Students with Severe Disabilities: Functional Assessment and Comprehensive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.

    1997-01-01

    Two major advances in the provision of behavioral support to students with severe disabilities include: (1) procedures for conducting functional assessment, and (2) design of comprehensive interventions. The research foundation for these advances, implications for clinicians, and future research directions are presented. (Author/DB)

  19. The Relation between Intellectual Functioning and Adaptive Behavior in the Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability originates during the developmental period and is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. In this article, we present a brief history of the diagnostic criteria of intellectual disability for both…

  20. Impact of Attention Training on Academic Achievement, Executive Functioning, and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Hannah; Gray, Kylie; Ellis, Kirsten; Taffe, John; Cornish, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience significant difficulties in attention, learning, executive functions, and behavioral regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training may remediate these impairments. In a double blind controlled trial, 76 children with IDD (4-11 years) were…

  1. Using Functional Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Effects of an Atypical Antipsychotic on Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Stacy E.; Tervo, Raymond; Meyers, Stephanie; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    The atypical antipsychotic medication aripiprazole was evaluated using a randomized AB multiple baseline, double-blind, placebo-controlled design for the treatment of severe problem behavior with 4 children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis (FA) was conducted concurrent with the medication evaluation to…

  2. Density functional theory studies of transition metal nanoparticles in catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Rankin, Rees; Zeng, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Density Functional Theory calculations are capable of providing powerful insights into the structural, energetics, and electronic phenomena that underlie heterogeneous catalysis on transition metal nanoparticles. Such calculations are now routinely applied to single crystal metal surfaces...... and electrocatalysis, in which single crystal models are combined with Wulff construction-based ideas to produce descriptions of average nanocatalyst behavior. Then, I will proceed to describe explicitly DFT-based descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized particles (

  3. Aggressive Behaviors in Young Siblings: Associations with Executive Functions and Maternal Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Catherine A; Gagne, Jeffrey R

    2016-04-01

    Aggressive behaviors in early childhood are associated with multiple undesirable outcomes, including juvenile delinquency, academic failure, and substance abuse. This investigation employed a family study design to examine child, mother and sibling predictors of early-emerging aggressive behaviors. These predictors included several indices of executive functioning within children, depression symptoms and education level of mothers, and inhibitory control (IC) of siblings. The sample consisted of 95 families (191 children; boys = 100) with at least two, typically developing children between 30 and 66 months of age (M(age) = 45.93 months, SD = 12.40). Measures included laboratory-assessed working memory and IC, parent-reported aggressive behaviors, as well as self-reported maternal depression symptoms and education. Results revealed that children showed substantial sibling similarity in aggressive behaviors. Using multilevel regression analyses, low child IC and greater maternal depression symptoms were associated with increased child aggressive behaviors. Child working memory, maternal education, and sibling IC did not uniquely predict child aggressive behaviors. Moderation analyses revealed an interaction between maternal depression symptoms and maternal education, such that the effect of depression symptoms on child aggressive behaviors was particularly evident amongst highly educated mothers. The current analysis moved beyond a main effects model of maternal depression and extended previous findings on the importance of child IC to aggressive behaviors by using a multiple-child-per-family framework. A promising direction for future research includes assessing whether efforts to increase child IC are successful in reducing child aggressive behaviors.

  4. Early Fathering as a Predictor of Later Psychosocial Functioning Among Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the role of early fathering in subsequent trajectories of social emotional and academic functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Method Participants were 128 preschool-aged children (73 boys, 55 girls) with behavior problems whose biological fathers took part in a longitudinal study. Children were 3 years of age at the beginning of the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Results Early paternal depressive symptoms predicted many aspects of children’s outcome 3 years later, including externalizing and internalizing problems, social skills deficits, and lower cognitive and academic functioning, and predicted changes in children’s externalizing, internalizing, and social problems across the preschool years. Paternal socioeconomic status (SES) also consistently predicted children’s later functioning across these domains. Furthermore, self-reported paternal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and laxness, as well as observed frequent commands were associated with later externalizing problems in children. Paternal depressive symptoms and laxness mediated the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and child functioning. Conclusions Results suggest that aspects of early father functioning play an important role in the psychosocial, cognitive, and academic development of preschool-aged children with behavior problems. PMID:23269560

  5. Early fathering as a predictor of later psychosocial functioning among preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the role of early fathering in subsequent trajectories of social emotional and academic functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Participants were 128 preschool-aged children (73 boys, 55 girls) with behavior problems whose biological fathers took part in a longitudinal study. Children were 3 years of age at the beginning of the study and were assessed annually for 3 years. Early paternal depressive symptoms predicted many aspects of children's outcome 3 years later, including externalizing and internalizing problems, social skills deficits, and lower cognitive and academic functioning, and predicted changes in children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems across the preschool years. Paternal socioeconomic status (SES) also consistently predicted children's later functioning across these domains. Furthermore, self-reported paternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and laxness, as well as observed frequent commands were associated with later externalizing problems in children. Paternal depressive symptoms and laxness mediated the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and child functioning. Results suggest that aspects of early father functioning play an important role in the psychosocial, cognitive, and academic development of preschool-aged children with behavior problems.

  6. Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Function: Interplay between Inhibition and Updating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity. We found that both behavioral (accuracy and reaction time and neurophysiological (P300 amplitude and alpha band power metrics on the inhibition task (i.e., flanker task were influenced by the updating load (n-back level and modulated by working memory capacity. Using independent component analysis, source localization (DIPFIT, and Granger Causality analysis of the EEG time-series data, the present study demonstrated that manipulation of cognitive demand in a dual executive function task influenced the causal neural network. We compared connectivity across three updating loads (n-back levels and found that experimental manipulation of working memory load enhanced causal connectivity of a large-scale neurocognitive network. This network contains the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with inhibition and updating executive function processes. This study has potential applications in human performance modeling and assessment of mental workload, such as the design of training materials and interfaces for those performing complex multitasking under stress.

  7. Effects of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD on partners' psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnaider, Philippe; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Fredman, Steffany J; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies have documented that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in "one" partner are negatively associated with their intimate partner's psychological functioning. The present study investigated intimate partners' mental health outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and anger) in a sample of 40 partners of individuals with PTSD within a randomized waitlist controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012). There were no significant differences between active treatment and waitlist in intimate partners' psychological functioning at posttreatment. Subgroup analyses, however, of partners exhibiting clinical levels of distress at pretreatment on several measures showed reliable and clinically significant improvements in their psychological functioning at posttreatment and no evidence of worsening. Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD may have additional benefits for partners presenting with psychological distress. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  9. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of social isolation on HPA axis function, anxiety-like behaviors, and ethanol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R Butler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is often observed in alcoholics and humans subjected to early life stress, and animal models of ethanol (EtOH dependence. We examined HPA axis function in a rodent model of early life stress that engenders increases in behavioral and neurobiological risk factors of alcoholism. Long-Evans male rats were group housed (GH or socially isolated (SI for six weeks during adolescence. We examined the corticosterone (CORT response to stress with and without dexamethasone (DEX and anxiety-like behaviors. Following the DEX suppression test and behavioral assays, half of the cohort engaged in six weeks of EtOH drinking in a homecage, two-bottle choice intermittent access model. A subset of the cohort was not exposed to EtOH, but was used for electrophysiological measurement of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA. Correlational analyses examined relationships between measures of CORT, anxiety-like behaviors, and EtOH intake/preference. With DEX pre-treatment, SI rats failed to suppress CORT in response to an acute stress; GH rats showed a significant suppression. In SI rats, there was a significant negative correlation between baseline CORT and EPM open arm time, as well as significant positive correlations between baseline CORT and both EtOH intake and preference. No significant relationships between baseline CORT and behavioral measures were observed in GH rats. Glutamatergic plasticity in the BLA was similar in magnitude between GH and SI rats, and was not altered by exogenous application of CORT. These data suggest that HPA axis function is affected by SI, and this is related to antecedent anxiety-like behavior and may predispose for future EtOH self-administration. Relationships between HPA axis function, anxiety, and EtOH measures in SI rats further strengthens the utility of this paradigm in modeling vulnerability for affective disorders and alcoholism.

  11. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  12. Impact of early-life bisphenol A exposure on behavior and executive function in children.

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    Braun, Joe M; Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Ye, Xiaoyun; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the impact of gestational and childhood bisphenol A (BPA) exposures on behavior and executive function at 3 years of age and to determine whether child gender modified those associations. We used a prospective birth cohort of 244 mothers and their 3-year-old children from the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area. We characterized gestational and childhood BPA exposures by using the mean BPA concentrations in maternal (16 and 26 weeks of gestation and birth) and child (1, 2, and 3 years of age) urine samples, respectively. Behavior and executive function were measured by using the Behavior Assessment System for Children 2 (BASC-2) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P). BPA was detected in >97% of the gestational (median: 2.0 μg/L) and childhood (median: 4.1 μg/L) urine samples. With adjustment for confounders, each 10-fold increase in gestational BPA concentrations was associated with more anxious and depressed behavior on the BASC-2 and poorer emotional control and inhibition on the BRIEF-P. The magnitude of the gestational BPA associations differed according to child gender; BASC-2 and BRIEF-P scores increased 9 to 12 points among girls, but changes were null or negative among boys. Associations between childhood BPA exposure and neurobehavior were largely null and not modified by child gender. In this study, gestational BPA exposure affected behavioral and emotional regulation domains at 3 years of age, especially among girls. Clinicians may advise concerned patients to reduce their exposure to certain consumer products, but the benefits of such reductions are unclear.

  13. Biological rhythms, higher brain function, and behavior: Gaps, opportunities, and challenges.

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    Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J; Vicentic, Aleksandra

    2009-12-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep-wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of mental disorder. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps, and opportunities pertinent to (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) the gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) the novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools, and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) the interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep, (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) the pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders.

  14. Coherence training in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: cognitive functions and behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Anthony; Brett, David; Wesnes, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral diagnosis in children, with an estimated 500 000 children affected in the United Kingdom alone. The need for an appropriate and effective intervention for children with ADHD is a growing concern for educators and childcare agencies. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the impact of the HeartMath self-regulation skills and coherence training program (Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California) on a population of 38 children with ADHD in academic year groups 6, 7, and 8. Learning of the skills was supported with heart rhythm coherence monitoring and feedback technology designed to facilitate self-induced shifts in cardiac coherence. The cognitive drug research system was used to assess cognitive functioning as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures assessed teacher and student reposted changes in behavior. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in various aspects of cognitive functioning such as delayed word recall, immediate word recall, word recognition, and episodic secondary memory. Significant improvements in behavior were also found. The results suggest that the intervention offers a physiologically based program to improve cognitive functioning in children with ADHD and improve behaviors that is appropriate to implement in a school environment.

  15. Prenatal corticosterone exposure programs growth, behavior, reproductive function and genes in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper was to understand the role of prenatal corticosterone exposure on growth, aggressive behavior, reproductive performance and gene expression in the chicken. The phenotype, physiology, reproductive function and behavioral characteristics of an organism are not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors that play a critical role in shaping offspring morphology. Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development influences offspring growth, physiology and behaviors associated with alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and serotonergic system gene expression. Another influential factor for phenotype, physiology and behavioral development is maternal derived steroid hormones that deposit in the egg. In avian species, maternal influences have aroused much attention after the discovery that avian eggs contain a variety of maternal derived steroid hormones. In addition, the environment condition during ontogeny has played a critical role in behavioral development. In avian species, for example laying chicken, high quality mother care produced chicks that were less fearful. Laying hen maternal care is found to reduce cannibalistic pecking phenomenon. Genetic selection and selection experiments will also play a critical role in animals breeding for the housing systems of the future. To optimize animal welfare and to reduce risks factors such as pecking behavior, fundamental approaches are required that merge selection of the optimal genotype with provision of a positive environment for parents and offspring, both throughout ontogeny and later life.

  16. Everyday executive function predicts adaptive and internalizing behavior among children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

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    Gardiner, Emily; Iarocci, Grace

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate challenges with executive function (EF), adaptive behavior, and mental health, all of which place long-term wellbeing at risk. In the current study we examined the relation between parent-rated EF and adaptive functioning and internalizing symptoms (anxiety, depression), as we expected that identifying the specific EF domains most closely related to these indices of functioning would illuminate opportunities for targeted intervention. Participants included 59 children and adolescents with ASD (M = 10.1 years) and 67 who were typically developing (TD) (M = 9.4 years) matched on age, IQ, mental age, and maternal education. Caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of EF (BRIEF) and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2). Parents rated children with ASD as demonstrating significantly more challenges across most of the examined BRIEF and BASC-2 indices and scales, with the exception of organization of materials (BRIEF) and anxiety (BASC-2). For both groups, metacognitive EF processes emerged as strongly associated with practical, conceptual, and social skills, though different BRIEF scales emerged as significant across the component subdomains. In terms of the relation with mental health, BRIEF index scores were unrelated to anxiety for both groups. Behavior regulation, however, was significantly associated with depression symptoms for children with and without ASD. The findings highlight the possibility that targeting particular EF domains among individuals with and without ASD may not only have direct benefit for behavior regulation and metacognitive abilities, but may also extend to other areas of life, including adaptive behavior and concomitant internalizing symptomatology. Autism Res 2018, 11: 284-295. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We examined whether parents' ratings of their children's flexibility and ability to

  17. Mutation of the key residue for extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein S19 cause increased grooming behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kaitsuka, Taku; Fujino, Rika; Araki, Kimi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2016-08-26

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) possesses ribosomal function as RP S19 monomer and extraribosomal function as cross-linked RP S19 oligomers which function as a ligand of the complement 5a (C5a) receptor (CD88). We have generated a Gln137Glu-RP S19 knock-in (KI) mouse, which is shown to possess the weakened extraribosomal function of RP S19. Because whether the extraribosomal function of RP S19 has a role in brain function had been unclear, we performed behavioral analysis on these mice and demonstrated that KI mice displayed an increased grooming behavior during open-field test and elevated plus maze test and an enhanced freezing behavior in contextual fear conditioning test. These results suggest an involvement of RP S19 oligomers in some anxiety-like behavior, especially grooming behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behavior as a function of space per animal and enclosure type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Webb, Sarah J; Hau, Jann; Schapiro, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Space per animal, or animal density, and enclosure type are important elements of functionally appropriate captive environments (FACEs) for chimpanzees. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that captive chimpanzees be maintained in areas of >250 ft 2 /animal. Several studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to space per animal, but only two studies have examined these variables while attempting to hold environmental complexity constant. Both have found few, if any, significant differences in behavior associated with increased space per animal. The NIH does not provide recommendations pertaining to enclosure type. Although Primadomes™ and corrals are considered acceptable FACE housing, no studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to these two common types of enclosures. We examined the NIH space per animal recommendation, and the effects of enclosure type, while maintaining similar levels of environmental complexity. We used focal animal observations to record the behavior of 22 chimpanzees in three social groups following within-facility housing transfers. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the NIH recommendation to the same type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to double dome) exhibited significantly more locomotion and behavioral diversity post-transfer. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the recommendation to a different type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to corral) exhibited significant increases in foraging and behavioral diversity, and a decrease in rough scratching. Lastly, chimpanzees that were moved from an area above the recommendation to a different enclosure type with space equal to the recommendation (corral to double dome) exhibited an increase in behavioral diversity. These results add to the body of literature that addresses the concept of specific minimum space requirements per chimpanzee, and highlight the

  19. Surface chemical functionalities affect the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xujie [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bachhuka, Akash [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); School of Advanced Manufacturing, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in vitro. Plasma polymerized films rich in amine (-NH{sub 2}), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH{sub 3}), were generated on hydroxyapatite (HAp) substrates. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ability of different substrates to absorb proteins was evaluated. The results showed that substrates modified with hydrophilic functional group (-COOH and -NH{sub 2}) can absorb more proteins than these modified with more hydrophobic functional group (-CH{sub 3}). The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured on different substrates was investigated in vitro: cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis was used to characterize cell proliferation, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis was used to characterize cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis was used to account for differentiation. The results of this study demonstrated that the -NH{sub 2} modified surfaces encourage osteogenic differentiation; the -COOH modified surfaces promote cell adhesion and spreading and the -CH{sub 3} modified surfaces have the lowest ability to induce osteogenic differentiation. These findings confirmed that the surface chemical states of biomaterials can affect the behavior of hASCs in vitro.

  20. A functional neuroimaging review of obesity, appetitive hormones and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Berner, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Adequate energy intake is vital for the survival of humans and is regulated by complex homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Supported by functional MRI (fMRI) studies that consistently demonstrate differences in brain response as a function of weight status during exposure to appetizing food stimuli, it has been posited that hedonically driven food intake contributes to weight gain and obesity maintenance. These food reward theories of obesity are reliant on the notion that the aberrant brain response to food stimuli relates directly to ingestive behavior, specifically, excess food intake. Importantly, functioning of homeostatic neuroendocrine regulators of food intake, such as leptin and ghrelin, are impacted by weight status. Thus, data from studies that evaluate the effect on weight status on brain response to food may be a result of differences in neuroendocrine functioning and/or behavior. In the present review, we examine the influence of weight and weight change, exogenous administration of appetitive hormones, and ingestive behavior on BOLD response to food stimuli. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Reorganization of brain function after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunming; Zheng, Lifen; Long, Yuhang; Yan, Qian; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling; Howell, Peter

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups. Across the 7-day period of the intervention, AWS+ alone showed a significant increase of brain activation in the left ventral IFC/insula. There were no changes in brain function for the other two groups. Further analysis revealed that the change did not correlate with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) that AWS showed in the cerebellum (Lu et al., 2012). However, both changes in task-related brain function and RSFC correlated with changes in speech fluency level. Together, these findings suggest that functional reorganization in a brain region close to the left IFC that shows anomalous function in AWS, occurs after a short-term behavioral intervention for stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Aphasia Combining Neuromodulation and Behavioral Intervention: Taking an Impairment and Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2014-04-01

    Baseline measures of naming nouns and verbs in single words, and sentences, were obtained. While there was no improvement in production of nouns or verbs in single words or sentence production after sham tDCS, and no improvement of noun production after anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment, production of verbs in sentences improved after a 10-session treatment block of anodal tDCS and behavioral therapy. Conclusion Administering a behavioral treatment that is impairment-based as well as functionally-based in conjunction with tDCS is both feasible and promising. Anodal tDCS in conjunction with behavioral intervention is a treatment approach that warrants continued investigation. The results will be discussed in relation to the tDCS and aphasia literature.

  3. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Liana C. L.; Rosa, Maria João; Rao, Anil; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Perlman, Susan B.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Ciuffetelli, Gary; Rodriguez, Eric; Forbes, Erika E.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Fristad, Mary A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Pereira, Mirtes; Oliveira, Leticia; Phillips, Mary L.; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points. Methods A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males) was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR) and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo). Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) and mean squared error (MSE) to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels. Results Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern

  4. Measuring positive and negative aspects of youth behavior: Development and validation of the Adolescent Functioning Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Burke, Kylie; Filus, Ania; Haslam, Divna; Ralph, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper outlines the development and validation of the Adolescent Functioning Scale (AFS) in an Australian sample of parents of young people aged 11-18 years (N = 278). The AFS, a parent self-report measure, was designed to assess problem behavior and positive development in adolescents. Principal components analysis produced a 33-item measure comprising four subscales: Positive Development, Oppositional Defiant Behavior, Antisocial Behavior and Emotional Difficulties. Convergent validity was established via correlations between the AFS and established measures of adolescent functioning and parenting, and discriminant validity was shown through no association between the AFS and a measure of technology use. Internal consistency for the subscales was high (H = .82-.92 for different age groups), as was test-retest reliability (r = .77-.86). The study indicated that the AFS is a potentially valuable tool for assessing levels of problem behaviors and positive development in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of sheltering on physiology, immune function, behavior, and the welfare of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopova, Alexandra

    2016-05-15

    Approximately 4 million dogs live in animal shelters each year. However, understanding and measuring the welfare of these kenneled dogs presents a challenge. One way to determine welfare is by assessing how stay at the shelter influences physiology, immune function, and behavior of the dogs. Prior research, from all of these domains, has not resulted in clear conclusions on how the animal shelter influences the well-being of dogs. One robust finding is that, when placed into a kennel environment, dogs experience a spike in cortisol levels followed by a decrease to original at-home levels. Current evidence cannot differentiate between several proposed hypotheses that may be responsible for this pattern. In addition, very few studies have assessed the effects of kenneling on immune function of dogs, and of these, no consistent findings have emerged. However, this line of inquiry can have a large impact as infectious diseases are rampant in animal shelters. The ability of behavioral measures to inform us about the welfare of dogs is discussed by reviewing published and new data on the effects of kenneling on dog behavior. Prior research has suffered from a lack of consistent operational definitions when defining abnormal behavior in dogs, resulting in difficult to interpret results. Research on the well-being of individual dogs, rather than on group averages, may be a fruitful next step in determining and improving the welfare of dogs housed in shelters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep deprivation and the organization of the behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Questions concerning the significance of sleep in the developing organism are investigated, together with the mechanisms that underlie the unique distribution of behavioral states at any particular age and during any particular experimental manipulation. It is attempted to define the states of sleep and wakefulness in terms of a temporal confluence of a number of more or less independent processes, taking also into account the functional consequences of these attributes. The results of a selective deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep are explored, giving attention to effects on sleep, behavioral changes, brain excitability, pharmacological changes, and biochemical changes.

  7. Long-term behavioral assessment of function in an experimental model for ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, Angelo; Horie, Nobutaka; Keren-Gill, Hadar; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2011-03-30

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats is a well-studied experimental model for ischemic stroke leading to brain infarction and functional deficits. Many preclinical studies have focused on a small time window after the ischemic episode to evaluate functional outcome for screening therapeutic candidates. Short evaluation periods following injury have led to significant setbacks due to lack of information on the delayed effects of treatments, as well as short-lived and reversible neuroprotection, so called false-positive results. In this report, we evaluated long-term functional deficit for 90 days after MCAO in two rat strains with two durations of ischemic insult, in order to identify the best experimental paradigm to assess injury and subsequent recovery. Behavioral outcomes were measured pre-MCAO followed by weekly assessment post-stroke. Behavioral tests included the 18-point composite neurological score, 28-point neuroscore, rearing test, vibrissae-evoked forelimb placing test, foot fault test and the CatWalk. Brain lesions were assessed to correlate injury to behavior outcomes at the end of study. Our results indicate that infarction volume in Sprague-Dawley rats was dependent on occlusion duration. In contrast, the infarction volume in Wistar rats did not correlate with the duration of ischemic episode. Functional outcomes were not dependent on occlusion time in either strain; however, measurable deficits were detectable long-term in limb asymmetry, 18- and 28-point neuroscores, forelimb placing, paw swing speed, and gait coordination. In conclusion, these behavioral assays, in combination with an extended long-term assessment period, can be used for evaluating therapeutic candidates in preclinical models of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep Behaviors and Parent Functioning in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Maureen; Herbert, Linda J; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates sleep characteristics among young children with type 1 diabetes and associations with parent sleep and emotional functioning and diabetes care. Study participants included twenty-four parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (ages 2-5) enrolled in a pilot study of a randomized-controlled trial. Child sleep characteristics were within normal limits. However, increased child bedtime resistance and behavioral insomnia were related to greater parent stress, anxiety, and depression and use of an intensive insulin regimen. Type 1 diabetes management may impact child and parent sleep as well as parent emotional functioning. Implications for practice are presented.

  9. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BettyAnn A. Chodkowski

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the absence of any explicit eating-related stimuli, the developing brain is primed toward food approach and away from food avoidance behavior with increasing adiposity. Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity that is associated with non-homeostatic eating develops during childhood, as early as 8–13 years of age. Our results indicate the importance of identifying children at risk for obesity for earlier intervention. In addition to changing eating habits and physical activity, strategies that normalize neural functional connectivity imbalance are needed to maintain healthy weight. Mindfulness may be one such approach as it is associated with increased response inhibition and decreased impulsivity.

  10. The Hawkes process with different excitation functions and its asymptotoc behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Raúl; Leiva, Víctor; Møller, Jesper

    The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken into acco......The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken...... into account in a number of fields; e.g. in seismology, where main shocks produce aftershocks with possibly different intensities. The main results are devoted to the asymptotic behavior of this extension of the Hawkes process. Indeed, a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem are stated...

  11. Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management on Executive Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-02-13

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.

  12. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  13. VA nursing home residents with substance use disorders: Mental health comorbidities, functioning, and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonne; Schaefer, Jeanne A

    2010-07-01

    This research addresses whether residents with substance use disorders (SUDs) in VA nursing homes (VANHs) are distinctive in terms of their demographic characteristics, medical and mental health comorbidities, functioning, and problem behaviors. Residents over age 55 admitted to VANHs (n = 27,002) were identified in VA administrative files, and SUD and non-SUD residents were compared. Compared with other residents, the residents with SUDs (18% of admissions over age 55) were more likely to be younger, male, African-American, unmarried, have low income and a tobacco use disorder. Controlling for demographic factors and smoking, SUD residents were more likely to have mental health comorbidities (dementia, serious mental illness, depressive disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder), as well as AIDS/hepatitis, pulmonary disease, gastro-intestinal disorders, and injuries. SUD residents were less likely to have cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, heart failure, and renal failure. SUD residents were more independent in activities of daily living, such as mobility and toileting. They were more likely to engage in verbal disruption but not in other problem behaviors such as aggression. With demographic factors and comorbidities controlled, the functioning differences were diminished, and SUD and non-SUD residents did not differ in the levels of problem behaviors. VANH residents with SUDs have distinctive patterns of comorbidities and functioning. SUD appears to represent a separate risk factor for VANH admission. Residents with SUDs present challenges but may have good potential for positive discharge outcomes if their substance use problems and limited resources can be addressed.

  14. External validity of children's self-reported sleep functioning: associations with academic, social, and behavioral adjustment.

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    Becker, Stephen P

    2014-09-01

    Several child-report measures of sleep functioning have been developed but very few studies have examined the external validity of child self-reported sleep in relation to daytime functioning. This study examined child-reported sleep in relation to teacher-rated psychopathology symptoms and also tested the hypothesis that child-reported sleep would be associated with poorer child- and teacher-reported functioning after controlling for demographics and psychopathology symptoms that are known to be associated with adjustment. Participants were 175 children (81 boys, 94 girls) in 1st-6th grades (ages 6-13) and their teachers. Children completed the Sleep Self-Report. Teachers completed a measure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional/conduct, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Children and teachers completed multiple measures of academic, behavioral, and social/peer functioning. Child-reported sleep was significantly associated with teacher-rated inattentive and internalizing symptoms, even after controlling for child demographics, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and conduct problems. Multilevel modeling analyses further indicated that, after controlling for child demographics and psychopathology symptoms, child-reported sleep problems were significantly associated with poorer child- and teacher-reported academic, behavioral, and social functioning (including increased reactive aggression, peer rejection, loneliness, and lower friendship satisfaction and self-worth). Findings provide initial support for the external validity of children's self-reported sleep functioning. Results of this study suggest that it may be clinically useful to screen for sleep problems by assessing for children's own perceptions of their sleep. Future studies should include both child- and parent-reported sleep functioning to further examine the utility of children's ratings of sleep functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct myocardial mechanisms underlie cardiac dysfunction in endotoxemic male and female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, Ion A.; Aziz, Kanwal; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Brouckaert, Peter; Siwik, Deborah A.; Colucci., Wilson S.

    2016-01-01

    In male mice, Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy develops as a result of dysregulation of myocardial calcium (Ca2+) handling, leading to depressed cellular Ca2+ transients (ΔCai). ΔCai depression is partially due to inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATP-ase (SERCA) via oxidative modifications, which are partially opposed by cGMP generated by the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Whether similar mechanisms underlie Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy in female mice is unknown.

  16. A structured assessment of motor function, behavior, and communication in patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Heidi E; Bergsaker, David K; Hunn, Bente S; Schmidt, Susanne; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), especially concerning motor function, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and adapted behavior, but also regarding clinical symptoms in general. Motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. In total, two males and eight females between one and 48 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of WHS and their parents participated in this study. Deletion sizes were known for seven of the ten patients and varied between 55 Kb and 20 Mb. The chromosome coordinates were known for six of them, and none of those had the same break points in their deletion. The main finding in this study was that patients with WHS may have a better outcome regarding motor skills and expressive communication than previously described. We could confirm the main medical findings described earlier, but found also a population with a less severe dysmorphology, fewer congenital malformations, and fewer medical challenges than expected. Sleep problems may persist into adulthood and need a more thorough investigation. Research on possible indications of ASD is strongly needed for targeted interventions. In conclusion, a more thorough assessment of communication, possible ASD, and sleep in larger groups of patients with WHS are needed to confirm and further investigate the findings from this study and to provide more targeted interventions for WHS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Original article Functional perfectionism and healthy behaviors: the longitudinal relationships between the dimensions of perfectionism, nutrition behavior, and physical activity moderated by gender

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    Aleksandra Luszczynska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This study investigated the relationships between global perfectionism (its functional and dysfunctional aspects and three types of health behaviors: fruit and vegetable intake (FVI, consumption of sweet and salty snacks, and physical activity. It was hypothesized that indices of functional perfectionism would predict engaging in healthy behavior, with gender moderating these associations. Participants and procedures Data were collected among 845 adolescents (59.20% girls aged 13 to 20 years old (M = 16.52, SD = 0.92. At the baseline, participants filled out the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and measures of nutrition behavior and physical activity. The measurement of nutrition behavior and physical activity was repeated at 12-month follow-up. Results The moderator analysis indicated that FVI as well as consumption of sweet and salty snacks measured at 12-month follow-up were explained by functional global perfectionism (Organization and Personal Standards dimensions, but this effect was stronger among girls. Physical activity measured at 12-month follow-up was explained by functional perfectionism (Organization and Personal Standards dimensions, but this effect was stronger among boys. The effects were found after controlling for respective behaviors assessed at the baseline. Dysfunctional dimensions of global perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes, Parental Expectations, Parental Criticism, Doubts about Actions were unrelated to indices of behavior at follow-up. Conclusions Functional global perfectionism may represent an individual resource variable, facilitating uptake and maintenance of healthy diet and physical activity, and therefore foster prevention of obesity among adolescents.

  18. Executive functioning and substance use in adolescence: Neurobiological and behavioral perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel E; Lauharatanahirun, Nina; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bickel, Warren K; Chiu, Pearl H; King-Casas, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver et al., 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes. In contrast, emerging evidence suggests consistent and stronger regulating effects of executive functioning over reward and punishment sensitivity. Functional neuroimaging studies reveal significant associations between executive functioning task-related hemodynamic responses and substance use with strong effect sizes. There is also direct evidence from studies testing statistical interactions of the regulating effects of EF-related brain activation, and indirect evidence in studies examining functional connectivity, temporal discounting, and reinforced control. We note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Executive Functioning and School Adjustment: The Mediational Role of Pre-kindergarten Learning-related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Tyler R.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    164 four-year-old children (14% Latino American, 30% African American, 56% European American; 57% girls) in 22 Head Start classrooms were followed through third grade. Growth curve models were used to estimate the predictive associations between pre-kindergarten executive function (EF) skills and trajectories of academic skill development (math, literacy, overall academic functioning) and social-emotional adjustment at school (social competence, aggression), controlling for child sex, race, verbal IQ, and pre-kindergarten baseline scores. Direct developmental pathways were examined, along with indirect pathways, in which the association between preschool EF and elementary school adjustment was mediated by classroom learning behaviors. Preschool EF significantly predicted later math skills, academic functioning, and social competence, and marginally predicted later literacy skills. Preschool learning behaviors fully mediated the association between EF and later literacy skills and social competence, but did not mediate associations between EF and later math skills or academic functioning. Implications for developmental theory and early education are discussed. PMID:27231409

  20. Behavioral Sleep Problems and their Potential Impact on Developing Executive Function in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Reid, Graham J; Morton, J Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Bedtime resistance and night waking are common sleep problems throughout childhood, especially in the early years. These sleep problems may lead to difficulties in neurobehavioral functioning, but most research into childhood sleep problems has not emphasized the importance of the developmental context in which disruptions in neurobehavioral and daytime functioning occur. We review the development of sleep as well as executive functioning (EF) in childhood and suggest that EF may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these common childhood sleep problems because of its prolonged course of maturation. Behavioral problems associated with common sleep problems suggest poor self-regulation in the context of sleep loss, and developing EF skills play important roles in self-regulation. A research agenda that considers a developmental approach to sleep and sleep problems in the context of childhood EF performance is outlined to promote future research in this area. Turnbull K; Reid GJ; Morton JB. Behavioral sleep problems and their potential impact on developing executive function in children. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1077-1084.

  1. Selective Fair Behavior as a Function of Psychopathic Traits in a Subclinical Population

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    Takahiro Osumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity, which are known to facilitate fair behavior. We focused on two psychopathic traits: primary and secondary psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by callousness, shallow affect, manipulation, and superficial charm. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is associated with impulsivity and lack of long-term goals, and is related to hostile behavior. A total of 348 undergraduate students determined the amounts of money that they would offer to strangers or friends at their university in hypothetical scenarios of the ultimatum game (UG and the dictator game (DG. While gender affected decisions in the hypothetical scenarios of the DG, it did not interact with psychopathic traits. The score for primary psychopathy on the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale predicted unfair monetary offers to strangers in the DG, where participants could not be punished. However, compared with their offers in the DG, individuals with higher scores for primary psychopathy made larger offers in the UG, where low offers could trigger punishment from the recipient. Moreover, primary psychopathy did not decrease the amounts of offers in either game when the participant considered the recipient to be a friend. On the other hand, secondary psychopathy was not associated with differences in behavioral fairness depending on a potential for punishment or social distance. Based on these findings, we discuss

  2. Risk of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties in youth with previous and current sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Quan, Stuart F

    2013-04-01

    To examine the rates of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties among youth who never had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), had remitted SDB, had incident SDB, or had persistent SDB; and to determine if there were increased odds of behavioral difficulties among youth with varying SDB histories relative to those who never had SDB. 263 youth had valid polysomnography and neurobehavioral data at two time points approximately 5 years apart from the prospective Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study. Primary outcomes were the behavior assessment scale for children-2(nd) Edition parent report form (BASC-PRF) and Self-Report of Personality (SRP), and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-2(nd) Edition (ABAS-2). Compared to those who never had SDB, individuals with persistent SDB had significant odds and met more cutoff scores on the BASC-2-PRF externalizing problems composite (odds ratio [OR] 3.29; 8.92% vs. 35.3%), behavioral symptoms index (OR 6.82; 7.4% vs. 35.3%) and Hyperactivity subscale (OR 6.82; 11.1% vs. 41.2%). Similarly, greater difficulties was seen for the group with persistent SDB (relative to never) on the ABAS-2 social domain (OR 3.39; 22% vs. 50%), and Communication (OR 4.26; 15% vs. 42.9%) and Self-Care subscales (OR = 2.97; 25.2% vs. 50%). Relative to youth who never had SDB, youth who developed SDB at Time 2 had compromised adaptive skills as evidenced by the BASC-2 PRF adaptive behavior composite (OR 3.34; 15.6% vs. 38.1%) and the ABAS-2 general adaptive composite (OR 2.83; 20.5% vs. 42.1%). Youth with current SDB exhibited hyperactivity, attention problems, aggressivity, lower social competency, poorer communication, and/or diminished adaptive skills.

  3. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  4. Using functional assessment to treat behavior problems of deaf and hard of hearing children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Thomas; Carlson, Mark; Estep, David; Quinn, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A defining feature of autism spectrum disorders is atypical behaviors, e.g., stereotypy, noncompliance, rituals, and aggression. Deaf and hard of hearing individuals with autism present a greater challenge because of additional issues related to their hearing status. One conceptualization of problem behavior is that it serves a communication function, i.e., the person has learned that certain misbehaviors may be reinforced in some way. The present article describes "functional behavior assessment," a group of state-of-the-art methodologies that allow a caregiver to determine the cause of the behavior, so that treatment--based on that cause--will be more effective. Different methods of functional assessment are described, along with a step-by-step implementation sequence. The results of a functional assessment should lead to more effective programming, resulting in quicker elimination of the behavioral concerns, and allow the person to gain access to greater independence and more reinforcement.

  5. The scaling behavior of hand motions reveals self-organization during an executive function task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jason R.; Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent approaches to cognition explain cognitive phenomena in terms of interaction-dominant dynamics. In the current experiment, we extend this approach to executive function, a construct used to describe flexible, goal-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to perform a widely used executive function task, card sorting, under two conditions. In one condition, participants were given a rule with which to sort the cards. In the other condition, participants had to induce the rule from experimenter feedback. The motion of each participant’s hand was tracked during the sorting task. Detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on the inter-point time series using a windowing strategy to capture changes over each trial. For participants in the induction condition, the Hurst exponent sharply increased and then decreased. The Hurst exponents for the explicit condition did not show this pattern. Our results suggest that executive function may be understood in terms of changes in stability that arise from interaction-dominant dynamics.

  6. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental functional analysis of severe skin-picking behavior in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S; Hustyi, Kristin M; Chui, Clara; Hammond, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Skin picking is an extremely distressing and treatment resistant behavior commonly shown by individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, with the exception of a limited number of published single-case and survey studies, little is known about the environmental determinants of skin picking in this population. In this study, functional analyses were conducted with thirteen individuals with PWS, aged 6-23 years, who engaged in severe skin-picking behavior. In addition to the conditions typically employed in a functional analysis (i.e., alone, attention, play, demand), we included an ignore condition to examine potential effects of stimulus control by the presence of an adult. Twelve participants engaged in skin picking during the functional analysis, with the highest levels occurring in the alone and ignore conditions for eight participants, suggesting that skin picking in these participants was maintained by automatic reinforcement. For the remaining four participants, an undifferentiated pattern of low-rate skin picking was observed across conditions. These data confirm previous studies indicating that skin picking in PWS may be maintained most often by automatically produced sensory consequences. There were no associations between demographic characteristics of the participants (e.g., sex, age, IQ or BMI) and levels of skin picking observed in the functional analysis. Additional investigations are needed to identify the nature of the sensory consequences produced during episodes of skin picking in PWS. Behavioral interventions designed to extinguish or compete with the potential sensory consequences arising from skin picking in PWS are also warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The effect of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2005-04-01

    This study was to develop an aromatherapy hand massage program, and to evaluate the effects of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The Research design was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized quasiexperimental study. Lavender aromatherapy was administrated to experimental group I for 2 weeks, jojoba oil massage was administrated to experimental group II for 2 weeks, and no treatment was administrated to the control group for 2 weeks. Data was analyzed using the chi(2)-test, ANOVA, repeated measures of ANCOVA and ANCOVA in the SPSS program package. 1. Experimental group I did not show significant differences in cognitive function in relation to the experimental group II and control group. 2. Experimental group I showed significant differences in emotion and aggressive behavior in relation to the experimental group II and control group. A Lavender aromatherapy hand massage program is effective on emotions and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  9. Signaling mechanisms and behavioral function of the mouse basal vomeronasal neuroepithelium

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    Anabel ePérez-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is a sensory organ that is found in most terrestrial vertebrates and that is principally implicated in the detection of pheromones. The VNO contains specialized sensory neurons organized in a pseudostratified neuroepithelium that recognize chemical signals involved in initiating innate behavioral responses. In rodents, the VNO neuroepithelium is segregated into two distinct zones, apical and basal. The molecular mechanisms involved in ligand detection by apical and basal VNO sensory neurons differ extensively. These two VNO subsystems express different subfamilies of vomeronasal receptors and signaling molecules, detect distinct chemosignals, and project to separate regions of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. The roles that these olfactory subdivisions play in the control of specific olfactory-mediated behaviors are largely unclear. However, analysis of mutant mouse lines for signal transduction components together with identification of defined chemosensory ligands has revealed a fundamental role of the basal part of the mouse VNO in mediating a wide range of instinctive behaviors, such as aggression, predator avoidance, and sexual attraction. Here we will compare the divergent functions and synergies between the olfactory subsystems and consider new insights in how higher neural circuits are defined for the initiation of instinctive behaviors.

  10. Prefrontal dopamine and behavioral flexibility: shifting from an inverted-U towards a family of functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan B Floresco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on prefrontal cortex (PFC dopamine (DA function have revealed its essential role in mediating a variety of cognitive and executive functions. A general principle that has emerged (primarily from studies on working memory is that PFC DA, acting on D1 receptors, regulates cognition in accordance to an inverted-U shaped function, so that too little or too much activity has detrimental effects on performance. However, contemporary studies have indicated that the receptor mechanisms through which mesocortical DA regulates different aspects of behavioral flexibility can vary considerably across different DA receptors and cognitive operations. This article will review psychopharmacological and neurochemical data comparing and contrasting the cognitive effects of antagonism and stimulation of different DA receptors in the medial PFC. Thus, set-shifting is dependent on a co-operative interaction between PFC D1 and D2 receptors, yet, supranormal stimulation of these receptors does not appear to have detrimental effects on this function. On the other hand, modification of cost/benefit decision biases in situations involving reward uncertainty is regulated in complex and sometimes opposing ways by PFC D1 versus D2 receptors. When viewed collectively, these findings suggest that the inverted-U shaped dose-response curve underlying D1 receptor modulation of working memory is not a one-size-fits-all function. Rather, it appears that mesocortical DA exerts its effects via a family of functions, wherein reduced or excessive DA activity can have a variety of effects across different cognitive domains.

  11. Influence of neutral surface position on the nonlinear stability behavior of functionally graded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, T.; Singha, M. K.; Ganapathi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear behavior of functionally graded material (FGM) skew plates under in-plane load is investigated here using a shear deformable finite element method. The material is graded in the thickness direction and a simple power law based on the rule of mixture is used to estimate the effective material properties. The neutral surface position for such FGM plates is determined and the first order shear deformation theory based on exact neutral surface position is employed here. The present model is compared with the conventional mid-surface based formulation, which uses extension-bending coupling matrix to include the noncoincidence of neutral surface with the geometric mid-surface for unsymmetric plates. The nonlinear governing equations are solved through Newton Raphson technique. The nonlinear behavior of FGM skew plates under compressive and tensile in-plane load are examined considering different system parameters such as constituent gradient index, boundary condition, thickness-to-span ratio and skew angle.

  12. Prenatal and childhood traffic-related air pollution exposure and childhood executive function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Gold, Diane R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Melly, Steven J; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C; Belfort, Mandy B; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K; Oken, Emily

    Traffic-related air pollution exposure may influence brain development and function and thus be related to neurobehavioral problems in children, but little is known about windows of susceptibility. Examine associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with executive function and behavior problems in children. We studied associations of pre- and postnatal pollution exposures with neurobehavioral outcomes in 1212 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort followed to mid-childhood (median age 7.7years). Parents and classroom teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using validated spatiotemporal models, we estimated exposure to black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the third trimester of pregnancy, from birth to 3years, from birth to 6years, and in the year before behavioral ratings. We also measured residential distance to major roadways and near-residence traffic density at birth and in mid-childhood. We estimated associations of BC, PM 2.5 , and other traffic exposure measures with BRIEF and SDQ scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Higher childhood BC exposure was associated with higher teacher-rated BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) scores, indicating greater problems: 1.0 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.1) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in birth-age 6BC, and 1.7 points (95% CI: 0.6, 2.8) for BC in the year prior to behavioral ratings. Mid-childhood residential traffic density was also associated with BRI score (0.6, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). Birth-age 3BC was not associated with BRIEF or SDQ scores. Third trimester BC exposure was not associated with teacher-rated BRI scores (-0.2, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.8), and predicted lower scores (fewer problems) on the BRIEF Metacognition Index (-1.2, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2) and SDQ total difficulties (-0.9, 95% CI: -1.4, -0.4). PM 2.5 exposure was

  13. Associations between sleep problems and attentional and behavioral functioning in children with anxiety disorders and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Skirbekk, Benedicte; Oerbeck, Beate; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Kristensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between sleep problems and attentional and behavioral functioning in 137 children aged 7 to 13 years with anxiety disorders (n = 39), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 38), combined anxiety disorder and ADHD (n = 25), and 35 controls. Diagnoses were made using the semistructured diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Sleep problems were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, attention was measured by the Attention Network Test, and behavioral problems were measured by teacher ratings on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Teacher Report Form. Sleep problems were associated with reduced efficiency of the alerting attention system for all children and with increased internalizing problems in children with anxiety disorders.

  14. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  15. Data-Driven Subtyping of Executive Function-Related Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Holmes, Joni; Astle, Duncan E

    2018-04-01

    Executive functions (EF) are cognitive skills that are important for regulating behavior and for achieving goals. Executive function deficits are common in children who struggle in school and are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there is also considerable heterogeneity across children, even within diagnostic categories. This study took a data-driven approach to identify distinct clusters of children with common profiles of EF-related difficulties, and then identified patterns of brain organization that distinguish these data-driven groups. The sample consisted of 442 children identified by health and educational professionals as having difficulties in attention, learning, and/or memory. We applied community clustering, a data-driven clustering algorithm, to group children by similarities on a commonly used rating scale of EF-associated behavioral difficulties, the Conners 3 questionnaire. We then investigated whether the groups identified by the algorithm could be distinguished on white matter connectivity using a structural connectomics approach combined with partial least squares analysis. The data-driven clustering yielded 3 distinct groups of children with symptoms of one of the following: (1) elevated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and poor EF; (2) learning problems; or (3) aggressive behavior and problems with peer relationships. These groups were associated with significant interindividual variation in white matter connectivity of the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In sum, data-driven classification of EF-related behavioral difficulties identified stable groups of children, provided a good account of interindividual differences, and aligned closely with underlying neurobiological substrates. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tumor growth increases neuroinflammation, fatigue and depressive-like behavior prior to alterations in muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M; Bicer, Sabahattin; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Henry, Christopher J; Wold, Loren E; Reiser, Peter J; Godbout, Jonathan P; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently suffer from fatigue, a complex syndrome associated with loss of muscle mass, weakness, and depressed mood. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) can be present at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and persists for years after treatment. CRF negatively influences quality of life, limits functional independence, and is associated with decreased survival in patients with incurable disease. Currently there are no effective treatments to reduce CRF. The aim of this study was to use a mouse model of tumor growth and discriminate between two main components of fatigue: loss of muscle mass/function and altered mood/motivation. Here we show that tumor growth increased fatigue- and depressive-like behaviors, and reduced body and muscle mass. Decreased voluntary wheel running activity (VWRA) and increased depressive-like behavior in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests were evident in tumor-bearing mice within the first two weeks of tumor growth and preceded the loss of body and muscle mass. At three weeks, tumor-bearing mice had reduced grip strength but this was not associated with altered expression of myosin isoforms or impaired contractile properties of muscles. These increases in fatigue and depressive-like behaviors were paralleled by increased expression of IL-1β mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus. Minocycline administration reduced tumor-induced expression of IL-1β in the brain, reduced depressive-like behavior, and improved grip strength without altering muscle mass. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroinflammation and depressed mood, rather than muscle wasting, contribute to decreased voluntary activity and precede major changes in muscle contractile properties with tumor growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex on the brain: Are gender-dependent structural and functional differences associated with behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Anna

    2017-01-02

    A substantial number of studies provide evidence documenting a variety of sex differences in the brain. It remains unclear whether sexual differentiation at the neural level is related to that observed in daily behavior, cognitive function, and the risk of developing certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. Some investigators have questioned whether the brain is truly sexually differentiated and support this view with several arguments including the following: (1) brain structural or functional differences are not necessarily reflected in appropriate differences at the behavioral level, which might suggest that these two phenomena are not linked to each other; and (2) sex-related differences in the brain are rather small and concern features that significantly overlap between males and females. This review polemicizes with those opinions and presents examples of sex-related local neural differences underpinning a variety of sex differences in behaviors, skills, and cognitive/emotional abilities. Although male/female brain differentiation may vary in pattern and scale, nonetheless, in some respects (e.g., relative local gray matter volumes) it can be substantial, taking the form of sexual dimorphism and involving large areas of the brain (the cortex in particular). A significant part of this review is devoted to arguing that some sex differences in the brain may serve to prevent (in the case where they are maladaptive), rather than to produce, differences at the behavioral/skill level. Specifically, some differences might result from compensatory mechanisms aimed at maintaining similar intellectual capacities across the sexes, despite the smaller average volume of the brain in females compared with males. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  19. The unique and additive associations of family functioning and parenting practices with disordered eating behaviors in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-04-01

    To examine the unique and additive associations of family functioning and parenting practices with adolescent disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, binge eating). Data from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010, a population-based study assessing eating and activity among racially/ethnically and socio-economically diverse adolescents (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4, SD = 2.0; age range = 11-19) was used. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between adolescent dieting and disordered eating behaviors and family functioning and parenting variables, including interactions. All analyses controlled for demographics and body mass index. Higher family functioning, parent connection, and parental knowledge about child's whereabouts (e.g. who child is with, what they are doing, where they are at) were significantly associated with lower odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, while parent psychological control was associated with greater odds of engaging in dieting and disordered eating behaviors. Although the majority of interactions were non-significant, parental psychological control moderated the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls. Clinicians and health care providers may want to discuss the importance of balancing specific parenting behaviors, such as increasing parent knowledge about child whereabouts while decreasing psychological control in order to enhance the protective relationship between family functioning and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents.

  20. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  1. Organotins in Neuronal Damage, Brain Function, and Behavior: A Short Review

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    Igor Ferraz da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.

  2. Anatomy and behavioral function of serotonin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Annina; Eschment, Melanie; Güllü, Nazli; Collins, Katharina A. N.; Böpple, Kathrin; Pankevych, Lyubov; Rolsing, Emilia; Thum, Andreas S.

    2017-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors. This is particularly true for the olfactory system, which is mostly described down to the synaptic level over the first three orders of neuronal information processing. Here we focus on the 5-HT receptor system of the Drosophila larva. In a bipartite approach consisting of anatomical and behavioral experiments we describe the distribution and the implications of individual 5-HT receptors on naïve and acquired chemosensory behaviors. Our data suggest that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 are dispensable for larval naïve olfactory and gustatory choice behaviors as well as for appetitive and aversive associative olfactory learning and memory. In contrast, we show that 5-HT/5-HT2A signaling throughout development, but not as an acute neuronal function, affects associative olfactory learning and memory using high salt concentration as a negative unconditioned stimulus. These findings describe for the first time an involvement of 5-HT signaling in learning and memory in Drosophila larvae. In the longer run these results may uncover developmental, 5-HT dependent principles related to reinforcement processing possibly shared with adult Drosophila and other insects. PMID:28777821

  3. Anatomy and behavioral function of serotonin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors. This is particularly true for the olfactory system, which is mostly described down to the synaptic level over the first three orders of neuronal information processing. Here we focus on the 5-HT receptor system of the Drosophila larva. In a bipartite approach consisting of anatomical and behavioral experiments we describe the distribution and the implications of individual 5-HT receptors on naïve and acquired chemosensory behaviors. Our data suggest that 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 are dispensable for larval naïve olfactory and gustatory choice behaviors as well as for appetitive and aversive associative olfactory learning and memory. In contrast, we show that 5-HT/5-HT2A signaling throughout development, but not as an acute neuronal function, affects associative olfactory learning and memory using high salt concentration as a negative unconditioned stimulus. These findings describe for the first time an involvement of 5-HT signaling in learning and memory in Drosophila larvae. In the longer run these results may uncover developmental, 5-HT dependent principles related to reinforcement processing possibly shared with adult Drosophila and other insects.

  4. Impaired auditory-vestibular functions and behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk6-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available A recent study revealed that Slitrk6, a transmembrane protein containing a leucine-rich repeat domain, has a critical role in the development of the inner ear neural circuit. However, it is still unknown how the absence of Slitrk6 affects auditory and vestibular functions. In addition, the role of Slitrk6 in regions of the central nervous system, including the dorsal thalamus, has not been addressed. To understand the physiological role of Slitrk6, Slitrk6-knockout (KO mice were subjected to systematic behavioral analyses including auditory and vestibular function tests. Compared to wild-type mice, the auditory brainstem response (ABR of Slitrk6-KO mice indicated a mid-frequency range (8-16 kHz hearing loss and reduction of the first ABR wave. The auditory startle response was also reduced. A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR test showed decreased vertical (head movement-induced VOR gains and normal horizontal VOR. In an open field test, locomotor activity was reduced; the tendency to be in the center region was increased, but only in the first 5 min of the test, indicating altered adaptive responses to a novel environment. Altered adaptive responses were also found in a hole-board test in which head-dip behavior was increased and advanced. Aside from these abnormalities, no clear abnormalities were noted in the mood, anxiety, learning, spatial memory, or fear memory-related behavioral tests. These results indicate that the Slitrk6-KO mouse can serve as a model of hereditary sensorineural deafness. Furthermore, the altered responses of Slitrk6-KO mice to the novel environment suggest a role of Slitrk6 in some cognitive functions.

  5. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Raid Kamel; Balasim, Alla Tariq

    2007-01-01

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system

  6. Different Signal Enhancement Pathways of Attention and Consciousness Underlie Perception in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2017-06-14

    It is not yet known whether attention and consciousness operate through similar or largely different mechanisms. Visual processing mechanisms are routinely characterized by measuring contrast response functions (CRFs). In this report, behavioral CRFs were obtained in humans (both males and females) by measuring afterimage durations over the entire range of inducer stimulus contrasts to reveal visual mechanisms behind attention and consciousness. Deviations relative to the standard CRF, i.e., gain functions, describe the strength of signal enhancement, which were assessed for both changes due to attentional task and conscious perception. It was found that attention displayed a response-gain function, whereas consciousness displayed a contrast-gain function. Through model comparisons, which only included contrast-gain modulations, both contrast-gain and response-gain effects can be explained with a two-level normalization model, in which consciousness affects only the first level and attention affects only the second level. These results demonstrate that attention and consciousness can effectively show different gain functions because they operate through different signal enhancement mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The relationship between attention and consciousness is still debated. Mapping contrast response functions (CRFs) has allowed (neuro)scientists to gain important insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of visual processing. Here, the influence of both attention and consciousness on these functions were measured and they displayed a strong dissociation. First, attention lowered CRFs, whereas consciousness raised them. Second, attention manifests itself as a response-gain function, whereas consciousness manifests itself as a contrast-gain function. Extensive model comparisons show that these results are best explained in a two-level normalization model in which consciousness affects only the first level, whereas attention affects only the second level

  7. Functional Analysis of Precursors for Serious Problem Behavior and Related Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Nancy A.; Carr, Edward G.; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2008-01-01

    Precursor behaviors are innocuous behaviors that reliably precede the occurrence of problem behavior. Intervention efforts applied to precursors might prevent the occurrence of severe problem behavior. We examined the relationship between precursor behavior and problem behavior in three individuals with developmental disabilities. First, a…

  8. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  9. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  10. Natural Variation in SER1 and ENA6 Underlie Condition-Specific Growth Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Amy Sirr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquitous use in laboratory strains, naturally occurring loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding core metabolic enzymes are relatively rare in wild isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we identify a naturally occurring serine auxotrophy in a sake brewing strain from Japan. Through a cross with a honey wine (white tecc brewing strain from Ethiopia, we map the minimal medium growth defect to SER1, which encodes 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase and is orthologous to the human disease gene, PSAT1. To investigate the impact of this polymorphism under conditions of abundant external nutrients, we examine growth in rich medium alone or with additional stresses, including the drugs caffeine and rapamycin and relatively high concentrations of copper, salt, and ethanol. Consistent with studies that found widespread effects of different auxotrophies on RNA expression patterns in rich media, we find that the SER1 loss-of-function allele dominates the quantitative trait locus (QTL landscape under many of these conditions, with a notable exacerbation of the effect in the presence of rapamycin and caffeine. We also identify a major-effect QTL associated with growth on salt that maps to the gene encoding the sodium exporter, ENA6. We demonstrate that the salt phenotype is largely driven by variation in the ENA6 promoter, which harbors a deletion that removes binding sites for the Mig1 and Nrg1 transcriptional repressors. Thus, our results identify natural variation associated with both coding and regulatory regions of the genome that underlie strong growth phenotypes.

  11. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  12. Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Summary of 32 Outpatient Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jessa R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine archival data from an outpatient clinic serving children with autism spectrum disorders to investigate the occurrence of problem behavior functions in this sample. Results indicated that social reinforcement (e.g., attention from others) was involved in maintaining problem behavior for the majority of…

  13. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Model for Personnel in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Sheldon Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated whether a manualized training in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) would result in typical school professionals being able to conduct a procedurally adequate FBA with a technically accurate summary statement for student behavior. Additionally, the study examined whether summary statements obtained by trained school…

  14. Coping, Daily Hassles and Behavior and Emotional Problems in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism/Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…

  15. Working Memory, Attention, Inhibition, and Their Relation to Adaptive Functioning and Behavioral/Emotional Symptoms in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnove; Troberg, Anna-Maria; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri; Saarinen, Suvi; Aronen, Eeva T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of executive functions (EFs) and their associations with performance and behavior at school in 8-12-year-old children. The EFs were measured by computer-based n-back, Continuous Performance and Go/Nogo tasks. School performance was evaluated by Teacher Report Form (TRF) and behavior by TRF and Child…

  16. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  17. Voice identity recognition: functional division of the right STS and its behavioral relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Sonja; Kiebel, Stefan J; Maess, Burkhard; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    The human voice is the primary carrier of speech but also a fingerprint for person identity. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that speech and identity recognition is accomplished by partially different neural pathways, despite the perceptual unity of the vocal sound. Importantly, the right STS has been implicated in voice processing, with different contributions of its posterior and anterior parts. However, the time point at which vocal and speech processing diverge is currently unknown. Also, the exact role of the right STS during voice processing is so far unclear because its behavioral relevance has not yet been established. Here, we used the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography and a speech task control to pinpoint transient behavioral correlates: we found, at 200 msec after stimulus onset, that activity in right anterior STS predicted behavioral voice recognition performance. At the same time point, the posterior right STS showed increased activity during voice identity recognition in contrast to speech recognition whereas the left mid STS showed the reverse pattern. In contrast to the highly speech-sensitive left STS, the current results highlight the right STS as a key area for voice identity recognition and show that its anatomical-functional division emerges around 200 msec after stimulus onset. We suggest that this time point marks the speech-independent processing of vocal sounds in the posterior STS and their successful mapping to vocal identities in the anterior STS.

  18. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  19. The functional neuroanatomy of maternal love: mother's response to infant's attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriuchi, Madoka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant's development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant's mother and crying for her). We found that a limited number of the mother's brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother's own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother's brain response for the mother's own infant's distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC. Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

  20. Shingles Immunity and Health Functioning in the Elderly: Tai Chi Chih as a Behavioral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (HZ or shingles increase markedly with increasing age in association with a decline in varicella zoster virus (VZV-specific immunity. Considerable evidence shows that behavioral stressors, prevalent in older adults, correlate with impairments of cellular immunity. Moreover, the presence of depressive symptoms in older adults is associated with declines in VZV-responder cell frequency (VZV-RCF, an immunological marker of shingles risk. In this review, we discuss recent findings that administration of a relaxation response-based intervention, tai chi chih (TCC, results in improvements in health functioning and immunity to VZV in older adults as compared with a control group. TCC is a slow moving meditation consisting of 20 separate standardized movements which can be readily used in elderly and medically compromised individuals. TCC offers standardized training and practice schedules, lending an important advantage over prior relaxation response-based therapies. Focus on older adults at increased risk for HZ and assay of VZV-specific immunity have implications for understanding the impact of behavioral factors and a behavioral intervention on a clinically relevant end-point and on the response of the immune system to infectious pathogens.

  1. Assisting Students from Diverse Backgrounds with Challenging Behaviors: Incorporating a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioral Assessment in Prereferral Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    The student population across U.S. schools has become increasingly diverse and has presented educators with a number of concerns in assisting students demonstrating challenging behaviors. Educators have historically had difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine indicators of emotional and behavioral disorders. It is…

  2. Altered nigrostriatal and nigrocortical functional connectivity in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Castriotta, Richard J; Hendley, Katie L; Aalbers, Brian M; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Hood, Ashley J; Suescun, Jessika; Beurlot, Michelle R; Hendley, Roy T; Schiess, Mya C

    2013-12-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a condition closely associated with Parkinson disease (PD). RBD is a sleep disturbance that frequently manifests early in the development of PD, likely reflecting disruption in normal functioning of anatomical areas affected by neurodegenerative processes. Although specific neuropathological aspects shared by RBD and PD have yet to be fully documented, further characterization is critical to discovering reliable biomarkers that predict PD onset. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis of altered functional connections of the substantia nigra (SN) in patients in whom RBD was diagnosed. Between-groups, single time point imaging. UTHSC-H 3 telsa MRI center. Ten patients with RBD, 11 patients with PD, and 10 age-matched controls. NA. We measured correlations of SN time series using resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) in patients with idiopathic RBD who were at risk for developing PD, patients in whom PD was diagnosed, and age-matched controls. Using voxelwise analysis of variance, different correlations (P < 0.01, whole-brain corrected) between left SN and left putamen were found in patients with RBD compared with controls and patients with PD. SN correlations with right cuneus/precuneus and superior occipital gyrus were significantly different for patients with RBD compared with both controls and patients with PD. The results suggest that altered nigrostriatal and nigrocortical connectivity characterizes rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder before onset of obvious motor impairment. The functional changes are discussed in the context of degeneration in dopaminergic and cognition-related networks.

  3. Prediction of the relative toxicity of environmental toxins as a function of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the differential effects of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints on the prediction of the relative toxicity of an environmental toxin. The effects of ionizing radiation were taken as the model for this evaluation. Forty rhesus monkeys were irradiated in groups of four at five different dose levels of high energy neuton and Bremsstrahlung radiations. Measures of behavioral performance, emesis and mortality were taken for each subject in order to test the hypotheses that behavioral indices would be more sensitive to gamma radiation than would physiological indices and that the physiological indices would be more sensitive to neutron radiations than would behavioral indices. The results supported these hypotheses

  4. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on executive functions controlling self-regulated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Suzanne; Maisto, Stephen A; White, Corey N; Huddleson, Tani

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self-regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. The participants were 75 moderate or heavy drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 who were randomized into one of three beverage conditions (control, placebo, or 0.65-g alcohol dose/kg body weight). Performance on working memory, set shifting, and inhibition were measured pre- and post-beverage consumption. The results showed only a significant interaction in the working memory data, as there was an increase in performance post-beverage relative to pre-beverage for the control participants as compared to the alcohol and placebo participants. It was concluded that the dose of alcohol (BAC = 0.063%) given to moderate to heavy drinkers was not sufficient to cause significant impairment in the executive functions tested. The results were further discussed and methodological concerns were considered, such as the low BAC achieved, practice effects, and insensitivity of tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural Changes following Behavioral Activation for a Depressed Breast Cancer Patient: A Functional MRI Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Gawrysiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is an innovative but at this stage underutilized method to assess the efficacy of psychotherapy for depression. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in this case study to examine changes in brain activity in a depressed breast cancer patient receiving an 8-session Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD, based on the work of Hopko and Lejuez (2007. A music listening paradigm was used during fMRI brain scans to assess reward responsiveness at pre- and posttreatment. Following treatment, the patient exhibited attenuated depression and changes in blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD response in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the subgenual cingulate cortex. These preliminary findings outline a novel means to assess psychotherapy efficacy and suggest that BATD elicits functional brain changes in areas implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Further research is necessary to explore neurobiological mechanisms of change in BATD, particularly the potential mediating effects of reward responsiveness and associated brain functioning.

  6. Choose, rate or squeeze: Comparison of economic value functions elicited by different behavioral tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessiglione, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    A standard view in neuroeconomics is that to make a choice, an agent first assigns subjective values to available options, and then compares them to select the best. In choice tasks, these cardinal values are typically inferred from the preference expressed by subjects between options presented in pairs. Alternatively, cardinal values can be directly elicited by asking subjects to place a cursor on an analog scale (rating task) or to exert a force on a power grip (effort task). These tasks can vary in many respects: they can notably be more or less costly and consequential. Here, we compared the value functions elicited by choice, rating and effort tasks on options composed of two monetary amounts: one for the subject (gain) and one for a charity (donation). Bayesian model selection showed that despite important differences between the three tasks, they all elicited a same value function, with similar weighting of gain and donation, but variable concavity. Moreover, value functions elicited by the different tasks could predict choices with equivalent accuracy. Our finding therefore suggests that comparable value functions can account for various motivated behaviors, beyond economic choice. Nevertheless, we report slight differences in the computational efficiency of parameter estimation that may guide the design of future studies. PMID:29161252

  7. Dynamical behavior connection of the gluon distribution and the proton structure function at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G.R. [Razi University, Physics Department, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We make a critical study of the relationship between the singlet structure function F{sub 2}{sup S} and the gluon distribution G(x,Q{sup 2}) proposed in the past two decades, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton structure function. We show that a simple relation is not generally valid in the simplest state. We complete this relation by using a Laplace transform method and hard-pomeron behavior at LO and NLO at small x. Our study shows that this relation is dependent on the splitting functions and initial conditions at Q{sup 2}=Q{sup 2}{sub 0} and running coupling constant at NLO. The resulting analytic expression allows us to predict the proton structure function with respect to the gluon distributions and to compare the results with H1 data and a QCD analysis fit. Comparisons with other results are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided. (orig.)

  8. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

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    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  9. Dissociable neural representations of reinforcement and belief prediction errors underlie strategic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lusha; Mathewson, Kyle E; Hsu, Ming

    2012-01-31

    Decision-making in the presence of other competitive intelligent agents is fundamental for social and economic behavior. Such decisions require agents to behave strategically, where in addition to learning about the rewards and punishments available in the environment, they also need to anticipate and respond to actions of others competing for the same rewards. However, whereas we know much about strategic learning at both theoretical and behavioral levels, we know relatively little about the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, we show using a multi-strategy competitive learning paradigm that strategic choices can be characterized by extending the reinforcement learning (RL) framework to incorporate agents' beliefs about the actions of their opponents. Furthermore, using this characterization to generate putative internal values, we used model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural computations underlying strategic learning. We found that the distinct notions of prediction errors derived from our computational model are processed in a partially overlapping but distinct set of brain regions. Specifically, we found that the RL prediction error was correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. In contrast, activity in the ventral striatum, as well as the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), was correlated with a previously uncharacterized belief-based prediction error. Furthermore, activity in rACC reflected individual differences in degree of engagement in belief learning. These results suggest a model of strategic behavior where learning arises from interaction of dissociable reinforcement and belief-based inputs.

  10. Recreational stimulants, herbal, and spice cannabis: The core psychobiological processes that underlie their damaging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A

    2017-05-01

    Recreational drugs are taken for their positive mood effects, yet their regular usage damages well-being. The psychobiological mechanisms underlying these damaging effects will be debated. The empirical literature on recreational cannabinoids and stimulant drugs is reviewed. A theoretical explanation for how they cause similar types of damage is outlined. All psychoactive drugs cause moods and psychological states to fluctuate. The acute mood gains underlie their recreational usage, while the mood deficits on withdrawal explain their addictiveness. Cyclical mood changes are found with every central nervous system stimulant and also occur with cannabis. These mood state changes provide a surface index for more profound psychobiological fluctuations. Homeostatic balance is altered, with repetitive disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and disrupted cortisol-neurohormonal secretions. Hence, these drugs cause increased stress, disturbed sleep, neurocognitive impairments, altered brain activity, and psychiatric vulnerability. Equivalent deficits occur with novel psychoactive stimulants such as mephedrone and artificial "spice" cannabinoids. These psychobiological fluctuations underlie drug dependency and make cessation difficult. Psychobiological stability and homeostatic balance are optimally restored by quitting psychoactive drugs. Recreational stimulants such as cocaine or MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and sedative drugs such as cannabis damage human homeostasis and well-being through similar core psychobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Scaling Behavior of Structure Functions of the Longitudinal Magnetic Field in Active Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Wang, H.; Spirock, T. J.; Goode, P. R.

    2002-05-01

    In the framework of a refined Kolmogorov's hypotheses, the scaling behavior of the BZ--component of the photospheric magnetic field is analyzed and compared with flaring activity in solar active regions. We used SOHO/MDI, Huairou (China) and Big Bear measurements of the Bz-component in the photosphere for nine active regions. We show that there is no universal behavior in the scaling of the Bz-structure functions for different active regions. Scaling for a given active region is caused by intermittency in the field, ǎrepsilon(B)(ěc x), of magnetic energy dissipation. When intermittency is weak, the Bz-field behaves as a passive scalar in the turbulent flow and the energy dissipation is largely determined by the dissipation of kinetic energy in active regions with low flare productivity. However, when the field ǎrepsilon(B)(ěc x) is highly intermittent, the structure functions behave as transverse structure functions of a fully developed turbulent vector field and the scaling of the energy dissipation is mostly determined by the dissipation of the magnetic energy (active regions with strong flaring productivity). We found that the spectrum of dissipation of the Bz component is strongly related to the level of flare productivity of a solar active region. When the flare productivity is high, the corresponding spectrum is less steep. We also found that during the evolution of an NOAA AR 9393 the Bz dissipation spectrum becomes less steep as the active region's flare activity increases. We suggest that the relation between scaling exponents and flare productivity of an active region enables us to monitor and forecast flare activity using only measurements of the Bz component of the photospheric magnetic field. This work was supported in part by the Ukrainian Ministry of Science and Education, NSF-ATM (0076602 and 0086999) and NASA (9682 and 9738) grants. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

  12. Prevalence of behavioral problems and related family functioning among middle school students in an eastern city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiquan; Yao, Yuhong; Zhao, Xudong

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to explore the prevalence of behavioral problems among adolescents in junior high school as well as their families' levels of function or dysfunction that contribute to children's behavioral problems in Mainland China. One thousand, four hundred and seventy-six adolescents (ages 12-17 years) and their families participated in the study. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a number of demographic questions. Student's t-tests, chi-square tests and stepwise multiple regression models were performed to examine the variables. The estimated prevalence of behavioral problems was 10.5% based on the cutoff point for behavioral problems according to the CBCL. Behavioral problems identified by the CBCL occurred differently at various developmental stages (F = 10.06, P = 0.007). The study showed that inappropriate affective responsiveness, poor affective involvement and low ability of problem solving in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for externalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems of boys. Inappropriate affective responsiveness and poor communication in the family were significantly associated with increased risk for internalizing problems for boys. Poorly established patterns of family behavior were important factors contributing to the development of externalizing behavior problems, internalizing behavior problems and total behavior problems for girls'. The present findings suggest that functional levels of family are associated with the adolescent's mental health, and that specific family dynamics may influence the development of behavioral problems among adolescents in China. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Descriptive analysis of the verbal behavior of a therapist: a known-group validity analysis of the putative behavioral functions involved in clinical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Montaño-Fidalgo, Montserrat; Froján-Parga, María Xesús; Calero-Elvira, Ana

    2011-12-01

    This study analyzes the interobserver agreement and hypothesis-based known-group validity of the Therapist's Verbal Behavior Category System (SISC-INTER). The SISC-INTER is a behavioral observation protocol comprised of a set of verbal categories representing putative behavioral functions of the in-session verbal behavior of a therapist (e.g., discriminative, reinforcing, punishing, and motivational operations). The complete therapeutic process of a clinical case of an individual with marital problems was recorded (10 sessions, 8 hours), and data were arranged in a temporal sequence using 10-min periods. Hypotheses based on the expected performance of the putative behavioral functions portrayed by the SISC-INTER codes across prevalent clinical activities (i.e., assessing, explaining, Socratic method, providing clinical guidance) were tested using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Known-group validity analyses provided support to all hypotheses. The SISC-INTER may be a useful tool to describe therapist-client interaction in operant terms. The utility of reliable and valid protocols for the descriptive analysis of clinical practice in terms of verbal behavior is discussed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-08-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors.

  15. GoFAR: improving attention, behavior and adaptive functioning in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy

    2018-01-09

    This brief report describes the GoFAR intervention designed to improve attention, behavior, and adaptive functioning in children with FASD, ages 5 to 10 years. Thirty children were randomized to one of three conditions: GoFAR; FACELAND, and CONTROL; 25 completed the interventions. Over 10 sessions children and caregivers learned a metacognitive strategy (FAR) designed to improve cognitive control of behavior and adaptive functioning and practiced it during behavior analog therapy. Attention, behavior problems, and adaptive skills were measured pre- and post-intervention. From pre- to post-testing the GoFAR intervention group improved on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Both intervention groups improved in Daily Living Skills. This pilot study demonstrated that children with FASD and their caregivers benefit from a focused intervention designed to improve effortful control of behavior. The study suggests the need for a larger clinical trial to evaluate the intervention's effectiveness.

  16. Early Parenting and the Development of Externalizing Behavior Problems: Longitudinal Mediation through Children’s Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J.; Blair, Clancy; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Berry, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate the longitudinal associations among parenting and children’s executive function and externalizing behavior problems from 36 to 90 months of age in the Family Life Project (N = 1,115), a study of child development in the context of rural poverty. While controlling for stability in the constructs, semi-structured observations of parenting prospectively predicted performance on a battery of executive function tasks and primary caregivers’ reports of externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the association between early parenting and later externalizing behavior was longitudinally mediated by executive function, providing support for a process model in which sensitive parenting promotes children’s self-regulation, which in turn reduces children’s externalizing behavior. PMID:26082032

  17. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Symptoms, and Executive Functions on Learning Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7-11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the

  18. Correlation Between Executive Function Behaviors and Educational Achievement of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Developmental cordination disorder (DCD is a serious deficit in development of motor coordination, which affects educational achievements and daily life activities to a considerable extent. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate correlations between components of executive function and spelling and math performance of 7 - 11-year-old children with DCD. Materials and Methods A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 53 primary school children with DCD. Persian version of motor observation questionnaire for teachers (PMOQ-T was used to detect DCD. Executive functions and educational achievements of these children were evaluated using behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF and a researcher-made test, respectively. Results were analyzed through SPSS software (v. 21 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results The findings showed that components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, working memory (r = -0.44, P < 0.01 and organization of material (r = -0.28, P < 0.05 were significantly correlated with the spelling test. And components of inhibition (r = -0.27, P < 0.05, shift (r = -0.38, P < 0. 01, working memory (r = -0.28, P < 0.05, and planning (r = -.29, P<0.05 were correlated with math test. Conclusions The results may help clinicians for early intervention and focus on related components of executive function to improve the educational performance of DCD children. Knowing that executive function skills are associated with these two achievement domains suggests potentiality of targeted math and spelling interventions for DCD children.

  19. Graded changes in balancing behavior as a function of visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Casabianca, L; Bottaro, A; Schieppati, M

    2008-06-02

    In a dynamic postural task, visual information plays a fundamental role in the selection of the balancing strategy. While standing on a platform oscillating in the antero-posterior direction, subjects almost fix their head in space when vision is allowed and oscillate with the platform with eyes closed. We investigated two competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between visual acuity and balance control strategy. One hypothesis refers to the existence of a threshold value of visual acuity as a turning point between the eyes-open and eyes-closed strategy. The other assumes that the change from eyes-open to eyes-closed behavior is continuous and parallels the progressive worsening of visual acuity. Ten subjects balanced on the mobile platform wearing an examination frame and a facemask occluding peripheral vision. Seven different test lenses were used in different trials to modify visual acuity, from a visus value of 10/10 to severely blurred vision. Head stabilization in space progressively worsened with the decrease in visual acuity and turned toward the eyes-closed behavior when vision was blurred. The increase in head oscillation as a function of visual acuity was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In five of the subjects, additional trials were performed without facemask, to add peripheral vision to each visual acuity level, and with black lenses to allow peripheral vision alone. Addition of peripheral vision gave a significant contribution to head stabilization. With peripheral vision alone, head stabilization was intermediate between the eyes-closed and 10/10 visus value condition. We conclude that, in order to stabilize the head in space, visual information of the environment must be definite and worsening of central vision leads to a graded modification of the 'head fixed in space' behavior. Thus, the more conservative hypothesis of two different fundamental balancing strategies is not supported. Instead, the body exhibits a continuous mode of

  20. Isospecific Propylene Polymerization Behavior of Lewis Base Functionalized Unbridged Zirconocences under Bulk Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seung Woong; Kim, Hwa Kyu; Kim, Seong Kyun; Do, Young Kyu [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Min Hyung [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Isospecific propylene polymerization behavior of meta- and para-Lewis base (E) functionalized unbridged zirconocenes ([1-(E{sub n}-Ph)-3,4-Me{sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}]{sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2}, E = NMe{sub 2}, OMe; n = 1 or 2) was investigated under bulk conditions. Catalytic activity of the zirconocenes, and molecular weight and isotacticity of polypropylenes are found to be dependent on the position and number of the Lewis base functional groups in the zirconocenes. All the crude polypropylenes possess a broad molecular weight distribution and multi-melting transitions, indicating an involvement of multi-catalytic active species in the polymerization. The highest [mmmm] value of an isotactic portion of the polypropylenes reached 89%, which is higher than that (85%) from the well-known C{sub 2}-symmetric EBIZr (rac-Et(Ind){sub 2}ZrCl{sub 2}) catalyst. These results support that the in situ generated, rigid rac-like cation-anion pair through the Lewis acid-base interactions between the functional groups of zirconocenes and methylaluminoxane anion is effective in the formation of isotactic polypropylene under bulk propylene polymerization conditions.

  1. Fathers' postnatal distress, parenting self-efficacy, later parenting behavior, and children's emotional-behavioral functioning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  3. Functional Communication Training and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Challenging Behavior Maintained by Terminations of Activity Interruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Muething, Colin S.; Stephenson, Kasey M.; Ing, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluated functional communication training (FCT) and a chained schedule of reinforcement for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism, respectively. Following a functional analysis with undifferentiated results, the authors demonstrated that…

  4. Improving On-Task Behavior Using a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention in an Inclusive High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeika, Caitlyn E.; Walder, Jessica P.; Hubbard, Jessica P.; Steeb, Kelly M.; Ferris, Geoffrey J.; Oakes, Wendy P.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered model (CI3T) of prevention is a framework for proactively meeting students' academic, behavioral, and social skills. At the tertiary (Tier 3) level of prevention, functional-assessment based interventions (FABIs) may be used to identify, develop, and implement supports based on the function, or purpose, of…

  5. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  6. Preexisting cognitive status is associated with reduced behavioral functional capacity in patients 3 months after cardiac surgery: an extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Patron, Elisabetta; Zanatta, Paolo; Polesel, Elvio; Palomba, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether preexisting cognitive status rather than short- and middle-term postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) may differentially account for behavioral functional capacity 3 months after cardiac surgery. Seventy-nine patients completed a psychological evaluation, including the Trail Making Test Part B, the memory with 10-s interference, the phonemic fluency and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) questionnaire for cognitive functions and behavioral functional capacity, respectively, before surgery, at discharge and at 3-month follow-up. Thirty-one (39%) and 22 (28%) patients showed POCD at discharge and at 3-month follow-up, respectively. Preoperative cognitive status was significantly associated with change in behavioral functional capacity 3 months after surgery (Ps.095). Preexisting cognitive deficit, especially working memory deficit, rather than short- and middle-term POCD related to intraoperative risk factors is associated with poor behavioral functional capacity 3 months after cardiac surgery. The present study therefore suggests that a preoperative cognitive evaluation is essential to anticipate which patients are likely to show a decline in behavioral functional capacity after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A model for integrating elementary neural functions into delayed-response behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gisiger

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that various cortical regions can implement a wide array of neural processes, yet the mechanisms which integrate these processes into behavior-producing, brain-scale activity remain elusive. We propose that an important role in this respect might be played by executive structures controlling the traffic of information between the cortical regions involved. To illustrate this hypothesis, we present a neural network model comprising a set of interconnected structures harboring stimulus-related activity (visual representation, working memory, and planning, and a group of executive units with task-related activity patterns that manage the information flowing between them. The resulting dynamics allows the network to perform the dual task of either retaining an image during a delay (delayed-matching to sample task, or recalling from this image another one that has been associated with it during training (delayed-pair association task. The model reproduces behavioral and electrophysiological data gathered on the inferior temporal and prefrontal cortices of primates performing these same tasks. It also makes predictions on how neural activity coding for the recall of the image associated with the sample emerges and becomes prospective during the training phase. The network dynamics proves to be very stable against perturbations, and it exhibits signs of scale-invariant organization and cooperativity. The present network represents a possible neural implementation for active, top-down, prospective memory retrieval in primates. The model suggests that brain activity leading to performance of cognitive tasks might be organized in modular fashion, simple neural functions becoming integrated into more complex behavior by executive structures harbored in prefrontal cortex and/or basal ganglia.

  8. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eHarms

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a hunch about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower and teacher-rated academic performance (higher at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  9. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a "hunch" about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

  10. Psychosocial deprivation, executive functions and the emergence of socio-emotional behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin McDermott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early psychosocial deprivation can negatively impact the development of executive functions (EF. Here we explore the impact of early psychosocial deprivation on behavioral and physiological measures (i.e. event-related potentials; ERPs of two facets of EF, inhibitory control and response monitoring, and their associations with internalizing and externalizing outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP; Zeanah et al., 2003. This project focuses on two groups of children placed in institutions shortly after birth and then randomly assigned in infancy to either a foster care intervention or to remain in their current institutional setting. A group of community controls was recruited for comparison. The current study assesses these children at 8-years of age examining the effects of early adversity, the potential effects of the intervention on EF and the role of EF skills in socio-emotional outcomes. Results reveal exposure to early psychosocial deprivation was associated with impaired inhibitory control on a flanker task. Children in the foster care intervention exhibited stronger response monitoring compared to children who remained in the institution on the error-related positivity (Pe. Moreover, among children in the foster care intervention those who exhibited stronger error-related negativity (ERN responses had lower levels of socio-emotional behavior problems. Overall, these data identify specific aspects of EF that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive socio-emotional outcomes among children experiencing early psychosocial deprivation.

  11. Pam heterozygous mice reveal essential role for Cu in amygdalar behavioral and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element with many biological roles, but its roles in the mammalian nervous system are poorly understood. Mice deficient in the cuproenzyme peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (Pam(+/-) mice) were initially generated to study neuropeptide amidation. Pam(+/-) mice exhibit profound deficits in a few behavioral tasks, including enhancements in innate fear along with deficits in acquired fear. Interestingly, several Pam(+/-) phenotypes were recapitulated in Cu-restricted wild-type mice and rescued in Cu-supplemented Pam(+/-) mice. These behaviors correspond to enhanced excitability and deficient synaptic plasticity in the amygdala of Pam(+/-) mice, which are also rescued by Cu supplementation. Cu and ATP7A are present at synapses, in key positions to respond to and influence synaptic activity. Further study demonstrated that extracellular Cu is necessary for wild-type synaptic plasticity and sufficient to induce long-term potentiation. These experiments support roles for PAM in Cu homeostasis and for synaptic Cu in amygdalar function. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. ppk23-Dependent chemosensory functions contribute to courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    Full Text Available Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Although degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC represent one of the largest families of ion channels in Drosophila melanogaster, the physiological functions of these proteins are still poorly understood. We found that the DEG/ENaC channel ppk23 is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory bristles that are distinct from those expressing feeding-related gustatory receptors. Disrupting ppk23 or inhibiting activity of ppk23-expressing neurons did not alter gustatory responses. Instead, blocking ppk23-positive neurons or mutating the ppk23 gene delayed the initiation and reduced the intensity of male courtship. Furthermore, mutations in ppk23 altered the behavioral response of males to the female-specific aphrodisiac pheromone 7(Z, 11(Z-Heptacosadiene. Together, these data indicate that ppk23 and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila.

  13. Y-Function Analysis of the Low Temperature Behavior of Ultrathin Film FD SOI MOSFETs

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    A. Karsenty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The respective transfer characteristics of the ultrathin body (UTB and gate recessed channel (GRC device, sharing same W/L ratio but having a channel thickness of 46 nm, and 2.2 nm respectively, were measured at 300 K and at 77 K. By decreasing the temperature we found that the electrical behaviors of these devices were radically opposite: if for UTB device, the conductivity was increased, the opposite effect was observed for GRC. The low field electron mobility and series resistance RSD values were extracted using a method based on Y-function for both the temperatures. If RSD low values were found for UTB, very high values (>1 MΩ were extracted for GRC. Surprisingly, for the last device, the effective field mobility is found very low (<1 cm2/Vs and is decreasing by lowering the temperature. After having discussed the limits of this analysis.This case study illustrates the advantage of the Y-analysis in discriminating a parameter of great relevance for nanoscale devices and gives a coherent interpretation of an anomalous electrical behavior.

  14. The modulation of stem cell behaviors by functionalized nanoceramic coatings on Ti-based implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoceramic coating on the surface of Ti-based metallic implants is a clinical potential option in orthopedic surgery. Stem cells have been found to have osteogenic capabilities. It is necessary to study the influences of functionalized nanoceramic coatings on the differentiation and proliferation of stem cells in vitro or in vivo. In this paper, we summarized the recent advance on the modulation of stem cells behaviors through controlling the properties of nanoceramic coatings, including surface chemistry, surface roughness and microporosity. In addition, mechanotransduction pathways have also been discussed to reveal the interaction mechanisms between the stem cells and ceramic coatings on Ti-based metals. In the final part, the osteoinduction and osteoconduction of ceramic coating have been also presented when it was used as carrier of BMPs in new bone formation.

  15. Lithiation Behavior of Silicon Nanowire Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Impact of Functionalization and Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, Marcus; Fenske, Daniela; Peters, Fabian; Schwenzel, Julian; Busse, Matthias

    2018-01-05

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) provides a versatile way to synthesize silicon nanowires (SiNW) of different morphologies. MACE was used to synthesize oxide-free porous and nonporous SiNW for use as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. To improve their processing behavior, the SiNW were functionalized using acrylic acid. Differential capacity plots were used as a way to identify the degradation processes during cycling through tracking the formation of Li 15 Si 4 and changes in polarization. The cycling performance between porous and nonporous SiNW differed regarding Coulombic efficiency and cycling stability. The differences were attributed to the porous hull and its ability to reduce the volume expansion, although not through its porous nature but the reduced uptake of Li ions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pull-in behavior analysis of vibrating functionally graded micro-cantilevers under suddenly DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research attempts to explain dynamic pull-in instability of functionally graded micro-cantilevers actuated by step DC voltage while the fringing-field effect is taken into account in the vibrational equation of motion. By employing modern asymptotic approach namely Homotopy Perturbation Method with an auxiliary term, high-order frequency-amplitude relation is obtained, then the influences of material properties and actuation voltage on dynamic pull-in behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that the auxiliary term in the homotopy perturbation method is extremely effective for higher order approximation and two terms in series expansions are sufficient to produce an acceptable solution. The strength of this analytical procedure is verified through comparison with numerical results.

  17. Asymmetric flexural behavior from bamboo's functionally graded hierarchical structure: underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K; Samaei, Arash T; Gheshlaghi, Behnam; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    As one of the most renewable resources on Earth, bamboo has recently attracted increasing interest for its promising applications in sustainable structural purposes. Its superior mechanical properties arising from the unique functionally-graded (FG) hierarchical structure also make bamboo an excellent candidate for bio-mimicking purposes in advanced material design. However, despite its well-documented, impressive mechanical characteristics, the intriguing asymmetry in flexural behavior of bamboo, alongside its underlying mechanisms, has not yet been fully understood. Here, we used multi-scale mechanical characterizations assisted with advanced environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to investigate the asymmetric flexural responses of natural bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) strips under different loading configurations, during "elastic bending" and "fracture failure" stages, with their respective deformation mechanisms at microstructural level. Results showed that the gradient distribution of the vascular bundles along the thickness direction is mainly responsible for the exhibited asymmetry, whereas the hierarchical fiber/parenchyma cellular structure plays a critical role in alternating the dominant factors for determining the distinctly different failure mechanisms. A numerical model has been likewise adopted to validate the effective flexural moduli of bamboo strips as a function of their FG parameters, while additional experiments on uniaxial loading of bamboo specimens were performed to assess the tension-compression asymmetry, for further understanding of the microstructure evolution of bamboo's outer and innermost layers under different bending states. This work could provide insights to help the processing of novel bamboo-based composites and enable the bio-inspired design of advanced structural materials with desired flexural behavior. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conflict-related anterior cingulate functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet it remains unclear how suicide risk factors such as past suicidal ideation or behavior relate to brain function. Circuits modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during conflict-monitoring (an important component of cognitive control), and dACC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether conflict-related dACC functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in SZ. 32 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional MRI during cognitive control (AX-CPT) task performance. Group-level regression models relating past history of suicidal ideation or behavior to dACC-seeded functional connectivity during conflict-monitoring controlled for severity of depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher functional connectivity of the dACC with the precuneus during conflict-monitoring. Intensity of worst-point past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher dACC functional connectivity in medial parietal lobe and striato-thalamic nuclei. In contrast, among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 17), past suicidal behavior was associated with lower conflict-related dACC connectivity with multiple lateral and medial PFC regions, parietal and temporal cortical regions. This study provides unique evidence that recent-onset schizophrenia patients with past suicidal ideation or behavior show altered dACC-based circuit function during conflict-monitoring. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior have divergent patterns of associated dACC functional connectivity, suggesting a differing pattern of conflict-related brain dysfunction with these two distinct features of suicide phenomenology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Moving Forward: Age Effects on the Cerebellum Underlie Cognitive and Motor Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2014-01-01

    Though the cortical contributions to age-related declines in motor and cognitive performance are well-known, the potential contributions of the cerebellum are less clear. The diverse functions of the cerebellum make it an important structure to investigate in aging. Here, we review the extant literature on this topic. To date, there is evidence to indicate that there are morphological age differences in the cerebellum that are linked to motor and cognitive behavior. Cerebellar morphology is often as good as -- or even better -- at predicting performance than the prefrontal cortex. We also touch on the few studies using functional neuroimaging and connectivity analyses that further implicate the cerebellum in age-related performance declines. Importantly, we provide a conceptual framework for the cerebellum influencing age differences in performance, centered on the notion of degraded internal models. The evidence indicating that cerebellar age differences associate with performance highlights the need for additional work in this domain to further elucidate the role of the cerebellum in age differences in movement control and cognitive function. PMID:24594194

  20. Protecting the Innocence of Youth: Moral Sanctity Values Underlie Censorship From Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rajen A; Masicampo, E J

    2017-11-01

    Three studies examined the relationship between people's moral values (drawing on moral foundations theory) and their willingness to censor immoral acts from children. Results revealed that diverse moral values did not predict censorship judgments. It was not the case that participants who valued loyalty and authority, respectively, sought to censor depictions of disloyal and disobedient acts. Rather, censorship intentions were predicted by a single moral value-sanctity. The more people valued sanctity, the more willing they were to censor from children, regardless of the types of violations depicted (impurity, disloyalty, disobedience, etc.). Furthermore, people who valued sanctity objected to indecent exposure only to apparently innocent and pure children-those who were relatively young and who had not been previously exposed to immoral acts. These data suggest that sanctity, purity, and the preservation of innocence underlie intentions to censor from young children.

  1. Do parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increase the risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  2. Rayleigh wave behavior in functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzin, Hamdi; Mkaoir, Mohamed; Amor, Morched Ben

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric-piezomagnetic functionally graded materials, with a gradual change of the mechanical and electromagnetic properties have greatly applying promises. Based on the ordinary differential equation and stiffness matrix methods, a dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of the wave on a semi-infinite piezomagnetic substrate covered with a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer. The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The phase and group velocity of the Rayleigh wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on the phase velocity, group velocity, coupled magneto-electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the magnetic potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the hetero-structure PZT-5A/CoFe2O4; the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Rayleigh wave propagation behavior.

  3. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  4. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Petronilla; Salvatore, Christian; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  5. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash, E-mail: kailashmanda@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  6. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  7. Comparative Study of Features of Social Intelligence and Speech Behavior of Children of Primary School Age with Impaired Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban D.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of social intelligence and its characteristics in children of primary school age with impaired mental functions. The concept and main features, including speech, are discussed, delays of mental development, the importance of detained development for social intelligence and speech behavior are also considered. Also, the concept of speech behavior is analyzed, the author defines the phenomenon, describes its specific features, which are distinguish its structure, and consist of six components: verbal, emotional, motivational, ethical (moral, prognostic, semantic (cognitive. Particular attention is paid to the position of social intelligence in the structure of speech behavior of children of primary school age with a impaired mental functions. Indicators of social intelligence were analyzed from the point of view of speech behavior of children with different rates of mental development and compared with its components at a qualitative level. The study used both author's and well-known techniques.

  8. Cognitive Function, Progression of Age-related Behavioral Changes, Biomarkers, and Survival in Dogs More Than 8 Years Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, T.; Berendt, M.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundCanine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition dominated by changes in behavioral patterns. Cohort studies investigating cognitive status in dogs are lacking. ObjectivesTo investigate cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes...... planned subsequent assessments. Cognitive status was determined using validated questionnaires. Plasma A-peptides were quantified using commercial ELISA assays and cytokines by a validated immunoassay. ResultsSigns characterizing dogs with CCD were aimless wandering, staring into space, avoid getting...

  9. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  10. [BEHAVIORAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 2. FISHES, AMPHIBIANS AND BIRDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight. Weightlessness conditions do pot inhibit embryonic development of lower vertebrates but even have rather beneficial effect on it. This is consistent with conclusions concerning development of mammalian fetuses. The experimental results show that weightlessness can cause similar functional and behavioral vestibular shifts both in lower vertebrates and in mammals. For example, immediately after an orbital flight the vestibuloocular reflex in fish larvae and tadpoles (without lordosis) was stronger than in control individuals. A similar shift of the otolith reflex was observed in the majority of cosmonauts after short-term orbital flights. Immediately after landing adult terrestrial vertebrates, as well as human beings, exhibit lower activity levels, worse equilibrium and coordination of movements. Another interesting finding observed after landing of the cosmic apparatus was an unusual looping character of tadpole swimming. It is supposed that the unusual motor activity of animals as well as appearance of illusions in cosmonauts and astronauts after switching from 1 to 0 g have the same nature and are related to the change in character of otolith organs stimulation. Considering this similarity of vestibular reactions, using animals seems rather perspective. Besides it allows applying in experiments various invasive techniques.

  11. Maternal programming of sexual behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in the female rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Cameron

    Full Text Available Variations in parental care predict the age of puberty, sexual activity in adolescence and the age at first pregnancy in humans. These findings parallel descriptions of maternal effects on phenotypic variation in reproductive function in other species. Despite the prevalence of such reports, little is known about potential biological mechanisms and this especially true for effects on female reproductive development. We examined the hypothesis that parental care might alter hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function and thus reproductive function in the female offspring of rat mothers that vary pup licking/grooming (LG over the first week postpartum. As adults, the female offspring of Low LG mothers showed 1 increased sexual receptivity; 2 increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH and progesterone at proestrus; 3 an increased positive-feedback effect of estradiol on both plasma LH levels and gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH expression in the medial preoptic region; and 4 increased estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha expression in the anterioventral paraventricular nucleus, a system that regulates GnRH. The results of a cross-fostering study provide evidence for a direct effect of postnatal maternal care as well as a possible prenatal influence. Indeed, we found evidence for increased fetal testosterone levels at embryonic day 20 in the female fetuses of High compared to Low LG mothers. Finally, the female offspring of Low LG mothers showed accelerated puberty compared to those of High LG mothers. These data suggest maternal effects in the rat on the development of neuroendocrine systems that regulate female sexual behaviour. Together with studies revealing a maternal effect on the maternal behavior of the female offspring, these findings suggest that maternal care can program alternative reproductive phenotypes in the rat through regionally-specific effects on ERalpha expression.

  12. Needs in nursing homes and their relation with cognitive and functional decline, behavioral and psychological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmet needs are becoming acknowledged as better predictors of the worst prognostic outcomes than common measures of functional or cognitive decline. Their accurate assessment is a pivotal component of effective care delivery, particularly in institutionalized care where little is known about the needs of its residents, many of whom suffer from dementia and show complex needs. The aims of this study were to describe the needs of an institutionalized sample and to analyze its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample from three nursing homes. All residents were assessed with a comprehensive protocol that included Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS15, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI and Adults and Older Adults Functional Inventory (IAFAI. To identify needs, the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE was used. The final sample included 175 residents with a mean age of 80.6(sd=10.1. From these, 58.7% presented cognitive deficit (MMSE and 45.2% depressive symptoms (GDS. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between MMSE score and met(rs=-0.425, unmet(rs=-0.369 and global needs(rs=-0.565. Data also showed significant correlations between depressive symptoms and unmet(rs=0.683 and global needs(rs=0.407 and between behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD and unmet (rs=0.181 and global needs (rs=0.254. Finally, significant correlations between functional impairment and met(rs=0.642, unmet(rs=0.505 and global needs(rs=0.796 were also found. These results suggest that in this sample, more unmet needs are associated with the worst outcomes measured. This is consistent with previous findings and seems to demonstrate that the needs of those institutionalized elderly remain under-diagnosed and untreated.

  13. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The association of functional capacity with health-related behavior among urban home-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulander, Tommi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine whether functional capacity among the urban home-dwelling older adults associates with health-related behavior. We also examined whether health-related behavior and certain diseases can be seen as mechanisms explaining socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity. A cross-sectional survey from 2008 was used to study 1395 older adults aged 75 and over living in one of the central areas of the city center of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Associations of activities of daily living (ADL) with, smoking, food habits, physical activity, socioeconomic status and certain diseases were tested using ordinal regression model. Current smokers had slightly poorer functional ability than non-smokers among men. Those who did not use vegetables and/or fruits daily had a poorer functional capacity than daily users. Physically inactive respondents had clearly poorer functional capacity in comparison to active ones. Those with lower education had poorer functional status than higher educated irrespective of health-related behaviors and certain diseases. As health-related behaviors are modifiable, intervention programs should be targeted at all older adults with or without health problems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consistency of prediction across generation: explaining quality of life by family functioning and health-promoting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sehrish; Malik, Jamil A

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to investigate the consistency of relationship between family functioning, health-promoting behaviors, and quality of life across generations in joint families. The sample comprises of 79 joint families (N = 316 members, n = 79 grandparents (grandfathers = 27, grandmothers = 52) n = 158 parents (fathers = 79, mothers = 79), and n = 79 grandchildren (girls = 61, boys = 18)). Data were collected on Self-Report Family Inventory, SFI, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, HPLP-II, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale BREF WHO QOL BREF. All three variables, i.e., family functioning, health-promoting behaviors, and quality of life, were modeled as latent variables. Analyses were conducted separately for each group. Results showed that in grandparents, family functioning predicted (β = .44, p life (R (2) = .85). Family functioning appears to have significant indirect effects (β = .34, p life. The model fit indices showed a good fit (IFI = .917, CFI = .910, RMSEA = .078) of the model of the data. For all other groups, i.e., fathers, mothers, and grandchildren, family functioning and health-promoting behaviors independently predicted quality of life (R (2) = .55, .67, and .54, respectively). Our results showed that family functioning and health-promoting behaviors are consistent predictors of quality of life across generations.

  16. A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chuan Lai

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum conditions (ASC affect more males than females in the general population. However, within ASC it is unclear if there are phenotypic sex differences. Testing for similarities and differences between the sexes is important not only for clinical assessment but also has implications for theories of typical sex differences and of autism. Using cognitive and behavioral measures, we investigated similarities and differences between the sexes in age- and IQ-matched adults with ASC (high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. Of the 83 (45 males and 38 females participants, 62 (33 males and 29 females met Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R cut-off criteria for autism in childhood and were included in all subsequent analyses. The severity of childhood core autism symptoms did not differ between the sexes. Males and females also did not differ in self-reported empathy, systemizing, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive traits/symptoms or mentalizing performance. However, adult females with ASC showed more lifetime sensory symptoms (p = 0.036, fewer current socio-communication difficulties (p = 0.001, and more self-reported autistic traits (p = 0.012 than males. In addition, females with ASC who also had developmental language delay had lower current performance IQ than those without developmental language delay (p<0.001, a pattern not seen in males. The absence of typical sex differences in empathizing-systemizing profiles within the autism spectrum confirms a prediction from the extreme male brain theory. Behavioral sex differences within ASC may also reflect different developmental mechanisms between males and females with ASC. We discuss the importance of the superficially better socio-communication ability in adult females with ASC in terms of why females with ASC may more often go under-recognized, and receive their diagnosis later, than males.

  17. Mechanical behavior of tungsten–vanadium–lanthana alloys as function of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, T., E-mail: teresa.palacios@mater.upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Aguirre, M.V. [Departamento de Tecnologías Especiales Aplicadas a la Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales-CISDEM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C/Professor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Muñóz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The mechanical behavior of three tungsten (W) alloys with vanadium (V) and lanthana (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) additions (W–4%V, W–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, W–4%V–1%La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) have been compared with pure-W to analyze the influence of the dopants. Mechanical characterization was performed by three point bending (TPB) tests in an oxidizing air atmosphere and temperature range between 77 (immersion tests in liquid nitrogen) and 1273 K, through which the fracture toughness, flexural strength, and yield strength as function of temperature were obtained. Results show that the V and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions improve the mechanical properties and oxidation behavior, respectively. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of both dopants results in an extraordinary increase of the flexure strength, fracture toughness and resistance to oxidation compared to pure-W, especially at higher temperatures. In addition, a new experimental method was developed to obtain a very small notch tip radius (around 5–7 μm) and much more similar to a crack through the use of a new machined notch. The fracture toughness results were lower than those obtained with traditional machining of the notch, which can be explained with electron microscopy, observations of deformation in the rear part of the notch tip. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of the microstructure and fracture surfaces was used to determine and analyze the relationship between the macroscopic mechanical properties and the micromechanisms of failure involved, depending on the temperature and the dispersion of the alloy.

  18. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  19. Effect of risperidone on behavioral and psychological symptoms and cognitive function in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, M K; Masching, A J; Ertl, M G; Kraxberger, E; Haushofer, M

    2001-11-01

    -dose risperidone, behavioral and psychological symptoms improved overall in 34 patients with dementia, and cognitive function was maintained throughout the treatment period.

  20. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In this study, behavioral problems of deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) school-aged children are discussed in the context of executive functioning and communicative competence. Teachers assessed the executive functions of a sample of 214 D/HH students from general schools and schools for the deaf, using a German version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-D). This was complemented by a questionnaire that measured communicative competence and behavioral problems (German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SDQ-D). The results in nearly all the scales show a significantly higher problem rate for executive functions in the group of D/HH students compared with a normative sample of hearing children. In the D/HH group, students at general schools had better scores on most scales than students at schools for the deaf. Regression analysis reveals the importance of executive functions and communicative competence for behavioral problems. The relevance of the findings for pedagogical work is discussed. A specific focus on competencies such as self-efficacy or self-control in educational concepts for D/HH students seems to be necessary in addition to extending language competencies.

  1. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  2. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  3. How Am I Driving? Using Genetic Programming to Generate Scoring Functions for Urban Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.

  4. The human likeness dimension of the "uncanny valley hypothesis": behavioral and functional MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates "uncanny" research, but findings are inconsistent. Importantly, it is unknown how objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis' dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined in terms of human physical similarity. To examine whether the DOH can also be defined in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from morph continua with controlled differences in physical human likeness between avatar and human faces as endpoints were presented. Two behavioral studies found a sharp category boundary along the DOH and enhanced visual discrimination (i.e., CP) of fine-grained differences between pairs of faces at the category boundary. Discrimination was better for face pairs presenting category change in the human-to-avatar than avatar-to-human direction along the DOH. To investigate brain representation of physical change and category change along the DOH, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study used the same stimuli in a pair-repetition priming paradigm. Bilateral mid-fusiform areas and a different right mid-fusiform area were sensitive to physical change within the human and avatar categories, respectively, whereas entirely different regions were sensitive to the human-to-avatar (caudate head, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus) and avatar-to-human (hippocampus, amygdala, mid-insula) direction of category change. These findings show that Mori's DOH definition does not reflect subjective perception of human likeness and suggest that future "uncanny" studies consider CP and the DOH's category structure in guiding experience of non-human objects.

  5. Performance of compulsive behavior in rats is not a unitary phenomenon - validation of separate functional components in compulsive checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Mark C; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Johnson, Eric; Cheon, Paul; Taji, Leena; Agarwal, Arnav; Foster, Jane; Szechtman, Henry

    2014-09-01

    A previous analysis of the quinpirole sensitisation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed that the behavioral phenotype of compulsive checking consists of three constitutive components - vigor of checking performance, focus on the task of checking, and satiety following a bout of checking. As confirmation of this analysis, the aim of the present study was to reconstitute, without quinpirole treatment, each of the putative components, with the expectation that these would self-assemble into compulsive checking. To reconstitute vigor and satiety, the employed treatment was a bilateral lesion of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), as this treatment was shown previously to exaggerate these components. To reconstitute focus, the employed treatment was a low dose of the serotonin-1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin hydrochloride (DPAT) (0.0625 mg/kg), as high doses of this drug induce compulsive behavior and exacerbate focus. Results showed that injection of DPAT to NAc lesion rats did yield compulsive checking. Neither the drug alone nor the NAc lesion by itself produced compulsive checking. The demonstrated synthesis of compulsive checking by the combined treatment of low-dose DPAT and NAc lesion strengthened the previous fractionation of the model obsessive-compulsive disorder phenotype into three constitutive components, and suggested a role for serotonin-1A receptors outside the NAc in enhanced focus on the task of checking. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification of Hydrochemical Function and Behavior of the Houzhai Karst Basin, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difference of geomorphology and the development of fractures, the hydrochemical function and behavior appear to be complex. Variations of karst water conductivity can reflect the contribution of different runoff sources and thus indirectly reflect the development characteristics of conduits and fractures. Taking Houzhai karst system (southwestern China as a case study, the frequency distribution curves of karst water conductivity were decomposed by Gaussian Mixture Analysis to identify the runoff components of different karst landform. The dominant runoff types had been distinguished, and the relative contribution of the different water types had been investigated. The results showed that the karst flow types were slope flow, rapid fracture flow, and slow fracture flow. Rapid fracture flow was the major recharge type of Houzhai karst water system. Slow fracture flow in the downstream area accounted for a larger proportion than that of the upstream area. The relative contribution of the different runoff components showed that the upstream area was a rapid flow area of conduit structure with low storage capacity, the downstream area was an aquifer spatial structure of netted fissure conduit with high storage capacity, and the midstream area was a transitional zone between the upstream and downstream area.

  7. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Benjamin, Christopher; Kenyon, Arnold; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables) with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  8. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  9. A short course on functional equations based upon recent applications to the social and behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Aczél, J

    1987-01-01

    Recently I taught short courses on functional equations at several universities (Barcelona, Bern, Graz, Hamburg, Milan, Waterloo). My aim was to introduce the most important equations and methods of solution through actual (not artifi­ cial) applications which were recent and with which I had something to do. Most of them happened to be related to the social or behavioral sciences. All were originally answers to questions posed by specialists in the respective applied fields. Here I give a somewhat extended version of these lectures, with more recent results and applications included. As previous knowledge just the basic facts of calculus and algebra are supposed. Parts where somewhat more (measure theory) is needed and sketches of lengthier calcula­ tions are set in fine print. I am grateful to Drs. J. Baker (Waterloo, Ont.), W. Forg-Rob (Innsbruck, Austria) and C. Wagner (Knoxville, Tenn.) for critical remarks and to Mrs. Brenda Law for care­ ful computer-typing of the manuscript (in several versions). A...

  10. Functional Outcomes after Behavioral Treatment of Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Karen; Palmer, Andrew D; Schindler, Joshua S; Tilles, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) is responsive to behavioral therapy, often resulting in a remission of symptoms, but little is known about whether treatment is beneficial with regard to PVFM-associated psychological symptoms or functional limitations. The goal of the study was to identify patient perceptions of the impact of treatment for PVFM and characteristics associated with treatment outcomes. A survey was conducted of all adults who had received at least 1 session of treatment for PVFM in our outpatient clinic over a 2-year period. The 39 participants ranged in age from 18 to 82 and had received a median of 3 treatment sessions. At a median follow-up of 10 months following treatment, respondents reported improvements in a wide range of areas, including sports and leisure, daily activities, and social participation. The majority reported improvements in feelings of anxiety, helplessness, and control. Poorer outcomes were associated with more severe voice symptoms, fewer treatment sessions, and needing oral steroids for asthma control. There was a reduction in a wide range of activity limitations after treatment. Feelings of control were strongly associated with positive outcomes. The therapy appeared to be equally effective for adults with exercise-induced and environmental variants of PVFM. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Executive Function Mediates the Relations between Parental Behaviors and Children's Early Academic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T.; Bignardi, Giacomo; Hughes, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a growth of interest in parental influences on individual differences in children's executive function (EF) on the one hand and in the academic consequences of variation in children's EF on the other hand. The primary aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's EF mediated the relation between three distinct aspects of parental behavior (i.e., parental scaffolding, negative parent-child interactions, and the provision of informal learning opportunities) and children's academic ability (as measured by standard tests of literacy and numeracy skills). Data were collected from 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys) at two time points ~1 year apart (M Age at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53; M Age at Time 2 = 5.11 years, SD = 0.54). At both time points children completed a battery of tasks designed to measure general cognitive ability (e.g., non-verbal reasoning) and EF (e.g., inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory). Our models revealed that children's EF (but not general cognitive ability) mediated the relations between parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions and children's early academic ability. In contrast, parental provision of opportunities for learning in the home environment was directly related to children's academic abilities. These results suggest that parental scaffolding and negative parent-child interactions influence children's academic ability by shaping children's emerging EF. PMID:28018253

  12. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  13. Swedish Consumers´ Attitudes and Purchase Intentions of Functional Food : A study based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, Elin; Mitchell, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of Swedish consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions of functional food for marketers by using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). It was discovered that previous research conducted in Sweden concerning functional food centered largely on motivational factors for adoption, and perception of the health claims made by these products; however there was a lack in research concerning purchase intentions and a use of theory to evalua...

  14. Failure to find differences in drinking behavior as a function of familial risk for alcoholism: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, A I; Searles, J S; Hall, J G

    1989-02-01

    Groups of high-risk (alcoholic fathers), middle-risk (second-degree alcoholic relatives) and low-risk (no first- or second-degree alcoholic relatives) male college students were compared with respect to drinking behavior, sociodemographic variables, personality, cognitive functioning, and mental health and drug use problems in themselves and in family members. The groups differed significantly on only one of a number of sociodemographic variables. No significant group differences were revealed in drinking behavior, or alcohol-related symptoms or consequences. High-risk subjects reported significantly more childhood attentional and social problems than did low-risk subjects. No group differences were found with respect to other childhood problem behaviors, cognitive functioning, subject or family drug use, or mental health problems. The findings are discussed in terms of the questions they raise concerning the results of high-risk studies and the contribution of genetic factors to alcoholism.

  15. Executive Functions and Child Problem Behaviors Are Sensitive to Family Disruption: A Study of Children of Mothers Working Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandana; Bohlin, Gunilla; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Mothers in Sri Lanka are increasingly seeking overseas employment, resulting in disruption of the childcare environment. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal migration on executive function (EF) and behavior, thereby also contributing to the scientific understanding of environmental effects--or more specifically…

  16. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  17. Ecodevelopmental Trajectories of Family Functioning: Links with HIV/STI Risk Behaviors and STI among Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, David; Heinze, Justin E.; Mistry, Ritesh; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.64, Range =…

  18. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  19. Functional Assessment and Behavioral Treatment of Skin Picking in a Teenage Girl With Prader-Willi Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaake, M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Bolio, M.M.L.; Lang, R.B.; Lancioni, G.E.; Curfs, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Skin picking is common in individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) but few treatment studies exist. This study reports the successful functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and treatment of skin picking in a 16-year-old female with PWS. A treatment package based on FBA results consisted of

  20. A Bidimensional Model of Acculturation for Examining Differences in Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Summer; Schwartz, Seth J.; Prado, Guillermo; Shi Huang,; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of adolescent acculturation orientations to adolescent and parent reports of family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of 338 Hispanic families. Acculturation orientations are derived from the model proposed by Berry. Results indicate that integrated adolescents, who both maintain heritage culture…

  1. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  2. A Study on the Functions of Western Cultural Non-Verbal Behavior in English Classroom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars' concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China.…

  3. Mothers' Socialization Goals, Mothers' Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Socioemotional Functioning in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…

  4. Disciplinary Style and Child Abuse Potential: Association with Indicators of Positive Functioning in Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Eden, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower…

  5. Effects of Coaching on the Implementation of Functional Assessment-Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…

  6. Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Intergenerational Attachment Patterns: A Comparison of Clinic-Referred and Normally Functioning Preschoolers and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Examined linkages between child disruptive behavior disorder, quality of mother-child interactions, and mothers' recollections/attitudes toward their parents. Preschool boys (N=25) referred to a psychiatric clinic were matched with normally functioning boys. Mothers and sons were videotaped during a separation-reunion sequence, the Adult…

  7. Sexuality in autism: hypersexual and paraphilic behavior in women and men with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Briken, Peer; Tüscher, Oliver; Turner, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Like nonaffected adults, individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) show the entire range of sexual behaviors. However, due to the core symptoms of the disorder spectrum, including deficits in social skills, sensory hypo- and hypersensitivities, and repetitive behaviors, some ASD individuals might develop quantitatively above-average or nonnormative sexual behaviors and interests. After reviewing the relevant literature on sexuality in high-functioning ASD individuals, we present novel findings on the frequency of normal sexual behaviors and those about the assessment of hypersexual and paraphilic fantasies and behaviors in ASD individuals from our own study. Individuals with ASD seem to have more hypersexual and paraphilic fantasies and behaviors than general-population studies suggest. However, this inconsistency is mainly driven by the observations for male participants with ASD. This could be due to the fact that women with ASD are usually more socially adapted and show less ASD symptomatology. The peculiarities in sexual behaviors in ASD patients should be considered both for sexual education and in therapeutic approaches.

  8. Chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Bartholow Duncan

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering, in free-living populations, of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors generally linked to insulin resistance, obesity and central obesity. Consonant with the well-established inflammatory pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease, the metabolic syndrome is now being investigated in relation to its inflammatory nature. OBJETIVO: We present cross-sectional findings demonstrating that markers of inflammation correlate with components of the metabolic syndrome, and prospective findings of the ARIC Study indicating that markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction predict the development of diabetes mellitus and weight gain in adults. We present biological evidence to suggest that chronic activation of the innate immune system may underlie the metabolic syndrome, characterizing the common soil for the causality of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of the role of the innate immune system in these diseases may lead to important advances in the prediction and management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT were seen in Phyto-600 fed males. However, decreased core body temperature was recorded in these same animals compared to Phyto-free fed animals. Conclusions This study demonstrates that consumption of a soy-based (isoflavone-rich diet, significantly alters several parameters involved in maintaining body homeostatic balance, energy expenditure, feeding behavior, hormonal, metabolic and neuroendocrine function in male rats.

  10. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-01-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator…

  11. Long-Term Synaptic Changes in Two Input Pathways into the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Underlie Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junchol; Choi, June-Seek

    2010-01-01

    Plasticity in two input pathways into the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the sensory thalamus, have been suggested to underlie extinction, suppression of a previously acquired conditioned response (CR) following repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, little is known about…

  12. Slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG): an innate behavioral task for identification of individual experimental mice possessing functional vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Pagés, Macarena; Stiles, Robert J; Parks, Christopher A; Neier, Steven C; Radulovic, Maja; Oliveros, Alfredo; Ferrer, Alejandro; Reed, Brendan K; Wilton, Katelynn M; Schrum, Adam G

    2013-08-23

    There is significant interest in the generation of improved assays to clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision, a property that could qualify mice for inclusion in behavioral and neuroscience studies. Widely employed current methods rely on mouse responses to visual cues in assays of reflexes, depth perception, or cognitive memory. However, commonly assessed mouse reflexes can sometimes be ambiguous in their expression, while depth perception assays are sometimes confounded by variation in anxiety responses and exploratory conduct. Furthermore, in situations where experimental groups vary in their cognitive memory capacity, memory assays may not be ideal for assessing differences in vision. We have optimized a non-invasive behavioral assay that relies on an untrained, innate response to identify individual experimental mice possessing functional vision: slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG). First, we verified that SLAG performance depends on vision and not olfaction. Next, all members of an age-ranged cohort of 158 C57BL/6 mice (57 wild-type, 101 knockout, age range 44-241 days) were assessed for functional vision using the SLAG test without training or conditioning. Subjecting the population to a second innate behavioral test, Dark Chamber preference, corroborated that the functional vision assessment of SLAG was valid. We propose that the SLAG assay is immediately useful to quickly and clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision. SLAG is based on a behavioral readout with a significant innate component with no requirement for training. This will facilitate the selection of mice of known sighted status in vision-dependent experiments that focus on other types of behavior, neuroscience, and/or cognitive memory.

  13. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.

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    Haisun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry, designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cry(b mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain-as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass.

  14. Maturational Constraints on Functional Specializations for Language Processing: ERP and Behavioral Evidence in Bilingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, C M; Neville, H J

    1996-01-01

    Changes in several postnatal maturational processes during neural development have been implicated as potential mechanisms underlying critical period phenomena. Lenneberg hypothesized that maturational processes similar to those that govern sensory and motor development may also constrain capabilities for normal language acquisition. Our goal, using a bilingual model, was to investigate the hypothesis that maturational constraints may have different effects upon the development of the functional specializations of distinct sub within language. Subjects were 61 adult Chinese/English bilinguals who were exposed to English at different points in development: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and after 16 years of age. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were obtained as subjects read sentences that included semantic anomalies, three types of syntactic violations (phrase structure, specificity constraint, and subjacency constraint), and their controls. The accuracy in judging the grammaticality for the different types of syntactic rules and their associated ERPs was affected by delays in second language exposure as short as 1-3 years. By comparison the N400 response and the judgment accuracies in detecting semantic anomalies were altered only in subjects who were exposed to English after 11-13 and 16 years of age, respectively. Further, the type of changes occurring in ERPs with delays in exposure were qualitatively different for semantic and syntactic processing. All groups displayed a significant N400 effect in response to semantic anomalies, however, the peak latencies of the N400 elicited in bilinguals who were exposed to English between 11-13 and >16 years occurred later, suggesting a slight slowing in processing. For syntactic processing. the ERP differences associated with delays in exposure to English were observed in the morphology and distribution of components. Our findings are consistent with the view that maturational changes significantly

  15. Effect of titanium surface characteristics on the behavior and function of oral fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Att, Wael; Yamada, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different titanium surface characteristics on the behavior and function of oral fibroblasts as well as the deposition pattern of collagen within the extracellular matrix. Titanium surfaces created by machining, acid etching with sulfuric acid (AE1), or acid etching with hydrofluoric acid (AE2) were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Rat oral fibroblasts were cultured on different surfaces. Cell spread and morphology of extracellular matrix were evaluated using SEM. Attachment and proliferation of cells were examined by comparing the numbers of attached to detached cells and cell count, respectively. Gene expression was analyzed via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Collagen production and deposition were examined via a Sirius red-based stain assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The machined surface showed a flat profile with isotropic grooves, the AE1 surface showed a uniformly microscale roughened surface, and the AE2 surface had a grooved profile with intermediate surface roughness. The AE2 surface contained fluoride atoms (2.45%+/-0.44% as F/Ti atomic ratio). Cell attachment was significantly weaker on the machined surface than on the AE1 and AE2 surfaces, whereas no differences were observed between the AE1 and AE2 surfaces. The cell counts on the machined and AE2 surfaces were higher, with a parallel orientation, whereas the cell count was lower and randomly distributed on the AE1 surface. The expression level of fibroblastic genes was similar among surfaces for all time points tested. Collagen production was highest on the machined surface, followed by AE2 and AE1 surfaces. Collagen deposition displayed a parallel pattern on the machined surface, while it was multidirectional on the AE1 and AE2 surfaces. The surface characteristics of titanium affect attachment, spread, and proliferative activity of oral fibroblasts as well

  16. Social functioning in youth with anxiety disorders: association with anxiety severity and outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2013-02-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer social functioning was associated with more severe anxiety. Among youth who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 111), significant associations were found between parent-reported social competence and both absence of principal anxiety disorder and lower anxiety severity at posttreatment and 1-year follow-up, controlling for the severity of the child's principal anxiety disorder at pretreatment. Findings support a relationship between anxiety severity and social difficulties, and suggest the importance of social competence for a favorable treatment response.

  17. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  18. Dysfunctional cognitions and their emotional, behavioral, and functional correlates in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): is the cognitive-behavioral model valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Fernando; López, Pablo; Alvarez Prado, Dolores; Kichic, Rafael; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Lischinsky, Alicia; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the presence of dysfunctional cognitions in adults with ADHD and to determine whether these cognitions are associated with emotional symptoms, maladaptive coping, and functional impairment, as predicted by the cognitive-behavioral model. A total of 35 adult participants with ADHD, 20 nonclinical controls, and 20 non-ADHD clinical controls were assessed with measures of ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, depression and anxiety symptoms, coping strategies, and quality of life. ADHD group showed elevated scores of dysfunctional cognitions relative to nonclinical control group and comparable with clinical control group. Dysfunctional cognitions were strongly associated with emotional symptoms. ADHD group also showed elevated scores in maladaptive coping strategies of the escape-avoidance type. Life impairment was satisfactorily predicted in data analysis when ADHD symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and emotional symptoms were fitted into a regression model. Cognitive-behavioral therapy model appears to be a valid complementary model for understanding emotional and life impairment in adults with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  19. Heterogeneity of trans-callosal structural connectivity and effects on resting state subnetwork integrity may underlie both wanted and unwanted effects of therapeutic corpus callostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Consideration of the selective vulnerability of resting state sub-networks, and of between-individual variability in connectivity patterns, sheds new light on the occurrence of both wanted and unwanted effects of callosotomy. We propose that beneficial effects (seizure reduction relate to disruption of the default mode network, with unwanted “disconnection syndrome” effects due to disruption particularly of the somatomotor and frontoparietal RSNs. Our results may also explain why disconnection syndromes primary reflect lateralised sensory-motor problems (e.g. of limb movement rather than midline function (e.g. tongue movement. Marked between-subject variation in callosal connectivity may underlie the poor predictability of effects of callosotomy. High resolution structural connectivity studies of this nature may be useful in pre-surgical planning of therapeutic callosotomy for intractable epilepsy.

  20. A Function-Based Classroom Behavior Intervention Using Non-Contingent Reinforcement Plus Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Julene D.; Filter, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the use of noncontingent reinforcement with response cost to reduce problem verbal and physical behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in an internationally adopted, post-institutionalized student diagnosed with ADHD. Systematic direct observation was employed to measure behavior in a single-subject withdrawal…

  1. Teacher Expectations of Students' Classroom Behavior: Do Expectations Vary as a Function of School Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Pierson, Melinda R.; Stang, Kristin K.; Carter, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social behaviors teachers believe is critical for school success and can contribute to the development of effective behavioral supports and assist teachers in better preparing students for successful school transitions across the K-12 grade span. We explored 1303 elementary, middle, and high school teachers' expectations of…

  2. Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Woelders, H.

    2010-01-01

    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current

  3. Functional Communication Training to Reduce Challenging Behavior: Maintenance and Application in New Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Carr, Edward G.

    1991-01-01

    Three mentally retarded students (ages 9-12) who exhibited challenging behaviors to escape from academic demands and to receive social attention were taught alternative assistance-seeking and attention-getting phrases. Data indicated that the intervention reduced challenging behavior. The results transferred across settings, and were maintained 18…

  4. Applied Music Teaching Behavior as a Function of Selected Personality Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Charles P.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the relationships among applied music teaching behaviors and personality variables as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Suggests that personality variables may be important factors underlying four applied music teaching behaviors: approvals, rate of reinforcement, teacher model/performance, and pace. (LS)

  5. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-02-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that applied ToM skills and PC mediated the relations between autism symptoms and social functioning. Implications for social cognitive interventions to address these findings are discussed.

  6. A Modified Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test Predicts Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Better Than Executive Function Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias L. Schroeter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011 and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls. Neuropsychological performance was assessed with a modified Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET, Stroop task, Trail Making Test (TMT, Hamasch-Five-Point Test (H5PT, and semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. Behavior was assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, and Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale. Each test’s discriminatory power was investigated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves calculating the area under the curve (AUC. bvFTD patients performed significantly worse than healthy controls in all neuropsychological tests. Discriminatory power (AUC was highest in behavioral questionnaires, high in verbal fluency tasks and the RMET, and lower in executive function tests such as the Stroop task, TMT and H5PT. As fluency tasks depend on several cognitive functions, not only executive functions, results suggest that the RMET discriminated better between bvFTD and control subjects than other executive tests. Social cognition should be incorporated into diagnostic criteria for bvFTD in the future, such as in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11, as already suggested in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5.

  7. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  8. Cognitive-behavioral and operant-behavioral therapy for people with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Turk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current article reviews the cognitive-behavioral (CB and operant-behavioral perspectives on chronic pain and suggests an answer to the question why changes in behaviors, attitudes, and emotions are associated with decreases in pain severity and impact discussing potential psychobiological mechanisms that may underlie cognitive and behavioral techniques. The impact of learning such as classical and operant conditioning in behaviors and physical responses including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, as well as the influence of cognitions on pain perception and impact will be presented to explain general efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT and operant-behavioral therapy (OBT in the treatment of people with fibromyalgia (FM describing some of the limitations of published outcome studies. We discuss advances in moderation and mediation of treatment outcomes. Lastly, we will discuss the need for research that takes into account evidence-based medicine, methods that address treatment responders and non-responders, individual trajectories, how we might advance and refine CBT and OBT, and strategies related to relapse prevention, maintenance, and adherence-enhancement taking advantage of evolving, technological methods of service delivery. We provide recommendations of how to move forward in approaching studies of CBT and OBT efficacy as a function of better understanding of patient characteristics and contextual factors. We advocate for the potential of the CB perspective and principle of learning for all health care providers regardless of discipline or training and will give examples for making more effective the patient-rheumatologist-relationship by using the principles discussed.

  9. ASSESSING THE SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY OF THE FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item questionnaire, and results suggested that functional analysis procedures were socially acceptable.

  10. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  11. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that cuing facilitates behavioral performance and that different aspects of instructional cues evoke specific neural preparatory processes in cued task-switching paradigms. To deduce the functional role of these neural preparatory processes the majority of studies vary aspects of the experimental paradigm and describe how these variations alter markers of neural preparatory processes. Although these studies provide important insights, they also have notable limitations, particularly in terms of understanding the causal or functional relationship of neural markers to cognitive and behavioral processes. In this study, we sought to address these limitations and uncover the functional roles of neural processes by examining how variability in the amplitude of neural preparatory processes predicts behavioral performance to subsequent stimuli. To achieve this objective 16 young adults were recruited to perform a cued Stroop task while their brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. Four temporally overlapping but functionally and topographically distinct cue-triggered event related potentials (ERPs) were identified: 1) A left-frontotemporal negativity (250-700 ms) that was positively associated with word-reading performance; 2) a midline-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with color-naming and incongruent performance; 3) a left-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with switch trial performance; and 4) a centroparietal positivity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with performance for almost all trial types. These results suggest that at least four dissociable cognitive processes are evoked by instructional cues in the present task, including: 1) domain-specific task facilitation; 2) switch-specific task-set reconfiguration; 3) preparation for response conflict; and 4) proactive attentional control. Examining the relationship between ERPs and behavioral

  12. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moretti

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155 This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  13. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, David; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago; Harwood, John; Dilley, Ashley; Neales, Bert; Shaffer, Jessica; McCarthy, Elena; New, Leslie; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL) at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging) the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155) This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function.

  14. Heightened activity in social reward networks is associated with adolescents' risky sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B; Silk, Jennifer S; Jones, Neil P; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-10-01

    Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Heightened Activity in Social Reward Networks is Associated with Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Jones, Neil P.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. PMID:28755632

  16. Heightened activity in social reward networks is associated with adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Eckstrand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N = 47; 18M, 29F; 16.3 ± 1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.

  17. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: Role of source memory and executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  18. Confabulation behavior and false memories in Korsakoff's syndrome: role of source memory and executive functioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Kortrijk, H.E.; Wester, A.J.; Nys, G.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Confabulation behavior is common in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. A distinction can be made between spontaneous and provoked confabulations, which may have different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Provoked confabulations may be related to intrusions on memory tests, whereas spontaneous

  19. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN HEAD START: INDIRECT EFFECTS THROUGH PARENTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E

    2018-03-01

    The present study used a large, nationally representative sample of Head Start children (N=3,349) from the Family and Child Experiences Survey of 2009 (FACES) to examine associations among maternal depression (measured when children were ˜36 months old) and children's executive function (EF) and behavior problems (measured when children were ˜48 months old). Preliminary analyses revealed that 36% of mothers in the sample had clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a path analysis with demographic controls showed a mediation effect that was significant and quite specific; mother-reported warmth (and not mother-child reading) mediated the path between maternal depression, children's EF, and behavior problems. Findings provide empirical support for a family process model in which warm, sensitive parenting supports children's emerging self-regulation and reduces the likelihood of early onset behavior problems in families in which children are exposed to maternal depression. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Functional and Symbolic Values of Cloud Terminals: A Study of User Acceptance and Purchasing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Pan; Lijuan Luo; Dan Liu; Li Gao; Hengyi Rao

    2014-01-01

    The purchasing behavior of cloud terminals is increasingly shaped by the emerging cloud services. Rather than its hardware configuration, performance of cloud intelligent terminals such as the Chromebook is more and more dependent on the cloud service capability. However, it remains unknown what factors will drive user's acceptance and purchase of these cloud terminals. Using the Chromebook and MacBook as two representative products, this study models user's acceptance and purchasing behavior...

  1. Effect of the Group Music Therapy on Brain Wave, Behavior, and Cognitive Function among Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Myoungjin; Gang, Moonhee; Oh, Kyongok

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of group music therapy on brain waves, behavior, and cognitive function among patients with chronic schizophrenia. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used with nonequivalent control group. The potential participants were recruited from inpatients in a psychiatric facility in a metropolitan city, assigned either to the experimental group (n = 28) or to the control group (n = 27) according to their wards to avoid treatment contamination. The experimental group participated in the group music therapy for 13 sessions over 7 weeks while continuing their standard treatment. The control group only received a standard treatment provided in the hospitals. The outcome measures include brain wave by electroencephalography, behavior by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation, and cognitive function by Mini-Mental State Examination. After participating in 13 sessions of the group music therapy, alpha waves measured from eight different sites were consistently present for the experimental group (p = .006-.045) than the control group, revealing that the participants in the music therapy may have experienced more joyful emotions throughout the sessions. The experimental group also showed improved cognitive function (F = 13.46, p = .001) and positive behavior (social competence, social interest & personal neatness) while their negative behaviors was significantly less than those of the control group (F = 24.04, p music therapy used in this study was an effective intervention for improving emotional relaxation, cognitive processing abilities along with positive behavioral changes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Our results can be useful for establishing intervention strategies toward psychiatric rehabilitation for those who suffer from chronic mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cognitive, behavioral and psychological functioning in children with metopic synostosis: a meta-analysis examining the impact of surgical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A J; Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L; Anderson, P J; Flapper, W J

    2018-02-26

    Neurodevelopmental delays are known to occur in children with metopic synostosis, but it is presently unclear whether the cognitive, behavioral and psychological outcomes of children with metopic synostosis differ to those of their healthy peers. This meta-analysis consolidated data from 17 studies (published prior to August 2017) that examined the cognitive, behavioral and psychological outcomes of children (n = 666; aged ≤19 yrs) with metopic synostosis. Hedges'g (g w ) effect sizes compared the outcomes of samples with metopic synostosis (unoperated, operated) to healthy controls or normative data and, where available, the prevalence of problems/disorders was calculated. Children with unoperated metopic synostosis performed significantly worse than their healthy peers on measures of: general cognition (g w  = -.38), motor functioning, (g w  = -.81), and verbal (g w  = -.82) and visuospatial (g w  = -.92) abilities. Children with operated metopic synostosis performed significantly worse on measures of motor functioning (g w  = -.45), visuospatial skills (g w  = -.32), attention (g w  = -.50), executive functioning (g w  = -.36), arithmetic ability (g w  = -.37), and behavior (g w  = -.34). Cognitive, behavioral, and psychological problems were prevalent, but variable. Overall, the cognitive, behavioral, and psychological outcomes of children with metopic synostosis are generally worse than their healthy peers, regardless of surgical status. However, research is sparse, samples small, controls are rarely recruited, and the severity of metopic synostosis often not stated. Nevertheless, the findings suggest that children with metopic synostosis are likely to experience a variety of negative outcomes and should therefore receive ongoing monitoring and support.

  3. Getting Students Engaged Might Not Be Enough: The Importance of Psychological Needs Satisfaction on Social-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Quirk, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations between students' social-emotional/behavioral functioning, engagement, and basic psychological needs satisfaction among a sample of N = 83 sixth grade students. A mediation model was tested to examine the role of needs satisfaction on the relations between engagement and social-emotional/behavioral functioning.…

  4. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)

  6. Prediction of Self-Efficacy and Behavioral Expectations with Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Elderly Patients with Functional Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torabi A. MSc,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Elderlies are one of the vulnerable groups in the society that are increasing every day. Senility is associated with disability and many chronic diseases. This study was performed to predict the self-efficacy and behavioral expectations in consumption of fruits and vegetables in elderly patients with functional constipation. Instrument & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the elderly’s population who had 60 years old or higher that were members of Isfahan retirement centers in 2013. 163 elderlies were entered to the study by purposeful sampling. Data collection was done by a researcher-made questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS 20 statistical software by one-way variance analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, independent T test and regression. Findings: The mean daily consumption of fruits in elderlies who suffered from functional constipation was 1.61±0.73units and the mean daily consumption of vegetables was 1.31±0.87units. There was no significant difference between the amount of consumption of fruits and vegetables between females and males. There was a significant difference between gender and behavioral expectations (p<0.001. The awareness, self-efficacy and behavioral expectations of married people were higher than singles (p<0.001. All 3 constructs of awareness, self-efficacy and behavioral expectations were the predictor of fruits and vegetables consumption. Conclusion: The amount of fruits and vegetables consumption among the elderlies who suffered from constipation is very low.

  7. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....

  8. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Kv4 channels underlie the subthreshold-operating A-type K+-current in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanawath R Na Phuket

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglion (DRG contains heterogeneous populations of sensory neurons including primary nociceptive neurons and C-fibers implicated in pain signaling.  Recent studies have demonstrated DRG hyperexcitability associated with downregulation of A-type K+ channels; however, the molecular correlate of the corresponding A-type K+ current (IA has remained hypothetical.  Kv4 channels may underlie the IA in DRG neurons.  We combined electrophysiology, molecular biology (whole-tissue and single-cell RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to investigate the molecular basis of the IA in acutely dissociated DRG neurons from 7-8 day-old rats.  Whole-cell recordings demonstrate a robust tetraethylammonium-resistant (20 mM and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive (5 mM IA.  Matching Kv4 channel properties, activation and inactivation of this IA occur in the subthreshold range of membrane potentials and the rate of recovery from inactivation is rapid and voltage-dependent.  Among Kv4 transcripts, the DRG expresses significant levels of Kv4.1 and Kv4.3 mRNAs.  Also, single small-medium diameter DRG neurons (~30 mm exhibit correlated frequent expression of mRNAs encoding Kv4.1 and Nav1.8, a known nociceptor marker.  In contrast, the expressions of Kv1.4 and Kv4.2 mRNAs at the whole-tissue and single-cell levels are relatively low and infrequent.  Kv4 protein expression in nociceptive DRG neurons was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which demonstrates colocalization of Kv4.3 and Nav1.8, and negligible expression of Kv4.2.  Furthermore, specific dominant-negative suppression and overexpression strategies confirmed the contribution of Kv4 channels to IA in DRG neurons.  Contrasting the expression patterns of Kv4 channels in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we discuss possible functional roles of these channels in primary sensory neurons.

  10. Developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Almenara, Carlos A.; Jezek, Stanislav; Erriu, Michela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have addressed developmental trajectories from childhood to adolescence of internalizing/externalizing problems, limited attention has been given to underweight children. Two groups were recruited for this study from a community sample: underweight (Ug, N?=?80, 50% female) and normal weight (NWg, N?=?80, 50% female) to examine the developmental trajectories of body mass index and emotional-behavioral functioning of underweight children from the age two years, and thei...

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, placental expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid and serotonin function and infant regulatory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; O'Reilly, J R; Tuovinen, S; Lahti, M; Kajantie, E; Villa, P; Laivuori, H; Hämäläinen, E; Seckl, J R; Reynolds, R M

    2015-11-01

    Glucocorticoids and serotonin may mediate the link between maternal environment, fetal brain development and 'programming' of offspring behaviors. The placenta regulates fetal exposure to maternal hormonal signals in animal studies, but few data address this in humans. We measured prospectively maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and mRNAs encoding key gene products determining glucocorticoid and serotonin function in term human placenta and explored associations with infant regulatory behaviors. Bi-weekly self-ratings of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale from 12th to 13th gestational week onwards and term placental mRNAs of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2B11), type 1 (HSD1B11), glucocorticoid (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptors (NR3C2) and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) were obtained from 54 healthy mothers aged 32.2 ± 5.3 years with singleton pregnancies and without pregnancy complications. Infant regulatory behaviors (crying, feeding, spitting, elimination, sleeping and predictability) were mother-rated at 15.6 ± 4.2 days. Higher placental mRNA levels of HSD2B11 [0.41 standard deviation (s.d.) unit increase per s.d. unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.69, p = 0.005], HSD1B11 (0.30, 0.03-0.57, p = 0.03), NR3C1 (0.44, 0.19-0.68, p = 0.001) and SLC6A4 (0.26, 0.00-0.53, p = 0.05) were associated with more regulatory behavioral challenges of the infant. Higher placental NR3C1 mRNA partly mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and infant regulatory behaviors (p serotonin exposure is characteristic of infants with more regulatory behavioral challenges. Maternal depression acts, at least partly, via altering glucocorticoid action in the placenta to impact on offspring regulatory behaviors.

  12. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    pressure and fasting plasma triacylglycerol, which will be measured at baseline and endpoint. In addition, we will assess erythrocyte fatty acid composition (compliance), heart rate, plasma cholesterol, markers of glucose homeostasis, growth and body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity...... and sleep. We will also examine effects on cognitive function (attention, memory, and executive functions) by using standardized tests, behavior and emotions by administering parent-rated questionnaires and child interviews, and we will measure physiological stress response and cortisol levels. We need 150...

  13. Distinct Myocardial Mechanisms Underlie Cardiac Dysfunction in Endotoxemic Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A; Aziz, Kanwal; Buys, Emmanuel S; Brouckaert, Peter; Siwik, Deborah A; Colucci, Wilson S

    2016-12-01

    In male mice, sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy develops as a result of dysregulation of myocardial calcium (Ca) handling, leading to depressed cellular Ca transients (ΔCai). ΔCai depression is partially due to inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ATP-ase (SERCA) via oxidative modifications, which are partially opposed by cGMP generated by the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Whether similar mechanisms underlie sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy in female mice is unknown.Male and female C57Bl/6J mice (WT), and mice deficient in the sGC α1 subunit activity (sGCα1), were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, ip). LPS induced mouse death and cardiomyopathy (manifested as the depression of left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography) to a similar degree in WT male, WT female, and sGCα1 male mice, but significantly less in sGCα1 female mice. We measured sarcomere shortening and ΔCai in isolated, externally paced cardiomyocytes, at 37°C. LPS depressed sarcomere shortening in both WT male and female mice. Consistent with previous findings, in male mice, LPS induced a decrease in ΔCai (to 30 ± 2% of baseline) and SERCA inhibition (manifested as the prolongation of the time constant of Ca decay, τCa, to 150 ± 5% of baseline). In contrast, in female mice, the depression of sarcomere shortening induced by LPS occurred in the absence of any change in ΔCai, or SERCA activity. This suggested that, in female mice, the causative mechanism lies downstream of the Ca transients, such as a decrease in myofilament sensitivity for Ca. The depression of sarcomere shortening shortening after LPS was less severe in female sGCα1 mice than in WT female mice, indicating that cGMP partially mediates cardiomyocyte dysfunction.These results suggest, therefore, that LPS-induced cardiomyopathy develops through distinct sex-specific myocardial mechanisms. While in males LPS induces sGC-independent decrease in ΔCai, in female mice LPS acts downstream of

  14. Piezo- and Flexoelectric Membrane Materials Underlie Fast Biological Motors in the Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, Kathryn D; Rabbitt, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear is remarkably sensitive to quiet sounds, exhibits over 100dB dynamic range, and has the exquisite ability to discriminate closely spaced tones even in the presence of noise. This performance is achieved, in part, through active mechanical amplification of vibrations by sensory hair cells within the inner ear. All hair cells are endowed with a bundle of motile microvilli, stereocilia, located at the apical end of the cell, and the more specialized outer hair cells (OHC's) are also endowed with somatic electromotility responsible for changes in cell length in response to perturbations in membrane potential. Both hair bundle and somatic motors are known to feed energy into the mechanical vibrations in the inner ear. The biophysical origin and relative significance of the motors remains a subject of intense research. Several biological motors have been identified in hair cells that might underlie the motor(s), including a cousin of the classical ATP driven actin-myosin motor found in skeletal muscle. Hydrolysis of ATP, however, is much too slow to be viable at audio frequencies on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Heuristically, the OHC somatic motor behaves as if the OHC lateral wall membrane were a piezoelectric material and the hair bundle motor behaves as if the plasma membrane were a flexoelectric material. We propose these observations from a continuum materials perspective are literally true. To examine this idea, we formulated mathematical models of the OHC lateral wall "piezoelectric" motor and the more ubiquitous "flexoelectric" hair bundle motor. Plausible biophysical mechanisms underlying piezo- and flexoelectricity were established. Model predictions were compared extensively to the available data. The models were then applied to study the power conversion efficiency of the motors. Results show that the material properties of the complex membranes in hair cells provide them with the ability to convert electrical power available in the inner

  15. Different brain strategies underlie the categorical perception of foreign and native phonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Mori, Koichi; Sato, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    The present study using near-infrared spectroscopy examined the neuronal correlates of Japanese long/short vowel contrast discrimination and its relationship with behavioral performance by comparing native Japanese (L1) subjects and Korean subjects learning Japanese as a second language (L2). Phoneme-specific responses were predominantly observed in the left auditory area only in the L1 subjects, although the behavioral scores of the L2 subjects indicated categorical perception (CP) that was indistinguishable from that of the L1 subjects. These inconsistent relationships were more evident in the correlation coefficients between the brain recording and behavior. However, slower reaction times and non-specific brain responses in the L2 listeners suggest differences in their cortical processes from those of the L1 subjects. These findings suggest that the CP of L2 phonemes as determined by behavioral scores alone does not always predict a language-specific neural processing as employed by the L1 listeners.

  16. Buckling Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Carbene under Physical Adsorption of Polymer Chains: a Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajori, S.; Haghighi, S.; Ansari, R.

    2017-12-01

    The buckling analysis of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is of great importance for the better understanding of mechanical behavior of nanocomposites. The buckling behavior of carbene-functionalized CNTs (cfCNTs) under physical adsorption of polymer chains (cfCNTs/polymers) is studied in this paper by the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this regard, to investigate the interactions between non-covalent polymer chains and cfCNTs, two different non-covalent functional groups, i.e. polycarbonate (PC) and polypropylene (PP), are selected. The findings are compared with those of pure CNTs under the physical adsorption of polymer chains (pCNTs/polymers). The obtained results show that at a given weight percentage of non-covalent functional groups, the gyration radius of cfCNTs/polymers is higher than that of pCNTs/polymers. Furthermore, an increase in the critical buckling force of cfCNTs/polymers is dependent on the type of non-covalent polymer chains. For cfCNTs/PC and cfCNTs/PP, the critical buckling force is respectively lower and higher than that of pCNTs/polymers for the similar weight percentage of non-covalent functional groups. In addition, it is found that the critical buckling strain of cfCNTs/polymers is smaller than that of pCNTs/polymers for the same weight percentage of non-covalent polymer chains.

  17. Assessing the Social Acceptability of the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although the clinical utility of the functional analysis is well established, its social acceptability has received minimal attention. The current study assessed the social acceptability of functional analysis procedures among 10 parents and 3 teachers of children who had recently received functional analyses. Participants completed a 9-item…

  18. A Methodology for Quantifying Effects and Psychological Functioning of Behavior-Change Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tobias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology to quantify the effects of behavior change techniques (BCTs that allows forecasting campaign effects on behavior and psychological constructs. The approach involves the gathering of longitudinal data during actual campaigns in which different combinations and sequences of BCTs are applied to different groups. Approximate metric data are gathered by asking for simple and specific evaluations. The data are analyzed using regression models that consider the value range of the dependent variable as bounded (bounded linear regression. Based on these models, forecasts of the intervention effects are calculated, considering the uncertainty of the parameter estimates. The methodology is applied to investigate the effects of prompts (external memory aids, public self-commitments, and implementation intentions on affective and instrumental attitudes, injunctive and descriptive norms, forgetting, perceived behavior control, and behavior in a health-promotion campaign in Bolivia. Prompts and public self-commitments reached more than half of the target population but only showed relevant effects when combined or repeated. The effects of both BCTs on behavior were mainly mediated by forgetting. Implementation intentions were not well received by the promoters and the population. From the few cases that implemented this BCT, no clear psychological effects could be derived.

  19. Behavioral functionality of mobile apps in health interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-02-26

    Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior interventions. We conducted a review of the literature in September 2014 using key search terms in several relevant scientific journal databases. Only English articles pertaining to health interventions using mobile phone apps were included in the final sample. The 24 studies identified for this review were primarily feasibility and pilot studies of mobile apps with small sample sizes. All studies were informed by behavioral theories or strategies, with self-monitoring as the most common construct. Acceptability of mobile phone apps was high among mobile phone users. The lack of large sample studies using mobile phone apps may signal a need for additional studies on the potential use of mobile apps to assist individuals in changing their health behaviors. Of these studies, there is early evidence that apps are well received by users. Based on available research, mobile apps may be considered a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions, but a greater number of studies and more rigorous research and evaluations are needed to determine efficacy and establish evidence for best practices.

  20. Adolescents with ADHD: patterns of behavioral adjustment, academic functioning, and treatment utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, R A; Anastopoulos, A D; Guevremont, D C; Fletcher, K E

    1991-09-01

    Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with a control group on a comprehensive assessment battery. More ADHD teenagers had oppositional defiant disorder (68%) and conduct disorder (39%) and were rated as more impaired in social competence, behavioral and emotional adjustment, and school performance by parents and teachers than control teens. The ADHD youths, however, rated themselves as better adjusted than did their parents and teachers, differing only from controls in depressive symptoms and antisocial acts. Poorer performances in verbal learning and vigilance and greater ADHD behaviors during a math task also distinguished the ADHD from control teenagers.

  1. Distinct physiological responses underlie defoliation tolerance in African lawn and bunch grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, T.M.; Kumordzi, B.B.; Fokkema, W.; Valls Fox, H.; Olff, H.

    Premise of research. African grass communities are dominated by two distinct functional types: tall, caespitose bunch grasses and short, spreading lawn grasses. Functional type coexistence has been explained by differences in defoliation tolerance, because lawn grasses occur in intensively grazed

  2. Preschool outcomes following prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure: differences in language and behavior, but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katrina C; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is associated with language and behavioral outcomes in preschool-aged children, while accounting for confounds such as concomitant exposures and maternal mental illness. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study of mental illness in pregnancy was conducted at a university-based women's mental health clinic (April 2010-November 2012). A sample of 178 mother-child dyads participated in a laboratory visit at preschool age (2.5-5.5 years). The majority of women (87%) received psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Psychiatric status (based on DSM-IV), other medication use, and substance use were serially assessed and tested as confounds. Primary outcome measures included standardized measures of expressive language and cognitive function and mother and alternate caregiver ratings of child behavior problems, including the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for relevant covariates, expressive language scores from the Test of Early Language Development, 3rd edition, were negatively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = -0.15, t = -2.41), while the PDD behavioral problems subscales completed by alternate caregivers and mothers were positively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = 0.17, t = 2.01; β = 0.16, t = 2.00, respectively). Cognitive function, measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd edition, was not associated with any medication exposures. The current data suggest a small but significant association between prenatal SRI exposure and preschool outcomes, including expressive language and behavior problems. These data corroborate data from recent, population-based studies, although overall, published findings are mixed. Replication and identification of moderating risk factors are needed to understand potential clinical implications.

  3. Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesche eBorn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human genetics has identified rare copy number variations and deleterious mutations for all neurexin genes (NRXN1-3 in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases, and electrophysiological recordings in animal brains have shown that Nrxns are important for synaptic transmission. While several mouse models for Nrxn1α inactivation have previously been studied for behavioral changes, very little information is available for other variants. Here, we validate that mice lacking Nrxn2α exhibit behavioral abnormalities, characterized by social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior, which partially overlap, partially differ from Nrxn1α mutant behaviors. Using patch-clamp recordings in Nrxn2α knockout brains, we observe reduced spontaneous transmitter release at excitatory synapses in the neocortex. We also analyse at this cellular level a novel NRXN2 mouse model that carries a combined deletion of Nrxn2α and Nrxn2β. Electrophysiological analysis of this Nrxn2-mutant mouse shows surprisingly similar defects of excitatory release to Nrxn2α, indicating that the β-variant of Nrxn2 has no strong function in basic transmission at these synapses. Inhibitory transmission as well as synapse densities and ultrastructure remain unchanged in the neocortex of both models. Furthermore, at Nrxn2α and Nrxn2-mutant excitatory synapses we find an altered facilitation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR function because NMDAR-dependent decay time and NMDAR-mediated responses are reduced. As Nrxn can indirectly be linked to NMDAR via neuroligin and PSD-95, the trans-synaptic nature of this complex may help to explain occurrence of presynaptic and postsynaptic effects. Since excitatory/inhibitory imbalances and impairment of NMDAR function are alledged to have a role in autism and schizophrenia, our results support the idea of a related pathomechanism in these disorders.

  4. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effects on Depressive Cognitions and Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES), 2005-2008. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM, 24, 33-8. SIEGLE, G. J...National Science Foundation 2007- Chair, McLean Fellowship Awards Review/Selection Committee Editorial Boards: 1995- Journal of Geriatric ...Scandinavica; American Journal of Psychiatry; American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry; Archives of General Psychiatry; Behavioral Neuroscience; Brain

  5. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  6. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Academic Achievement in Chinese Children: Contributions of Early Social-Behavioral Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rui; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trajectories of academic achievement and the contributions of early social behaviors and problems to these trajectories in Chinese children. Data were collected each year in 5 consecutive years from a sample of elementary schoolchildren in China (initially N = 1,146, 609 boys, initial M [subscript age] = 8.33…

  8. How Are New Behavioral Forms and Functions Introduced during Ontogenesis? Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter H.

    1991-01-01

    Comments on Thelen and Ulrich's monograph in this issue. Examines theoretical and empirical sections and findings, concluding that the authors have taken a major step forward by introducing the dynamic systems perspective to the study of behavioral coordination in infants, thus opening the way for experimental investigation of phenomena that could…

  9. Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Annelies A; Wouters, Saskia G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with

  10. Modeling of the interface behavior in tape casting of functionally graded ceramics for magnetic refrigeration parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    of a graded configuration of the magnetocaloric materials. The Newtonian flow behavior with relatively high viscosity is assumed for each fluid and used in the simulation with a commercial CFD code (ANSYS FLUENT). The results show that the density difference does not affect the interface between the adjacent...

  11. Variability of Rheotaxis Behaviors in Larval Bullfrogs Highlights Species Diversity in Lateral Line Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E A Brown

    Full Text Available The morphology and distribution of lateral line neuromasts vary between ecomorphological types of anuran tadpoles, but little is known about how this structural variability contributes to differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors. Previous research identified distinct differences in one such behavior, positive rheotaxis towards the source of a flow, in two tadpole species, the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis; type 1 and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana; type 4. Because these two species had been tested under different flow conditions, we re-evaluated these findings by quantifying flow-sensing behaviors of bullfrog tadpoles in the same flow field in which X. laevis tadpoles had been tested previously. Early larval bullfrog tadpoles were exposed to flow in the dark, in the presence of a discrete light cue, and after treatment with the ototoxin gentamicin. In response to flow, tadpoles moved downstream, closer to a side wall, and higher in the water column, but they did not station-hold. Tadpoles exhibited positive rheotaxis, but with long latencies, low to moderate accuracy, and considerable individual variability. This is in contrast to the robust, stereotyped station-holding and accurate rheotaxis of X. laevis tadpoles. The presence of a discrete visual cue and gentamicin treatment altered spatial positioning and disrupted rheotaxis in both tadpole species. Species differences in lateral-line mediated behaviors may reflect differences in neuromast number and distribution, life history, or perceptual salience of other environmental cues.

  12. Family Functioning and Child Problem Behavior: a longitudinal study among referred children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Mathijssen (Jolanda)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFrom several theoretical perspectives as well as in psychotherapeutic practice it is assumed that family characteristics have a causal influence on the course of emotional and / or behavioral problems of children and adolescents (e.g., Boszonneny-Nagy & Sparke, 1973; Dadds, 1995;

  13. Recollections of Childhood Religious Identity and Behavior as a Function of Adult Religiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Maselko, Joanna; Meador, Keith G

    2012-01-01

    People have a strong motivation to maintain a self-concept that is coherent and consistent over time. Religion is an central source of social identity for many people, but its importance is prone to dramatic change across the life course. To maintain a consistent perception of self, recollections of one's own past religiousness may shift to better fit with the present. This study examined changes between early and middle adulthood in retrospective perceptions of religious behavior and identity in childhood. Data from a population-based birth cohort sample were matched with data from individuals who participated in at least two of three adult follow-up studies, at intervals of approximately 10 years. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of final recollections of childhood behavior and identity with previous recollections and current religious characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of temporal self-appraisal theory, participants' perception of their religious identity as children tended to change over time to match their adult religious identity. Recollections of childhood religious behavior were more stable than recollections of religious identity, and change was unrelated to adult behavior. These results have implications for studying religious characteristics using retrospective measures, regarding their accuracy and their independence from contemporary measures.

  14. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior as a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…

  15. Family Functioning and Coping Behaviors in Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiere, Matthew J.; von Kluge, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed family dynamics and coping behaviors of parents with a child with an autistic spectrum disorder. Previous research suggests that moderate levels of cohesion and adaptability are associated with higher levels of positive coping, and that the more coping strategies a family implements, the greater their satisfaction with family…

  16. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part II--Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    A study presented on the effect of parenting on stress response and other behaviors show that animals exposed to a high degree of nurturing show a blunted response to stress. Molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences in the adult offspring as well as the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic effects are propagated from one…

  17. Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment, Family Functioning, Academic Performance, and Social Relationships in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H.; Patel, Sejal

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of…

  18. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education : Placement, progress, and family functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted

  19. Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioral outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Basile

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal discounting is the tendency to devalue temporally distant rewards. Past studies have examined the k-value, the indifference point, and the area under the curve as dependent measures on this task. The current study included these three measures and a fourth measure, called the interest rate total score. The interest rate total score was based on scoring only those items in which the delayed choice should be preferred given the expected return based on simple interest rates. In addition, associations with several individual difference measures were examined including intelligence, executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting, thinking dispositions (Need for Cognition and Consideration of Future Consequences and engagement in substance use and gambling behavior. A staircase temporal discounting task was examined in a sample of 99 university students. Replicating previous studies, temporal discounting increased with longer delays to reward and decreased with higher reward magnitudes. A hyperbolic function accounted for variance in temporal discounting better than an exponential function. Reaction time at the indifference point was significantly longer than at the other choice points. The four dependent measures of temporal discounting were all significantly correlated and were also significantly associated with our individual difference measures. That is, the tendency to wait for a larger delayed reward on all of the temporal discounting measures was associated with higher intelligence, higher executive functions and more consideration of future consequences. Associations between our measures of temporal discounting and outcomes related to substance use and gambling behavior were modest in our university sample.

  20. Functionally distinct phospho-forms underlie incremental activation of protein kinase-regulated Cl- conductance in mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, T C; Horie, M; Gadsby, D C

    1993-05-01

    The regulation of cardiac Cl- conductance by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cellular phosphatases was studied in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes by using wide-tipped, perfused pipettes to record whole-cell currents. Exposure to forskolin (Fsk) or isoproterenol (Iso) elicits a Cl- conductance that results exclusively from PKA-dependent phosphorylation because it can be completely abolished, or its activation fully prevented, by switching to pipette solution containing PKI, a synthetic peptide inhibitor of PKA. The Cl- conductance activated by micromolar concentrations of either agonist reached its steady-state amplitude in 1-2 min and was deactivated promptly and entirely, usually within 2 min, upon washing out the agonist, implying a continuous high level of activity of endogenous protein phosphatases. Accordingly, intracellular application of okadaic acid or microcystin, both potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, during exposure to Fsk enhanced the steady-state Cl- conductance and slowed its deactivation after washing out the Fsk. Maximal potentiation of the conductance, by approximately 60%, was obtained with pipette concentrations of approximately 10 microM okadaic acid (or approximately 5 microM microcystin) and did not result from an increase in the apparent affinity for Fsk. In the presence of maximally effective concentrations of okadaic acid and/or microcystin, deactivation of the enhanced Cl- conductance upon washout of agonist was incomplete, with about half of the conductance persisting indefinitely. That residual conductance did not reflect continued action of PKA because it was insensitive to PKI, but was identified as a fraction of the activated Cl- conductance by its biophysical characteristics. The results suggest that complete deactivation of the PKA-regulated cardiac Cl- conductance requires dephosphorylation by a type 1 and/or 2A phosphatase, but that partial deactivation can be accomplished by activity of some other phosphatase(s). These findings are consistent with sequential phosphorylation of a protein, probably the Cl- channel itself, at two different kinds of sites. The resulting phosphoproteins can be distinguished on the basis of their different contributions to whole-cell Cl- conductance.

  1. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Q. Clark

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°. A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program.

  2. Statistical Learning and Adaptive Decision-Making Underlie Human Response Time Variability in Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response time (RT is an oft-reported behavioral measure in psychological and neurocognitive experiments, but the high level of observed trial-to-trial variability in this measure has often limited its usefulness. Here, we combine computational modeling and psychophysics to examine the hypothesis that fluctuations in this noisy measure reflect dynamic computations in human statistical learning and corresponding cognitive adjustments. We present data from the stop-signal task, in which subjects respond to a go stimulus on each trial, unless instructed not to by a subsequent, infrequently presented stop signal. We model across-trial learning of stop signal frequency, P(stop, and stop-signal onset time, SSD (stop-signal delay, with a Bayesian hidden Markov model, and within-trial decision-making with an optimal stochastic control model. The combined model predicts that RT should increase with both expected P(stop and SSD. The human behavioral data (n=20 bear out this prediction, showing P(stop and SSD both to be significant, independent predictors of RT, with P(stop being a more prominent predictor in 75% of the subjects, and SSD being more prominent in the remaining 25%. The results demonstrate that humans indeed readily internalize environmental statistics and adjust their cognitive/behavioral strategy accordingly, and that subtle patterns in RT variability can serve as a valuable tool for validating models of statistical learning and decision-making. More broadly, the modeling tools presented in this work can be generalized to a large body of behavioral paradigms, in order to extract insights about cognitive and neural processing from apparently quite noisy behavioral measures. We also discuss how this behaviorally validated model can then be used to conduct model-based analysis of neural data, in order to help identify specific brain areas for representing and encoding key computational quantities in learning and decision-making.

  3. Impact of Frontal Lobe Function and Behavioral Changes on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, Xueping; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment may negatively impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, information on the effects of frontal lobe function and behavior changes on the HRQoL of the Chinese PD population is limited. Studies on the associations among frontal lobe function, behavioral changes and the HRQoL may help optimize the treatment and improve the HRQoL of PD patients. A total of 309 PD patients were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery, the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the PD Questionnaire 39-item version (PDQ-39). Patients with worse frontal lobe function were older (p frontal lobe function. In addition, the disease duration (p = 0.008), UPDRS-III scores (p frontal behavioral changes increased. The total FBI score (p Frontal behavioral changes were closely associated with poor HRQoL in Chinese PD patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Sedentary Behavior Is Only Marginally Associated with Physical Function in Adults Aged 40–75 Years—the Maastricht Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jeroen H. P. M.; Savelberg, Hans H. C. M.; van der Berg, Julianne D.; Sep, Simone J. S.; van der Kallen, Carla J. H.; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Schram, Miranda T.; Henry, Ronald M. A.; Reijven, Petronella L. M.; van Geel, Tineke A. C. M.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In an aging population, regular physical activity (PA) and exercise have been recognized as important factors in maintaining physical function and thereby preventing loss of independence and disability. However, (older) adults spent the majority of their day sedentary and therefore insight into the consequences of sedentary behavior on physical function, independent of PA, is warranted. Objective: To examine the associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST), patterns of sedentary behavior, overall PA, and higher intensity PA (HPA) with objective measures of physical function. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in 1,932 men and women (aged 40–75 years) participating in The Maastricht Study. The activPAL3 was used to assess daily sedentary behavior: ST (h), sedentary breaks (n), prolonged (≥30 min) sedentary bouts (n), and to assess time spent in (H)PA (h). Measures of physical function included: covered distance during a 6 min walk test [6MWD (meters)], timed chair rise stand test performance [TCSTtime (seconds)], grip strength (kg kg−1), and elbow flexion and knee extension strength (Nm kg−1). Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between daily sedentary behavior and PA with physical function. Results: Every additional hour ST was associated with shorter 6MWD [B = −2.69 m (95% CI = −4.69; −0.69)] and lower relative elbow extension strength (B = −0.01 Nm kg−1 (−0.02; 0.00). More sedentary breaks were associated with faster TCSTtime: B = −0.55 s (−0.85; −0.26). Longer average sedentary bout duration was associated with slower TCSTtime [B = 0.17 s (0.09; 0.25)] and lower knee extension strength [B = −0.01 Nm kg−1 (−0.02; 0.00)]. Every hour of PA and HPA were associated with greater 6MWD [BPA = 15.88 m (9.87; 21.89), BHPA = 40.72 m (30.18; 51.25)], faster TCSTtime [BPA = −0.55 s (−1.03; −0.07), BHPA = −2.25 s (−3.09; −1.41)], greater elbow flexion strength [BPA = 0.03 Nm kg

  5. Sedentary Behavior Is Only Marginally Associated with Physical Function in Adults Aged 40–75 Years—the Maastricht Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen H. P. M. van der Velde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an aging population, regular physical activity (PA and exercise have been recognized as important factors in maintaining physical function and thereby preventing loss of independence and disability. However, (older adults spent the majority of their day sedentary and therefore insight into the consequences of sedentary behavior on physical function, independent of PA, is warranted.Objective: To examine the associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST, patterns of sedentary behavior, overall PA, and higher intensity PA (HPA with objective measures of physical function.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in 1,932 men and women (aged 40–75 years participating in The Maastricht Study. The activPAL3 was used to assess daily sedentary behavior: ST (h, sedentary breaks (n, prolonged (≥30 min sedentary bouts (n, and to assess time spent in (HPA (h. Measures of physical function included: covered distance during a 6 min walk test [6MWD (meters], timed chair rise stand test performance [TCSTtime (seconds], grip strength (kg kg−1, and elbow flexion and knee extension strength (Nm kg−1. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between daily sedentary behavior and PA with physical function.Results: Every additional hour ST was associated with shorter 6MWD [B = −2.69 m (95% CI = −4.69; −0.69] and lower relative elbow extension strength (B = −0.01 Nm kg−1 (−0.02; 0.00. More sedentary breaks were associated with faster TCSTtime: B = −0.55 s (−0.85; −0.26. Longer average sedentary bout duration was associated with slower TCSTtime [B = 0.17 s (0.09; 0.25] and lower knee extension strength [B = −0.01 Nm kg−1 (−0.02; 0.00]. Every hour of PA and HPA were associated with greater 6MWD [BPA = 15.88 m (9.87; 21.89, BHPA = 40.72 m (30.18; 51.25], faster TCSTtime [BPA = −0.55 s (−1.03; −0.07, BHPA = −2.25 s (−3.09; −1.41], greater elbow flexion strength [BPA = 0.03 Nm kg−1 (0

  6. Interaction Behaviors of Fibrinopeptide-A and Graphene with Different Functional Groups: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Hao; Wang, Qun; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Ke-Feng; Fang, Liming; Ren, Fuzeng; Lu, Guoming; Zhang, Hongping

    2017-08-24

    Graphene as a 2-dimentional material has been widely used in the field of biomedical applications. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on the fibrinopeptide-A and graphene surfaces with N and O modifications. A new set of parameters for the CHARMM force field are developed to describe the behaviors of the surfaces. Our results indicate that the existence of most oxygen and nitrogen groups may enhance the interaction between the surfaces and the peptide, whereas the substitutional nitrogen on the graphene surface does not make a big difference. The improvement of interaction is not only because of the functional group on the surface, but also the defective morphology. The defective morphology also clears away the surface water layer. Our results suggest that the interactions between graphene biomolecules can be affected by functionalizing the surface with different types of functional groups, which is in accordance with the theory of material design.

  7. Surface colonized silver nano particles over chitosan poly-electrolyte micro-spheres and their multi-functional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B.; Asha, S.; Nimrodh Ananth, A.; Vanithakumari, G.; Okram, G. S.; Jose, Sujin P.; Jothi Rajan, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate polyelectrolyte (TPP) microspheres, decorated and surface functionalized with silver nanoparticles (NPs) of average diameter of 15 nm, were synthesized following a simple two-step procedure. These Ag NP-functionalized polyelectrolyte microspheres (Ag-CSPMs) are found to be biocompatible and enhancing the reactive oxygen species in curcumin with excellent anti-bacterial activity for selected Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, making them much attractive relative to bare surface counterparts; the well-stabilized silver NPs do not form any agglomerations on the surface of the chitosan microspheres. They also show excellent cytotoxic behavior towards MCF7 cell lines, showing a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 32 μg ml-1. Therefore, Ag-CSPMs exhibit multi-functional ability having potential towards theranostics applications.

  8. Executive Function Skills and Academic Achievement Gains in Prekindergarten: Contributions of Learning-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner; Farran, Dale Clark; Fuhs, Mary Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Although research suggests associations between children's executive function skills and their academic achievement, the specific mechanisms that may help explain these associations in early childhood are unclear. This study examined whether children's (N = 1,103; M age = 54.5 months) executive function skills at the beginning of prekindergarten…

  9. Evaluation of Self-Concept and Emotional-Behavioral Functioning of Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Lori A; Rosen, Carol; Sarshalom, Rachel; Grossman, Leslie; Sala, Debra A; Grossman, John A I

    2016-01-01

    Background  The reported incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is 0.87 to 2.2 per 1,000 live births. The psychological functioning, including self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning, of children with BPBI has only been examined to a limited extent. Objective  The purpose of this study was to describe the self-concept and emotional-behavioral functioning in children with BPBI from both the child's and parent's perspective. Methods  Thirty-one children with BPBI, mean age 11 years 1 month, completed the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED) and Piers Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS). The parents answered questions from the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Parent Rating Scales (BASC-2 PRS). Results  The scores from the DAP:SPED drawings showed further evaluation was not strongly indicated in the majority of the children. The PHCSCS Total score demonstrated that the children had a strongly positive self-concept. The parental responses to the BASC-2 PRS indicated that few children were at risk or in the clinically significant range for the four composite scores and all of the component clinical or adaptive scales. Gender comparison revealed females exhibited greater anxiety than males. Conclusion  Both children and parents reported a positive psychological well-being for the majority of the children. Parents had greater concerns about their child's social-emotional functioning, particularly anxiety. An interdisciplinary approach (occupational therapy evaluation, clinical observation, and parental interview) is necessary to determine the need for mental health referral.

  10. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  11. Education Based on Theory of Planned Behavior over Sexual Function of Women with Breast Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Jalambadani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sexual function in patients with breast cancer, especially in younger patients, is an important issue from clinical and psychosocial perspectives. Theory of planned behavior (TPB is one of the important theories that explain the main process of adopting healthy behaviors. This study investigated the effect of education based on TPB on sexual function of women with breast cancer in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 women (60 women in education group, 60 women in control group visiting Razavi Hospital of Mashhad city were studied, selected by using the random method in 2016. The data collection tool was a questionnaire which was completed during the interview. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were determined through the face and content validity and through Cronbach's alpha and test-retest, respectively. Results: Data were analyzed using statistical SPSS 22 software. Using linear regression analysis, it was determined that attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC predict 0.85 overall of the total variance of sexual function intention, which among these variables, the effect of the subjective norm was more than the other ones (P < 0.05. After educational intervention, the average rates of knowledge, attitude, PBC, and intention of sexual function in sex education group were significantly increased (P < 0.05; these changes were not meaningful in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in subjective norm between the two groups after intervention. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that TPB can be used in sex education interventions and have relevant results.

  12. Thrash, flip, or jump: the behavioral and functional continuum of terrestrial locomotion in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Hsieh, S Tonia

    2013-08-01

    Moving on land versus in water imposes dramatically different requirements on the musculoskeletal system. Although many limbed vertebrates, such as salamanders and prehistoric tetrapodomorphs, have an axial system specialized for aquatic locomotion and an appendicular system adapted for terrestrial locomotion, diverse extant teleosts use the axial musculoskeletal system (body plus caudal fin) to move in these two physically disparate environments. In fact, teleost fishes living at the water's edge demonstrate diversity in natural history that is reflected in a variety of terrestrial behaviors: (1) species that have only incidental contact with land (such as largemouth bass, Micropterus) will repeatedly thrash, which can roll an individual downhill, but cannot produce effective overland movements, (2) species that have occasional contact with land (like Gambusia, the mosquitofish, which evade predators by stranding themselves) will produce directed terrestrial movement via a tail-flip jump, and (3) species that spend more than half of their lives on land (like the mudskipper, Periopthalmus) will produce a prone-jump, a behavior that allows the fish to anticipate where it will land at the end of the flight phase. Both tail-flip and prone jumps are characterized by a two-phase movement consisting of body flexion followed by extension-a movement pattern that is markedly similar to the aquatic fast-start. Convergence in kinematic pattern between effective terrestrial behaviors and aquatic fast starts suggests that jumps are an exaptation of a neuromuscular system that powers unsteady escape behaviors in the water. Despite such evidence that terrestrial behaviors evolved from an ancestral behavior that is ubiquitous among teleosts, some teleosts are unable to move effectively on land-possibly due to morphological trade-offs, wherein specialization for one environment comes at a cost to performance in the other. Indeed, upon emergence onto land, gravity places an

  13. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brittany M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Walton, Léo M; Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Grogan, Scott W; Tyler, Mitchell E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Caldera, Kristin; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI) values during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy, but not in the absence of therapy, to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere) as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  14. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  15. Examination of swallowing maneuver training and transfer of practiced behaviors to laryngeal vestibule kinematics in functional swallowing of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Renata; Azola, Alba; Macrae, Phoebe; Sunday, Kirstyn; Mejia, Veerley; Vose, Alicia; Humbert, Ianessa A

    2017-05-15

    Swallowing maneuvers are routinely trained in dysphagia rehabilitation with the assumption that practiced behaviors transfer to functional swallowing, however transfer is rarely examined in the deglutition literature. The goal of this study was to train the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure (vLVC) maneuver, which is a swallowing maneuver that targets prolonged laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC). In two different training experiments, 69 healthy adults underwent Long-hold (hold vLVC as long as possible) or Short-hold vLVC training (hold vLVC for 2s). Before and after vLVC training, natural swallows (swallowing without a therapeutic technique) were completed. The outcome variables included laryngeal vestibule closure reaction time and the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure. Results indicate that during both Long-hold and Short-hold vLVC trainings, vLVC swallows had faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times and longer durations of laryngeal vestibule closure than in pre-training 5ml liquid swallows. However, only faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times transferred to post-training 5ml liquid swallows (20-24% faster), but not prolonged durations of laryngeal vestibule closure. Our findings suggest that swallowing maneuver training has the potential to induce transfer of what was practiced to functional swallowing behavior, although not all practiced behaviors may generalize. These findings are significant for bolstering the effectiveness of dysphagia management in medical settings and should be tested in individuals with dysphagia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional recovery in lumbar spine surgery: a controlled trial of health behavior change counseling to improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolasky, Richard L; Riley, Lee H; Maggard, Anica M; Bedi, Saaniya; Wegener, Stephen T

    2013-09-01

    In 2001, the Institute of Medicine issued a challenge to the American health care system to improve the quality of care by focusing on six major areas: safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency, and equity. The patient-centered model of care directly addresses important limits of surgical care of the lumbar spine, i.e., the lack of effective methods for increasing patient participation and engagement in post-operative follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that post-surgical outcomes are better among those with higher patient activation. We therefore developed an intervention based on the principles of motivational interviewing to increase patient activation: the Functional Recovery in Lumbar Spine Surgery Health Behavior Change Counseling (HBCC) intervention. The HBCC was designed to maximize post-operative engagement and participation in physical therapy and home exercise, to improve functional recovery, and to decrease pain in individuals undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery. From December 2009 through October 2012, 120 participants were recruited and divided into two groups: those receiving (intervention group, 60) and not receiving (control group, 60) the HBCC intervention. The current manuscript provides a detailed description of the theoretical framework and study design of the HBCC and describes the implementation of this health behavior intervention in a university-based spine service. The HBCC provides a model for conducting health behavioral research in a real-world setting. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  18. Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Bethel, James; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Li, Tiandong; Woods, Steven P; Patton, E Doyle; Ren, Weijia; Thornton, Sarah E; Major-Wilson, Hanna O; Puga, Ana M; Sleasman, John W; Rudy, Bret J; Wilson, Craig M; Garvie, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was designed to examine the impact of initiation and timing of ART on neurocognitive functioning in YLWH in the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. Treatment naïve YLWH age 18-24 completed baseline and four additional assessments of attention/working memory, complex executive, and motor functioning over 3 years. Group 1 co-enrolled in an early ART initiation study and initiated ART at enrollment CD4 >350 (n = 56); group 2 had CD4 >350 and were not initiating ART (n = 66); group 3 initiated ART with CD4 treatment guidelines at the time. Treatment was de-intensified to boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy at 48 weeks for those in group 1 with suppressed viral load. Covariates included demographic, behavioral, and medical history variables. Analyses used hierarchical linear modeling. All groups showed improved performance with peak at 96 weeks in all three functional domains. Trajectories of change were not significantly associated with treatment, timing of treatment initiation, or ART de-intensification. Demographic variables and comorbidities were associated with baseline functioning but did not directly interact with change over time. In conclusion, YLWH showed improvement in neurocognitive functioning over time that may be related to practice effects and nonspecific impact of study participation. Neither improvement nor decline in functioning was associated with timing of ART initiation or therapy de-intensification.

  19. Central Synaptic Mechanisms Underlie Short-Term Olfactory Habituation in "Drosophila" Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Aoife; Karak, Somdatta; Priya, Rashi; Das, Abhijit; Ayyub, Champakali; Ito, Kei; Rodrigues, Veronica; Ramaswami, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Naive "Drosophila" larvae show vigorous chemotaxis toward many odorants including ethyl acetate (EA). Chemotaxis toward EA is substantially reduced after a 5-min pre-exposure to the odorant and recovers with a half-time of [image omitted]20 min. An analogous behavioral decrement can be induced without odorant-receptor activation through…

  20. Do agonistic interactions underlie the segregation and relative abundances between two Loxosceles species (Araneae: Sicariidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marta L; Diniz, Suzana; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2014-05-01

    The medically important spiders Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) are segregated in Curitiba, southern Brazil, where L. intermedia is more abundant and widespread than L. laeta. Because they share similar microhabitat preferences and wander in search of web sites, agonistic encounters are likely to occur. The purposes of this study were to describe agonistic interactions and interpret their consequences for the relative abundances and spatial segregation of L. intermedia and L. laeta. Experimental contests were performed between residents and intruders. Asymmetries between contestants included sex, age, species, weight, and residence status. Nine behavioral categories were defined. Through discriminant analyses, it was possible to differentiate spider sex, species, and residence based on their agonistic behaviors. Intruders, juveniles, and L. intermedia individuals were better characterized by exploratory behaviors, whereas L. laeta females were differentiated by aggressiveness. By performing a multiple logistic regression, with winning or defeat as a dependent variable of sex, age, species, size, weight, and residence, it was possible to say that residents and L. intermedia individuals had the highest winning odds in contests, whereas juveniles had lower winning odds than adults. Advantages of the prior residence may help to explain the predominance of L. laeta in old colonization sites, whereas the higher winning odds of L. intermedia and less aggressive behavior toward conspecifics may lead to a successful establishment of dense populations in new sites. A better understanding of agonistic interactions as a mechanism of spacing, segregation, and species replacement among spiders may be helpful for control purposes.

  1. Stress and eating disorder behavior in anorexia nervosa as a function of menstrual cycle status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, Leah M; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2014-03-01

    Fluctuations in ovarian hormones during the menstrual cycle and psychosocial stress contribute to eating disorder (ED) behavior. Using ecological momentary assessment techniques, this study examined relationships between stress and binge eating, self-induced vomiting, and dietary restriction based on menstrual cycle status in anorexia nervosa (AN). One hundred nine females with full and subthreshold AN (17-45 years old) recorded ED behavior and stress ratings over 2 weeks. Using hierarchical linear modeling, individuals with eumenorrhea and those with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea were compared. Following episodes of meal skipping, momentary stress decreased in individuals with normal menstrual cycles and increased in those with irregular menstrual cycles. Results suggest that changes in stress severity in response to food restriction may differ based on ovarian hormonal status and may be a mechanism by which AN is maintained in individuals without menstrual disturbance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functions of loneliness, social support, health behaviors, and stress in association with poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris; Passalacqua, Stacey A

    2010-06-01

    Prior research has established clear links between social support, loneliness, and various health outcomes. This study was designed to test several theoretically derived explanations for such associations. A survey of 265 adults ages 19-85 years was conducted with measures of social support, loneliness, stress, health behaviors, and general health. Results showed that loneliness was more strongly associated with number of close relationships than with sheer contact with social network members. Further, loneliness mediated the association between social support and better health. In addition, health behaviors, especially poor sleep and medical adherence, mediated the association between loneliness and poor health. These results provide confirmation of theoretical mechanisms postulated to explain why loneliness is associated with poor health.

  3. Behavioral acculturation and enculturation and psychological functioning among Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan S K; Omizo, Michael M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Asian American college students' behavioral acculturation to U.S. cultural norms and behavioral enculturation to Asian cultural norms and their relationships to ratings on measures of cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, collective self-esteem, acculturative stress, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. As hypothesized, the results indicated that both acculturation and enculturation were positively related to the membership dimension of collective self-esteem. Although not hypothesized, the results indicated that acculturation was positively related to cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and the public dimension of collective self-esteem. In addition, enculturation was positively related to the private dimension and the importance of identity dimension of collective self-esteem.

  4. Aggregation behavior of nanodiamonds and their functionalized analogs in an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chintal; Chen, Kun; Mitra, Somenath

    2014-03-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous dispersions of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) and carboxylated nanodiamonds (DND-COOH) which were synthesized via a microwave process is presented. Both forms of DNDs were found to be relatively stable in aqueous solutions, but aggregated rapidly in the presence of mono and divalent salts. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values for DNDs and DND-COOH were estimated to be between 8 and 10 mM for NaCl and 7 and 8 mM for MgCl2. In general, the formation of carboxyl groups on the DND surface did not alter colloidal behavior as dramatically as it is known to do for other nanocarbons especially carbon nanotubes.

  5. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Katja Anna; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lambek, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant...... in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance....

  7. Single-cell behavior and population heterogeneity: solving an inverse problem to compute the intrinsic physiological state functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetsieris, Konstantinos; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2012-04-15

    The dynamics of isogenic cell populations can be described by cell population balance models that account for phenotypic heterogeneity. To utilize the predictive power of these models, however, we must know the rates of single-cell reaction and division and the bivariate partition probability density function. These three intrinsic physiological state (IPS) functions can be obtained by solving an inverse problem that requires knowledge of the phenotypic distributions for the overall cell population, the dividing cell subpopulation and the newborn cell subpopulation. We present here a robust computational procedure that can accurately estimate the IPS functions for heterogeneous cell populations. A detailed parametric analysis shows how the accuracy of the inverse solution is affected by discretization parameters, the type of non-parametric estimators used, the qualitative characteristics of phenotypic distributions and the unknown partitioning probability density function. The effect of finite sampling and measurement errors on the accuracy of the recovered IPS functions is also assessed. Finally, we apply the procedure to estimate the IPS functions of an E. coli population carrying an IPTG-inducible genetic toggle network. This study completes the development of an integrated experimental and computational framework that can become a powerful tool for quantifying single-cell behavior using measurements from heterogeneous cell populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of vicarious trial-and-error behavior in odor discrimination learning in the rat: relation to hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Griesbach, G; Amsel, A

    1997-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has suggested that hippocampal electrolytic lesions result in a deficit in simultaneous, black-white discrimination learning and reduce the frequency of vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) at a choice-point. VTE is a term Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior, moving its head from one stimulus to the other at a choice point, and has been proposed as a major nonspatial feature of hippocampal function in both visual and olfactory discrimination learning. Simultaneous odor discrimination and VTE behavior were examined at three different ages. The results were that 16-day-old pups made fewer VTEs and learned much more slowly than 30- and 60-day-olds, a finding in accord with levels of hippocampal maturity in the rat.

  9. An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic control of social behavior: Lessons from mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Giovanni; Chelini, Gabriele; Bozzi, Yuri

    2017-05-15

    Social behavior is evolutionary conserved, and is thought to be evolved since it increased reproductive and survival fitness of living species. In humans, disturbances of social behavior are a peculiar pathological trait of neurodevelopmental disorders, namely autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is defined by deficits in two core domains (social interaction/communication and repetitive/restrictive behaviors), which emerge during early postnatal development. ASD has a strong genetic component: copy number variations, de novo and familial mutations, as well as epigenetic modifications have been reported in a huge number of genes. Recent studies in mice demonstrate that mutations in a wide variety of ASD-associated genes can cause neurodevelopmental defects, which subsequently result in social behavior disturbances during early postnatal age and adulthood. From these studies, it clearly emerges that functionally interrelated cellular mechanisms underlie social behavior and its disturbances in ASD. Indeed, most of ASD-associated genes control neuronal differentiation and migration, growth of neuronal connections and synaptic function. Here we will present the recent advances in understanding the genetic determinants of social behavior, as they emerge from the study of ASD mouse models, and discuss the importance of these studies for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to overcome social disturbances in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of metformin on learning and memory behaviors and brain mitochondrial functions in high fat diet induced insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2012-10-05

    Metformin is a first line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous study reported that high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment. However, the effects of metformin on learning behavior and brain mitochondrial functions in HFD-induced insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into two groups to receive either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks. Then, rats in each group were divided into two treatment groups to receive either vehicle or metformin (15mg/kg BW twice daily) for 21days. All rats were tested for cognitive behaviors using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and blood samples were collected for the determination of glucose, insulin, and malondialdehyde. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and the brain was removed for studying brain mitochondrial function and brain oxidative stress. We found that in the HFD group, metformin significantly attenuated the insulin resistant condition by improving metabolic parameters, decreasing peripheral and brain oxidative stress levels, and improving learning behavior, compared to the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, metformin completely prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by long-term HFD consumption. Our findings suggest that metformin effectively improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and completely restores learning behavior, which were all impaired by long-term HFD consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  13. Concurrent Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Mojgan; Shahrivar, Zahra; Tehrani Doost, Mehdi; Khademi, Mojgan; Zargari Nejad, Ghazale

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in which impairment of executive functions plays an important role. The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in children with ADHD. Thirty children, aged 7-12 years, attending the child and adolescent clinic of Roozbeh hospital and diagnosed with ADHD according to interview with a child and adolescent psychiatrist, formed our ADHD group. In contrast, thirty participants of the control group were selected from 7 to 12 year-old students according to Conners' Teacher/Parent Rating Scale and did not have ADHD. The kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version-Persian version was also completed for all children to rule out other psychiatric disorders. After oral consent, parents of 60 children (ADHD = 30, control = 30), completed three questionnaires of ADHD-Rating Scale-IV, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Version and BRIEF. Children in ADHD group got higher scores than those in the control group in all subscales and indices of BRIEF (P < 0.001). There were also good correlations between subscales and indices of BRIEF and the two other rating scales (P < 0.001). BRIEF could be used as a valid tool to assess behavioral aspects of executive functions, especially to discriminate children with ADHD and normal ones.

  14. Relationship between total testosterone, cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris

    2013-02-01

    Studies show that testosterone levels are associated with cognitive function, depression, and sleep quality in the general population. However, these relationships in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not on dialysis have not yet been evaluated before. All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, routine urine and biochemical analysis, 24-h urine collection to measure urinary protein excretion and creatinine clearance, and evaluation of cognitive function, depressive behavior, and sleep quality. In total, 109 CKD patients were enrolled. Total testosterone levels in stage 3, 4, and 5 CKD patients were 8.32 ± 4.35, 6.71 ± 3.12, and 4.22 ± 1.28 ng/ml, respectively (p Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score were 26.2 ± 1.9, 7.1 ± 3.4, and 8.6 ± 6.4, respectively. In linear regression analysis, total testosterone levels were independently associated with SMMSE score [b 0.170, confidence interval (CI) 0.047-0.293, p 0.008] and BDI score (b -0.750, CI -1.283 to -0.216, p 0.006) but not with sleep quality. Total serum testosterone levels were independently associated with cognitive function and depressive behavior but not with sleep disorders in stage 3-5 CKD patients not on dialysis.

  15. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  16. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; Hermes, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH) and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc.) and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc.) in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation) and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking) in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological, behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:26539086

  17. Influence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders on Academic Performance and School Functions of Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yu; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Kao, Wei-Chih; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-12-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) are associated with negative school outcomes. The study aimed to examine the impact of ADHD and ODD/CD on various school functions. 395 youths with ADHD (244 with ADHD + ODD/CD and 151 with ADHD only) and 156 controls received semi-structured psychiatric interviews. School functions were assessed and compared between each group with a multiple-level model. The results showed that youths with ADHD had poorer performance across different domains of school functioning. Youths with ADHD + ODD/CD had more behavioral problems but similar academic performance than those with ADHD only. The multiple linear regression models revealed that ADHD impaired academic performance while ODD/CD aggravated behavioral problems. Our findings imply that comorbid ODD/CD may specifically contribute to social difficulties in youths with ADHD. Measures of early detection and intervention for ODD/CD should be conducted to prevent adverse outcomes.

  18. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Influences on the Test-Retest Reliability of Functional Connectivity MRI and its Relationship with Behavioral Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Stephanie; Spann, Marisa N; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R Todd; Scheinost, Dustin

    2017-11-01

    Best practices are currently being developed for the acquisition and processing of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data used to estimate brain functional organization-or "functional connectivity." Standards have been proposed based on test-retest reliability, but open questions remain. These include how amount of data per subject influences whole-brain reliability, the influence of increasing runs versus sessions, the spatial distribution of reliability, the reliability of multivariate methods, and, crucially, how reliability maps onto prediction of behavior. We collected a dataset of 12 extensively sampled individuals (144 min data each across 2 identically configured scanners) to assess test-retest reliability of whole-brain connectivity within the generalizability theory framework. We used Human Connectome Project data to replicate these analyses and relate reliability to behavioral prediction. Overall, the historical 5-min scan produced poor reliability averaged across connections. Increasing the number of sessions was more beneficial than increasing runs. Reliability was lowest for subcortical connections and highest for within-network cortical connections. Multivariate reliability was greater than univariate. Finally, reliability could not be used to improve prediction; these findings are among the first to underscore this distinction for functional connectivity. A comprehensive understanding of test-retest reliability, including its limitations, supports the development of best practices in the field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Altered metabolism and persistent starvation behaviors caused by reduced AMPK function in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik C Johnson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisms must utilize multiple mechanisms to maintain energetic homeostasis in the face of limited nutrient availability. One mechanism involves activation of the heterotrimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cell-autonomous sensor to energetic changes regulated by ATP to AMP ratios. We examined the phenotypic consequences of reduced AMPK function, both through RNAi knockdown of the gamma subunit (AMPKγ and through expression of a dominant negative alpha (AMPKα variant in Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced AMPK signaling leads to hypersensitivity to starvation conditions as measured by lifespan and locomotor activity. Locomotor levels in flies with reduced AMPK function were lower during unstressed conditions, but starvation-induced hyperactivity, an adaptive response to encourage foraging, was significantly higher than in wild type. Unexpectedly, total dietary intake was greater in animals with reduced AMPK function yet total triglyceride levels were lower. AMPK mutant animals displayed starvation-like lipid accumulation patterns in metabolically key liver-like cells, oenocytes, even under fed conditions, consistent with a persistent starved state. Measurements of O(2 consumption reveal that metabolic rates are greater in animals with reduced AMPK function. Lastly, rapamycin treatment tempers the starvation sensitivity and lethality associated with reduced AMPK function. Collectively, these results are consistent with models that AMPK shifts energy usage away from expenditures into a conservation mode during nutrient-limited conditions at a cellular level. The highly conserved AMPK subunits throughout the Metazoa, suggest such findings may provide significant insight for pharmaceutical strategies to manipulate AMPK function in humans.