WorldWideScience

Sample records for underhand cut-and-fill stope

  1. Rock mechanics of crown pillars between cut-and-fill stopes at the Mount Isa mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.F.; Bridges, M.C.

    1980-05-15

    At both levels, the leading stopes experienced bad ground conditions due to high stresses in the stope's backs when the crown pillars were about 35 m high. At 9 level, cut-and-fill mining stopped and most of the crown pillars were extracted by a slot-and-massfire method. At 11 level, cut-and-fill mining continued. Shear displacement along bedding planes began within and around the crown pillars of the leading stopes at 11 level, and spread through other crown pillars and to the hangingwall of the stoping system. Destressing and good ground conditions occurred where shear occurred, with further concentrations of stress in other areas. Crown pillars are being extracted to leave minimal 1:2 height to width diaphragms under the stopes above. Ground behavior of the 11 level crown pillars was investigated by observation, stress measurement, regional surveying of displacement and finite element models. An explanation of the ground behavior has evolved from this work. Bedding planes with an estimated angle of sliding friction of 10/sup 0/ were the main factor determining the behavior of this area.

  2. Rock mechanics applied to cut and fill mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, D.R.

    1980-05-15

    Cut and fill mining and recent changes made possible by the application of rock mechanics principles are briefly introduced. The principal interests of professional groups associated with the industry, and incentives that exist to encourage research of benefit to the industry in general, are identified. Details are given of recent advances in rock mechanics instrumentation and technique by drawing to a large extent on experience gained in projects that have been conducted jointly with the mining companies. Examples of the application of the results of this research are given on a mine site basis. Reference is made where possible to papers that describe the examples in more detail. The review is concluded with identification of topics that require further research.

  3. Estimating Sediment Losses Generated from Highway Cut and Fill Slopes in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoes famed water clarity has gradually declined over the last 50 years, partially as a result of fine sediment particle (FSP, < 16 micrometers in diameter) contributions from urban stormwater. Of these urban sources, highway cut and fill sl...

  4. Rock mechanics and the economics of cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, G.

    1980-05-15

    The application of rock mechanics to mining has great economic potential. Factors such as loss of ore, rock-dilution, possibilities of machanization and rock support are all influenced by the degree of rock mechanics involvement. In particular loss of ore is limited by the correct dimensioning of pillars and remnants. Rock-dilution, depending upon caving, can in the same way be mastered by the right dimensions of stopes and pillars and of rock supporting. Possibilities of mechanization depend upon sizes of drifts and stopes, stope availabilities and access to the stopes, all depending upon a considered rock mechanic investigation. Also shut-downs in the stopes owing to caving can be affected in the same way. Consequences on the mining economy for cut-and-fil mining are illustrated concerning loss of ore, rock-dilution, mechanization levels and rock support. The biggest influence can be made on rock-dilution and mechanization. Under special circumstances loss of ore can be of the same magnitude, namely if the ore production per year is directly influenced by the loss of ore and can not be compensated by other mining activities. Rock support is of less economic importance compared with rock-dilution and mechanization, presupposed no less of ore-production.

  5. Uranium Extraction by stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Aiguo; Li Yu; Li Congkui; Ouyang Jiangong

    1996-01-01

    The stope leaching is an effective way to extract uranium from hard rock deposit. On the basis of test results of uranium extracting by stope leaching at ore body number 30 in deposit 101 with combination of technological features of stope leaching, the analysis and comprehensive summary are emphasized on three key techniques-ore stacking in-place after blasting in stope, sprinkling of lixiviant and uranium recovery as well. These techniques will play an active role in developing stope leaching in China

  6. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  7. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  8. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  9. Stope and Gully Support: Final report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, MKC

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This project had two objectives namely: Develop a rationale for the design of stope support systems. Determine support resistance criteria for the support of stope gullies for both static and dynamic loading and develop improved support systems...

  10. Effective roof support for tabular stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available on surface in the laboratory and in a mock-up stope. A risk analysis, in which technical, logistical and economical aspects were assessed, was done to determine the critical areas of the system. The tests and risk assessment of the roof support system... IN MOCK-UP STOPE............................................................................. 29 5.2.1 University of Pretoria mock-up stope......................................................29 5.2.2 Kloof mine mock-up stope...

  11. Sub level open stoping mining method for the Remaja type deposits, Kalan, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumaryanto, A.

    2014-01-01

    According to historic drilling, probing and trenching, geologists previously assumed that the Eko Remaja type deposits belonged to the vein type family. To test this assumption, it was decided to drive a tunnel into Eko Remaja hill, in which eighteen mineralized intersections were discovered. A small mining test has been carried out in the area where the potentially mineable veins are concentrated. The idea was to check the continuity of the mineralization and assist in considering possible mining methods. Two methods were considered: the traditional and well known cut and fill method, or the long parallel holes method. This second method has not been used a lot up to now so was dropped. Regarding cut and fill testing, it was decided to test vein 179 from the tunnel level at 450-460 m above sea level. As a vein continuity check a ramp was driven in vein 169 and a drift in vein 169 at both levels 169 and 179. Vein 179 vein seemed rather regular at 450 level, but was quite different in the ramp in 169 vein and in the 179 drift at level 460. No continuity at all existed between the two levels or at level 460. Although good quality ore was found, it was considered that it could not be mined by the cut and fill method due to a lack of continuity. Hence the regular vein type concept was abandoned for the Eko Remaja type deposits, which looked more like some kind of “stockwork”, although not very complicated, because there are at the maximum three general directions of the mineralization. Fortunately, the major part of the reserves are concentrated in the four veins 157,169,179 and 184 which are rather close to each other. Although the quantity of waste will be important, diluted ore could still be extracted. Fortunately ore and the waste are quite distinctive in aspect, colour, shape, specific gravity and radioactivity. Therefore sorting is included in the present study, considering low capital and operating costs means and equipment. Two methods have been studied

  12. Alternative support systems for mechanized stopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available , it is not envisaged that such machines will cut in-stope pillars. This paper describes the alternative support systems that will replace the pillars and the stope geometries that will be required for this type of mining. The paper describes how the support resistance...

  13. Realistic dynamic stope support testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available mass of 10 000kg from a height of 3 metres to impact at a velocity of 7.7 m/s upon the target ‘rock mass’. The target mass was represented by a discontinuous but compact arrangement of steel-clad concrete blocks which would transmit and disperse... the concentrated impact load downward on to a collapsible roof. Carefully designed, shaped concrete blocks would represent the fractured hangingwall layer of the stope, the stability of which would be determined largely by the support system under test...

  14. Climatic Controls on Fluvial Cut-and-Fill Cycles in Drainages with In-stream Wetlands in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, J. A.; Latorre, C.

    2004-12-01

    Fluvial systems that possess in-stream wetlands, or marshes, are common in arid environments where water-tables are emergent and large discharge events uncommon. These streambeds are protected from erosion by a dense cover of hydrophyllic and phreatophytic vegetation. Along the Pacific slope of the Central Andes in northern Chile (~20°-26°S), which includes some of the driest sectors of the Atacama Desert, in-stream wetlands occur in deeply incised bedrock canyons on the Andean slope and piedmont. Over the last several years we have compiled a detailed record of late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation changes along the Pacific slope of the Andes through the collection, analysis, and radiocarbon determination of over 180 rodent middens. Rodent middens record past changes in precipitation levels by tracking the downslope migrations of plant species into the hyperarid desert. We have also assembled a record of the cut-and-fill cycles of several fluvial systems with in-stream wetlands located at various distances (5-50 km) from the zone of ground-water recharge in the High Andes through stratigraphic mapping and the radiocarbon dating of over 100 samples of organic material within these wetlands. Combined, this well-dated record of hillslope vegetation and stream aggradation and incision allows us to assess the influence of climatic change on stream processes, including the nature of stream response, the sensitivity of different stream systems to climatic change, and the response times of streams to climate changes that vary in distance from ground-water recharge zones. The combined data set shows that in-stream wetland aggradation is directly linked to changes in climate, with aggradation occurring during wetter climatic periods when water tables are high. Incision occurs during dry climatic periods when water tables are lower and streambed sediments are no longer anchored by dense vegetation. Streams that are closer to ground-water recharge zones are more

  15. Shrink stope design using an inventory model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taylor

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fact that current practice in shrink-stoping in hard rock mining invariably ignores the inventory holding cost of the blasted ore. We believe, and show by example, that ignoring this cost could make the difference between profit and loss in an industry that, at present, needs all the help it can get.

  16. A curve number simulation of gully cut-and-fill cycles: impact of agro-management on gully activity in the Tigray Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanckriet, Sil; Monsieurs, Elise; Frankl, Amaury; Mesfin, Gebrekidan; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Gully cut-and-fill dynamics are often thought to be driven by climate and/or deforestation related to population pressure. However, in this case-study of nine representative catchments in the North Ethiopian Highlands, we find that neither climate changes nor deforestation can explain gully morphology changes over the 20th century. Firstly, by using a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate historical catchment-wide curve numbers, we show that the landscape was already heavily degraded in the 19th and early 20th century - a period with low population density. The mean catchment-wide curve number (>80) one century ago was, under the regional climatic conditions, already resulting in considerable simulated historical runoff responses. Secondly, 20th century land cover and runoff coefficient changes were confronted with 20th century changing gully morphologies. As the results show, large-scale land cover changes and deforestation cannot explain the observed processes. The study therefore invokes interactions between authigenic factors, small-scale plot boundary changes, cropland management and sociopolitical forces to explain the gully cut processes. Finally, semi-structured interviews and sedistratigraphic analysis of three filled gullies confirm the dominant impact of (crop)land management (tillage, check dams in gullies and channel diversions) on gully cut-and-fill processes. Since agricultural land management - including land tenure and land distribution - has been commonly neglected in earlier related research, we argue therefore that it can be a very strong driver of 20th century gully morphodynamics.

  17. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  18. Application of short rockbolts in ultradeep tabular stoping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, MKC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Most rock related fatalities and injuries in South African gold mines occur in the stope face area. These mines generally do not use rockbolts to support this area. This paper describes short rockbolt applications in the stope face area in a narrow...

  19. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  20. Rock Mechanics Aspects of Stoping Without Back-area Support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    King, RG

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The report describes an experiment carried out at Hartebeesfontein Gold Mine, No. 6 Shaft, 77 N 25 Stope between October 1985 and November 1986, which involved mining two panels without back-area support and with different support resistances...

  1. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    programme, male involvement has the following basic aspects: Initiation of dialogue on child spacing within the ... that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are not outsiders. ... pioneering work of Marie Stopes in caring for women in the poor communities of London by extending the ...

  2. Prism adaptation of underhand throwing: rotational inertia and the primary and latent aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Julia J C; Stephen, Damian G; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, M T

    2009-06-05

    The effect of prism adaptation on movement is typically reduced when movement at test (with prisms removed) is different from movement at training. Previous research [J. Fernández-Ruiz, C. Hall-Haro, R. Díaz, J. Mischner, P. Vergara, J. C. Lopez-Garcia, Learning motor synergies makes use of information on muscular load, Learning & Memory 7 (2000) 193-198] suggests, however, that some adaptation is latent and only revealed through further testing in which the movement at training is fully reinstated. Movement in their training trials was throwing overhand to a vertical target with a mass attached to the arm. The critical test trials involved the same act initially without the attached mass and then with the attached mass. In replication, we studied throwing underhand to a horizontal target with left shifting prisms and a dissociation of the throwing arm's mass and moment of inertia. The two main results were that the observed latent aftereffect (a) depended on the similarity of training and test moments of inertia, and (b) combined with the primary aftereffect to yield a condition-independent sum. Discussion focused on a parallel between prism adaptation and principles governing recall highlighted in investigations of implicit memory: whether given training (study) conditions lead to good or poor persistence of adaptation (memory performance) at test depends on the conditions at test relative to the conditions at training (study).

  3. Mine safety sensors: Test results in a simulated test stope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the field of view of a thermal camera for identifying the entire extent of a loose rock in a narrow mine stope. Due to the field of view limitations of even wide-angle thermal cameras it is necessary to stitch together multiple image to get a full view... that are colder due to a fracture. To do this we compute: (1) a measure of flatness within a fixed radius, and (2) the coefficient of variation of temperature (CVT) within the same neighbourhood. The Fig. 5. The un-mounted 3D-thermal scanner flatness and the CVT...

  4. Equipment for broken ore transport from stopes, mainly for radioactive ore transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejlik, V.; Strnadel, M.; Dostal, O.

    1975-01-01

    Equipment is described for the transport of broken ore from stopes, mainly of radioactive ores. The equipment is made from steel or plastics. It consists of a baseplate and of one or more centerings; it does not capture radioactive broken ores which improves the working environment in mines and increases safety of work. (Oy)

  5. Mapping seismic vulnerability in stopes in deep South African gold mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available mapping of faults, joints and mining-induced fractures; observations of mining practice and support performance; and mapping of rock falls and ejections. New technologies that are being developed for in-stope monitoring include an electronic sounding...

  6. Control technique of spontaneous combustion in fully mechan ized stope during period of end caving under complex mining influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Benqing

    2018-01-01

    In view of the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion of coal seam occurring during the period of end caving under complex mining conditions, taking the 1116 (3) stope of Guqiao mine as the object of study, the causes of spontaneous combustion during the period of end caving are analyzed, according to the specific geological conditions of the stope to develop corresponding fire prevention measures, including the reduction of air supply and air leakage in goaf, reduce the amount of coal left, reasonable drainage, nitrogen injection for spontaneous combustion prevention, grouting for spontaneous combustion prevention and permanent closure, fundamentally eliminates the potential for spontaneous combustion during the period of 1116(3) stope end caving. The engineering practice shows that this kind of measure has reference value for the prevention and control of spontaneous combustion during the period of stope end caving.

  7. Optimization long hole blast fragmentation techniques and detonating circuit underground uranium mine stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Yang Lizhi; Song Lixia; Qin De'en; Xue Yongshe; Wang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Aim at high rate of large blast fragmentation, a big difficulty in long hole drilling and blasting underground uranium mine stope, it is pointed out at the same time of taking integrated technical management measures, the key is to optimize the drilling and blasting parameters and insure safety the act of one that primes, adopt 'minimum burden' blasting technique, renew the stope fragmentation process, and use new process of hole bottom indirect initiation fragmentation; optimize the detonating circuit and use safe, reliable and economically rational duplex non-electric detonating circuit. The production practice shows that under the guarantee of strictly controlled construction quality, the application of optimized blast fragmentation technique has enhanced the reliability of safety detonation and preferably solved the problem of high rate of large blast fragments. (authors)

  8. Application of combined shrinkage stoping and pillarless sublevel caving mining method to a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Pillarless sublevel caving mining method was used to mining ores in a uranium mine. Because ore-rock interface changed greatly, this part of ores can not be recovered effectively in the mining process, resulting in the permanent loss of these ores. Aimed at the problem, a combined shrinkage stoping and pillarless sublevel caving mining method is presented. Practices show that the ore recovery is increased, dilution rate is declined, and mining safety is improved greatly by using the combined method. (authors)

  9. Stress Ratios in Entire Mine Stopes with Cohesionless Backfill: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of stress states in backfilled mine stopes (or similar openings, using arching theory, can be largely impacted by the value selected for the earth pressure coefficient, K = σ′h/σ′v. Recently, the current study’s authors addressed the debate about the value of K near the opening center, based on Rankine’s active coefficient (Ka and at-rest coefficient (K0. Here, stress ratios in vertical backfilled stopes are numerically assessed (in two dimension, 2D, considering both the independent and related backfill internal friction angle (ϕ′ and Poisson’s ratio (ν. Emphasis is placed on the backfill state near stope walls, where local rotation of stresses occurs, so the coefficient (K and principal stress ratio, Kps (= σ′3/σ′1, should be distinguished. Parametric analyses indicate that values of K and Kps depend on the position and the relationship between ϕ′ and ν. Near the opening center, K (= Kps is close to Ka when ν or ϕ′ is below a critical value; otherwise the value approaches K0, defined from ν. Near both walls, Kps is always close to Ka, while K is near K0 for related ν − ϕ′ cases and depends on their respective values for independent ν and ϕ′. Additional simulations conducted with interface elements indicate that the stress ratios near the opening center line are insensitive to interface roughness and are almost identical to values obtained without interfaces, but the stress ratios near walls may change for less rough or smooth interfaces.

  10. Influence of Blasted Uranium Ore Heap on Radon Concentration in Confined Workspaces of Shrinkage Mining Stope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y. J.; Liang, T.; Ding, D. X.; Lei, B.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. F.

    2017-07-01

    A calculation model for radon concentration in shrinkage mining stopes under various ventilation conditions was established in this study. The model accounts for the influence of permeability and area of the blasted ore heap, ventilation air quantity, and airflow direction on radon concentration in a confined workspace; these factors work together to allow the engineer to optimize the ventilation design. The feasibility and effectiveness of the model was verified by applying it to mines with elevated radon radiation exposure. The model was found to accurately changes in radon concentration according to the array of influence factors in underground uranium mines.

  11. Improved understanding of the use of short tendons for stope support under rockfall and rockburst conditions, (Phase I).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to determine whether the introduction of short bolts into a stope hangingwall would increase the stability of the hangingwall beam. A simple physical 1/10th hangingwall model was constructed out of concrete...

  12. Genesis and geomorphic evolution of the Velké pinky stopes in the Zlatohorská Highlands, Eastern Sudetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Jan; Tichavský, Radek; Večeřa, Josef; Kapustová, Veronika; Šilhán, Karel

    2017-11-01

    Montanogenic landforms are commonly viewed as hazards by society, but they are also holders of specific and uncommon morphology with unique dynamics that act as remarks on landscape history. The Velké pinky stopes in the Zlatohorská Highlands, Eastern Sudetes, are naturally revitalized post-mining landforms with long-term geoecological succession. Their genetic origin is diverse but recent processes, such as deep-seated slope deformations, rockfalls and ground subsidence, have resulted in a distinct morphology dominated by rock walls and the accumulation of blocks and debris wedges. This morphology predisposes the stopes to become the core area of the most recent dynamic geomorphic activity within the wider, relatively homogenous area. By dendrogeomorphic techniques, we identified more than 20 rockfall events within three of the stopes with increased activity since the 1980s. Only the 1991 and 2006 events were identical for all three stopes. We obtained the years of exposures from 10 roots, revealing the ground subsidence and opening of tension cracks or even the lateral retreat of the flanks of minor depressions. The Schmidt hammer test revealed the most recent and fresh gravitational activity in one of the stopes. A relationship between the superficial morphology and underground structure was proven by electrical resistivity profiling. Compared to the previous studies engaged with the abandoned mines, we presented how complex their evolution can be. Our study brings new information about the historical development of anthropogenic relief forms. Moreover, our results suggest that standard research approaches can be successfully applied for development analysis of these specific forms.

  13. Survey and assessment of support for non-standard (anomalous) stope areas in the gold and platinum industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leach, AR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available those due to stress and stress damage and possibly increased rock deformation, geological conditions, mining considerations, and human factors. This permits a clearer identification of specific hazards and to highlight the consequences and severity....1 Classification of stress intensity Table 6.2 Definitions of standard stopes Table 6.3 Definitions of non-standard conditions categorised by stress, geological, mining practice and human factors Table 6.4 Key roles to aid in mine planning and operations Table...

  14. Mechanised apparatus comprising two ploughs for cutting ore in a stope. Dispositif mecanise comportant deux rabots pour l'abbatage de mineral dans une taille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, H.

    1988-05-25

    A mechanised apparatus for cutting ore in a stope comprising at least one walking support chock, a service conveyor, a first plough associated with said conveyor and a second plough characterised in that it further comprises an assembly of elements forming a metal plate disposed between the base member and the cap of the chock at the front of said apparatus, over the entire length of the stope, said second plough being disposed at the front of said plate and each of the plates forming the metal plate being connected to the base member which corresponds thereto by means of at least one jack.

  15. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  16. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-06-27

    Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing, can successfully create demand for a broad range of family

  17. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. Methods and Results: The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Conclusion: Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing

  18. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels—mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics—to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and

  19. Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JN

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century van der Merwe, J. N., Wojno, L. and Toper, A. Z. Research agency : Rock... total of 2 years involvement) ...........68 13 1 Introduction 1.1 Research problem Assess the potential for underground implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in the design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold...

  20. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  1. Stability assessment of the stopes and crown pillar of the S’Argentera abandoned mines (Ibiza, Spain) using geomechanical classifications, an empirical approach and numerical analysis focused on a possible tourist exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.; Jordá-Bordehore, R.; Durán Valsero, J.J.; Romero-Crespo, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    The argentiferous lead mines of S’Argentera in Ibiza (Balearic Islands, Spain) are some abandoned underground workings from the first decade of the 20th century. The stability of the main stopes and the crown pillar of the mines has been evaluated - part of which is located below the road between Santa Eulalia and San Carles de Peralta. The possibility of allowing public access to the surface of the mining area and setting up a project of a “show mine” on the underground stopes and galleries is analysed. The stability is assessed with an empirical approach using the O index, the scaled span method and a stability graph together with a numerical approach. Results show that the stopes of the mines are globally stable but some lack an adequate safety factor. Therefore some local reinforcements and monitoring are needed. The finite element modelling in two dimensions yields realistic results on the current stope stability and possible rock falls which have already occurred. [es

  2. Stope face support systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info GAP330_2.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 538 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name GAP330_2.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  4. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-06-17

    To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. We analyzed MSI's social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008-2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011-2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI "Impact 2" model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44.0), with 46.1% (95% CI = 40.9, 51.2) of

  5. Blocking Underhand Attacks by Hidden Coalitions (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Similar to what happens between humans in the real world, in open multi-agent systems distributed over the Internet, such as online social networks or wiki technologies, agents often form coalitions by agreeing to act as a whole in order to achieve certain common goals. However, agent coalitions are not always a desirable feature of a system, as malicious or corrupt agents may collaborate in order to subvert or attack the system. In this paper, we consider the problem of hidden coalitions, wh...

  6. CMI and the simulated test stope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teleka, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African mining industry is plagued by accidents ranging from vehicle incidents to roof/rock falls. In the attempt to carry out its mandate of improving the quality of life of South African citizens, the Council for Scientific...

  7. Tributary trunk stream relations in a cut-and-fill landscape: a case study from Wolumla catchment, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Gary J.; Fryirs, Kirstie

    1999-05-01

    At the time of European settlement of the south coast of New South Wales, Australia, in the mid-nineteenth century, river courses were discontinuous throughout Wolumla catchment. Within a few decades of settlement, intact valley fills had been transformed into incised channels along trunk streams. This induced associated patterns of secondary incision into tributary valley fills. Three of the primary subcatchments in Wolumla catchment became fully incised, while an upland swamp and a floodout (i.e., sand sheet deposits atop an intact valley floor) remain in mid-catchment of the fourth subcatchment. Of the 70 lower order tributaries which join the trunk streams in the four subcatchments, 27 have incised (12 of which are discontinuously incised). Incision of tributary streams in Wolumla catchment cannot be explained by subcatchment area and slope relations. The position of the trunk stream channel within the valley floor trough is the key determinant of whether or not tributary streams have incised. Changes to river morphology since European settlement have altered the linkage of tributary streams to the trunk stream, impacting directly on the within-catchment transfer of water and sediment.

  8. Stability assessment of the stopes and crown pillar of the S’Argentera abandoned mines (Ibiza, Spain) using geomechanical classifications, an empirical approach and numerical analysis focused on a possible tourist exploitation; Evaluación de la estabilidad de las labores y pilar corona en las minas abandonadas de S’Argentera (Ibiza, España) combinando clasificaciones geomecánicas, métodos empíricos y análisis numérico - enfocado a su posible aprovechamiento turístico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.; Jordá-Bordehore, R.; Durán Valsero, J.J.; Romero-Crespo, P.L.

    2017-09-01

    The argentiferous lead mines of S’Argentera in Ibiza (Balearic Islands, Spain) are some abandoned underground workings from the first decade of the 20th century. The stability of the main stopes and the crown pillar of the mines has been evaluated - part of which is located below the road between Santa Eulalia and San Carles de Peralta. The possibility of allowing public access to the surface of the mining area and setting up a project of a “show mine” on the underground stopes and galleries is analysed. The stability is assessed with an empirical approach using the O index, the scaled span method and a stability graph together with a numerical approach. Results show that the stopes of the mines are globally stable but some lack an adequate safety factor. Therefore some local reinforcements and monitoring are needed. The finite element modelling in two dimensions yields realistic results on the current stope stability and possible rock falls which have already occurred. [Spanish] Las minas de S’Argentera en Ibiza (Islas Baleares, España) son unas labores subterráneas de plomo argentífero abandonadas desde la primera década del siglo XX. Se ha analizado la estabilidad geotécnica de las cámaras y del pilar corona de las minas (sobre parte del cual pasa la carretera entre Santa Eulalia y San Carles de Peralta), dado que se está contemplando en un futuro permitir el acceso a la parte superior del conjunto de minas e iniciar un proyecto de rehabilitación turística de las labores subterráneas. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad combinando un enfoque empírico mediante el índice Q, método gráfico de estabilidad y ancho escalado, y métodos numéricos de elementos finitos para análisis tensodeformacional. El resultado del análisis muestra que las cámaras de las minas son estables pero algunas no poseen un adecuado factor de seguridad. Por lo tanto son necesarios algunos refuerzos y monitoreo puntuales. La modelización tensodeformacional en dos

  9. Chasing U-Boats and Hunting Insurgents: Lessons from an Underhand Way of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breemer, Jan S

    2006-01-01

    .... Winston Churchill, then the Royal Navy's political head, was not willing to go quite that far, yet at one point during World War I, he ordered that captured U-boat crews be treated as criminals, not prisoners of war...

  10. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in child spacing is going to succeed. Some attitudes both among the men themselves and the service providers must change so that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are not outsiders. Male medical staff should in particular pick up the challenge to start talking to their fellow.

  11. Ground motion studies in a backfilled stope at West Driefontein

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Goldbach_1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Goldbach_1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. An under-hand steering wheel grasp produces significant injury risk to the upper extremity during airbag deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Atkinson, P.; Telehowski, P.; Bir, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent laboratory investigations suggest that a deploying airbag may fracture the forearm. These studies positioned the arm in an overhand grasp placing the forearm over the airbag module. However, there is little published data on how drivers grip the steering wheel and the general proximity of the

  13. Methodology of simulation of underground working in metal mines. Application to a uranium deposit in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme, J.; de Fouquet, C.; Fraisse, H.

    1983-01-01

    For the Ben Lomond (Northern Queensland Australia) underground uranium mining project, studies were carried out to compare the feasibility of different mining methods according to their cost per ton and selectivity, i.e. cut and fill, sublevel stopping and both mixed. First, a geostatistical orebody model was built. The ore grade variability of this model results from the drillhole structural analysis. Working on two dimensional vertical cross sections, the usual hand drawing stope reserve estimate obtained with computer assisted design for each of the three different mining methods is compared with the results obtained with automatic algorithms allocated to the characteristics of each mining method. These algorithms use mathematical morphology to reproduce the geometrical constraints connected with each mining method and/or dynamic programmation. These techniques lead to fully automatic of optimal economical stope design. Comparison is positive: automatic stopes designs are in agreement with hand made drawings, but they can be defined faster through interactive questionning of the computer, and the total maximum profit obtained is a least as high as the best profit found through hand designed projects [fr

  14. Industrial development of a simulation method for ore recovery evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme; De Fouquet; Fraisse

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of downstream geostatistics is to provide to engineers, responsible for mining project studies, with a method for predicting the ore reserve recovery coming from different mining methods and for choosing the best one according to economic criteria. In the case of the BEN LOMOND uranium deposit, the metal recovery at the production stage depends on the geometry of mineralized lenses. For the first step of this study the usual technique for constructing a numerical model of deposit has been used. But this does not reproduce the geological structures very precisely. The recovered reserves have been computed for three more or less selective mining methods. This has been done inputing the outlines of stopes on a digitalizer. In the case of a cut and fill method an automatic algorithm for the optimization under constraints has been developed [fr

  15. The mining methods at the Fraisse mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurley, P.; Vervialle, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Fraisse mine is one of the four underground mines of the La Crouzille mining divisions of Cogema. Faced with the necessity to mechanize its workings, this mine also had to satisfy a certain number of stringent demands. This has led to concept of four different mining methods for the four workings at present in active operation at this pit, which nevertheless preserve the basic ideas of the methods of top slicing under concrete slabs (TSS) or horizontal cut-and-fill stopes (CFS). An electric scooptram is utilized. With this type of vehicle the stringent demands for the introduction of means for fire fighting and prevention are reduced to a minimum. Finally, the dimensions of the vehicles and the operation of these methods result in a net-to-gross tonnages of close to 1, i.e. a maximum output, combined with a minimum of contamination [fr

  16. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  17. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández-Muñiz, Zulima; García Nieto, Paulino José; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio; Menéndez Fernández, Marta

    2016-06-29

    The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine). The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  18. Development of mining at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of mining and other infrastructural activities of the underground mine at Jaduguda. In the beginning open and shrinkage methods were used but gradually changed to Cut and Fill method, the fill being the deslimed mill tailings. This method gives much better recovery and provides adequate support to the worked out areas. The main entry to the mine is via a vertical shaft, 640 meters deep. The winders for ore hoisting and the services are installed on top of the concrete tower constructed above the shaft. As the winders are the life line of the mine, a high standard of maintenance is maintained. As the mine is located at the foot hill, there is a fair amount of seepage water. The seepage and the water from the fill is pumped to surface in stages. The sumps at various levels are designed to provide storage capacity. From time to time, the technological improvements in the various mining operations are brought about. The drilling of uppers by stope wagons, use of tyre mounted loaders in the stopes, use of ammonium nitrate for blasting purposes, the use of full column grout bolts are some examples. Studies are also conducted in the ground control in underground. Constant efforts are made to improve the support system. The training courses are regularly arranged for workers to update their skills. As the job in underground is hazardous, the workers are trained in the correct and safe methods of doing the various jobs. (author). 10 figs

  19. Interaction between stope support and ground motion in the hangingwall and footwall Project.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available and limitations were verified by detailed testing with the strong ground motion data. The support response may be simulated using SDOF model when PGA is in the range 18 - 100 m/s2 ; for this data model shows that the maximal value of the stiffness is 120,000 k...

  20. Development of an effective face area support system for tabular stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Acheampong, E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This report is an interim report of a two-year project, the first phase of which ended at the end of March 2002. The report therefore highlights progress made to date only.In SIMRAC project GAP708, eleven innovative means of reducing the rock...

  1. Stope gully support and sidings geometry at all depths and at varying dip.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available gullies 201 References 203 Appendix 1 208 vii List of tables Table 2.1 Tendon support requirements to restrain falls over gullies (Roberts,1995) Table 2.2 Proportion of industry wide rock related fatalities that are gully related Table 2... pattern for Follow Behind Gully configuration (after Squelch & Roberts, 1995) Figure 2.18 A plan of a lead, or north side, between two panels showing the face shape (solid line) which it is usually tried to maintain by blasting and the shape (dashed...

  2. CSIR Center for Mining Innovation and the simulated test stope: Paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teleka, R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African mining industry is plagued by accidents ranging from vehicle incidents to roof/rock falls. In the attempt to carry out its mandate of improving the quality of life of South African citizens, the Council for Scientific...

  3. Review of the stoping problem - GS Review of past work rockbreaking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pickering, RGB

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Rockbreaking is the most basic of the operations required in mining and over the years has been subject of extensive research and development. This document is a summary of the work carried out by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization...

  4. New technology for real-time in-stope safety management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available working place, it then becomes possible for a team leader to monitor the state of the whole team, which should differentiate between individuals who are susceptible, and high effort or hot workplace. Additional sensors would confirm workplace... that knowledge to manage their heat stress programmes and ventilation. For example, PSI measured together with location may reveal areas where miners spend time that should be cooler to lower PSI, such as waiting places or stations. If PSI and workplace...

  5. Functional specifications for in-stope support based on seismic and rockburst observations in South African mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available , such as prestressed elongates, roofbolts and nets. However, seismic theory and observations present several characteristics of seismically-induced ground motion that are not taken explicitly into account in the functional specifications for support design, i.e. multi...

  6. Extended use of the Savuka dynamic test facility to improve material and analytical technology in deep-level stope support.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available .................................................. 17 Figure 5.1 Diagrammatic view of load-distribution pyramid and Voussoir beam showing position of Ebenhaeser timber elongates ............................... 18 Figure 5.2 View of pyramid and Voussoir beam showing the 3-prop spacing of test # 5...-dimensional load-distribution pyramid before impact................................................................................................... 48 9 Photograph 5.29 Test # 13, shortly after impact of first impulse of 88,4 kJ at velocity of 4,2 ms-1...

  7. Meaningful use of peak particle velocities at excavation surfaces for the optimisation of the rockburst criteria for tunnels and stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milev, AM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available designed for recording strong ground motion was developed and manufactured. The instrument, a Peak Velocity Detector (PVD), is a portable battery powered stand-alone device with backed-up memory capable of storing up to 512 peak particle velocities... and manufactured: a Peak Velocity Detector (PVD). The instrument measures the peak particle velocity of a seismic wave propagating underground. The PVD is a portable battery powered stand-alone device with backed-up memory capable of storing up to 512 peak...

  8. Meaningful use of peak particle velocities at excavation surfaces for the optimisation of the rockburst criteria for tunnels and stopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available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

  9. Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Penghua; Li Xianjie

    2012-01-01

    Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3–5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on.

  10. Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng-hua; Li, Xian-jie

    2012-09-01

    Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3-5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on.

  11. Analysis of rockburst and rockfall accidents in relation to class of stope support, regional support, energy of seismic events and mining layout

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the assessment of safety risk and the analysis of Falls Of Ground (FOG) in mines due to seismic events and mining layout during the period of 1991-1992 on a single mine. The multivariate analysis was used to obtain a...

  12. Detection of mining-induced fractures around a stope in Ezulwini gold mine, South Africa, by using AE events with similar waveforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moriya, H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict rock failure is desirable for the prevention of disasters in mines. The acoustic emission (AE) method is a well-known tool for monitoring fracture growth in rock masses that is used to help ensure safety during excavations...

  13. Design of Merensky Reef crush pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available variation of planar open stoping. Pillars are widely employed to support the open stopes. In the deeper levels, in-stope pillars are required to fail in a stable manner soon after being cut, and the residual pillar strength is used to stabilize the hanging...

  14. Stress–strain state of adjacent rock mass under slice mining of steeply dipping ore bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Gakhova, LN

    2018-03-01

    Under analysis is the stress state of rock mass surrounding stopes in the initial cutting layer displaced in plan relative to the above-lying extracted layer in the overcut rock mass. The authors determine the boundaries of the post-limiting deformation zones during stoping advance using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. The sequence of stoping to ensure better support conditions is proposed.

  15. The project of the mining method for the exploatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This part of monography in a short form deals with the project of the block stoping mining - Open chamber stoping from sublevel drifts. In the paper is described the needs of mining method for tetrahedrite ores in Rožňava – Strieborná vein. The proposal block mining method is a very efficient, because use the LHD –system mechanization. The putting of this mechanization in the block enable relative high stope output achieve.

  16. Blasting forward in underground work; Voladuras de camara de la mina de Aguas Tenidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Maneiro, C. H.; Maqueda Jimenez, S.; Pazos Perez, L.; Carnero Ortiz, F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explains the drilling and blasting techniques of stopes in Aguas Tenidas Mine (Huelva, Spain), including slot raises and slots. Highights are: application of electronic detonators and a 30'' hole in slot raise blasts, ANFO uphole chrging of 89 mm holes and high productive fan drillin, in order to maintain stoping production of 150.000 t/month. (Author)

  17. Feasibility of a mine-wide continuous closure monitoring system for gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available at Driefontein Consolidated Mine for the period 15/3/2000 to 22/3/2000. 20 3.1.2 Operating height (stoping width) In 1980 the average stoping width in the South African gold mining industry was estimated to be 1.33 m (Gay and Jager, 1980). Quite a significant...

  18. Merensky pillar strength formulae based on back-analysis of pillar failures at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available variation of planar open stoping. Pillars are widely used to support the open stopes. Little work has been done in the past to determine pillar strength and pillars have been designed using experience and formulae developed for other hard-rock mines...

  19. Experimental validation of a mine-wide continuous closure monitoring system as a decision making tool for gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous fundamental research projects have indicated the value of continuous closure measurements for improved support design and hazard assessment and for quantifying the effect of seismicity on stope closure. This project examined the feasibility...

  20. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCS&PT) partnership brings together Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Society for Family Health to integrate CCS&PT services into existing Reproductive Health ...

  1. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the rock mass deformation near deep level stopes and the avoidance of damaging incidents of violent rock failure require a fundamental understanding of rock failure mechanisms. Research work to gain this understanding has been undertaken...

  2. Exploration on means and ways about increasing heap leaching rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yongming

    2001-01-01

    The means and ways about increasing heap leaching (stope leaching and surface leaching) rate in the heap leaching process such as heap construction, lixiviant sprinkling, pregnant solution collecting and strengthened leaching etc. are explored

  3. Remotely Piloted Aircraft and War in the Public Relations Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    underhanded or de- ceitful. This article concerns itself with the genus of information, within which propaganda is a species, and therefore addresses all in... network may overlap (regarding a specific RPA strike, for example), that news network is not participating in al-Qaeda’s PR campaign. (Indeed, if it...the number of lives lost or the economic and social damage inflicted, but in the amount of media attention they are able to garner.”11 In what has

  4. Stability and safety of Anjuna beach, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Studies on the Anjuna Beach, Goa, India, from March to December, 1975, show that it is fairly stable though it undergoes seasonal changes and a series of short-term cuts and fills. The beach appears to be quite safe as the longshore currents...

  5. Minimizing total costs of forest roads with computer-aided design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    angle to protect stream channels, and maximum allowable heights for cuts and fills to decrease potential soil ... provides the required input data, including the high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), soil types, and ... illustrates the geometry of a vertical crest curve, generated based on three consecutive control points.

  6. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Perry; Ding, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to...

  8. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt; Luís Carlos Timm; Klaus Reichardt; Luiz Fernando Spinelli Pinto; Eloy Antonio Pauletto; Danilo Dufech Castilhos

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Val...

  9. Neandertal humeri may reflect adaptation to scraping tasks, but not spear thrusting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N Shaw

    Full Text Available Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesis. The core tenet of the "Spear Thrusting Hypothesis", that underhand thrusting requires greater muscle activity on the right side of the body compared to the left, remains untested. It is unclear whether alternative subsistence behaviours, such as hide processing, might better explain this morphology. To test this, electromyography was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers of the humerus (pectoralis major (PM, anterior (AD and posterior deltoid (PD during three distinct spear-thrusting tasks and four separate scraping tasks. Contrary to predictions, maximum muscle activity (MAX and total muscle activity (TOT were significantly higher (all values, p<.05 at the left (non-dominant AD, PD and PM compared to the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength asymmetry found in Neandertal humeri. In contrast, during the performance of all three unimanual scraping tasks, right side MAX and TOT were significantly greater at the AD (all values, p<.01 and PM (all values, p<.02 compared to the left. The consistency of the results provides evidence that scraping activities, such as hide preparation, may be a key behaviour in determining the unusual pattern of Neandertal arm morphology. Overall, these results yield important insight into the Neandertal behavioural repertoire that aided survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.

  10. A law of removing radon by ventilation and air requirement calculation for eliminating radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang

    1988-06-01

    In accordance with testing data of removing radon and its daughters by ventilation from shrinkage and filling stopes of uranium mines, a law of removing radon by ventilation from the stopes is analyzed and summed. According to the decay law of radon and its daughters, an accumulation equation of potential alpha energy from radon daughters is presented with hyperbolic regression equation. the calculating formulae of ventilation flow are derived from the accumulation equation for eliminating radon daughters in inlet flow with or without contamination. It has been proved that the amount of ventilation air calcuated could meet the requirements of radiation safety rationally and economically

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  13. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC. Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Values of Ca, Mg, S, cation exchange capacity, Mn, P, Zn, and soil organic matter (SOM decreased in the soil profile, whereas Al, K, and MBC increased after leveling. Land leveling decreased in 20% SOM average content in the 0 - 0.20 m layer. The great majority of the chemical attributes did not show relations between their values and the magnitude of cuts and fills. The relation was quadratic for SOM, P, and total N, and was linear for K, showing a positive slope and indicating increase in the magnitude of these attributes in cut areas and stability in fill areas. The relationships between these chemical attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills indicate that the land leveling map may be a useful tool for degraded soil recuperation through amendments and organic fertilizers.

  14. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 91, Number 2, March-April 1948

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-04-01

    the globe and, by devious under- gr ?und and ’underhand methods, to penetrate and under- nune the established social systems of manv lands " In a...Mexican Garrison at Juarez, Mexico, Gen- eral Enrique Diaz Gonzalez. The second was a review and presentation of colors and awards on 13 February. On this...34is one more fact of life, and a decisive one." It seems to him that "the \\;talitv of our Western culture will receive its gr ~t test in the use it

  15. Results of a backfill monitoring programme at Vaal Reefs 5 Shaft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Squelch, AP

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available This report documents the results of the in situ measurements carried out in the 68-52 stope at Vaal Reefs 5 Shaft. The in situ stress-strain behaviour of classified tailing backfill has been measured in panel P3. There is good agreement between...

  16. Report on the heat stroke position at the end of 1964

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wyndham, CH

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study for the Transvaal and Orange Free State Chamber of Mines Research Organization was to examine the heat stroke position at the end of 1964 in terms of the trends in the numbers of stopes and development ends and also...

  17. Numerical modelling approach for mine backfill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Zaka Emad

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... Abstract. Numerical modelling is broadly used for assessing complex scenarios in underground mines, including mining sequence and blast-induced vibrations from production blasting. Sublevel stoping mining methods with delayed backfill are extensively used to exploit steeply dipping ore bodies by ...

  18. An acoustic sensor for prediction of the structural stability of rock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brink, S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available . The rock fall risks in deep rock mining are related to the behaviour of the rock surrounding excavations under high confining pressures. This is a particular concern in South African gold mines, where tunnels and stopes are excavated at depths of up to 4000...

  19. Can mine tremors be predicted? Observational studies of earthquake nucleation, triggering and rupture in South African mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -related stresses are likely to induce significant seismic activity; (2) to learn more about earthquake rupture and damage phenomena by deploying strong ground motion sensors close to potential rupture zones and on the walls of stopes; and (3) to upgrade the South...

  20. Impact of soft loading conditions on the performance of elongate support elements.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available rotating block and the resultant reaction force from the support units are brought closer together by increasing the support density (i.e. reducing the support spacing). The probability of blocks failing by rotating out of the hangingwall of a stope depends...

  1. Effect of face fracturing on shear wave coda quality factor estimated from acoustic emission events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of the quality factor derived from S wave coda (Q(subc)) on frequency is analysed in order to understand the effect of fracturing ahead of a mining stope. Micro seismic events recorded using acoustic emission sensors in a mining...

  2. Pain relief using paraceevical block in patients undergoing manual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate pain relief using paracervical nerve block with 1% lignocaine injection in patients undergoing uterine evacuation by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) for the treatment of incomplete abortion. Design: A randomized double blind clinical trial. Setting: Marie Stopes Health Centre, Nairobi. Methods: One ...

  3. Geology and Environmental Impact Assessment and Benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria basement complex has shown that the older granites are high level intrusions emplaced by stoping and diapiric process and include spectrum of rocks varying in composition from tonalite through granodiorite to granite. The intense regional deformation which accompanied and preceded the emplacement of the ...

  4. REBOUND OF THE ROMANIAN CARD MARKET AFTER THE CRISIS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE BANKING PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian cards market relaunched after the crisis period, because the credit diminished or even stoped during 2008-2013, so the banks had to rely on the fees granted by issued cards or by banking payments operations. So, the total issued banking cards increased a lot during the last years and the electronic banking services developed.

  5. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... geothermal energy for heating, aquaculture and production of electric power. (13) Wells used for solution... conventionally mined. Solution mining of conventional mines such as stopes leaching is included in Class V. (3) Solution mining of salts or potash. (d) Class IV. (1) Wells used by generators of hazardous waste or of...

  6. 'bra, sɛn, yɛnkↄ... that is all i know in akan': how female migrants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Obadele Kambon

    we discuss the incipient bilingualism as a major coping strategy among female migrants from Northern Ghana who work as Kayayei in three urban markets in Accra. The. Kayayei are popularly known as head porters in the literature on Ghanaian migration. (GHAFUP 2010, Alvin 2012, Osei-Boateng 2012, Marie Stopes ...

  7. Study of rockburst source mechanism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The research project comprising GAP 524 involved detailed examination of a group of 3 rockburst ruptures or burst-fractures discovered in a VCR stope panel on a peninsular remnant on Mponeng Mine at a depth of 2550m below surface. A careful visual...

  8. Effect of fly ash on the hydration process in cemented paste backfill at early stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, D.; Grabinsky, M.W. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is a sustainable backfilling technique used in underground mining operations that ensures ground stabilization. The technique uses mine waste for filling the voids created by underground mining. Compared to conventional backfilling technologies, CPB has the advantage of rapid transport to the stopes; shorter turn-around cycle time; elimination of the drainage barricades in the CPB-filled stopes; and diversion of mine waste from surface disposal sites to underground stopes. Partial replacement of Portland cement with fly ash or ground blast furnace slag, can significantly reduce production costs and improve the performance of typical CPBs. This paper studied the effect of fly ash on the hydration process in CPB during the early stages of hydration using non-destructive, electromagnetic (EM) wave-based techniques. The study showed that the use of fly ash in Portland cement delayed the hydration process, and that the delay was proportional to the replacement level. At later onset times, the fly ash particles enhanced the hydration process by providing additional ions that contributed to the formation of hydration products and ultimately increased the mechanical strength of CPB. The EM test results on CPB obtained in the controlled laboratory environment were compared with in situ test results obtained in an actual backfilled test stope. The EM-wave based techniques were found to be sensitive to paste composition, including binder content, binder type and water content of the paste. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Numerical modelling approach for mine backfill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Zaka Emad

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... pulse is applied as a stress history on the CRF stope. Blast wave data obtained from the on-site monitoring are very complex. It requires processing before interpreting and using it for numerical models. Generally, mining compa- nies hire geophysics experts for interpretation of such data. The blast wave ...

  10. The influence of lead length on the fractures associated with leading corners and sidings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, PA

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Stopes on three reef horizons and at various depths were examined in the vicinity of inter-panel leads. The general geometry of fractures in the vicinity of inter-panels leads is outlined. The extend of fracturing parallel to the siding between...

  11. In situ measurements of Merensky pillar behaviour at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available to stabilize the stoping excavations. This paper describes the in situ measurement, of stress within a Merensky pillar from Impala Platinum. These measurements were used to derive a stress-strain curve that includes pre and post failure behaviour. 2D FLAC...

  12. The subaqueous delta of the modern Huanghe (Yellow River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, D. B.; Yang, Z.-S.; Bornhold, B. D.; Keller, G. H.; Lin, Z. H.; Wiseman, W. J.; Wright, L. D.; Lin, T. C.

    1986-06-01

    The subaqueous delta of the Huanghe (Yellow River) has been studied using high-resolution acoustic systems. There are many subtle variations in sea floor morphology and sediment geometries; smooth, featureless areas are rare. The main components of the subaqueous delta include broad, shallow channels; moderately disturbed areas with near-surface cut and fill structures; heavily disturbed areas with sea floor depressions, pits, and gullies; and a smooth, gently sloping distal delta apron or “rise.” These features are not directly related to sediment settling from dilute surface plumes but are due to gravity-driven hyperpycnal underflows, submarine mass movements, and silt flows.

  13. The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Bing

    2004-01-01

    The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m 3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

  14. Algorithm of probabilistic assessment of fully-mechanized longwall downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domrachev, A. N.; Rib, S. V.; Govorukhin, Yu M.; Krivopalov, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of increasing the load on a long fully-mechanized longwall has several aspects, one of which is the improvement of efficiency in using available stoping equipment due to the increase in coefficient of the machine operating time of a shearer and other mining machines that form an integral part of the longwall set of equipment. The task of predicting the reliability indicators of stoping equipment is solved by the statistical evaluation of parameters of downtime exponential distribution and failure recovery. It is more difficult to solve the problems of downtime accounting in case of accidents in the face workings and, despite the statistical data on accidents in mine workings, no solution has been found to date. The authors have proposed a variant of probability assessment of workings caving using Poisson distribution and the duration of their restoration using normal distribution. The above results confirm the possibility of implementing the approach proposed by the authors.

  15. Miners' dictionary: English/Fanakalo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chamber of Mines, South Africa

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available . daw-kaw-tehl dolo d knee n. aw-law donga, wol wall dawng-gah, wall dongan (stope car) dong-gahn dongan stope car(end-tipping car) dong-gahn dongan switsh single-blade switch dawng-gahn switch dontsa pub v. dawnt-sah dontsa drag v. dawnt...-bee-lee mabili (e.g. you two) pair mah-bee-lee madala two mah-bee-lee madala hol (blasting) old mah-dah-lah madevu socket mah-dah-lah hawl madolo beard nIah-deh-voo madolo knee guards mah-daw-law madumelan, leg guards n mah-daw-Iaw madumelan, jackhammer...

  16. The hazardous nature of small scale underground mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale mining continues to contribute significantly to the growth of Ghana's economy. However, the sector poses serious dangers to human health and the environment. Ground failures resulting from poorly supported stopes have led to injuries and fatalities in recent times. Dust and fumes from drilling and blasting of ore present health threats due to poor ventilation. Four prominent small scale underground mines were studied to identify the safety issues associated with small scale underground mining in Ghana. It is recognized that small scale underground mining in Ghana is inundated with unsafe acts and conditions including stope collapse, improper choice of working tools, absence of personal protective equipment and land degradation. Inadequate monitoring of the operations and lack of regulatory enforcement by the Minerals Commission of Ghana are major contributing factors to the environmental, safety and national security issues of the operations.

  17. Older people's reasoning about age-related prioritization in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werntoft, Elisabet; Hallberg, Ingalill R; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the reasoning of people aged 60 years and over about prioritization in health care with regard to age and willingness to pay. Healthy people (n = 300) and people receiving continuous care and services (n = 146) who were between 60 and 101 years old were interviewed about their views on prioritization in health care. The transcribed interviews were analysed using manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The participants' reasoning on prioritization embraced eight categories: feeling secure and confident in the health care system; being old means low priority; prioritization causes worries; using underhand means in order to be prioritized; prioritization as a necessity; being averse to anyone having precedence over others; having doubts about the distribution of resources; and buying treatment requires wealth.

  18. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical......Digital memorials are part of a bigger picture of changing rituals for mourning, remembrance, and legacy. However, the focus of this presentation is how digital memorials perforate the (already uneasy) distinction between private and public, both in physical and emotional space. The ongoing study...... in the borderland between private and public is exemplified, and with the presentation, we are ensuring a continued discussion on privacy as well as legacy in our digital society....

  19. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor....

  20. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available sources, and techniques such as surfel modeling and synthetic view generation are explored towards creating visualizations of the data that could be used by miners to monitor areas of risk in the stope. Further work will determine this potential.... Index Terms?underground mining robotics, perception sensors, sensor fusion, infrared camera, 3D laser scan. I. INTRODUCTION To date, robotics in the mining industry has seen much advancement in automation for above-ground applications where...

  1. Disposal of solid radioactive waste of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YU Shichen.

    1986-01-01

    The contaminations of marine enviroment by the disposal of radwastes should not been expected, then ocean disposal has been stoped in some countries, and land disposal of solid radwastes should been a better method for mankind and environment protection. Ground burial near the surface is currently considered to be feasible. Storage in spent pit or in plant area also should been adapted in several countries

  2. Point-cloud registration using 3D shape contexts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available by stitching multiple sets of locally registered scans. We have gathered data from several underground mine stopes and found that the sensors are well suited to the unlit dusty environment. III. REGISTRATION WITH DESCRIPTORS Computing a registered 3D... surface with descriptors is closely related to the method used to create panoramas from 2D photos, often called image stitching [6]. Interesting points (keypoints) are detected in each image; local descriptors are computed around each keypoint...

  3. Geotechnical applications of a two-dimensional elastodynamic displacement discontinuity method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siebrits, E

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available horizontally, and assuming a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with cohesion 10 MPa and friction angle 30 ?. Static excess shear stress is the shear stress available to trigger a shear-based event \\[15\\]. The static excess shear... stopes and the fault, the driving force being the applied static excess shear stress obtained from the static calculation. The dynamic friction angle and dynamic cohesion are assumed to be zero along the fault, which...

  4. Delineation of rockburst fractures with ground penetrating radar in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grodner, M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available hypotheses on the change in the fracturing ahead of the stope with preconditioning and delineate the zone of influence of each precondition- ing hole. This allowed the design of a preconditioning methodology that has lead to a major reduction in the incidence.... This increased understanding of rockbursts, allows the rock mechanics practitioner to better design strategies for the alleviation of rockbursts. Acknowledgements The Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC) is thanked for permission to publish. All...

  5. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford Kevin W.; Nance Raymond; Rosales-Lagarde Laura; Penelope J. Boston

    2008-01-01

    Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA) with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solut...

  6. STRUCTURE OF ISOLATED PRECISION FACTORS OF THE MALE STUDENT ON VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Gjinovci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the current status of accuracy in volleyball for the students of the faculty of physical education and sports of the University of Prishtina, all the students have successfully passed the exam in volleyball. Also, another aim was to observe whether there are significant statistical differences between both generations of students. In the study were included 70 students (35 from the second academic year and 35 from the fourth academic year. To achieve the aim, were applied standard tests of accuracy in volleyball, such as the following: overhand pass, underhand pass, as well as underhand serve on the six positions and float (tactic serve on three positions. From the basic statistical parameters, it has been noticed that grouping of results from the students of forth academic year are more homogenous, and for this group showed that results are better than at students of first year of studying. While, in the variables is noticed that there are changes into the favour of students of fourth academic year, it has also been noticed that standard deviation is smaller with this group, which shows even more homogenous groups, for example, SFIP group 1 mean 21.65 ±6.48 SD, gr.2 mean 23.68 ±5.76 SD. The obtained results from T-test shows significant statistical changes in both applied tests. The best obtained results are a derivate of continuous professional work, as well as result of “selection”, due to continuous testing and completion of both exams of hand sports and volleyball as an elective subject.

  7. Classification Identification of Acoustic Emission Signals from Underground Metal Mine Rock by ICIMF Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the drawback that fuzzy classifier was sensitive to noises and outliers, Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm was developed, in which bilateral Gaussian membership function parameters were set as constraint conditions and the indexes of fuzzy classification effectiveness and number of correct samples of fuzzy classification as the subgoal of fitness function. Moreover, Iris database was used for simulation experiment, classification, and recognition of acoustic emission signals and interference signals from stope wall rock of underground metal mines. The results showed that Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm could effectively improve the prediction accuracy of classification of data sets with noises and outliers and the classification accuracy of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines was 90.00%. It was obvious that the improved chaos immune Mamdani fuzzy (ICIMF classifier was useful for accurate diagnosis of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines.

  8. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  9. Increasing productivity trailed scraper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilov V.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered the issue of improving the operational characteristics of trailing scraper through the use of a combined knife system, which combines in one machine the widespread speed stab system and shovels cutting on. Requirements are formulated to knife scraper systems and the new combined knife system. It allows you to develop soil in terms of minimum energy and the free cutting of the soil. The practical possibility of obtaining a smooth face, more intense filling of the bucket, rational distribution of soil in the bucket in conditions of free cutting and filling of the bucket when the increased cutting depth of soil, without additional machines. The obtained data on the value of the coefficient of the specific resistance to cutting when the width of the free cut in the range of 1.0 to 2.2 m. The recommendations for a rational distribution of the soil in the bucket during the free cutting.

  10. Geological history of the Koongarra area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, Geoff

    1991-01-01

    A description of the gradual creation of the present geological setting at Koongarra is given. The geological and topographical cross sections demonstrate the youthful profile of the Koongarra Creek in comparison to Sawcut Creek. The dominant forces which have moulded today's landscape are considered to be chemical weathering to produce laterites, sheet washing of sands derived from the Kombolgie Formation, and cut and fill modification of the land surface by repeated erosional and aggradational cycles. It is recommended that further work should be focussed on the last million years erosion of the lateral overburden down to the orebody, and should include stream profile gradients in order to determine the age of the Koongarra Creek Systems. 4 refs., 8 figs

  11. Cooling water facilities at a nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, W.L.; Ghadiali, B.M.; Kanovich, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of ponds for holding a reserve of cooling water obtained as sewage effluent and also for collection of waste water for disposal by evaporation, was made at a nuclear power plant site in southern Arizona. The power output of the plant will be 3,900 MW. Two single cell ponds are 80 acres (30 ha) and 250 acres (100 ha) in size. Excavated materials from the 80-acre (30ha) pond were used for structural backfill as planned, and the 250-acre (100ha) pond was designed for limited dike height with balanced cut and fill and some excess materials used as side berms for additional safety. Both ponds are being lined with a unique combination of linings to provide environmental safeguards and at the same time cost-effectiveness is compared to alternative schemes

  12. Direct shear tests on cemented paste backfill–rock wall and cemented paste backfill–backfill interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabassé J.F. Koupouli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the shear strength (frictional strength of cemented paste backfill-cemented paste backfill (CPB-CPB and cemented paste backfill–rock wall (CPB-rock interfaces. The frictional behaviors of these interfaces were assessed for the short-term curing times (3 d and 7 d using a direct shear apparatus RDS-200 from GCTS (Geotechnical Consulting & Testing Systems. The shear (friction tests were performed at three different constant normal stress levels on flat and smooth interfaces. These tests aimed at understanding the mobilized shear strength at the CPB-rock and CPB-CPB interfaces during and/or after open stope filling (no exposed face. The applied normal stress levels were varied in a range corresponding to the usually measured in-situ horizontal pressures (longitudinal or transverse developed within paste-filled stopes (uniaxial compressive strength, σc ≤ 150 kPa. Results show that the mobilized shear strength is higher at the CPB-CPB interface than that at the CPB-rock interface. Also, the perfect elastoplastic behaviors observed for the CPB-rock interfaces were not observed for the CPB-CPB interfaces with low cement content which exhibits a strain-hardening behavior. These results are useful to estimate or validate numerical model for pressures determination in cemented backfill stope at short term. The tests were performed on real backfill and granite. The results may help understanding the mechanical behavior of the cemented paste backfill in general and, in particular, analyzing the shear strength at backfill–backfill and backfill-rock interfaces.

  13. Optimal location of emergency stations in underground mine networks using a multiobjective mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Reza; Najafi, Mehdi

    2018-02-26

    Background Every year, many mining accidents occur in underground mines all over the world resulting in the death and maiming of many miners and heavy financial losses to mining companies. Underground mining accounts for an increasing share of these events due to their special circumstances and the risks of working therein. Thus, the optimal location of emergency stations within the network of an underground mine in order to provide medical first aid and transport injured people at the right time, plays an essential role in reducing deaths and disabilities caused by accidents Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the location of emergency stations (ES) within the network of an underground coal mine in order to minimize the outreach time for the injured. Methods A three-objective mathematical model is presented for placement of ES facility location selection and allocation of facilities to the injured in various stopes. Results Taking into account the radius of influence for each ES, the proposed model is capable to reduce the maximum time for provision of emergency services in the event of accident for each stope. In addition, the coverage or lack of coverage of each stope by any of the emergency facility is determined by means of Floyd-Warshall algorithm and graph. To solve the problem, a global criterion method using GAMS software is used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the model. Conclusions 7 locations were selected from among 46 candidates for the establishment of emergency facilities in Tabas underground coal mine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. New developments in uranium mining in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium mining is so far restricted to underground mines only. Uranium mining is similar to other non-coal (metalliferous) mining. Mode of entries has been adits, inclines and vertical shafts. Decline have been constructed at Narwapahar and Turamdih. Access decline (7 deg) at Narwapahar has been driven to about 900 m length and reached depth of about 100 m. Stoping methods are mainly with filling, open stopes supported with adequate pillars with or without post filling to prevent surface subsidence are also being adopted. Appreciable degree of mechanization has been adopted in Jaduguda mines however, Narwapahar mine has been made highly mechanized. Face mechanization in the present operations is by way of air leg mounted jack hammers and stope wagons for drilling and small capacity (upto 1 cu. yd) rail mounted/trackless loaders for loading. Alimak raise climber has been used for raising work. For horizontal transport in mines, Hunselet diesel locomotives (4 tonne size) with Granby car, 3.5 tonne capacity, are being used, vertical transport is by means of drum winders and tower mounted friction winders. At Narwapahar mine twin boom drill jumobs, LHDs-1.78 m 3 and 2.8 m 3 capacity, PLDTs-15 tonner and 23 tonner capacity and relevant service equipment like passenger carriers, supply trucks, service cum lube truck, motor grader, etc. are being used. These rubber tyrred trackless equipment enter the mine directly from the surface through the service/access decline entry. These new developments in mining are detailed hereinafter. (author). 11 figs., 4 photos

  15. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  16. POLICIES AND PRACTICIES REGARDING THE PROTECTION OF FLORA AND FAUNA IN EUROPE AND IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Suciu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Att he beginning of the ‘90’s the Europeanflora and fauna decreased drastic due to the negative effects of pollution, urban areas sprawl, wild territories fragmentation and the antropic impact ofenvirnoment. Therefore, there were adopted certain measures, directives  for birds and habitas protection. Today,Europe has the largest interconnected network of protected areas from the worldand this led to slowing or even stoping degradation of some affected territories.In some cases there were noticed even habitats recovery. After Romania’s accession to European Union and after adoptinghabitats and birds directives was noticed a significant increase of protectedareas.

  17. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other...... magma body (stoping). From the fluid dynamics point of view these shear zones can be regarded as the low Reynolds number deformation zones within the wake of a body moving through a viscous medium. While compact (aspect ratio 1:1:1) moving bodies generate axial symmetric (cone like) shear zones...

  18. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other...... a partially molten magma body (stoping). From the fluid dynamics perspective these shear zones can be regarded as low Reynolds number deformation zones within the wake of a body moving through a viscous medium. While compact moving bodies (aspect ratio 1:1:1) generate axial symmetric (cone like) shear zones...

  19. Relationship between ERR and seismic energy release for different geotechnical areas.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spottiswoode, S

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available -induced seismicity. This control measure has been exercised through limiting the average Energy Release Rate (ERR) to some figure, typically 20 or 30 MJ/m2. Mines have responded by leaving large areas of reef as regional stability pillars. It has been found... of the effect of backfill requires a study of in-stope measurements. Further research in this area will most likely improve correlations between observed and modelled seismicity. This will be the main thrust of the GAP722 project starting in April 2000...

  20. De la ética católica a la ética de la pobreza: Hacia una tesis sobre las ideas y creencias religiosas como factor de rezago socioeconómico en la población mexicana de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arriaga Martínez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article pretends to found a thesis which major preposition postulates the possibility to determine the influence in the ideas and religious beliefs in the economic behavior of Mexican residents in the United States. As a key concept in this discussion, in this case, religion is defined according to one ofthe corollarles of Max Weber' s vision aboilt religion: an ethic vehicJe capable of stoping or stimulating the social ascent of social groups. Therefore, around this two statements we concatenated a wide pan of theorical, conceptual and methodological basis of this work.

  1. Volumetric analysis of rock mass instability around haulage drifts in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahé Shnorhokian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Haulage networks are vital to underground mining operations as they constitute the arteries through which blasted ore is transported to surface. In the sublevel stoping method and its variations, haulage drifts are excavated in advance near the ore block that will be mined out. Numerical modeling is a technique that is frequently employed to assess the redistribution of mining-induced stresses, and to compare the impact of different stope sequence scenarios on haulage network stability. In this study, typical geological settings in the Canadian Shield were replicated in a numerical model with a steeply-dipping tabular orebody striking EW. All other formations trended in the same direction except for two dykes on either side of the orebody with a WNW–ESE strike. Rock mass properties and in situ stress measurements from a case study mine were used to calibrate the model. Drifts and crosscuts were excavated in the footwall and two stope sequence scenarios – a diminishing pillar and a center-out one – were implemented in 24 mining stages. A combined volumetric-numerical analysis was conducted for two active levels by comparing the extent of unstable rock mass at each stage using shear, compressive, and tensile instability criteria. Comparisons were made between the orebody and the host rock, between the footwall and hanging wall, and between the two stope sequence scenarios. It was determined that in general, the center-out option provided a larger volume of instability with the shear criterion when compared to the diminishing pillar one (625,477 m3 compared to 586,774 m3 in the orebody; 588 m3 compared to 403 m3 in the host rock. However, the reverse was true for tensile (134,298 m3 compared to 128,834 m3 in the orebody; 91,347 m3 compared to 67,655 m3 in the host rock instability where the diminishing pillar option had the more voluminous share.

  2. Experimental validation of tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available hanging wall (roof has to be inspected for loose rock that could potentially fall and cause injuries. This inspection is typically performed by a miner who is in constant danger while performing the task. The aim of the MSP project is to remove the miner... form danger by sending in a robot to perform the post-blast inspection. The platform will explore and create a map of the mine stope and it’s manipulator will then perform inspections of the hanging wall. An iRobot PackBot510 robot is currently being...

  3. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  4. Research of Cemented Paste Backfill in Offshore Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Yang, Peng; Lyu, Wensheng; Lin, Zhixiang

    2018-01-01

    To promote comprehensive utilization of mine waste tailings and control ground pressure, filling mine stopes with cement paste backfill (CPB) is becoming the most widely used and applicable method in contemporary underground mining. However, many urgent new problems have arisen during the exploitation in offshore mines owing to the complex geohydrology conditions. A series of rheological, settling and mechanical tests were carried out to study the influences of bittern ions on CPB properties in offshore mining. The results showed that: (1) the bittern ion compositions and concentrations of backfill water sampled in mine filling station were similar to seawater. Backfill water mixed CPB slurry with its higher viscosity coefficient was adverse to pipeline gravity transporting; (2) Bleeding rate of backfill water mixed slurry was lower than that prepared with tap water at each cement-tailings ratio; (3) The UCS values of backfill water mixed samples were higher at early curing ages (3d, 7d) and then became lower after longer curing time at 14d and 28d. Therefore, for mine production practice, the offshore environments can have adverse effects on the pipeline gravity transporting and have positive effects on stope dewatering process and early-age strength growth.

  5. Determination of radon flux rates in a uranium mine (Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board contracted SENES Consultants Limited to design and implement a field program at Amok Limited's Cluff Lake uranium mine, with the overall objective of obtaining reliable radon flux data applicable for use in the VENTRAD computer model. The VENTRAD model was developed to model underground mine ventilation systems. To avoid the uncertainties inherent in localized flux measurements made on small surfaces, radon flux measurements were determined through measurement of incremental changes in the concentration of radon between the incoming and outgoing air in selected areas of the underground workings. The locations were selected throughout the mine in both ore and sterile rock. Average radon flux rates measured during three field campaigns were as follows: sterile rock decline 4 pCi/m 2 .second; sterile rock mainway 25 pCi/m 2 .second; worked-out stope 100 pCi/m 2 .second; active work stope 240 pCi/m 2 .second; and work face 14,000 pCi/m 2 .second. Data collected during the three field programs were used to validate the VENTRAD computer model. The results of the validation exercise suggest close agreement between predicted and measured air flow rates and radon concentrations were overestimated for areas immediately impacted by auxiliary ventilation fans and ore transfer mill holes which connect the ore extraction and haulage levels of the mine

  6. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  7. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  8. Bribery and Its Ethical Implications for Aid Workers in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, J Scott

    2017-02-01

    Bribery is a complicated, multi-dimensional issue. Upon first glance, most westerners would immediately condemn it as an underhanded, unfair means of gaining an advantage in a competitive or legal situation, and so it is in virtually every case in the westernized world. However, the issue becomes much more complicated in the international context, particularly in developing nations, where giving and accepting bribes is often normal and expected. This paper serves to inform ethical decision-making in situations where the "right choice" is unclear with regards to bribery, primarily for individuals performing aid work in foreign countries with corrupt officials and police officers. In such contexts, a simple offering of food, money, or a small trinket may make the difference between a person being able to accomplish meaningful, life-changing work for the local populace or having that work significantly slowed at best and being thrown out of the country, robbed, or imprisoned in worse cases. The larger scale bribery issues in international business and the laws pertaining to them are also discussed.

  9. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P movement patterns that could be targeted for improvement include positioning of the body and feet, the control or release of an object at an optimal position, and better use of the arms to maintain effective force production during the performance of FMS. Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  10. Geomechanical effects of stress shadow created by large-scale destress blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Vennes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine if large-scale choked panel destress blasting can provide sufficient beneficial stress reduction in highly-stressed remnant ore pillar that is planned for production. The orebody is divided into 20 stopes over 2 levels, and 2 panels are choke-blasted in the hanging wall to shield the ore pillar by creating a stress shadow around it. A linear-elastic model of the mining system is constructed with finite difference code FLAC3D. The effect of destress blasting in the panels is simulated by applying a fragmentation factor (α to the rock mass stiffness and a stress reduction factor (β to the current state of stress in the region occupied by the destress panels. As an extreme case, the destress panel is also modeled as a void to obtain the maximum possible beneficial effects of destressing and stress shadow. Four stopes are mined in the stress shadow of the panels in 6 lifts and then backfilled. The effect of destress blasting on the remnant ore pillar is quantified based on stress change and brittle shear ratio (BSR in the stress shadow zone compared to the base case without destress blasting. To establish realistic rock fragmentation and stress reduction factors, model results are compared to measured stress changes reported for case studies at Fraser and Brunswick mines. A 1.5 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 20 m away from the panel at Fraser Mine, and a 4 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 25 m away at Brunswick Mine. Comparable results are obtained from the current model with a rock fragmentation factor α of 0.2 and a stress reduction factor β of 0.8. It is shown that a destress blasting with these parameters reduces the major principal stress in the nearest stopes by 10–25 MPa. This yields an immediate reduction of BSR, which is deemed sufficient to reduce volume of ore at risk in the pillar.

  11. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  12. Integrating millennial and interdecadal shoreline changes: Morpho-sedimentary investigation of two prograded barriers in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. S. N.; Tamura, T.; Hudson, J. P.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    Prograded barriers are distinctive coastal landforms preserving the position of past shorelines as low relief, shore-parallel ridges composed of beach sediments and commonly adorned with variable amounts of dune sand. Prograded barriers have been valued as coastal archives which contain palaeoenvironmental information, however integrating the millennial timescale geological history of barriers with observed inter-decadal modern beach processes has proved difficult. Technologies such as airborne LiDAR, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL) were utilised at Boydtown and Wonboyn, in southeastern Australia, and combined with previously reported radiocarbon dates and offshore seismic and sedimentological data to reconstruct the morpho-sedimentary history of prograded barrier systems. These technologies enabled reconstruction of geological timescale processes integrated with an inter-decadal model of ridge formation explaining the GPR-imaged subsurface character of the barriers. Both the Boydtown and Wonboyn barriers began prograding 7500-8000 years ago when sea level attained at or near present height along this coastline and continued prograding until the present-day with an initially slower rate of shoreline advancement. Sources of sediment for progradation appear to be the inner shelf and shoreface with a large shelf sand body likely contributing to progradation at Wonboyn. The Towamba River seems to have delivered sediment to Twofold Bay during flood events after transitioning to a mature estuarine system sometime after 4000 cal. yr BP. Some of this material appears to have been reworked onto the Boydtown barrier, increasing the rate of progradation in the seaward 50% of the barrier deposited over the past 1500 years. The GPR imaged beachfaces are shown to have similar geometry to beach profiles following recent storm events and a model of ridge formation involving cut and fill of the beachface, and dune building in the

  13. An improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity to minimise radiation levels in underground uranium mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Ventilation is the primary means of controlling radon and its daughter concentrations in an underground uranium mine environment. Therefore, prediction of air quantity is the vital component for planning and designing of ventilation systems to minimise the radiation exposure of miners in underground uranium mines. This paper comprehensively describes the derivation and verification of an improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity, based on the growth of radon daughters in terms of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), to reduce the radiation levels in uranium mines. The model also explains the prediction of air quantity depending upon the quality of intake air to the stopes. This model can be used to evaluate the contribution of different sources to radon concentration in mine atmosphere based on the measurements of radon emanation and exhalation. Moreover, a mathematical relationship has been established for quick prediction of air quantity to achieve the desired radon daughter concentration in the mines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pessimistic Determination of Mechanical Conditions and Micro/macroeconomic Evaluation of Mine Pillar Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu

    2017-12-01

    Numerous pillars are left after mining of underground mineral resources using the open stope method or after the first step of the partial filling method. The mineral recovery rate can, however, be improved by replacement recovery of pillars. In the present study, the relationships among the pillar type, minimum pillar width, and micro/macroeconomic factors were investigated from two perspectives, namely mechanical stability and micro/macroeconomic benefit. Based on the mechanical stability formulas for ore and artificial pillars, the minimum width for a specific pillar type was determined using a pessimistic criterion. The microeconomic benefit c of setting an ore pillar, the microeconomic benefit w of artificial pillar replacement, and the economic net present value (ENPV) of the replacement process were calculated. The values of c and w were compared with respect to ENPV, based on which the appropriate pillar type and economical benefit were determined.

  15. [Modalities in the treatment of obstructive breathing in sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukčević, Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    The goals of OSAS therapy are to improve daytime symptoms especially excessive sleepiness, prevent neurocognitve, metabolic and cardiovascular consequences and quality of life in patients with sleep apnea. A variety of therapy exist starting from general measures that include weight reduction, change in life style, postional therapy, oral devices, upper airway surgery and pharmacotherapy. However, CPAP has been demonstrated to be the most important and highly effective therapy in these disorders. CPAP therapy dramatically improves symptoms and decreases cadriovascular and metabolic consequences stoping the occurence of the apneas. Hoewer, not all patients tolerate CPAP especially patients with milder forms of the disease. The individualised approach wich pay attention to different phenotypes and genotype could select patients for selecitively acting treatment modalities such us mandibular advancement devices and electical stimulation of the upper airway muscles.

  16. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koøínek Robert

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá – Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

  17. SLOŽENO KLIZANJE U DOLINI RJEČINE

    OpenAIRE

    Benac, Čedomir; Arbanas, Željko; Jardas, Branka; Kasapović, Saša; Jurak, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja prve faze složenog klizišta na sjeveroistočnoj padini doline Rječine između brane Valići i naselja Pašac. Bokovi doline oblikovani su u paleogenskom flišu i kvartarnim padinskim tvorevinama. Na vrhovima su zastupljene vapnenačke stijene tvoreći litice. Nastanak istražene kompleksne pojave klizišta predodređen je geološkom gradom i morfogenezom doline Rječine. To je složeno retrogresivno klizište, koje se počelo razvijati od stope prema vrhu kosine. N...

  18. Development and prospect of china uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Weimin; Wang Haifeng; Niu Yuqing; Gu Wancheng; Zhang Feifeng

    2007-01-01

    The development of industry of uranium mining and metallurgy in China has been reviewed generally, emphasizing on investigation approaches and application levels of uranium mining technologies such as in-situ leaching, heap leaching, stope leaching: on the basis of analysis on status of uranium mining and metallurgy and problems existed, also considering the specific features of deposit resources, the development orientation of uranium mining and metallurgy in China is pointed out. The industry of China uranium mining and metallurgy is faced to new opportunity of development and challenge in 21st century, the only way to realize sustainable development of uranium mining and metallurgy and harmonious development between economy and environment is to develop new technology on mining, ore beneficiation and metallurgy, increase the utilization level of uranium resources, low down impact on environment caused by mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  19. IMPROVMENT OF THE MINING METHOD IN THE BAUXITE MINE ĆUKOVAC-GRIŽINICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of bauxite in region of Dalmatia has tradition of more than 50 years. The biggest underground mine of this bauxite hearing area was developed in deposit Ćukovac-Grižinica with proved workable reserves of 1.2 x 106 t. Yearly output in 1990. was 100.000 t. Production in this mine started 1987, and sublevel caving method was used. Coefficient of extraction in the parts with weak rocks is low, and unsufficient security in the conditions with firm roof. Therefore investigation of improvement of mining method was carrying on to coinside characteristics of rocks, and mining methods. Following methods were selected: sublevel caving (actually retreat stoping, sublevel sloping and sublevel caving with bauxite protection layer (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Historical perspective of early twentieth century carboniferous palaeobotany in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.C.; Morey, E.D.; Wagner, R.H. [eds.] [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This book covers Carboniferous palaeobotany and palaeobotanists in North America during the early part of this century, with some reference to European palaeobotanists. The volume is published in memory of the palaeobotanists William C. Darrah, of whom there is a biography here. Portraits of selected European palaeobotanist are given: Wilhelmus Josephus Jongmans, Walter Gothan, Paul Bertrand, Carl Rudolf Florin and Marie Stopes. Portraits of selected North American palaeobotanists are also provided: David White, Reinhardt Thiessen, Elias Howard Sellards, Maxim Konrad Elias, Adolf Carl Noe, Fredda Doris Reed, Walther Andrew Bell, James Morton Schopf, Chester A. Arnold, Charles Brian Read, Leonard Richard Wilson, and Henry Nathaniel Andrews Jr. The biographies of three prominent amateur collectors are also presented: Frederick Oliver Thompson, George Langford Sr., and John Edward Jones. The book finishes with articles on Pennsylvanian zonation, the Stephanian, coal balls, sedimentology and taphonomy, and carboniferous palynology. 10 of the papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  1. Etude de la consolidation gravitaire en colonnes des remblais miniers cimentes en pate

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aatar, Omar

    2011-12-01

    The challenge of underground mines backfilling in Abitibi region remains a major topic of investigation by many researchers in recent decades. For example, it has been observed in the backfilled stopes that the top of the fill settles systematically few days after its placement (by an average value varying between 0.9 and 1.5 m observed at Louvicourt mine). In addition, the strength of the cemented paste backfill (CPB) increases substantially, almost three times between the top and bottom of the backfilled stope. Some studies have also shown that the strength (unconfined compressive strength or UCS) of in situ CPB core specimens was 2 to 4 times of that of specimens of the equivalent lab-prepared CPB poured into plastic moulds. Among the many possible causes which could explain these observations, one can mention the self-weight consolidation of CPB. The main objective of this research is to understand the physical phenomena that govern the mechanical strength development within paste backfill after placement. To this end, three PVC columns, each of 3 m high, were manufactured and installed at the Louvicourt (LVT) mine and LaRonde (LRD) mine backfill plants to be in-filled. The column tests performed at the Louvicourt mine backfill plant allowed simulating different drainage configurations of a backfilled stope, namely, full drainage, partial drainage and no drainage while column tests performed at the LaRonde mine allowed comparing the response of three different paste backfill mix recipes for unique drainage condition: combined lateral and vertical drainage. Before the columns in-filling, the effect of mixing time on the slump height value of CPB was evaluated. Each column was then in-filled with CPB having a slump height similar to that of the fill used underground and in two sequences of in-filling of about 1.45 to 1.5 m over a time period of 24 hours. The monitoring of in-filled columns with CPB lasted for 5 days and consisted of measuring the amount of

  2. Application of Computer Aided Design (CADD) in data display and integration of numerical and field results - Stripa phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, D.E.; Halliday, S.M.; Gale, J.E.

    1990-12-01

    Existing CAD/CADD systems have been reviewed and the micro-computer compatible solids modelling CADD software SilverScreen was selected for use in constructing a CADD model of the Stripa site. Maps of the Stripa mine drifts, shafts, raises and stopes were digitized and used to create three-dimensional images of the north-eastern part of the mine and the SCV site. In addition, the use of CADD sub-programs to display variation in fracture geometry and hydraulic heads have been demonstrated. The database developed in this study is available as either raw digitized files, processed data files, SilverScreen script files or in DXF or IGES formats; all of which are described in this report. (au)

  3. Deformation Failure Characteristics of Coal Body and Mining Induced Stress Evolution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates that the pore distribution of coal body with different compressed volume has fractal character; it appears to be the linear relationship between propagation range of internal stress field and compressed volume of coal body and nonlinear relationship between the range of outburst coal mass and the number of pores which is influenced by mining pressure. The results provide theory reference for the research on the range of mining-induced stress and broken coal wall.

  4. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast.

  5. IUD discontinuation rates, switching behavior, and user satisfaction: findings from a retrospective analysis of a mobile outreach service program in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, the uptake rate for the intrauterine device (IUD) is very low at 2.5%. The most popular modern contraceptive methods in Pakistan are female sterilization and use of condoms. The Marie Stopes Society established its mobile outreach service delivery program with the aim of increasing use of modern quality contraceptive services, including the long-term reversible IUD, by women living in hard-to-reach areas. The present study attempts to assess IUD discontinuation rates and associated factors, including switching behavior and level of satisfaction with this type of service delivery. Using a cross-sectional approach, we contacted 681 women who had received an IUD from the Marie Stopes Society mobile outreach program during July and August 2009. Successful interviews were conducted with 639 of these women using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Stata 11.2 using simple descriptive Chi-square and Cox proportional techniques. Analysis revealed that 19.4% (95% confidence interval 16.3-22.5) of the women discontinued use of their IUD at 10 months and, of these women, the majority (69.4%) cited side effects as the main reason for discontinuation. Other factors, such as geographical catchment province, age of the woman, history of contraceptive use before IUD insertion, and side effects following insertion of the device, were found to be significantly associated with IUD. Amongst the women who had their IUD removed, 56.5% did not switch to any other contraceptive method, while 36.3% switched to either short-term or traditional methods, such as withdrawal, rhythm, and folk methods. Degree of satisfaction with the device was also significantly associated with discontinuation. Early discontinuation and not switching to another contraceptive method increases the risk of unplanned pregnancy. Health care workers should be trained in managing clients' concerns about the IUD to prevent discontinuation and providing counseling services for clients to

  6. Medical abortion practices among private providers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park MH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Min Hae Park,1 Thang Huu Nguyen,2 Anh Thi Ngoc Dang,2 Thoai Dinh Ngo1 1Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 2Research and Metrics Team, Marie Stopes International Vietnam, Ha Noi, Vietnam Objective: To describe medical abortion (MA practices among private providers in Vietnam. Methods: The study subjects were women (n = 258 undergoing early MA through 12 private providers in Hanoi during February-June 2012. The women were interviewed on the day of their procedure and were followed up by telephone 14 days after mifepristone administration. Results: Of the 258 women in the study, 97% used a regimen of mifepristone plus misoprostol; 80% were instructed to administer misoprostol at home. MA resulted in a complete termination in 90.8% of cases. All women were provided with information on potential complications and were instructed to return for a follow-up visit. We successfully followed up 77.5% (n = 200 of participants by telephone, while nearly two-thirds of women returned to the clinic for a follow-up visit. At follow up, 39.5% of women reported having used a Help line service, while 7% had sought help from a health provider. A high unmet need for postabortion family planning was identified. Conclusion: Follow up of women, postabortion care, and the provision of family planning have been identified as important areas to address for strengthening MA services in the private sector in Vietnam. Keywords: misoprostol, mifepristone, abortion, mhealth, Vietnam

  7. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  8. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  9. Examination of motor skill competency in students: evidence-based physical education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. Methods Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568–857; girls = 526–695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students’ motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests. Results The students in the intervention year 1 and year 2 cohorts performed at the Competent Level or higher in the four skill assessments. The prevalence of the students’ demonstration of skill competency across the four skills was high in the two intervention years. The intervention year 2 cohort scored significantly higher than the intervention year 1 cohort in the four skill assessments. The boys significantly outperformed than the girls in the two manipulative skills in the intervention year 1 and in the two manipulative skills and the weight transferring skill in the intervention year 2. No gender differences in the running skill in either year were found. Conclusions The evidence-based CATCH PE play a critical role in developing and building K-1 students’ ability to demonstrate motor skill competency in four fundamental skills. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".

  10. Characterization of petroleum reservoirs in the Eocene Green River Formation, Central Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.D.; Bereskin, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    The oil-productive Eocene Green River Formation in the central Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah is divided into five distinct intervals. In stratigraphically ascending order these are: 1) Uteland Butte, 2) Castle Peak, 3) Travis, 4) Monument Butte, and 5) Beluga. The reservoir in the Uteland Butte interval is mainly lacustrine limestone with rare bar sandstone beds, whereas the reservoirs in the other four intervals are mainly channel and lacustrine sandstone beds. The changing depositional environments of Paleocene-Eocene Lake Uinta controlled the characteristics of each interval and the reservoir rock contained within. The Uteland Butte consists of carbonate and rare, thin, shallow-lacustrine sandstone bars deposited during the initial rise of the lake. The Castle Peak interval was deposited during a time of numerous and rapid lake-level fluctuations, which developed a simple drainage pattern across the exposed shallow and gentle shelf with each fall and rise cycle. The Travis interval records a time of active tectonism that created a steeper slope and a pronounced shelf break where thick cut-and-fill valleys developed during lake-level falls and rises. The Monument Butte interval represents a return to a gentle, shallow shelf where channel deposits are stacked in a lowstand delta plain and amalgamated into the most extensive reservoir in the central Uinta Basin. The Beluga interval represents a time of major lake expansion with fewer, less pronounced lake-level falls, resulting in isolated single-storied channel and shallow-bar sandstone deposits.

  11. Natural Radiation Spread Status at Pongkor Gold Mining Business Unit, PT. Aneka Tambang Tbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajab Taofik Hidayat

    2003-01-01

    Pongkor Gold Mine Business Unit (UBPE Pongkor) is ones of six business units in PT. Antam Tbk., which is located in Nanggung District, Bogor Residence, West Java. The geological exploration had carried out in 1988, and plant commenced in 1994 for 500 ton per day mill throughput. In 1997 the expansion plant built for 720 tpd. The mining system is used underground with cut and fill type. A waste solid tailing are used to fulfill stop ex-mine to maintain a continuously mining cycle. The process plant are used conventional methods, a ground ore is leached by sodium cyanide as chemical Reagents. A activated carbon is used for absorbs a leached gold and silver included a concentration process. By sequential process from elution, electro winning, and smelting process to made final product dore bullion (gold and silver alloys and sent to refinery Jakarta. Coarse tailing solid are used for backfill material, and there are 2 (two) Waste Water Installation to reduce a rest chemical before flow out system. Since 1997 Pongkor has a ISO 9000 Certified for Quality, and in 2002 got ISO 14000 certified for Environmental. (author)

  12. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  13. Holocene valley-floor deposition and incision in a small drainage basin in western Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence S.; Rosenburg, Margaret; Figueroa, Maria del Mar; McKee, Kathleen; Haravitch, Ben; Hunter, Jenna

    2010-09-01

    The valley floor of a 33.9 km 2 watershed in western Colorado experienced gradual sedimentation from before ˜ 6765 to ˜ 500 cal yr BP followed by deep incision, renewed aggradation, and secondary incision. In contrast, at least four terraces and widespread cut-and-fill architecture in the valley floor downstream indicate multiple episodes of incision and deposition occurred during the same time interval. The upper valley fill history is atypical compared to other drainages in the Colorado Plateau. One possible reason for these differences is that a bedrock canyon between the upper and lower valley prevented headward erosion from reaching the upper valley fill. Another possibility is that widespread, sand-rich, clay-poor lithologies in the upper drainage limited surface runoff and generally favored alluviation, whereas more clay-rich lithologies in the lower drainage resulted in increased surface runoff and more frequent incision. Twenty-two dates from valley fill charcoal indicate an approximate forest fire recurrence interval of several hundred years, similar to that from other studies in juniper-piñon woodlands. Results show that closely spaced vertical sampling of alluvium in headwater valleys where linkages between hillslope processes and fluvial activity are relatively direct can provide insight about the role of fires in alluvial chronologies of semi-arid watersheds.

  14. The Ecology Character Of Banda Aceh City In The 17th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysa Wulandari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandar Aceh Darussalam as tamaddun city in the tip of Sumatera Island and capital city of 17th century Islamic Aceh Sultanate, was a strategic coastal city. It had sloping beach and bays and was surrounded by mountains with rivers flowing through the city. Its wetlands-based urban development was reflected in the design of urban space structure and key elements of the city. It becomes inspiration for developing modern ecological city since 17th century Islamic cities in archipelago of the East is rarely studied. This research aimed to study the spatial concept of Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Data was collected by using the method of tracking physical information through ancient maps and field observation of the environment characteristic. It was found that the ecological character of the city seemed to be affected by the existence of integrated natural features, function and the role of the city that included Islamic concepts. The main elements of the city reflected the character of civilization in three aspects: the drainage system i.e. cut and fill, the scattered and wide empty space, and natural defense system. The concept of harmony between urban development and city’s ecological character was shown in the design of urban landscape.

  15. Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited

  16. NILAI VERNAKULAR DALAM PENATAAN LINGKUNGAN PADA PERMUKIMAN LERENG GUNUNG (Studi di Desa Kapencar, Lereng Gunung Sindoro, Wonosobo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VG Sri Rejeki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plateau settlement is one typology of settlement in Java. Some theory about the it have been presented the problem solving of contour or sloping land, but not discuss about the strategy of climatic solution yet. At Kapencar Village we founded some phenomenas of problem solving naturally. Some strategies are 1 the building typologies have the jogan as strategy to multy activities and the pogo as strategy to suport the tobacco and corn own activities. 2 The cut and fill construstion as the strategy of sloping land. 3 The pebble became the building material locally, that it put from yard themselves. 4 The little ventilation and the zink material as the strategy of the too cold and high humidity climate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Permukiman di dataran tingi merupakan salah satu tipe permukiman di Jawa. Selama ini teori dan konsep permukiman lerengan yang berkembang sebatas membahas tentang bentuk kontur/ kelerengan. Tetapi belum mendiskusikan tentang strategi menyelesailan masalah iklim secara vernakular. Di Desa Kapencar ditemukan beberapa fenomena strategi penyelesaian masalah secara natural oleh masyarakat. Beberapa temuan yang dapat dijadikan pembahasan antara lain 1 adanya tipologi rumah dengan prioritas ruang jogan multi fungsi dan pogo, sebagai strategi mendukung kegiatan berladang tembakau dan jagung. 2 penyelesaian kontur diselesaikan dengan cut – fill,. 3 penggunaan batu alam sebagai bahan lokal, diambil dalam pekarangan sendiri, 4 sesedikit mungkin lubang di rumah dan pemilihan bahan seng , sebagai strategi mengarasi suhu dingin dan kelembaban tinggi di lokasi tersebut. Kata kunci: Permukiman, lereng gunung, bahan bangunan, iklim, tipologi.

  17. Gravity-destabilized nonwetting phase invasion in macro-heterogeneous porous media: Experimental observations of invasion dynamics and scale analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; CONRAD,STEPHEN H.; PEPLINSKI,WILLIAM J.

    1999-02-16

    The authors designed and conducted experiments in a heterogeneous sand pack where gravity-destabilized nonwetting phase invasion (CO{sub 2} and TCE) could be recorded using high resolution light transmission methods. The heterogeneity structure was designed to be reminiscent of fluvial channel lag cut-and-fill architecture and contain a series of capillary barriers. As invasion progressed, nonwetting phase structure developed a series of fingers and pools; behind the growing front they found nonwetting phase saturation to pulsate in certain regions when viscous forces were low. Through a scale analysis, they derive a series of length scales that describe finger diameter, pool height and width, and regions where pulsation occurs within a heterogeneous porous medium. In all cases, they find that the intrinsic pore scale nature of the invasion process and resulting structure must be incorporated into the analysis to explain experimental results. The authors propose a simple macro-scale structural growth model that assembles length scales for sub-structures to delineate nonwetting phase migration from a source into a heterogeneous domain. For such a model applied at the field scale for DNAPL migration, they expect capillary and gravity forces within the complex subsurface lithology to play the primary roles with viscous forces forming a perturbation on the inviscid phase structure.

  18. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Land Leveling on Irrigation-Related Some Soil Properties in a Clay Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin Öztekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies conducted on the short-term effects of land leveling on soil water holding capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-term effects of land leveling on the magnitudes, variances, spatial variability, and distributions of surface (0–20 cm and subsurface (20–40 cm soil properties of bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, water holding capacity and particle size fractions. The study was conducted in a 1.2 ha field with clay loam soil located on the low terraces of Yesilirmak River, Tokat, Turkey. According to the paired t-test results, water holding capacity, and bulk density significantly increased, while permanent wilting point (P ≤ 0.001 and field capacity (P ≤ 0.05 significantly decreased for surface soil due to land leveling. The reasons for the increases in WHC values in both cut and fill areas (29%, and 12%, resp. of surface soil are look like the much more decreases in PWP values than those of FC values and the increases in BD values. The moderate positive linear relationship between the surface soil clay contents and cut depths through cut areas (r = 0.64 was also determined in this study.

  20. Short-term effects of land leveling on irrigation-related some soil properties in a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies conducted on the short-term effects of land leveling on soil water holding capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-term effects of land leveling on the magnitudes, variances, spatial variability, and distributions of surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil properties of bulk density, field capacity, permanent wilting point, water holding capacity and particle size fractions. The study was conducted in a 1.2 ha field with clay loam soil located on the low terraces of Yesilirmak River, Tokat, Turkey. According to the paired t-test results, water holding capacity, and bulk density significantly increased, while permanent wilting point (P ≤ 0.001) and field capacity (P ≤ 0.05) significantly decreased for surface soil due to land leveling. The reasons for the increases in WHC values in both cut and fill areas (29%, and 12%, resp.) of surface soil are look like the much more decreases in PWP values than those of FC values and the increases in BD values. The moderate positive linear relationship between the surface soil clay contents and cut depths through cut areas (r = 0.64) was also determined in this study.

  1. Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks: implications for mine safety and tectonic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Ogaswara, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Milev, Alexander; Cichowicz, Artur; Kawakata, Hironori; Moriya, Hirokazu; Naoi, Makoto; Kgarume, Thabang; Murakami, Osamu; Mngadi, Siyanda

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity poses a significant risk to workers in deep and overstressed mines, such as the gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa, as well as inhabitants of earthquake-prone regions such as Japan. A 5-year collaborative project entitled "Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks" was launched in 2010 to address these risks, drawing on over a century of South African and Japanese research experience with respect to mining-related and tectonic earthquakes, respectively. The project has three main aims: (1) to learn more about earthquake preparation and triggering mechanisms by deploying arrays of sensitive sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce seismic activity; (2) to learn more about earthquake rupture and rockburst damage phenomena by deploying robust strong ground motion sensors close to potential fault zones and on stope hangingwalls; and (3) to upgrade the South African surface national seismic network in the mining districts. Research sites have been established at mines operated by Sibanye Gold (Hlanganani Shaft and Cooke #4 Shaft) and Anglogold Ashanti (Moab-Khotsong). More than 70 boreholes (totalling more than 2.8 km in length) have been drilled to locate "capable" faults i.e. faults that are considered likely to become seismically active as a result of mining activity and to deploy sensors. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tilt meters, and controlled seismic sources were installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the earthquake preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress produced by the propagation of the rupture front. These data are being integrated with measurements of rock properties, stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. The mid-point of the 5-year project has passed. New observations of stress and the response of the rock mass to mining have already been made

  2. Terrace styles and timing of terrace formation in the Weser and Leine valleys, northern Germany: Response of a fluvial system to climate change and glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Roskosch, Julia; Polom, Ulrich; Böhner, Utz; Brandes, Christian; Glotzbach, Christoph; Frechen, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In glaciated continental basins accommodation space is not only controlled by tectonics and sea-level but also by the position of ice-sheets, which may act as a regional base-level for fluvial systems. Although the Pleistocene terrace record of major river systems in northwestern Europe has been investigated by many authors, relatively little attention has been paid to base-level changes related to glacier advance-retreat cycles and how these regional changes in base-level interacted with river catchment processes. This study provides a synthesis of the stratigraphic architecture of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terraces in the upper Weser and middle Leine valley in northern Germany and links it to glaciation, climate and base-level change. The depositional architecture of the fluvial terrace deposits has been reconstructed from outcrops and high-resolution shear wave seismic profiles. The chronology is based on luminescence ages, 230Th/U ages, 14C ages and Middle Palaeolithic archaeological assemblages. The drainage system of the study area developed during the Early Miocene. During the Pleistocene up to 170 m of fluvial incision took place. A major change in terrace style from strath terraces to cut-and-fill terraces occurred during the early Middle Pleistocene before Marine Isotope Stage MIS 12, which may correlate with climate deterioration and the onset of glaciation in northern central Europe. During this time a stable buffer zone was established within which channels avulsed and cut and filled freely without leaving these vertical confines. Climate was the dominant driver for river incision and aggradation, whereas the terrace style was controlled by base-level changes during ice-sheet growth and decay. A major effect of glacio-isostatic processes was the post-Elsterian re-direction of the River Weser and River Leine. The Middle Pleistocene fluvial terraces are vertically stacked, indicating a high aggradation to degradation ratio, corresponding

  3. Accelerating Anthropogenic Land Surface Change and the Status of Pleistocene Drumlins in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Deborah W.; Rogan, John S.; Blanchard, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    Drumlins are glacially derived landforms that are prominent in the landscape over much of southern New England. We carried out a comprehensive ground-based survey in a three-town study area in eastern Massachusetts with the goals of establishing the extent to drumlins have been altered and assessing the associated environmental consequences and probable driving factors. Results show that many drumlins have been significantly altered through levelling and truncation (creation of steep cut and fill slopes), with projects involving movement of 1−1.5×106 m3 of earth materials not now uncommon. Stormwater and wetlands infractions were documented at all the larger excavation sites and resulted in enforcement actions and fines in many cases; the broader environmental consequences of the loss/alteration of these forested uplands are harder to establish. The excavations are significant in terms of materials cycling: the movement of earth materials, when considered regionally, greatly exceeds natural denudation processes and is also greater than during other periods of high anthropogenic denudation. Our findings suggest that the region’s glacial landscapes are at risk given current development patterns. The accelerating rate of land-surface change is undoubtedly also generalizable to other fast-developing regions of the United States. The landform alterations documented are part of a changing pattern of land use and vegetation cover since the Colonial era and are linked to shortages of land for development, current development and building practices, and lack of explicit rationales for preservation of the region’s geoheritage. PMID:23056410

  4. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic controls on channel evolution in a sub-tropical river, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, James; Croke, Jacky; Thompson, Chris; Cohen, Tim; Macklin, Mark; Sharma, Ashneel

    2016-04-01

    Palaeohydrological research provides valuable insights to the understanding of short- and long-term fluvial dynamics in response to climate change and tectonic activity. In landscapes where tectonic activity is minimal fluvial archives record long-term changes in sediment and discharge dynamics related to either intrinsic or extrinsic controls. Isolating the relative controls of these factors is an important frontier in this area of research. Advances in geochronology, the acquisition of high resolution topographic data and geomorphological techniques provide an opportunity to assess the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic controls on terrace and floodplain formation. This study presents the results of detailed chrono-stratigraphic research in a partly confined river valley in subtropical southeast Queensland. River systems within this region are characterized by high hydrological variability and have a near-ubiquitous compound channel morphology (macrochannel) where Holocene deposits are inset within late Pleistocene terraces. These macrochannels can accommodate floods up to and beyond the predicted 100-year flood. Using single grain optically stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon analyses, combined with high resolution spatial datasets, we demonstrate the nature of fluvial response to major late Quaternary climate change. A large proportion of the valley floor is dominated by terrace alluvium deposited after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (17 - 13 ka) and overlies basal older Pleistocene alluvium. Preliminary results suggest a phase of incision occurred at 10 ka with the formation of the large alluvial trench. The Holocene floodplain is dominated by processes of catastrophic vertical accretion and erosion (cut-and-fill) and oblique accretion at the macrochannel margins. The consistency in ages for the terraces and subsequent incision suggests a uniform network response. Alluvial sediments and channel configuration in this compound and complex

  5. Long river profiles, tectonism, and eustasy: A guide to interpreting fluvial terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritts, Dorothy J.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    1994-01-01

    Along three rivers at the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, strath, cut, and fill terraces have formed in response to tectonic and eustatic processes. Detailed surveying and radiometric dating at multiple sites indicate that lower reaches of the rivers are dominated by the effects of oscillating sea level, primarily aggradation and formation of fill terraces during sea level high stands, alternating with deep incision during low stands. A eustasy-driven depositional wedge extends tens of kilometers upstream on all rivers (tapering to zero thickness). This distance is greater than expected from studies of the effects of check dams on much smaller streams elsewhere, due in part to the large size of these rivers. However, the change in gradient is nearly identical to other base level rise studies: the depositional gradient is about half that of the original channel. Middle to upper reaches of each river are dominated by the effects of long-term uplift, primarily lateral and vertical erosion and formation of steep, unpaired strath terraces exposed only upstream of the depositional wedge. Vertical incision at a rate similar to that of uplift has occurred even during the present sea level high stand along rivers with highest uplift rates. Strath terraces have steeper gradients than the modern channel bed and do not merge with marine terraces at the river mouth; consequently, they cannot be used to determine altitudes of sea level high stands. Strath formation is a continuous process of response to long-term uplift, and its occurrence varies spatially along a river depending on stream power, and hence position, upstream. Strath terraces are found only along certain parts of a coastal stream: upstream of the aggradational effects of oscillating sea level, and far enough downstream that stream power is in excess of that needed to transport the prevailing sediment load. For a given size river, the greater the uplift rate, the greater the rate of vertical

  6. Interactions of Flow, Sediment Transport, and Vegetation in the Long-Term Evolution of Arroyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Griffin, E. R.; Tucker, G. E.; Friedman, J. M.; Overeem, I.

    2014-12-01

    Arroyos in the Southwestern United States have experienced multiple cut-and-fill cycles in the late Quaternary. Extensive studies fo the Lower Rio Puerco, New Mexico, USA, show that it has most recently progressed from an (1) unincised state with a broad floodplain in the mid 1800s, through a period of (2) incision, forming a deep gully with steep walls by the early 1900s, and to the (3) present-day stage of arroyo widening and filling. The arroyo cycle is driven by a combination of autogenic processes and external forcings, although the relative influence of each process is under debate. We use the morphodynamic model ANUGA to explore the influences of discharge, sediment transport, and vegetation on the geomorphic evolution of the Lower Rio Puerco through the arroyo cycle. The predictive power of the numerical model is first established by using it to hind-cast the morphologic evolution of a reach of the river during a large flood in 2006, and comparing the model predictions to real-world magnitudes and patterns of topographic change recorded for this event by multi-temporal airborne lidar. The morphodynamic model is then used to simulate the response of this stream to floods in the past. A comprehensive dataset of the topography and hydrology of the Lower Rio Puerco since the 1920s is used to reproduce the morphology of the arroyo at multiple points in time, and historical descriptions serve to extrapolate these into the 19th century. We test the sensitivity of the reconstructed landscapes to changes in peak discharge, sediment supply, and the distribution and characteristics of vegetation in order to determine the relative influence of each forcing in the evolution of the stream, and to understand how the interactions of different processes could drive its progression through the arroyo cycle.

  7. Geologic evidence for age of deposits at Hueyatlaco archeological site, Vasequillo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-McIntyre, Virginia; Fryxell, Roald; Malde, Harold E.

    1981-07-01

    Direct tracing of beds during excavation in May 1973, confirmed that the artifact-bearing layers at Hueyatlaco underlie 10 m of fine-grained, water-laid deposits that constitute part of the wide-spread Valsequillo gravels. Dissection of these deposits by the adjacent Río Atoyac has reached a depth of 50 m. The stratigraphic section at Hueyatlaco includes four distinctive tephra units. The oldest one occupies a small channel in a series of cut-and-fill stream deposits that have yielded bifacial tools. It lies more than a meter above flat-lying, fine-grained beds from which edge-retouched tools have been recovered. The three other tephra units occur higher in the section. Fission-track ages on zircon phenocrysts from two of the younger tephra layers (370,000 ± 200,000 and 600,000 ± 340,000 yr, 2σ) agree with concordant uranium-series dates for a camel pelvis that was found associated with bifacial tools at Hueyatlaco (245,000 ± 40,000 yr by 230Th and > 180,000 yr by 231Pa). These dates are compatible with the depth of burial and subsequent dissection of the Hueyatlaco deposits, as well as with the degree of hydration of volcanic glass shards and with the extent of etching of heavy-mineral phenocrysts from within the tephra layers. These findings suggest to us that further search for archaeological remains in deposits as old as those at Hueyatlaco would be warranted.

  8. Processes of paleoarroyo aggradation in Kanab Creek, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, K. F.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many alluvial valleys in the southwest United States have experienced repeated periods of arroyo entrenchment and re-aggradation during the Holocene. Previous research suggests arroyo dynamics were regionally synchronous, implying that climate fluctuations are the dominant drivers. However, intrinsic reach- or catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds to entrenchment are also hypothesized to partially control the timing of arroyo processes. This study focuses on the Holocene alluvial history of three entrenched reaches of Kanab Creek, southern Utah, to explore these competing hypotheses. Episodes of prehistoric arroyo cutting and filling are reconstructed by recognition of buttress unconformable contacts in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy and age control derived from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating. A combined dataset of 47 OSL and 47 radiocarbon ages is produced, and results indicate at least five periods of aggradation occurred since ~6.0 ka, each interrupted by an episode of arroyo entrenchment. Comparison of this record to recently completed chronologies from arroyo systems in the region indicates near-synchronous arroyo processes over the last ~1.5 ka; however, beyond 1.5 ka correlations are less clear. Broadly contemporaneous alluviation suggests a climatic driver, and comparison to paleoclimate records suggests that arroyo entrenchment events may be driven by transitions from periods of multi-year drought to wetter periods. However, the detailed alluvial chronology indicates that the initiation of aggradation is transient, with each period of paleoarroyo aggradation beginning downstream and propagating upstream, which suggests that potentially regionally synchronous, climate-driven events may not appear as such in the stratigraphic record.

  9. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (> 10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor ( 10 Be and 36 Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2 to 4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22 to 18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time

  10. Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-03-21

    The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly

  11. The success of headwater rehabilitation towards gully erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    rehabilitation, check dam, cut-and fill cycle, soil and water conservation, erosion

  12. VEGETAL COVERING IN CUT SLOPES BY MEANS OF GEOCELLS OF RUBBERIZED SISAL BIOBLANKETS IN BRASILIA/DF, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sponga

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The strongly wavy relief transposition for implantation of highways has became intensely used in the last decades by means of tunnels, cuts and fillings, causing impacts to the landscape in result of some factors, as decapitation of surfaces, abrupt transformation of land morphology, disequilibrium of superficial and sub superficial water circulation, waste handling sistems, enchainment of erosive processes etc. As an alleviating measure of part of the impacts generated for the excavations for constructing the roadways, procedures of containment and vegetal resetting of surfaces for reduction of the erosive processes and stabilization of mass movements are adopted. The found terrain are very diversified and several occasions the vegetal covering becomes difficult in reason of the physical-chemical characteristics for germination to be inadequate. In areas of high risk to the occupation with stability problems, commonly they use covering with projected concrete for containment of hillsides, that parallelly causes strong environmental and visual impact in the intervention area, and furthermore, possibly, not consisting insolutions duly adequate or definitive for these situations.The search for alternatives is frequent in academic medium as much as in the private initiative for techniques for containment of hillsides and more economic erosion control, looking for lesser ambient impacts and better results. The search of these alternatives gradually becomes technically systemizing itself, aiming at the recovery of the conditions of dynamic balance of the impacted landscapes due to the explosive increase of social and environmental problems intrinsically related.In this direction, it will be presented the description of a work of vegetal covering by grass in plates, antierosive bioblanket and geocells in fibers of rubberized sisal for the confinement of soil in cut slopes of a highway in Brasilia/DF, in Brazil. This technique presented excellent

  13. Comparative Study of the Volumetric Methods Calculation Using GNSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şmuleac, Adrian; Nemeş, Iacob; Alina Creţan, Ioana; Sorina Nemeş, Nicoleta; Şmuleac, Laura

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to achieve volumetric calculations for different mineral aggregates using different methods of analysis and also comparison of results. To achieve these comparative studies and presentation were chosen two software licensed, namely TopoLT 11.2 and Surfer 13. TopoLT program is a program dedicated to the development of topographic and cadastral plans. 3D terrain model, level courves and calculation of cut and fill volumes, including georeferencing of images. The program Surfer 13 is produced by Golden Software, in 1983 and is active mainly used in various fields such as agriculture, construction, geophysical, geotechnical engineering, GIS, water resources and others. It is also able to achieve GRID terrain model, to achieve the density maps using the method of isolines, volumetric calculations, 3D maps. Also, it can read different file types, including SHP, DXF and XLSX. In these paper it is presented a comparison in terms of achieving volumetric calculations using TopoLT program by two methods: a method where we choose a 3D model both for surface as well as below the top surface and a 3D model in which we choose a 3D terrain model for the bottom surface and another 3D model for the top surface. The comparison of the two variants will be made with data obtained from the realization of volumetric calculations with the program Surfer 13 generating GRID terrain model. The topographical measurements were performed with equipment from Leica GPS 1200 Series. Measurements were made using Romanian position determination system - ROMPOS which ensures accurate positioning of reference and coordinates ETRS through the National Network of GNSS Permanent Stations. GPS data processing was performed with the program Leica Geo Combined Office. For the volumetric calculating the GPS used point are in 1970 stereographic projection system and for the altitude the reference is 1975 the Black Sea projection system.

  14. Advancing Toward "Eden"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Tyson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to exploit natural systems. Rip-off or restore. While self-serving euphemisms (e.g., "green," "sustainability," "reforestation," and "the" ecology may be as repulsive to purists as they are appealing to reformers and spin-hypers alike, they do serve the purpose of laying a stone or two toward bridging the gap between the rampant masses and the enlightened. So what's the next stepping stone between scientific understanding, applications that work, and broad enough acceptance of the implications of the applications and the science behind them? In most of my work (highway cuts and fills, pipelines, landfills, and the like, "equilibrium" is not an issue. The patient is, theoretically, dead. Therefore, equilibrium, or at least the initiation and acceleration of a trend that is in that direction, becomes the issue. The issue is: "Is restoration necessary?" What measures beyond the incredible resilience of natural processes, given enough time, are feasible, and will restoration of the ecosystem equilibrium be the result? How closely will, and how closely can, the "restored" ecosystem resemble the "original?" When is equilibrium achieved? The scientifically stringent performance criteria proposed independently by both St. John and Ewel in the 1980s require that a succesful ecosystem restoration project must: (1 be capable of perpetuating itself without outside subsidy (no irrigation or fertilizer; (2 be resistant to long-term weed invasion; (3 closely match the original ecosystem's productivity; (4 recycle nutrients; and (5 exhibit the entire range of critical biological components. These criteria should stand until improved. How are these criteria to be measured and judged? Any takers?

  15. Volcanic and Tectonic Evolution of The Gulf of California Near Mulege, Baja California Sur: Results From Baja Basins NSF-REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, S. J.; Allard, J.; Acuna, N.; Graettinger, A. H.; Busby, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic rocks have been studied along many parts of the Gulf of California margin of Baja California because they provide a record of its volcano-tectonic evolution, from subduction (24-12 Ma), to rifting (820 m thick red bed sequence, sourced to the east by andesitic volcanic rocks eroded from the footwall of a west-dipping normal fault. Proximal alluvial fan bajada deposits are debris-flow dominated, with angular clasts up to 1.3 m in size. Distal braided stream deposits have sandstones and cobble conglomerates, with abundant cut and fill structures and rounded clasts. Adakite trachyandesite block-and-ash-flow tuffs are interstratified with the proximal deposits, representing pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of lava domes plumbed up the basin-bounding fault to the east. (2) The redbeds were cut by a dike swarm that fed a field of lava shield volcanoes. The dikes and lava shields include calcalkaline basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite, as well as magnesian trachyandesite and basaltic andesite. (3) A N-S, subvertical fault stepped into the basin and dropped the lava shields down to the east, while they were eroded off the uplifted footwall to the west. (4) The footwall block was beveled and overlain by plateau-forming magnesian basaltic trachyandesite lavas. Basal clastic sequences in the Baja Gulf of California margin have been inferred to represent Oligocene forearc rocks, with overlying volcanic rocks recording westward sweep of the Miocene arc into the area. However, on the basis of our geochemistry, we infer that all of these rocks record post-subduction (<12 Ma) processes. 1 Acuna et al., this volume

  16. Alluvial terrace development and changing landscape connectivity in the Great Karoo, South Africa. Insights from the Wilgerbosch River catchment, Sneeuberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Christopher J.; Hooke, Janet M.

    2017-07-01

    . This study is the first to demonstrate the role and importance of changing connectivity in 'cut and fill' phases that predate the late eighteenth century European incursion in the Sneeuberg.

  17. Facies architecture of the fluvial Missão Velha Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, Gelson Luís; Neumann, Virgínio Henrique M. L.; Menezes-Filho, José Acioli B.; Da Silva-Filho, Wellington F.; De Oliveira, Édison Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeast Brazil) is the aim of this paper through detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and paleocurrent data. The main facies recognized were: (i) coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstones, locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks and several large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications and predominantly lenticular geometry; (ii) lenticular coarse-to-medium sandstones with some granules, abundant silicified fossil wood, and large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications, cut-and fill features and mud drapes on the foresets of cross-strata, (iii) poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebbles and with horizontal stratification, (iv) fine to very fine silty sandstones, laminated, interlayered with (v) decimetric muddy layers with horizontal lamination and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Nine architectural elements were recognized: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel bars and bed forms, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB (p): sand bedform with planar cross-stratification, OF: Overbank flow, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet, LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. The lithofacies types and facies associations were interpreted as having been generated by alluvial systems characterized by (i) high energy perennial braided river systems and (ii) ephemeral river systems. Aeolian sand dunes and sand sheets generated by the reworking of braided alluvial deposits can also occur. The paleocurrent measurements show a main dispersion pattern to S, SE and SW, and another to NE/E. These features imply a paleodrainage flowing into the basins of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá.

  18. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-03-24

    Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the

  19. Comparing the World Health Organization- versus China-recommended protocol for first-trimester medical abortion: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo TD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thoai D Ngo1, Min Hae Park1, Yuanhong Xiao21Research and Metrics Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 2Research and Metrics Team, Marie Stopes International China, Beijing, ChinaObjective: To compare the effectiveness, in terms of complete abortion, of the World Health Organization (WHO- and the China-recommended protocol for first-trimester medical abortion.Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data from women presenting for first trimester medical abortion between January 2009 and August 2010 at reproductive health clinics in Qingdao, Xi’an, Nanjing, Nanning, and Zhengzhou was conducted. One clinic in Qingdao administered the WHO-recommended protocol (200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 0.8 mg misoprostol buccally 36–48 hours later. Four clinics in the other locations provided the China-recommended procedure (Day 1: 50 mg of mifepristone in the morning, 25 mg in the afternoon; Day 2: 50 mg of mifepristone in the morning, 25 mg in the afternoon; Day 3: 0.6 mg oral misoprostol. Data on reproductive and demographic characteristics were extracted from clinic records, and complete termination was determined on day 14 (post-mifepristone administration.Results: A total of 337 women underwent early medical abortion (167 WHO- and 170 China-recommended procedures. Complete abortion was significantly higher among women who had the WHO protocol than those who received the China protocol (91.0% vs 77.7%, respectively; P < 0.001. Women using the China-recommended protocol were three times more likely to require an additional dose of misoprostol than women using the WHO protocol (21.8% vs 7.8%, respectively; P < 0.001, and had significantly more bleeding on the day of misoprostol administration (12.5 mL vs 18.5 mL; P < 0.001.Conclusion: This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence suggesting the WHO-recommended protocol may be more effective than the China-recommended protocol for early medical abortion

  20. Women’s perspectives on termination service delivery in Vietnam: a cross-sectional survey in three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo TD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thoai D Ngo,1,2 Caroline Free,1 Hoan T Le,3 Phil Edwards,1 Kiet HT Pham,4 Yen BT Nguyen,4 Thang H Nguyen5 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 3Department of Environmental Health, Hanoi Medical University, 4Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, 5Research and Metrics Team, Marie Stopes International Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam Objective: To explore the perspectives of abortion service users regarding termination methods and abortion service delivery in Vietnam. Materials and methods: Structured exit interviews were conducted between August and November 2011 with women who underwent termination of pregnancy at 62 public health facilities in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. All women presenting for termination during the study period were recruited to participate in the study. Following their abortion, women were asked about their perspectives on abortion service delivery and attributes of medical abortion (MA versus manual vacuum aspiration (MVA. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between current method uptake and each attribute. Results: A total of 1,233 women were included in the survey: 541 (43.9% from Hanoi, 163 (13.2% from Khanh Hoa, and 529 (42.9% from Ho Chi Minh: 23.1% underwent MA; 78.9% reported that women should be given a choice between MA and MVA; and 77.6% thought that abortion services were accessible. Among the 48% who responded, 30.1% thought that MA should be made available at primary/secondary health care facilities. Among women who had previously undergone both methods, women who reported that MA "feels more natural" (like a menstrual regulation/period were more likely to choose MA for their current abortion (odds ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.26–3.69. Conclusion: MA uptake is significantly

  1. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram Azmat,1 Waqas Hameed,1 Anja Lendvay,2 Babar Tasneem Shaikh,3 Ghulam Mustafa,1 Muhammad Ahmed Siddiqui,1 Sajid Brohi,1 Asif Karim,1 Muhammad Ishaque,1 Wajahat Hussain,1 Mohsina Bilgrami,1 Paul J Feldblum2 1Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Department, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Pakistan; 2FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 3Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan Introduction: The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab. Materials and methods: A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Discussion: Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018, 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end

  2. Correlation of Earthquake Locations with Volumetric Source Components in TauTona Gold Mine, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, D. L.; Boettcher, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the source characteristics of earthquakes in TauTona Gold Mine, South Africa, to test if the location of earthquakes relative to mining structures is correlated with significant isotropic source behavior. Earthquakes are well monitored in TauTona Mine, where underground near-source stations record smaller events and higher frequency energy than can generally be observed using surface stations. Our dataset includes -4 mine, including faults, dikes, tunnels, and stopes, are well known from detailed geologic mapping and surveyed mine plans. We use data collected between 2004 and 2009 from the in-mine array (1-6 kHz), the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) project stations (6-12 kHz), and a short-term PASSCAL experiment (200 Hz) to study source mechanism variability and correlation with mapped structures within the mine. Previous studies of earthquakes in mines suggest a relationship between earthquake size and isotropic moment tensor source characteristics. In TauTona Mine, earthquakes with significant implosive source characteristics tend to be infrequent, larger events (Mw > 1.5), whereas earthquakes with significant explosive source characteristics tend to be smaller (Mw closure of tunnels and stopes within the mine, whereas the smallest recorded explosive events can be interpreted as opening cracks that form at the edges of mining structures. Double-couple type sources occur throughout the full magnitude range, and are often located along mapped faults and dikes. We focus our analysis on earthquakes located near the NELSAM stations in the deepest part of the mine, and on earthquakes located at depths greater than the current extent of mining. High precision relative hypocenter relocation performed using the 3-D extensive seismic array provides excellent constraints on location of events. We compute full moment tensor solutions for events using amplitude measurements of individual arrival phases, including nearfield phases

  3. Attributes and perspectives of public providers related to provision of medical abortion at public health facilities in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study in three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo TD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thoai D Ngo,1,2 Caroline Free,1 Hoan T Le,3 Phil Edwards,1 Kiet HT Pham,4 Yen BT Nguyen,4 Thang H Nguyen5 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, London, UK; 3Department of Environmental Health, 4Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, 5Research and Metrics Team, Marie Stopes International Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate attributes of public service providers associated with the provision of medical abortion in Vietnam. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study via interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers from public health facilities in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam between August 2011 and January 2012. We recruited abortion providers at all levels of Vietnam's public health service delivery system. Participants were questioned about their medical abortion provision practices and perspectives regarding abortion methods. Results: A total of 905 providers from 62 health facilities were included, comprising 525 (58.0% from Hanoi, 122 (13.5% from Khanh Hoa, and 258 (28.5% from Ho Chi Minh City. The majority of providers were female (96.7%, aged ≥25 years (94%, married (84.4%, and had at least one child (89%; 68.9% of providers offered only manual vacuum aspiration and 31.1% performed both medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration. Those performing both methods included physicians (74.5%, midwives (21.7%, and nurses (3.9%. Unadjusted analyses showed that female providers (odds ratio 0.1; 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.30 and providers in rural settings (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.08–0.79 were less likely to provide medical abortion than their counterparts. Obstetricians and gynecologists were more likely to provide medical abortion than providers with

  4. [Psychiatric aspects in workers subject to mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, A; Gebhardt, Eva; Petrucci, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    Mobbing in the language of ethologists means a particular behaviour of a group of animals consisting of several members forming an alliance against a single animal, in order to eliminate this animal away from the group. This term has been adopted in current usage to mean a kind of relationship at the workplace that, by aggressive and underhand means, aims at influencing or expelling the person. The term "bossing" is used to indicate a negative action, under the meaning described above, made by one or more senior persons, or possibly by the employer. In the Italian Parliament, under the current legislature, several bills are pending regarding this problem. Besides the aspects of topical interest in the problem, there are first and foremost the different kinds of reaction-adaptation to mobbing, according to the type of individual internal working models in action, that can be anxious/avoiding, anxious/resistant or disorganised. The purpose of our study was a clinical evaluation of the different ways of adaptation-reaction to a mobbing-type relationship at the workplace, and of the type of internal working models found among the examined patients. A clinical interview was carried out with 40 patients who, over a period of 12 months of observation, came to request a clinical assessment, for medical-legal reasons, of their psycho-pathological state and ways to react to adverse situations at the workplace, such as a mobbing or bossing. Besides the psychological and relational effects of mobbing, the reactions of the examined subjects to mobbing are also described, considering also the different cognitive self-organization possibilities, according to the individual internal working model, regarding patterns of attachment in adult age. The most frequent internal working model seems to be the one related to resistant attachment, followed by the avoidance and lastly--rarely--the disorganized model. Furthermore we observed among these subjects a certain deficit in meta

  5. ¿QUÉ OCURRE EN EL AULA COSTARRICENSE? LOS NIÑOS Y LAS NIÑAS QUE MALTRATAN A SUS COMPAÑEROS (WHAT HAPPENS IN COSTA RICAN CLASSROOM? CHILDREN ABUSE THEIR PARTNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Hannia Cabezas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo es un estudio exploratorio que buscó identificar la presencia de conductas agresivas en escolares costarricenses. Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de 916 estudiantes de 9 a 14 años que cursan de tercero a sexto grado en diversos centros educativos del país, ubicados tanto en zonas rurales como urbanas y se aplicó una encuesta piloto. Del análisis de datos se desprende que un 14.3% de alumnos ha agredido de una u otra forma a sus iguales. Se concluye que la presencia de conductas agresivas en niños en edad escolar en la escuela costarricense es una realidad. De los datos se desprende que un 21% de los estudiantes que agreden a sus iguales son hombres y un 9% son mujeres. Los varones utilizan más la fuerza física y las mujeres acosan a sus iguales de forma solapada. Los datos se analizan porcentualmente en función de la incidencia del criterio que se pretende valorar.Abstract:This article was an exploratory study that seeks to identify the presence of aggressive behavior in Costa Rican school. We selected a purposive sample of 916 students from 9 to 14 years old enrolled in third through sixth grade in various schools in the country, located in both rural and urban areas. This was a pilot survey. Data analysis showed that 14.3% of students have been assaulted in one way or another to their peers. We conclude that the presence of aggressive behavior in school-age children in school in Costa Rica is a reality. Data showed that 21% of students who bully their peers were men and 9% were women. Males used more physical force while women harass their peers in an underhanded way. The data were analyzed based on the percentage incidence of the criteria that is intended to assess.

  6. A seismic case study of salt dissolution and subsidence in response to regional deformation, south-central Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil L.; Williams, R. Shawn; Hinds, Ronald C.

    1996-04-01

    Bedded rock salt with a net thickness of about 40 m was deposited uniformly within the Famennian Wabamun Group in the Stettler South study area (T33-34, R18-21W4M) of south-central Alberta. Subsequent to deposition, this original rock salt was leached to the extent that it is preserved now as irregular-shaped bodies of widely differing areal extent and thickness. In the immediate study area, dissolution was initiated by regional deformation during the mid-Late Cretaceous, and accentuated thereafter by various large-scale processes including glaciation. Seismic data illustrate that at least some salt-dissolution features in the Stettler South area retain a marked linear orientation (SSW-NNE). In cross section (on west-east oriented seismic lines), these structures are manifested as upward-expanding zones of observable subsidence. These zones of subsidence are characterized by increased structural relief at greater depth (resulting principally to the timing of the leaching, stoping, and lateral strain within post-salt strata), and small-amplitude near-vertical offsets. The character of these subsidence features is consistent with: (1) the onset of dissolution as a result of regional deformation during mid-Late Cretaceous; (2) the plastic deformation (creep) of rock salt; (3) the plastic deformation (on a large scale) and relatively gradual subsidence of the post-salt strata; and (4) accelerated rates of leaching in response to glacial loading and unloading.

  7. Backfilling behavior of a mixed aggregate based on construction waste and ultrafine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiusong; Zhang, Qinli; Xiao, Chongchun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To study the possibility of utilizing mixed construction waste and ultrafine tailings (CW&UT) as a backfilling aggregate that can be placed underground in a mine, physicochemical evaluation, proportioning strength tests, and pumpability experiments were conducted. It was revealed that mixed CW&UT can be used as a backfilling aggregate due to the complementarities of their physicochemical properties. In addition, as the results of the proportioning strength tests show, the compressive strength of a cemented CW&UT backfilling specimen cured for 28 days, with a mass fraction of 72-74%, a cement-sand ratio of 1:12, and a CW proportion of 30%, is higher than 1.0 MPa, which meets the safety requirements and economic consideration of backfilling technology in many underground metal mines, and can also be enhanced with an increase in the cement-sand ratio. The results of the pumpability experiments show that cemented backfilling slurry based on CW&UT can be transported to the stope underground with a common filling pump, with a 16.6 MPa maximum pressure, with the condition that the time of emergency shut-down is less than approximately 20 min. All in all, the research to utilize mixed CW&UT as a backfilling aggregate can not only provide a way to dispose of CW&UT but also will bring large economic benefits and can provide constructive guidance for environmental protection.

  8. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  9. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods/Design This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. Discussion The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group. PMID:24885657

  10. Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Every

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.

  11. Finnish Official Development Aid for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP, Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Vestliitto engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finlands total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009, mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.

  12. The Communities R and D Programme: radioactive waste management and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The European Community's programme is the first and to this date the only joint international action dealing with those issues, which might well become decisive for the future of nuclear energy -the management and storage of radioactive waste. The first Annual Progress Report describes the scope and the state of advancement of this indirect action programme. At present 24 research contracts with research institutes in almost every member country of the EC are either signed or in the final stages of negociation. The objective of the R and D actions to be achieved by 1980 is the demonstration of either the technical potential or, for further advanced projects, the feasibility and even the industrial availability of methods for treating and stoping radwaste. The following aspects are investigated: processing of solid waste from reactors, reprocessing plants and the plutonium manufacture; intermediate and terminal storage of high activity and alpha wastes; advanced waste management methods as the storage of gaseous waste and the separation and transmutation of actinides. In addition to the scientific-technical R and D actions, a survey of the legal, administrative and financial problems encountered in radwaste management and storage is an essential part of the Communities' programme

  13. An Investigation of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Cemented Hydraulic Backfill Made of Alluvial Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backfill is commonly used in underground mines. The quality control of the backfill is a key step to ensure it meets the designed strength requirement. This is done through sample collection from the underground environment, followed by uniaxial compression tests to obtain the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS in the laboratory. When the cylindrical cemented backfill samples are axially loaded to failure, several failure modes can be observed and mainly classified into diagonal shear failure and axial split failure. To date, the UCS obtained by these two failure modes are considered to be the same with no distinction between them. In this paper, an analysis of the UCS results obtained on a cemented hydraulic backfill made of alluvial sand at a Canadian underground mine over the course of more than three years is presented. The results show that the UCS values obtained by diagonal shear failure are generally higher than those obtained by axial split failure for samples with the same recipe and curing time. This highlights the importance of making a distinction between the UCS values obtained by the two different modes of failure. Their difference in failure mechanism is explained. Further investigations on the sources of the data dispersion tend to indicate that the UCS obtained by laboratory tests following the current practice may not be representative of the in-situ strength distribution in the underground stopes due to segregation in cemented hydraulic backfill.

  14. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  15. Application of Confined Blasting in Water-Filled Deep Holes to Control Strong Rock Pressure in Hard Rock Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In extra-thick coal seams, mining operations can lead to large-scale disturbances, complex overburden structures, and frequent and strong strata behavior in the stope, which are serious threats to mine safety. This study analyzed the overburden structure and strata behavior and proposed the technique of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes as a measure to prevent strong rock pressure. It found that there are two primary reasons for the high effectiveness of the proposed technique in presplitting hard coal and rock. First, the fracture water enables much more efficient transfer of dynamic load due to its incompressibility. Second, the subsequent expansion of water can further split the rock by compression. A mechanical model was used to reveal how the process of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes presplit roof. Moreover, practical implementation of this technique was found to improve the structure of hard, thick roof and prevent strong rock pressure, demonstrating its effectiveness in roof control.

  16. Emplacement of the Kodiak batholith and slab-window migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, David W.; Haeussler, P.; Friedman, R.; Paterson, Scott R.; Saltus, R.W.; Ayuso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Kodiak batholith is one of the largest, most elongate intrusive bodies in the forearc Sanak-Baranof plutonic belt located in southern Alaska. This belt is interpreted to have formed during the subduction of an oceanic spreading center and the associated migration of a slab window. Individual plutons of the Kodiak batholith track the location and evolution of the underlying slab window. Six U/Pb zircon ages from the axis of the batholith exhibit a northeastward-decreasing age progression of 59.2 ± 0.2 Ma at the southwest end to 58.4 ± 0.2 Ma at the northeast tip. The trench-parallel rate of age progression is within error of the average slab-window migration rate for the entire Sanak-Baranof belt (~19 cm/yr). Structural relationships, U/Pb ages, and a model of new gravity data indicate that magma from the Kodiak batholith ascended 5-10 km as a northeastward-younging series of 1-8-km-diameter viscoelastic diapirs. Individual plutons ascended by multiple emplacement mechanisms including downward flow, collapse of wall rock, stoping, and diking. Stokes flow xenolith calculations suggest ascent rates of 5-100 m/yr and an effective magmatic viscosity of 107-108 Pa s. Pre-existing structural or lithologic heterogeneities did not dominantly control the location of the main batholith. Instead, its location was determined by migration of the slab window at depth. 

  17. SOCIAL FRANCHISING AND SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING: A QUALITATIVEANALYSIS OFFACILITATORS’PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Schalkwyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Franchising, a business concept that originated in the United States of America (USA, is asystem of doing business via contracts through which the franchiser shares a system ofknowledge, intellectual property and trade secrets in return for fees and royalties. Socialfranchising, on the other hand, utilises the same principles and format to achieve socialbenefits. Social franchising has been associated with, among others, the health services andeducation. Health services such as Marie Stopes International make use of social franchisingto increase their services by engaging existing private providers to deliver high quality sexualreproductive health services in underserved areas. In education, social franchising can be seenas a quick fix to national problems regarding education. The purpose of this study was toqualitatively analyse facilitators’perceptions of social franchising in education through theprovision of supplementary lessonsand its potential to improvestudents’ performance. Thesample of the study comprised facilitatorsactively involved in the facilitation of lessons tosupplement existing knowledge/impart new learning methodologies in mathematics, scienceand languages for school-going learners. An interview schedulewas developed andparticipants were interviewed at the site of deliveryduring the period when students were onrecess. From a content analysis of the transcripts of the interviewsfour themes, namely,challenges,opportunities,motivationandsustainabilityemerged. It is recommended thatthere should be greater parental as well as university involvement in the provision ofsupplementary tuition for learners. Existing schools with adequate resources should also beconsidered as possible venues for supplementary tuition.

  18. Comprehensive feasibility of raw material projects in small scale mining. An interdisciplinary challenge; Ganzheitliche Machbarkeit von Rohstoffprojekten im Kleinbergbau. Eine interdisziplinaere Herausforderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Johannes K.; Bauer, Christian G. [Minccon Geo GmbH, Jenbach (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    For decades now, the geotechnical company Minccon Geo GmbH has been active in the field of mineral development, dressing, processing, stoping and valuation. The following deals particularly with the activities of small scale mining in Central and Eastern Europe and with the practical experiences made. The implementation of successful development and consistent operation of small scale mining presents a challenging and diversified cross-section of the topic. With this definition it is not possible to give a general classification of a mineral enterprise independent of the recovered mineral product, time and space. By way of the jointly organized reference project in the oil shale mining of the Tiroler Steinoelwerke (Austria), the prerequisites for successful project development in small scale mining are presented. The mentioned case studies of the exploration of gold, quartz and clay, show the individual project development, furthermore, the essential researched mineral reserves, the value of the mineral products as well as the investments made for this purpose. Consideration must be given mainly to the limited technical, financial and organisational opportunities of small companies. (orig.)

  19. Efficacy and safety of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for early medical abortion in an Australian clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Philip; Walker, Clara; Hawtin, Katherine

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, a composite pack containing mifepristone-buccal misoprostol, indicated for use to 63 days gestation replaced the existing regimen for early medical abortion (EMA) in Australia. To provide updated efficacy and safety information for the use of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for EMA in Australia, and assess the effect of patient age and gestational age on efficacy. Observational cohort study of 15 008 women attending one of 16 Marie Stopes International clinics in Australia for an EMA (gestational age ≤ 63 days) between 1 March 2013 and 30 September 2015. Administration of 200 mg oral mifepristone in-clinic was followed 24-48 h later by 800 μg buccal misoprostol self-administered at home. Method success was defined as complete abortion not requiring surgical intervention. Follow-up information was available for 87.14% (13 078/15 008) of women. Likelihood of follow-up was significantly lower for women from rural or remote locations (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; P misoprostol is an effective and safe alternative to surgical termination of pregnancy up to 63 days gestation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzano AN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Lea Jones,1 Thoai D Ngo2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, London, UK Abstract: The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug's role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving. Keywords: maternal mortality, misoprostol, post-partum hemorrhage, medical abortion, unsafe abortion, Cambodia

  1. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golik Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator’ driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  2. Primary observation of clinical curative effect of superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changfu; Zhang Heping; Zhang Hongxia; Jin Haiying; Wang Binjie; He Xiang; Zhang Jie; Li Changbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the curative effect on superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta. Methods: Pelvic arteriography was performed to confirm bleeding vessels. Then a 5 F Cobra catheter was inserted superselectively into uterine artery ipsilateral to bleeding, through which methotrexatum (MTX) and gelatin sponge were injected for embolization. After the procedure, bleeding, blood pressure, dischargement of placenta tissue, uterine recuperation, and plasma β-HCG were monitored. Results: Bleeding vessels were confirmed in all of the 5 cases of placenta increta. Uterine artery embolization was successful at sole procedure. The operation time was 25.0 to 60.0 min, with the mean time (37.4 ± 5.8) min. Vaginal bleeding stoped in 3.0 to 12.0 minutes after embolization and the mean time was (5.7 ± 2.4) min. Blood pressure returned to normal after operation and vital signs were stable. Placenta tissue discharged on the 5th day to the 4th week after embolization and the mean time was 17 d. The uterus recuperated and blood β-HCG recovered simutaneously. The menstruation and ovulation during follow-up returned to normal. Conclusion: Superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta has advantages such as short operation time, minimal invasion, definite curative effect and reservation of uterus, which is worthy in clinical application. (authors)

  3. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  4. Delivering post-abortion care through a community-based reproductive health volunteer programme in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar T; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in May-June 2010 with women using post-abortion care (PAC) services provided by the Marie Stopes Society in Pakistan during the six month period preceding the study, more than 70% of whom had been referred to the clinics by reproductive health volunteers (RHVs). The aim of the study was to establish the socio-demographic profile of clients, determine their preferred method of treatment, explore their perceptions of the barriers to accessing post-abortion services and to understand the challenges faced by RHVs. The sample women were selected from six randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with PAC clients and fifteen in-depth interviews with RHVs. In addition, a quantitative exit interview questionnaire was administered to 76 clients. Medical, rather than surgical, treatment for incomplete and unsafe abortions was preferred because it was perceived to 'cause less pain', was 'easy to employ' and 'having fewer complications'. Household economics influence women's decision-making on seeking post-abortion care. Other restraining factors include objection by husbands and in-laws, restrictions on female mobility, the views of religious clerics and a lack of transport. The involvement of all stakeholders could secure social approval and acceptance of the provision of safe post-abortion care services in Pakistan, and improve the quality of family planning services to the women who want to space their pregnancies.

  5. Conceptual costing study for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Comparative conceptual cost estimates for several possible options for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes have been developed. Five potentially applicable concepts were considered in the study: shallow land burial, using either unlined trenches, lined trenches or concrete canisters; engineered storage mounds; above-ground concrete vaults; below-ground concrete vaults; and intermediate-depth caverns using either open stopes or shrinkage mining. The objective was to develop comparative estimates. The differences in costs between concepts reflect the differences in handling methodology or costs of additional engineered barriers around the stored waste. An in situ waste volume of 805 000 m 3 , relatively favorable site conditions, a four-year disposal schedule and a consistent costing basis were assumed for each concept. Limited effort was made to optimize specific facility designs or disposal operations. The projected disposal costs vary from $68/m 3 of waste for shallow land burial in unlined trenches, to $312/m 3 of waste disposal in concrete canisters in trenches. The results of this study are reasonably consistent with previous estimates prepared for the low-level Radioactive Waste Management Office

  6. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.

  7. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. The effect of time-dependent ventilation and radon (thoron) gas emanation rates in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical radiation mine model, suitable for underground uranium mines, has been investigated. In this model, the rate of ventilation and/or the radon (thoron) gas emanation from mine walls are time-dependent. Several cases of practical interest have been investigated including sinusoidal, linear, exponential, stepwise, or a combination of two or more of the above. Analytical solutions were obtained for the time-dependent radon (thoron) gas emanation rate. However, because of the extreme analytical complexity of the solutions corresponding to the time-dependent ventilation rate case, numerical solutions were found using a special Runge-Kutta procedure and the Hamming's modified predictor-corrector method for the solution of linear initial-value problems. The mine model makes provisions for losses of radioactivity, other than by ventilation and radioactive decay, by, say, plate-out on mine walls, and by other mechanisms. Radioactivity data, i.e., radon, thoron, and their progeny, obtained with the above mine model for a number of ventilation and emanation conditions, are presented. Experimental data obtained in an inactive stope of an underground uranium mine for a time-dependent air flow case are shown. Air flow conditions (ventilation rate) were determined by tracer gas techniques using SF 6

  9. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  10. Flow and geochemical modeling of drainage from Tomitaka mine, Miyazaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tomiyama, Shingo; Metugi, Hideya; Ii, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The chemistry and flow of water in the abandoned Tomitaka mine of Miyazaki, western Japan were investigated. This mine is located in a non-ferrous metal deposit and acid mine drainage issues from it. The study was undertaken to estimate the quantities of mine drainage that needs to be treated in order to avoid acidification of local rivers, taking into account seasonal variations in rainfall. Numerical models aimed to reproduce observed water levels and fluxes and chemical variations of groundwater and mine drainage. Rock-water interactions that may explain the observed variations in water chemistry are proposed. The results show that: (1) rain water infiltrates into the deeper bedrock through a highly permeable zone formed largely by stopes that are partially filled with spoil from excavations (ore minerals and host rocks); (2) the water becomes acidic (pH from 3 to 4) as dissolved oxygen oxidizes pyrite; (3) along the flow path through the rocks, the redox potential of the water becomes reducing, such that pyrite becomes stable and pH of the mine drainage becomes neutral; and (4) upon leaving the mine, the drainage becomes acidic again due to oxidation of pyrite in the rocks. The present numerical model with considering of the geochemical characteristics can simulate the main variations in groundwater flow and water levels in and around the Tomitaka mine, and apply to the future treatment of the mine drainage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Spatial Variation and Assessment of Heavy Metal and Radioactive Risk in Farmland around a Retired Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Shi, Chen-hao; Zeng, Guang-ming; Zhong, Min-zhou; Yuan, Yu-jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, heavy metal contamination in the environment has been attracted worldwide attention due to their toxicity, persistence,extensive sources and non-biodegradable properties. We herein investigate variation trend and risk of heavy metal and radiation distribution in the former mine stope, former mineral ore stockyard, and mine road with surface soils of a retired uranium mine in the mid-south of China. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Pb,Cd,Cu,Zn,As,Hg,Cr,Mn,Ni,U, and 232Th were analyzed according to the corresponding background values in Hunan, China. The Geo-accumulation index (Igeo ) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals and the radioactive elements of U and 232Th. Then, Pollution load index (PLI) and GIS techniquewere integrated to assess spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination and radioactive contamination. Results confirmed that three areas in the retired uranium mine was a primary source of pollution, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from agricultural runoff, hydrometallurgy from chemical industries, radioactive tailings, and electroplating industriesfinally drained into Zishui River and Xiangjiang River. Based on the actual situation, some suggestions were put forward for the treatment of the retired uranium mine in conclusion.

  12. Uranium-production forecasting: the simulation of a South African gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program is described that estimates the amount of uranium that will be produced from a mine as a co-product of gold subject to a changing economic environment. The program makes use of two models. The first simulates activities underground, whereas the second simulates the performance of processing plant on the surface. The combination of these models generates a description of the flow of ore from stopes and from development, through hoisting, sorting, and the metallurgical plant to the despatch of saleable product. The total production of uranium to the end of the life of the mine constitutes the uranium reserve. The effects on production forecasts and reserve estimates of future trends in cost and price factors are illustrated by results generated from the application of the program to a typical South African mine producing gold and uranium. The graphs presented show that South Africa's future uranium production from underground sources is critically dependent on the gold price in the years ahead. (author)

  13. Ground Support Strategies at the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbak, L. A.; Rai, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    Weak rock masses of high grade Carlin-trend gold mineralization are encountered in the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture underground mine. The sediments consist of very weak and altered limestone, mudstone, and carbon-rich clays. The rock mass ratings are described as very poor to poor (Bieniawski in Proceedings of the symposium on exploration for rock engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp. 97-106, 1976). The undercut and fill or boxes stoping mining methods are used because of the low dipping ore body geometry, complex geology, and weak rock mass. Design criteria are chosen to keep openings in weak rock as small as possible to prevent unraveling and to minimize supplementary support. Typical ground support for drifting includes the use of bolts, mesh, spiling, and shotcrete. Quality control of cemented rock fill (CRF) through sampling and aggregate sieve testing is necessary to insure high support strength. Specific support may include shotcrete arches with steel ring sets and CRF "arches" as a replacement of weak rock masses around long-term mine openings. Movement monitoring is utilized in problem areas and is needed to quantify and validate computer modeling.

  14. Crossing thresholds: Analysis of hazardous tipping points in alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzmann, Silke; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    yield can thus be related to critical precipitation and internal dynamics (sediment availability, cut-and-fill cycles). Then, general relationships beyond site-specific, singular characteristics are conceptualized for broader applications. For this purpose, a Styria-wide torrential event database covering several decades is analyzed. For each event, critical precipitation characteristics are inferred from high resolution INCA data of the Austrian weather service. Factors possibly controlling the internal susceptibility of catchments are evaluated in a regional GIS approach (morphometry, geology, stream network, proxies for sediment availability). Similarity measures are then used to group catchments into sensitivity classes of different proximity to tipping points. The distribution of catchments sensitive towards heavier and more frequent precipitation will change with applied climate scenarios. Results will give valuable advice for the design of protection measures in mountain torrents.

  15. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  16. Does slab-window opening cause uplift of the overriding plate? A case study from the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Chris; Chew, David; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-01

    Complete subduction of an oceanic plate results in slab-window opening. A key uncertainty in this process is whether the higher heat flux and asthenospheric upwelling conventionally associated with slab-window opening generate a detectable topographic signature in the overriding plate. We focus on the Baja California Peninsula, which incorporates the western margin of the Gulf of California rift. The topography and tectonics of the rift flank along the peninsula are strongly bimodal. North of the Puertecitos accommodation zone, the primary drainage divide attains a mean elevation of ca. 1600 m above sea level (asl), above an asthenospheric slab-window opened by Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge subduction along this section of the trench at ca. 17-15 Ma. To the south, mean topography decreases abruptly to ca. 800 m asl (excluding the structurally distinct Los Cabos block at the southern tip of the peninsula), above fragments of the oceanic Farallon slab which stalled following slab tear-off at ca. 15-14 Ma. Along the peninsula, a low-relief surface established atop Miocene subduction-related volcaniclastic units has been incised by a west-draining canyon network in response to uplift. These canyons exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with widespread post-subduction lavas. Here, we utilise LANDSAT and digital elevation model (DEM) data, integrated with previously published K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar lava crystallisation ages, to constrain the onset of rift flank uplift to ca. 9-5 Ma later than slab-window formation in the north and ca. 11-10 Ma later in the south. These greatly exceed response time estimates of ca. 2 Ma or less for uplift triggered by slab-window opening. Instead, uplift timing of the high-elevation northern region is consistent with lower-lithospheric erosion driven by rift-related convective upwelling. To the south, stalled slab fragments likely inhibited convective return flow, preventing lithospheric erosion and limiting uplift to the isostatic response

  17. Morphologic analysis and numerical simulation of the earthquake-induced Jiufengershan debris avalanche, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Fen; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Landslides pose significant threats to communities and infrastructure in Taiwan. Among possible triggering factors, heavy precipitation and earthquakes are the most important. The 21st September 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, ML=7.3 with depth of eight kilometers, was associated with the reactivation of the Chelungpu thrust fault. The earthquake caused massive landslides; the Jiufengershan is one of most important event. The Jiufengershan landslide area which located at the western limb of the Taanshan syncline is a typical dip-slope failure. The main rock formation consists of inter-bed sandstone and shale. About 43 million m3 rock mass moved downward slope to the Sezikeng river valley and formed three dam lakes, the landslide resulted in 39 deaths, and it is a serious threat that will damage public's life and property. This study is divided into two phases: The first phase is to use the aerial photographs before and after the Chichi earthquake to construct the different periods of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), the 2m resolution LiDAR images taken in 2002 are integrated with this study. The precision and the accuracy of the aerial triangulation parameter were estimated according to the post landslide LiDAR DSM. In the meanwhile, the quality of the aerial photo derived DSM is analyzed accordingly. In order to calculate the landslide cut-and-fill volume, to simulate the landslide dynamic process, the DSM before earthquake is adjusted according to the LiDAR-DSM. Thus the calculated the slid volume and the deposit volume is about 39 and 47 million cubic meter, respectively. The second phase is to simulate the landslide behavior of the Jiufengershan by using the 3D Particle Flow Code (PFC3D) in order to acquire the parameters which play an important role. In this research, we tested and analyzed different parameters, such as: wall stiffness, particle parameters, pore water pressure, wall friction coefficient, and particle elements bonded parameters. Through using the

  18. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  19. Erosion, storage, and transport of sediment in two subbasins of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, A.C.; Pavich, M.J.; Ellwein, A.L.; Aby, S.; Clark, I.; Wieczorek, M.E.; Viger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Arroyos in the American Southwest proceed through cut-and-fill cycles that operate at centennial to millennial time scales. The geomorphic community has put much effort into understanding the causes of arroyo cutting in the late Quaternary and in the modern record (late 1800s), while little effort has gone into understanding how arroyos fill and the sources of this fill. Here, we successfully develop a geographic information system (GIS)-modeled sediment budget that is based on detailed field measurements of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition. Field measurements were made in two arroyo basins draining different lithologies and undergoing different land disturbance (Volcano Hill Wash, 9.30 km2; Arroyo Chavez, 2.11 km2) over a 3 yr period. Both basins have incised channels that formed in response to the late nineteenth-century incision of the Rio Puerco. Large volumes of sediment were generated during arroyo incision, equal to more than 100 yr of the current annual total sediment load (bed load + suspended load) in each basin. Downstream reaches in both arroyos are presently aggrading, and the main source of the sediment is from channel erosion in upstream reaches and first- and second-order tributaries. The sediment budget shows that channel erosion is the largest source of sediment in the current stage of the arroyo cycle: 98% and 80% of the sediment exported out of Volcano Hill Wash and Arroyo Chavez, respectively. The geomorphic surface most affected by arroyo incision and one of the most important sediment sources is the valley alluvium, where channel erosion, gullying, soil piping, and grazing all occur. Erosion rates calculated for the entire Volcano Hill Wash (-0.26 mm/yr) and Arroyo Chavez (-0.53 mm/yr) basins are higher than the modeled upland erosion rates in each basin, reflecting the large contributions from channel erosion. Erosion rates in each basin are affected by a combination of land disturbance (grazing) and lithology

  20. The interaction between deepwater channel systems and growing thrusts and folds, toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, B.; Lonergan, L.; Whittaker, A.

    2012-04-01

    Gravity-driven seaward-verging thrusts, landward-verging back-thrusts and associated folds often characterize the slope and deepwater settings of passive margins. These structures, found in the "toe-thrust" region of the system, exert a significant control on sediment gravity flows because they create and determine the location and configuration of sediment depocentres and transport systems. However, to fully understand the interaction between sediment gravity flows and seabed topography we need to evaluate and quantify the geomorphic response of sub-marine channels to faulting in an area where the degree of tectonic shortening can be well constrained. This study exploits 3D seismic data in the outer toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta to analyze the interaction between Plio-Pleistocene channel systems and actively growing folds and thrusts. We first mapped folds and thrusts from the seismic data and we used this data to reconstruct the history of fold growth. We then used the sea-bed seismic horizon to build a 50 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the sea floor in Arc-GIS. From the DEM, we extracted channel long profiles across growing structures for both the current channel thalwegs and for the associated channel cut-and-fill sequences identified from the seismic data. We measured channel geometry at regular intervals along the channel length to evaluate system response to tectonic perturbation, and we used this data to help us approximate the down-system distribution of bed shear stress, and hence incision capacity. Initial results show that changes in submarine channel longitudinal profiles are directly correlated to underlying seabed thrusts and folds. Channels gradients are typically linear to slightly concave, and have an average gradient of 0.90. Actively growing thrusts are associated with a local steepening in channel gradient (up to 200% change), which typically extends 0.5 to 2 km upstream of the fault. Within these "knickzones

  1. Description of chronostratigraphic units preserved as channel deposits and geomorphic processes following a basin-scale disturbance by a wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2017-10-11

    nearly horizontal erosional and depositional surfaces and left a landscape consisting of a series of cut-and-fill terraces as a legacy of this wildfire disturbance. 

  2. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows

  3. Geology and preliminary dating of the hominid-bearing sedimentary fill of the Sima de los Huesos Chamber, Cueva Mayor of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J L; Fitzpatrick, J A; León, L; Arsuagà, J L; Falgueres, C; Bahain, J J; Bullen, T

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of the Sima de los Huesos vary greatly over distances of a few meters. This is typical of interior cave facies, and caused by cycles of cut and fill. Mud breccias containing human bones, grading upwards to mud containing bear bones, fill an irregular surface cut into basal marks and sands. The lack of Bedding and the chaotic abundance of fragile speleothem clasts in the fossiliferous muds suggests that the deposit was originally a subterranean pond facies, and that after emplacement of the human remains, underwent vigorous post-depositional rotation and collapse and brecciation, caused by underlying bedrock dissolution and undermining. The fossiliferous deposits are capped by flowstone and guano-bearing muds which lack large-mammal fossils. U-series and radiocarbon dating indicates the capping flowstones formed from about 68 ka to about 25 ka. U-series analyses of speleothem clasts among the human fossils indicate that all are at, or close to, isotopic equilibrium (> 350 ka). The distribution of U-series dates for 25 bear bones (154 +/- 66 ka) and for 16 human bones (148 +/- 34 ka) is similar and rather broad. Because the human bones seem to be stratigraphically older than chose of the bears, the results would indicate that most of the bones have been accumulating uranium irregularly with time. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses of six selected bear bones indicates dates of 189 +/- 28 ka, for which each is cordant with their corresponding U-series date (181 +/- 41 ka). Combined ESR and U-series dates for these samples yielded 200 +/- 4 ka. Such agreement is highly suggestive that uranium uptake in these bones was close to the early-uptake (EU) model, and the dates are essentially correct. Another three selected samples yielded combined ESR U-series dates of 320 +/- 4 ka with a modeled intermediate-mode of uranium uptake. The dating results, therefore, seem to provide a firm minimum age of about 200 ka for the human entry: and suggestive evidence of

  4. Late Quaternary fluvial terrace development and changing landscape connectivity in the Great Karoo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet

    2017-04-01

    ). The deposits in these headwater valleys have, until now, been overlooked as a source of palaeoenvironmental information. This study is the first to demonstrate the role and importance of changing connectivity in "cut and fill" phases which predate the 18th century European incursion in the Sneeuberg.

  5. A pellet launcher tool optimized for the control of plasma edge instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.; Cierpka, P.; Harhausen, J.; Kaufmann, M.; Wittmann, Ch.; Dorner, Ch.; Kauke, G.; Kocsis, G.; Szepesi, T.

    2006-01-01

    A promising solution to the type-I edge localized mode (ELM) ELM power load problem in ITER is ELM pacing via quasi-continuous injection of cryogenic hydrogen isotope pellets. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated on ASDEX Upgrade, culminating in successful, quasi-stationary ELM frequency control in radiative H-mode edge scenarios. However, all these experiments were performed by using an injection system developed for particle fuelling launching pellets from the magnetic high field side (HFS) with velocities between 240 and 1000 m/s at a repetition rate (60 Hz) in the range of the intrinsic ELM frequency. It turned out although those pellets were able to control the ELMs their parameters are adversarial for the task of a suitable control tool. Such a pellet based ELM pacing system requires injection of small pellets at high repetition rates but low velocities from the magnetic low field side (LFS) - operational requests absolutely contradictory with a fuelling system. Consequently, our aim was to design and developed a new pellet injection system optimized as a tool for plasma edge and ELM control. The systems pellet source is composed from separated extrusion and storage cryostats. Simultaneous pellet cutting and filling of a gun barrel is performed by a shuttle mechanics allowing alternating launch along two acceleration lines. Acceleration is based on the blower gun principle and capable to combine small pellet sizes, high repetition rates and low pellet velocities. Thus, higher pacing rates become possible while unwanted pellet fuelling can be minimized and furthermore the flexibility of accessible injection geometry is enhanced. As a result the new system allows for an enhancement in the tokamak operation as well as for more sophisticated experiments investigating the underlying physics of the plasma edge instabilities. We report on the results achieved in the test bed campaign and from first injection events in ASDEX Upgrade. Pellet repetition

  6. Seafloor surface processes and subsurface paleo-channel unconformities mapped using multi-channel seismic and multi-beam sonar data from the Galicia 3D seismic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).

  7. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman's Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; Nundy, Neeti; Kilbourne-Brook, Maggie; Coffey, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman's Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman's Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15-49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY) calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman's Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Programming 100,000 Woman's Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE) criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman's Condom, we found that the Woman's Condom would be considered cost-effective. This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman's Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman's Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman's Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample.

  8. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later.

  9. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later

  10. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  11. Gamma ray fluorescence for in situ evaluation of ore in Witwatersrand gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1979-01-01

    A system for quantitative in situ evaluation of ore in Witwatersrand gold mines was researched and subsequently developed. The principle of measurement is based on the excitation of gold K X-rays in rock face samples by the 88 keV gamma radiation from a Cadmium-109 radioisotope source. The X-rays and scattered radiation from the rock matrix are detected by a hyperpure germanium detector cooled by liquid nitrogen in a portable probe. In the fluorescence spectrum the intensity ratio of the gold Kβ peaks to their immediate scattered background is evaluated and quantitatively converted in the portable analyser to area concentration units. All aspects of the physical and instrumental measurement had to be investigated to arrive at a system capable of quantitative evaluation of trace concentrations in stope face ore samples. The parameters of spectrum evaluation were investigated from fundamental principles to allow quantitative assessment of different methods of peak evaluation for optimization of the method as a whole. The basic concepts of random signal processing times were developed together with new concepts of pileup parameters to allow a quantitative description of the data acquisition rate of a complete analog pulse processing system. With this foundation a practical measuring geometry and optimum values for signal processing time parameters, for detector size and for discriminator positions for spectrum evaluation could be determined. Parallel with the derivation of optimum measurement parameters went the development of instruments, their field testing and appraisal of the method. The development of the gamma ray fluorescence method has shown the potential of the method to serve as an ore valuation tool and to assist in the geological identification of strata in Witwatersrand gold mines

  12. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications. PMID:22458444

  13. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khurram Azmat

    Full Text Available Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan.We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11.Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1% was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers.Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the

  14. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Khurram Azmat, Syed; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the service providers

  15. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sublevel development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  16. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  17. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  18. Public sphere of politics: between classical grounds and new political actuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tretyak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The public sphere of politics as a theoretical concept of modern political science has been discussed in the article. The reasons of the increasing interest to the public sphere is a dominating subject. Studied The phenomenon of the public sphere being a tool of theoretical and methodological definition of the political world’s boundaries has been studied. The value aspects of media activity in the contemporary politics has been investigated. An attempt has been made to establish the potential of political publicity for the qualitative understanding of participatory democracy. The potential of the public sphere in the development of civil society and social capital has been described. The distinction between the public sphere of politics and political communication in the specific conditions of modern transformational societies has been reasonably grounded. The importance of the presence of state power in all spheres of life of the transformational society has been stressed. Such transformation has not been stoped after the liberal market reforms, which had to ensure the existence of a formal representative democracy. The influence of the elite and expert groups being the reason of the absence of really functioning future civil society has been considered. The features of the formation of civil and social activities as a precondition for the democratic political class’ functioning have been studied. The specifics of public political activity being the prerogative of the competent entities’ political broadcasting have been analyzed. The gradual formation of cyber public sphere and its political branch segment has been revealed. Thorough attention has been given to the processes of the public sphere’s politicization which are usual for primarily authoritarian and closed societies.

  19. Differential diagnosis of recurrent bronchitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zakirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the doctors — pediatricians to recurrent bronchitis is caused by its high specific weight in the structure of bronchopulmonary pathology in children, the complexity and the need to search the differential selection of an individual regimen and prevention. Recurrent bronchitis with bronchoobstructive syndromes patient is regarded as a predictor of asthma, however, erroneously consider these nosological forms as the stages of a single pathophysiological chain as congenital and acquired diseases of respiratory system, pathology of gastro-intestinal tract, cardio-vascular system can masquerade as recurrent bronchitis. The aim of this work — to analyze the current medical literature on the problem of differential search causes leading recurrent respiratory syndrome in children. Materials and methods. The review publications domestic and foreign authors studied data from clinical and epidemiological studies. Results and its discussion. Anatomical physiological characteristics of the respiratory tract, complicated premorbid background, the re-infection of the child respiratory infection contribute to the recurrent course of bronchitis. The most common recurrent bronchitis is transient, recurrent bronchitis episodes completely stoped with the age of the child. Recurrent respiratory infections can fix bronchial hyperreactivity and with the presence of aggravated allergic history lead to the development of asthma. Severe bronchitis, resistance to standard scheme of therapy, the frequent recurrence of respiratory syndrome dictate the need to expand the diagnostic research to clarify the leading cause of recurrent bronchitis. Conclusion. Recurrent bronchitis is considered as a separate nosological form. At the same time, by repeated episodes of respiratory infection may be masked by malformations, hereditary diseases of respiratory system, bronchus foreign body microaspiration syndrome, pathology of the cardio-vascular system. 

  20. Evaluating a LARC Expansion Program in 14 Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Service Delivery Model for Meeting FP2020 Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Nuccio, Olivia; Pereira, Shreya K; Footman, Katharine; Reiss, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Objectives In many sub-Saharan African countries, the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is low while unmet need for family planning (FP) remains high. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LARC access expansion initiative in reaching young, less educated, poor, and rural women. Methods Starting in 2008, Marie Stopes International (MSI) has implemented a cross-country expansion intervention to increase access to LARCs through static clinics, mobile outreach units, and social franchising of private sector providers. We analyzed routine service statistics for 2008-2014 and 2014 client exit interview data. Indicators of effectiveness were the number of LARCs provided and the percentages of LARC clients who had not used a modern contraceptive in the last 3 months ("adopters"); switched from a short-term contraceptive to a LARC ("switchers"); were aged <25; lived in extreme poverty; had not completed primary school; lived in rural areas; and reported satisfaction with their overall experience at the facility/site. Results Our annual LARC service distribution increased 1037 % (from 149,881 to over 1.7 million) over 2008-2014. Of 3816 LARC clients interviewed, 46 % were adopters and 46 % switchers; 37 % were aged 15-24, 42 % had not completed primary education, and 56 % lived in a rural location. Satisfaction with services received was rated 4.46 out of 5. Conclusions The effectiveness of the LARC expansion in these 14 sub-Saharan African FP programs demonstrates vast untapped potential for wider use of LARC methods, and suggests that this service delivery model is a plausible way to support FP 2020 goals of reaching those with an unmet need for FP.

  1. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  2. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-09-27

    From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were "additional users" of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. © Bellows et al.

  3. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ali, Muhammad; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Ahmed, Aftab

    2012-03-29

    Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  4. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Syed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8 months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%; of which a majority (70.2% returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  5. Factors contributing to industrial accidents during coal mining operations. [Bulgaria: 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkova, N.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred cases of severe industrial traumas from 1978 to 1979 were analyzed on a computer. The information was coded into four groups, characterizing the human undergoing the trauma, the time of the event, the working environment and the equipment involved, the causes of the accident (objective and subjective with respect to the victim). Eighty-six variables (values) of two types were input into the computer: quantitative (age, length of service at that job and in the profession, the month, date, day, hour and shift); categorical (profession- 11 subgroups; place of the event- 12 subgroups; work being done at the time of the event- 12 subgroups; indirect cause of the accident- 10 subgroups; circumstances of the accident- 11 subgroups; objective 15 subgroups and subjective- 7 subgroups of causes with respect to the victim). Ten factors were identified which lead to industrial accidents (By level of importance); poor dicipline, work shift, profession, date of the month, mine transport, poor instruction, unsafe work place, length of service, month of the year, poor organization of the work place. The following conclusions were made on the basis of these results: 1) poor discipline is undoubtably a primary factor in work safety; In a narrow context, it is connected with insufficient knowledge and lack of expertise, inability to work safely, poor control and organization of the work place; 48% of industrial accidents occur among stope miners and timbermen; 27% among transport workers; 2) 50% of the accidents occurred during the first shift, 16% between 11 and 12 o'clock; 3) 39.5% occurred at the end of the month; 4) 39% occurred due to insufficient and poor quality instruction, lack of necessary expertise and the ability to work safely.

  6. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17-1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92-1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period.

  7. 100-kyr fluvial fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, Toro Basin, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-04-01

    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable sedimentary and geomorphic archives that record tectonic and/or climate- driven changes of river networks and their adjacent hillslopes. However, the rarely complete preservation of such geomorphic features, often combined with large distances from sediment source areas, complicates the identification of causal links between tectonic/climatic forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over timescales of 105 to 106 years. The intermontane Quebrada del Toro Basin in the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina contains at least five fluvial terrace-surface remnants that have been sculpted into a succession of several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary gravel conglomerate. These terraces can be followed over several tens of kilometers and are located in the higher part of the basin, close to the sediment source areas. In this study, we determined the onset of multiple river incision phases by dating the abandonment of the three most extensive and best preserved terrace surfaces with nine cosmogenic 10Be-depth profiles. The timing of terrace-gravel deposition is based on four cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial ages and U-Pb zircon age estimates of three intercalated volcanic ashes in the conglomeratic fill. The 10Be depth profile ages suggest a successive abandonment of these terrace surfaces with a 100-kyr-cyclicity between 487 ± 34 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages, range from 936 ± 170 ka to 18 ± 141ka. They show a clear overlap with the terrace-surface abandonment ages and thus indicate the existence of multiple cut-and-fill cycles. Although the initial onset of aggradation of the Quaternary gravel conglomerate at ˜1 Ma and the overall net fluvial incision since ˜0.5 Ma can be linked to tectonic processes affecting the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100-kyr-cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by

  8. Understanding the paleo environment in the Danish North Sea using 2D and 3D seismic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Lasse K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2017-04-01

    river system incisions can be mapped. The tunnel valleys have a strong NE-SW orientation and are typically characterized by an irregular base. The fluvial river systems which are the youngest, are smaller, typically with an anastomosing appearance. They generally have an NW-SE strike perpendicular to the older tunnel valleys. Clear sedimentary structures can be recognized on the high-resolution 2D seismic data indicating a complex history of cut and fill. In general, the study area displays a very heterogenic sedimentation pattern with varying valley types and significant lateral variations within the same valleys revealing a subtle interplay between incision and infilling. In some areas we furthermore see a distinct control of the river system morphology by deeper salt structures adding to the complexity of controlling factors for the rivers and tunnel valleys in the study area. The results of the study provide valuable information on the evolution of the Quaternary ice-sheets and drainage patterns and hence exemplify the use of seismic data for Quaternary paleo-environmental studies. With the good control on the distribution and infill of buried valleys and river systems, the study furthermore provides the first constrain to a detailed 3D model of different litho-facies based on seismic facies analysis combined with information from shallow borings.

  9. A review of hydrologic and geologic conditions related to the radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    factors. For the most part, the burial grounds have been developed by a simple cut and fill procedure similar to the operation of a municipal landfill. Low permeability of the residuum, high rainfall, shallow depth to ground water, the excavation of trenches below the water table, and other practices, have contributed to a condition of waste leaching in probably all of the burial grounds. Despite these conditions, only very small concentrations of radionuclides have been found in wells or otherwise attributed to the initial three, small sites in Bethel Valley. This fact, however, may be due in part to the scant extent of site monitoring of those burial grounds for transport of radionuclides in ground water, and to the discharge of liquid radioactive waste to the drainage in concentrations that probably would have masked the presence of contaminants derived from these burial grounds. In comparison to the Bethel Valley sites, larger amounts of radioactive contaminants have been found in wells, seeps, trench overflow, and the drainages that drain Burial Grounds 4 and 5 in Melton Valley. The movement of radionuclides from the trenches to the drainages show that the latter sites are not suitable for the retention of all contaminants under existing conditions, and invalidates the operational concept of long-term or permanent retention of all radionuclides in the geologic environment. The transport of many radioactive ions leached from the waste has been retarded by the very high sorptive and ion exchange capacity of the residuum with which the radionuclides have had contact. Not all radionuclides, though, will be retained in the subsurface by adsorption, absorption, or ion exchange. Among those radioactive contaminants that may be problematical with respect to trench burial at Oak Ridge are tritium and other negatively-charged nuclides, positively-charged radionuclides included in some of the complexed molecules, radioactive ions that have chemical properties si

  10. Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, P.R.; Reuter, J.M.; Pavich, M.; Gellis, A.C.; Caffee, M.W.; Larsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of in-situ-produced 10Be and 26Al in 52 fluvial sediment samples shows that millennial-scale rates of erosion vary widely (7 to 366 m Ma-1) through the lithologically and topographically complex Rio Puerco Basin of northern New Mexico. Using isotopic analysis of both headwater and downstream samples, we determined that the semi-arid, Rio Puerco Basin is eroding, on average, about 100 m Ma-1. This rapid rate of erosion is consistent with estimates made using other techniques and is likely to result from a combination of easily eroded lithologies, sparse vegetation, and monsoon-dominated rainfall. Data from 331 stream water samples collected by the US Geological Survey between 1960 and 1995 are consistent with basin-wide, average chemical denudation rates of only about 1??4 m Ma-1; thus, the erosion rates we calculate may be considered rates of sediment generation because physical weathering accounts for almost 99 per cent of mass loss. The isotopic data reveal that sediment is generally well mixed downstream with the area-weighted average sediment generation rate for 16 headwater samples (234 ton km-2 a-1 for basin area 170 to 1169 km2) matching well that estimated from a single sample collected far downstream (238 ton km-2 a-1, basin area = 14 225 km2). A series of 15 samples, collected from an arroyo wall and representing deposition through the late Holocene, indicates that 10Be concentration in sediment delivered by the fluvial system has not changed appreciably over the last 1200 years despite at least two cycles of arroyo cutting and filling. Other samples (n = 21) were collected along the drainage network. Rio Puerco erosion rates scale directly with a variety of metrics describing vegetation, precipitation, and rock erodibility. Using the headwater basins for calibration, the erosion rates for both the downstream samples and also the data set as a whole, are best modelled by considering a combination of relief and vegetation metrics, both of which co

  11. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    -series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2-4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22-18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time. Major faults at Yucca Mountain-from east to west, the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, Stagecoach Road, Solitario Canyon, Fatigue Wash, Windy Wash, and Northern and Southern Crater Flat Faults-trend predominantly north, are spaced 1-5 km apart, have bedrock displacements ranging from 125 m to as much as 500 m, and exhibit Quaternary movements of several centimeters to a few meters. Displacements are predominantly down to the west, and bedrock/alluvium contacts commonly are marked by fault-line scarps. The predominant northerly fault trend changes to a more northeasterly trend in adjacent areas south

  12. Quantifying fluvial sediment transport in a mountain catchment (Schöttlbach, Styria) using sediment impact sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Johannes; Sass, Oliver; Schneider, Josef; Harb, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Sediment transport in river systems, being the output of geomorphic processes in the catchment, is a recurrent problem for geomorphological sediment budget studies, natural hazard assessment and river engineering. Sediment budgets of alpine catchments are likely to be modified by changing total precipitation and the probability of heavy precipitation events in the context of climate change, even if projections of precipitation change for Austria and the entire Alpine region are still very uncertain. Effective sediment management requires profound knowledge on the sediment cascade in the head-waters. However, bedload measurements at alpine rivers or torrents are rare; in Styria, they are altogether missing. Due to a three hour heavy rainfall event on 07-Jul 2011, which caused cata-strophic flooding with massive damage in the city of Oberwölz and its surrounding, we chose the catchment area of the Schöttlbach in the upper Mur river valley in Styria (Austria) as our study area. In the framework of the ClimCatch project, we intend to develop a conceptual model of coupled and decoupled sediment routing to quantify the most prominent sediment fluxes and sediment sinks, combining up-to-date geomorphological and river engineering techniques. Repeated Airborne Laser Scans will provide an overview of ongoing processes, diachronous TLS surveys (cut-and-fill analysis), ground-penetrating radar and 2D-geoelectric surveys should quantity the most important mass fluxes on the slopes and in the channels and derive a quantitative sediment budget, including the volume of temporary sediment stores. Besides quantifying slope processes, sediment sinks and total sediment output, the sediment trans-port in the torrents is of particular interest. We use sediment impact sensors (SIS) which were in-stalled in several river sections in the main stretch of the Schöttlbach and in its tributaries. The SIS mainly consists of two parts connected by a coated cable, the steel shell with the

  13. Quantitative reconstruction of past soil erosion in the Kirschgraben catchment (Spessart mountains, Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Annegret; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver; Müller, Ulrich; Fuchs, Markus; Fuelling, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    - pasture - agriculture cultivation system was used within the catchment on slopes with a north west aspect. The fan area was again occupied in the form of a medieval castle from around 1200 until 1462 AD, coinciding with a rise in the ground water table (due to either dam construction in the trunk stream, a decrease in evapotranspiration, or both) intense gully cut and fill cycles, and high slope instability in the catchment. These erosional processes continue due to the persistence of agricultural and pastural land use and also intense charcoal production until the present day. Initial quantification of the sediment masses in the catchment suggest that most of the eroded material is stored in the gully infills and lower slopes and are not excavated to the fan or the trunk stream. Further work will improve the spatial mass-balance calculations, and in combination with the chronological data, will enable the quantification of a high resolution Holocene sediment flux for the catchment.

  14. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    running on PostgreSQL/PostGIS. This provides advanced functionality for spatial data analysis and forms the basis for future data provision and visualization using a WebGIS application. Analysis of landslide database contents shows that in most parts of Germany landslides primarily affect transportation infrastructures. Although with distinct lower frequency, recent landslides are also recorded to cause serious damage to hydraulic facilities and waterways, supply and disposal infrastructures, sites of cultural heritage, as well as forest, agricultural, and mining areas. The main types of landslide damage are failure of cut and fill slopes, destruction of retaining walls, street lights, and forest stocks, burial of roads, backyards, and garden areas, as well as crack formation in foundations, sewer lines, and building walls. Landslide repair and mitigation at transportation infrastructures is dominated by simple solutions such as catch barriers or rock fall drapery. These solutions are often undersized and fail under stress. The use of costly slope stabilization or protection systems is proven to reduce these risks effectively over longer maintenance cycles. The right balancing of landslide mitigation is thus a crucial problem in managing landslide risks. Development and analysis of such landslide databases helps to support decision-makers in finding efficient solutions to minimize landslide risks for human beings, infrastructures, and financial assets.

  15. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  16. Living terraced landscapes: Exploring the viability of mountain terraced vineyards in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumides, Christos; Giannakis, Elias; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    Dry-stone terracing is an intensive cultivation practice that has been implemented for centuries in the Mediterranean region. The Troodos Ophiolite Complex on the island of Cyprus covers an area of 2332 km2 with 31% mean slope gradient, and consists of 140 small communities with a total population of around 50,000 inhabitants. Agriculture is practiced on dry-stone terraces with narrow (1-3 m) to medium-base (3-6 m) bench, constructed by cutting and filling in slopes with gradient between 20 and 40%. The main crop grown on terraces is wine grapes. However, many of the vineyards on terraced hillsides are being gradually abandoned and dry-stone walls remain unmaintained, causing a domino effect of collapsing terraces and leading to soil erosion and sedimentation of downstream infrastructure. The main reasons for the gradual decline of terraced landscapes are the ageing of farming population, the depopulation and marginalization of Troodos communities, the small size of agricultural plots, the high cost of labour and the loss of know-how on dry-stone wall maintenance. Despite these socio-economic issues, policy reforms, especially after the accession of Cyprus to the European Union in 2004, have created new challenges and opportunities, and have focused on improving the viniculture's quality rather than quantity. The new appellation of origin launched in 2007 that define where the wine-grapes are grown, as well as the incentives to create small regional wineries, helped maintain the population of some communities and the vine cultivations on dry-stone terraces. The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of success or failure in sustaining the terraced vineyards in Cyprus. More precisely, the study explores the characteristics that determine the investment (or not) in terrace maintenance and analyses the interlinkages between farming practices and business strategies. The analysis is based on grape and wine production cost data that is acquired by interviews

  17. Combined application of airborne and terrestrial laserscanning for quantifying sediment relocation by a large debris flow event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Magnus; Sass, Oliver; Vetter, Michael; Geilhausen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    proved difficult to be filtered. This is due to a small height difference between terrain and canopy, a very strong height variation of the terrain points compared to the height variation of the canopy points and a very high density of the vegetation. The letter leads to very low percentages of groundpoints (1 - 5%). A combined filtering approach using a surface-based filter and a morphological filter, adapted to the characteristics of the krummholz vegetation were applied to overcome these problems. In the next step, the datasets were compared, erosion- and sedimentation areas were detected and quantified (cut-and-fill) in view of the accuracy achieved. The position of the relocated surface areas were compared to the morphological structures of the initial surface (inclination, curvature, flowpaths, hydrological catchments). Considerable deviations between the datasets were caused, besides the geomorphic terrain changes, by systematic and random errors. Due to the scanner perspective, parts of the steep slopes are depicted inaccurately by ALS. Rugged terrain surfaces cause random errors of ALS/TLS adjustment when the ratio of point density to surface variability is low. Due to multiple returns and alteration of pulse shape, terrain altitude is frequently overestimated when dense shrub cover is present. This effect becomes stronger with larger footprints. Despite these problems, erosional and depositional areas of debris flows could be clearly identified and match the results of field surveys. Strongest erosion occurred along the flowpaths with the greatest runoff concentration, mainly at the bedrock-debris interface.

  18. Geologyy of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-09-25

    Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U-series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2 to 4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22 to 18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time.

  19. Sediment transfer dynamics in the Illgraben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G. L.; Molnar, P.; McArdell, B. W.; Schlunegger, F.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with hydroclimatic variables from the Illgraben, an active debris flow catchment in the Swiss Alps, spanning 1963 - 2010. Two events in the recent history of the catchment make it particularly interesting and challenging to study: a large rock avalanche in 1961, which filled the channel with sediment, and the construction of check dams along the channel in the late 1960s and 1970s. We aimed to (1) identify the nature of hillslope-channel coupling, (2) identify the dominant controls of hillslope sediment production, channel sediment transfer and total sediment yield, (3) observe the response of the channel system to the 1961 rock avalanche and check dam construction, and (4) develop a conceptual model with which to investigate sediment transfer dynamics in various scenarios, including the absence of check dams along the channel. The study captures a multi-decadal period of channel erosion in response to the 1961 rock avalanche, punctuated by shorter cut-and-fill cycles that occur in response to changes in hillslope sediment supply and changes in transport capacity. Hillslopes eroded rapidly at an average rate of 0.34 myr¯ 1, feeding the channel head with sediment. A near doubling of hillslope erosion in the 1980s coincided with a significant increase of air temperature and reduction in snow cover duration and depth, whilst precipitation variables did not change significantly. We find that the main influence of check-dam construction on channel sediment transfer was an initial reduction in sediment transport and a drop in debris flow activity between 1963 and 1986. After 1986 sediment storages in the channel were filled and debris flow activity

  20. UPAYA PERBAIKAN KUALITAS KERUPUK UDANG TIPE MILD-B PADA PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Utami Handayani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan makanan adalah satu bisnis yang menghasilkan makanan untuk manusia. Salah satu bentuk makanan adalah kerupuk udang. Perusahaan makanan berkembang luas di Indonesia. Banyak perusahaan di dalam dan juga luar negeri aktif dalam hal ini. Konmpetisi membuat setiap perusahaan mencari cara untuk mampu berdiri. Tak terkecuali PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. Salah satu usaha PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mampu bertahan sebagai satu industri makanan di Indonesia adalah tidak berhenti meningkatkan kualitas produk yang mana mereka hasilkan. Tetapi dalam proses produksi masih ditemukan produk cacat dan rework dalam jumlah tinggi. Sebagian besar produk rework terjadi pada jenis Mild B dari kerupuk udang karena Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai standar. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk mencari dan meneliti penyebab Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai dari standar sehingga didapatkan solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Metoda yang digunakan dalam laporan ini adalah Sig Sigma dengan proses tahap adalah DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control. Dari penerapan metoda dihasilkan perbaikan untuk PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mengurangi sejumlah produk rework. Kata kunci : Sig Sigma, MC (Moisture Content, Kerupuk udang               Food Manufacturing is a business that produce food for human. One of forming food that is prawn crisply. Food manufacturing expand in Indonesia. A lot of good company own in and also abroad active in this. Tighten emulation make every company look for the way of in order to still able to stand up. Do not aside from PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. One of effort of PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP in order to able to hold out as one of food industry in Indonesia is non-stoped to improve the quality of product which they yield. But from the production process remain to be found defect product and high rework. Mostly rework happened in type Mild B of  prawn crisply because Moisture Content level (MC inappropriate from the

  1. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, underground mining industry has developed high-technology mass mining methods to optimise the productivity at deep levels. Such massive extraction induces high-level stress redistribution generating seismic events around the mining works, threatening safety and economics. For this reason mining irregular deep ore bodies calls for steadily enhanced scientific practises and technologies to guarantee the mine environment to be safer and stable for the miners and the infrastructures. INERIS, within the framework of the FP7 European project I2Mine and in partnership with the Swedish mining company Boliden, has developed new methodologies in order to monitor both quasi-static stress changes and ruptures in a seismic prone area. To this purpose, a unique local permanent microseismic and stress monitoring network has been installed into the deep-working Garpenberg mine situated to the north of Uppsala (Sweden). In this mine, ore is extracted using sublevel stoping with paste fill production/distribution system and long-hole drilling method. This monitoring network has been deployed between about 1100 and 1250 meter depth. It consists in six 1-component and five 3-component microseismic probes (14-Hz geophones) deployed in the Lappberget area, in addition to three 3D stress monitoring cells that focus on a very local exploited area. Objective is three-fold: to quantify accurately quasi-static stress changes and freshly-induced stress gradients with drift development in the orebody, to study quantitatively those stress changes versus induced detected and located microseismic ruptures, and possibly to identify quasi-static stress transfer from those seismic ruptures. Geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired continuously and automatically transferred to INERIS datacenter through the web. They are made available on a secured web cloud monitoring infrastructure called e.cenaris and completed with mine data. Such interface enables the visualisation of the

  2. Relações entre uso do solo, relevo e fertilidade do solo em escala de microbacia Relationships among land use, relief and soil fertility at watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. dos Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade em sistemas agrícolas de subsistência depende do nível de fertilidade natural do solo. Em condições de relevo forte ondulado, espera-se que a fertilidade do solo se modifique não apenas pelo tipo de uso mas, também, devido à sua posição no relevo. Para avaliar essas modificações, 260 amostras simples de solo (0-20 cm da microbacia Vaca Brava, PB, representando combinações de três usos do solo, cinco posições no relevo e cinco classes texturais, foram analisadas quanto aos teores de P disponível, bases e acidez trocáveis. Ca e Mg compreenderam 75-80% dos cátions trocáveis, K e Na, de 10 a 15%, e H+Al, 10%; o valor de pH médio foi 5,5, enquanto P Mehlich-1 foi, em média, 3,8 mg kg-1 solo. Apesar dos efeitos significativos (p Productivity in subsistence agricultural systems relies on natural soil fertility levels. Under strongly undulated relief conditions, it is expected that soil fertility will be determined not only by land use, but also by the position in the landscape. To study these relationships 260 single soil samples (0-20 cm from the Vaca Brava watershed, Paraiba, representing combinations of three land uses, five positions in the landscape and five textures were analyzed for extractable P, exchangeable bases and soil acidity. Ca and Mg comprised 75-80% of exchangeable cations, K and Na between 10 and 15% and H+Al 10%. The average pH was 5.5, while extractable P (Mehlich-1 averaged 3.8 mg kg-1 soil. Although land use, relief and texture exerted significant effects (p < 0.05 upon certain nutrient concentrations, in a broad sense the watershed appeared relatively uniform. The main effect of land use resulted from the use of animal manure in areas of subsistence agriculture and fodder, which were preferentially located at the base of stopes and low lands positions. Approximately 80% of the samples were low in extractable P, while 70% had medium levels of extractable K. However, when available K was

  3. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Khan, Omar Farooq; Asghar, Jamshaid; Munroe, Erik; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Wajahat; Ali, Sajid; Ahmed, Aftab; Ali, Moazzam; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-03-17

    Family planning (FP) interventions aimed at reducing population growth have negligible during the last two decades in Pakistan. Innovative FP interventions that help reduce the growing population burden are the need of the hour. Marie Stopes Society--Pakistan implemented an operational research project--'Evidence for Innovating to Save Lives', to explore effective and viable intervention models that can promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy in rural and under-served communities of Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. We conducted a quasi-experimental (pre- and post-intervention with control arm) study to assess the effectiveness of each of the two intervention models, (1) Suraj model (meaning 'Sun' in English), which uses social franchises (SF) along with a demand-side financing (DSF) approach using free vouchers, and (2) Community Midwife (CMW) model, in promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods compared to respective controls. Baseline and endline cross-sectional household surveys were conducted, 24 months apart, by recruiting 5566 and 6316 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) respectively. We used Stata version 8 to report the net effect of interventions on outcome indicators using difference-in-differences analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the net effect of the intervention on current contraceptive use, keeping time constant and adjusting for other variables in the model. The Suraj model was effective in significantly increasing awareness about FP methods among MWRA by 14% percentage points, current contraceptive use by 5% percentage points and long term modern method--intrauterine device (IUD) use by 6% percentage points. The CMW model significantly increased contraceptive awareness by 28% percentage points, ever use of contraceptives by 7% percentage points and, IUD use by 3% percentage points. Additionally the Suraj intervention led to a 35% greater prevalence

  4. Study of geological details towards feasibility of uranium project: Indian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.

    2014-01-01

    towards deciding the mining (e.g. stoping) method. Large ore samples generated during the process helps in detailed pilot plant studies and operation of the plant on continuous mode while fine-tuning all process related steps. The period of exploratory mining is further utilised in locating and planning infrastructure needs, preparation of different reports for regulatory clearances and generating public opinion in favour of uranium mining. All Indian uranium deposits have gone through glorious phase of exploratory mining generating large volume of data which are of immense value to the operators during the life of the mines and plants. (author)

  5. Magma traps and driving pressure: consequences for pluton shape and emplacement in an extensional regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John P.; Price, Jonathan D.; Gilbert, M. Charles

    1998-09-01

    intrusion must be created by other mechanisms (e.g. stoping). (5) Subvertical sheets (i.e. dikes) form when the magma driving pressure is less than the lithostatic load at the level of emplacement.

  6. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-08-11

    In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from offering services

  7. FEATURES OF DRILLING-AND-BLASTING AT CONSTRUCTION OF BESKIDSKIY TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this article it is necessary to analyze the possibility of developing technology and increasing its efficiency during the Beskidskiy tunnel construction in difficult engineering and geological conditions. Methodology. The authors have performed analysis of the technological level of mining and construction works, new technique, equipment and production. One of the important issues of blasting operation is to ensure the seismic safety, acting at a distance of 30 m in the axes of single-track tunnel, as the distance to it will be 20 m from the nearest charge in the laying tunnel. This problem was solved by applying the combined blasting of blast-hole charges with delay-action and long-delay ways. Herewith the total mass of charges in the stope was divided into three groups, in which the first group is exploded by short-delay firing with, and the second one is exploded by short-delay firing too with intervals of 200…400 ms, the third is exploded by long-delay blasting at intervals of 500…10000 ms. The combined blasting of short-delay charges and delay action ones let significantly reduce seismic action at a mass explosion of charges when driving of double-track railway tunnel of a large cross-section. Findings. The paper presents the developed technology model, describing dependence of the machines from engineering and geological conditions. The methodology of drilling and blasting works at the construction of the tunnel callote and stross as well as a technique of arrangement determination and intervals of shot-delay and delay blasting of blasthole explosive charges was developed. Maximum permissible concentration of gases and vapours at blasting was presented. The calculations showed that the maximum level of gas contamination of the working area in Beskidskiy tunnel is achieved at blast operations. In accordance with this ventilation of the tunnel when driving is carried out by independent systems with mechanical ventilation by

  8. Using restored cross sections to evaluate magma emplacement, White Horse Mountains, Eastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Wayne T.; Yoshinobu, Aaron S.

    2011-03-01

    serial cross sections oriented perpendicular to the pluton contact, the aureole was shortened approximately 54% during emplacement. Extrapolating this shortening value over the exposed area of the pluton indicates that approximately 48% of the exposed pluton area may be accounted for by the restoration. Therefore, host rocks must have been displaced out of the map plane and likely downward based on geometrical constraints provided by the cross sections. The preferred emplacement model requires in-situ chamber dilation accommodated by ductile deflection of host rocks followed by fracturing and removal of the aureole rocks via cauldron subsidence and/or stoping.

  9. Safety and effectiveness of termination services performed by doctors versus midlevel providers: a systematic review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Free C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoai D Ngo,1,2 Min Hae Park,1 Caroline Free21Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International, UK; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKObjective: Training midlevel providers (MLPs to conduct surgical abortions and manage medical abortions has been proposed as a way to increase women's access to safe abortion. This paper reviews the evidence that compares the effectiveness and safety of abortion procedures administered by MLPs versus doctors.Methods: A systematic search was conducted of published trials and comparison studies assessing the effectiveness and/or safety of abortion provided by MLPs compared to doctors. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Popline were searched. The primary outcomes of interest were: (1 incomplete or failed abortion; and (2 measures of safety (adverse events and complications of abortion procedures administered by MLPs and doctors. Odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for each study. Data were synthesized in a narrative fashion.Findings: Five studies were included in this review (n = 8539 women, comprising two randomized controlled trials (RCTs (n = 3821 and three prospective cohort studies (n = 4718. In total, 4198 women underwent a procedure administered by an MLP, and 4341 women underwent a physician-administered procedure. Studies took place in the US, Nepal, South Africa, Vietnam, and India. Four studies used surgical abortion with maximum gestational ages ranging from 10 to 16+ weeks, while a medical abortion study had gestational ages up to 9 weeks. In RCTs, the effect estimates for incomplete or failed abortion for procedures performed by MLPs compared with doctors were OR = 2.00 (95% CI 0.85–4.68 for surgical abortion, and OR = 0.69 (95% CI 0.34–1.37 for medical abortion. Complications were rare among both provider

  10. Granite ascent and emplacement during contractional deformation in convergent orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.

    1998-09-01

    Based on a case study in the Central Maine Belt of west-central Maine, U.S.A., it is proposed that crustal-scale shear zone systems provide an effective focussing mechanism for transfer of granite melt through the crust in convergent orogens. During contractional deformation, flow of melt in crustal materials at depths below the brittle-plastic transition is coupled with plastic deformation of these materials. The flow is driven by pressure gradients generated by buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. Within the oblique-reverse Central Maine Belt shear zone system, stromatic migmatite and concordant to weakly discordant irregular granite sheets occur in zones of higher strain, which suggests percolative flow of melt to form the migmatite leucosomes and viscous flow of melt channelized in sheet-like bodies, possibly along fractures. Cyclic fluctuations of melt pressure may cause instantaneous changes in the effective permeability of the flow network if self-propagating melt-filled tensile and/or dilatant shear fractures are produced due to melt-enhanced embrittlement. Inhomogeneous migmatite and schlieric granite occur in zones of lower strain, which suggests migration of partially-molten material through these zones en masse by granular flow, and channelized flow of melt carrying entrained residue. Founded on the Central Maine Belt case study, we develop a model of melt extraction and ascent using the driving forces, stress conditions and crustal rheologies in convergent, especially transpressive orogens. Ascent of melt becomes inhibited with decreasing depth as the solidus is approached. For intermediate a(H 2O) muscovite-dehydration melting, the water-saturated solidus occurs between 400 and 200 MPa, near the brittle-plastic transition during high- T-low- P metamorphism, where the balance of forces favors (sub-) horizontal fracture propagation. Emplacement of melt may be accommodated by ductile flow and/or stoping of wall rock, and inflation may be accommodated

  11. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  12. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    correlated to Fermilab instruments (for comparative analysis) and others in independent arrays. All tiltmeter data will be analyzed with water reduction data (currently being collected from the #6 winze as the mine is dewatered) and data from rock stress/fracture experiments to document net ground settling due to dewatering, potential collapse of stope areas and renewed excavation activities.

  13. Social franchising and vouchers to promote long-term methods of family planning in rural Pakistan: a qualitative stocktaking with stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ahmed, Aftab; Shaikh, Babar T

    2013-04-01

    The overall use of modern contraception in Pakistan is quite low, especially in rural areas. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of social franchising (SF) approaches in increasing access to modern contraception and improving the quality of healthcare in resource-poor areas in Asia and Africa. Drawing on best practices in SF, the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) implemented an SF model in certain rural areas of Pakistan to increase access to affordable and quality family planning (FP) services. The model was branded as Suraj (sun) and complemented with an innovative voucher scheme for intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). This paper describes the perspectives of Suraj clients, field workers mobilization (FWMs), and providers on various components of the Suraj model. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in six randomly selected intervention districts in the Sindh and Punjab provinces. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) with clients and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers and FWMs. Data were manually analyzed using constant comparison and the thematic analysis approach. Clients showed positive attitudes towards modern contraceptive methods and identified Suraj FWMs and signboards as sources of information. Almost all clients reported IUCDs as effective methods as they have manageable side effects and require fewer visits to clinics. They spoke highly of voucher schemes as these enabled them to avail free IUCD services. Clients also appreciated many components of Suraj clinics, including cleanliness, privacy, confidentiality, the sterilization of instruments, and courteous Suraj providers and FWMs. Most Suraj providers said that IUCD insertion and infection-prevention training enhanced their ability to provide IUCD services and increased their standing in local communities. They reported that the role of FWMs was crucial in mobilizing the community and increasing their FP clientele. The FWMs said that attitudes

  14. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  15. An eco-friendly method for heavy metal removal from mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Fereshteh; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2018-03-29

    One of the serious environmental problems that society is facing today is mine tailings. These byproducts of the process of extraction of valuable elements from ores are a source of pollution and a threat to the environment. For example, mine tailings from past mining activities at Giant Mines, Yellowknife, are deposited in chambers, stopes, and tailing ponds close to the shores of The Great Slave Lake. One of the environmentally friendly approaches for removing heavy metals from these contaminated tailing is by using biosurfactants during the process of soil washing. The objective of this present study is to investigate the effect of sophorolipid (SL) concentration, the volume of washing solution per gram of medium, pH, and temperature on the efficiency of sophorolipids in removing heavy metals from mine tailings. It was found that the efficiency of the sophorolipids depends on its concentration, and is greatly affected by changes in pH, and temperature. The results of this experiment show that increasing the temperature from 15 to 23 °C, while using sophorolipids, resulted in an increase in the removal of iron, copper, and arsenic from the mine tailing specimen, from 0.25, 2.1, and 8.6 to 0.4, 3.3, and 11.7%. At the same time, increasing the temperature of deionized water (DIW) from 15 to 23 °C led to an increase in the removal of iron, copper, and arsenic from 0.03, 0.9, and 1.8 to 0.04, 1.1, and 2.1%, respectively. By increasing temperature from 23 to 35 °C, when using sophorolipids, 22% reduction in the removal of arsenic was observed. At the same time while using DI water as the washing solution, increasing temperature from 23 to 35 °C resulted in 6.2% increase in arsenic removal. The results from this present study indicate that sophorolipids are promising agents for replacing synthetic surfactants in the removal of arsenic and other heavy metals from soil and mine tailings.

  16. ENDOTHELIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KLYMADINON IN EXPERIMENTAL OVARIECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Anishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Endothelial protective and antithrombogenic effects of Cimicifuga racemosa standardized extract (Klimadynon, Bionorica, Germany in comparison with ethinylestradiol in experimental ovariectomy were investigated. Extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (klimadynon contents phytoestrogens, that was the basis for studying of its effects in hypoestrogenic conditions for the purpose of prophylaxis and treatment of cardiovascular complications in climacteric syndrome as an alternatively of hormonal replacement therapy.The course administration of klimadynon (100 mg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days decelerated the formation of intravascular thrombosis which was initiated by application of 10% FeCb solution on carotid artery. The ethinylestradiol in this conditions intensified prothrombogenic effect of application of 10% FeCh: blood flow in carotid artery stoped to 5 minutes of experiment and mass of the thrombus was on 28% more, than in control rats. For studying of possible mechanisms antithrombogenic action of klimadynon antiplatelet and vasodilator activity of endothelium were studied in rats after bilateral ovariectomy in comparison with effects of ethinylestradiol (25 µg/kg p.o. daily during 14 days. Treatment with klimadynon as well as ethinylestradiol increased the antiplatelet activity of endothelium, restoring its activity to level in sham-operated animals. The endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independence vasodilation by using of acetylcholine (5 µg/kg and of sodium nitroprusside (30 µg/kg. respectively, were investigated. Coefficient of endothelium dysfunctions (CED was estimated as ratio: area over curve of arterial pressure after sodium nitroprusside intravenous injection to value of this index after injection of acetylcholine. In rats after bilateral ovariectomy CED was increased by 66% in comparison with CED value in sharm-operated rats. The klimadynon and ethinylestradiol treatment decreased CED on 42% and 28% correspondingly in comparison

  17. La mirada de los porteros de fútbol sala ante diferentes tipos de respuesta motriz. [Futsal goalkeepers’ gaze behavior with different type of motor response].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graupera Sanz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se exploró y analizó el comportamiento visual de un grupo de porteros expertos de fútbol sala con el objetivo de comprobar cómo el tipo de respuesta motriz solicitada influía en su comportamiento visual. Participaron 4 porteros a los que se les presentó un total de 48 clips de vídeo en una pantalla a tamaño real, bajo dos condiciones de respuesta: con movimiento de parada y sin movimiento de parada. Se registró su mirada con el pupilómetro ASL Mobile Eye durante dos condiciones de tiro de penalti. Se analizó la mirada en el intervalo de -250 a 205 ms en torno al disparo. Los resultados mostraron que cuando respondían con la acción habitual de parada, solo se encontraron fijaciones en la mitad de los casos, estas fijaciones eran de corta duración y localizadas principalmente en la zona del suelo justo enfrente del balón. Por el contrario, cuando se mantenían en posición estática, su mirada se dirigía hacia la zona entre el balón y la pierna de apoyo, empleando fijaciones de una duración más larga. Se puede concluir que el comportamiento visual fue diferente entre las dos condiciones como resultado de la adaptación a las demandas espacio-temporales específicas de cada condición, ya que el grado de movimiento en la respuesta solicitada tuvo influencia en el comportamiento visual asociado.AbstractThis study explored and analyzed the visual behavior of a group of experts from futsal goalkeepers in order to check on if the type of requested motor response influenced their visual behavior. Four goalkeepers were presented with a total of 48 video clips on a real-size screen, under two response conditions: with and without movement. Gaze was recorded with the ASL Mobile Eye eyetracker, and was analyzed in the range of -250 to 205 ms around the penalty kick. The results showed that when responding with the usual stoping action, fixations were found only in the half of the cases, being of short duration, and

  18. Developing mHealth Messages to Promote Postmenstrual Regulation Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh: Participatory Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn; Hossain, Altaf; Footman, Katharine; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Nuremowla, Sadid; Reiss, Kate

    2017-12-14

    Abortions are restricted in Bangladesh, but menstrual regulation is an approved alternative, defined as a procedure of regulating the menstrual cycle when menstruation is absent for a short duration. Use of contraception after menstrual regulation can reduce subsequent unintended pregnancy, but in Bangladesh, the contraceptive method mix is dominated by short-term methods, which have higher discontinuation and failure rates. Mobile phones are a channel via which menstrual regulation clients could be offered contraceptive support after leaving the clinic. This study aimed to support the development of a mobile phone intervention to support postmenstrual regulation family planning use in Bangladesh. It explored what family planning information women want to receive after having a menstrual regulation procedure, whether they would like to receive this information via their mobile phone, and if so, what their preferences are for the way in which it is delivered. We conducted participatory interviews with 24 menstrual regulation clients in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. Women were recruited from facilities in urban and peri-urban areas, which included public sector clinics supported by Ipas, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), and NGO clinics run by Marie Stopes. Main themes covered in the interviews were factors affecting the use of contraception, what information and support women want after their menstrual regulation procedure, how respondents would prefer to receive information about contraception, and other key issues for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, such as language and privacy. As part of the in-depth interviews, women were shown and played 6 different messages about contraception on the research assistant's phone, which they were given to operate, and were then asked to give feedback. Women were open to both receiving messages about family planning methods on their mobile phones and talking to a counselor about family

  19. Building The Bigger Picture - Using a field study geology programme to link and contextualise classroom topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lesley

    2013-04-01

    , stoping and faulting visible. Site 4 - Polurrian Cove. Western end of boundary thrust fault between metamorphosed subterranean lava flows (hornblende schists)above and crustal Devonian slates below can be observed. Site 5 - Coverack Cove to Godrevy Cove. The beach rocks change from olivine rich serpentinised peridotite to gabbro as you move across the Moho boundary zone. Further along the coast at Dean Point, dolerite dykes are quarried and basalt dykes are found at neighbouring Godrevy Cove - the complete ophiolite sequence in a few miles! Site 6 - Holmans Mine. Camborne School of Mines' training mine where students can experience blasting and see methods of rock stabilisation. They can also see mineral veins in situ underground and investigate mining techniques. Site 7 - Carnon Valley. Once known as the 'richest square mile in the World' due to the amount of tin and copper being produced. The Wheal Jane pollution incident (1992) caused widespread alarm and was dealt with by chemical and biological treatment systems still in operation. Historical and current tailings dams can be seen and compared, and the ecology of environmentally damaged ground observed. Mine dumps still yield mineral specimens and the streams are still acidic after heavy rain.

  20. [The preparation and characterization of fine dusts carried out in the Clinica del Lavoro di Milano in support of experimental studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occella, E; Maddalon, G; Peruzzo, G F; Foà, V

    1999-01-01

    pestles and rotating drum mills with autogenic grinding load were used for grinding: the size of the treated samples was reduced to 0.05 mm and an extremely fine fraction was extracted, smaller than 7-10 microns, which was used for pneumoconioses research. The characterization of the dust produced was in any case achieved by means of preliminary examination under the optical microscope (polarized light, sometimes supplemented with phase contrast), followed by quantitative analysis using chemical/petrographic, chemical diffraction or, more commonly, petrographic/diffraction techniques. Microscopic examination, if necessary supplemented with photo-micrography, was also used for particle size control, for numerical counting and subsequent reference to weight proportion. For all operational procedures the essential data on instruments and methods are reported. During studies on production, separation of fine dusts and their characterization, partly performed with support from the European Community (EEC/European Coal and Steel Commission), the following topics in particular were addressed: connections between particle size and free silica content in the measurable dust size fraction of the grinding products and in airborne dusts; characteristics of the dusts and risk indices in Italian iron and pyrite mines; possibility of abatement of the ultrafine classes of airborne dusts in pneumatically filled stopes by the addition of salts; comparison of the latest dust selectors used within the European Community; influence of the grinding methods on the results of fibrous and soft mineral measurement using X-ray diffraction analysis.

  1. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey-4. We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million-17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2-52·1) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. 3·4 million

  2. TEMU KEMBALI INFORMASI BIBLIOGRAFI DENGAN BAHASA ALAMI PADA FIELD JUDUL DAN SUFJEK (Studi Efektivitas Katalog Induk Terpasang Perpustakaan UGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janu Saptari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This Research aim to know the retrieval effectiveness on Online Union Catalog of UGM Library, index pattern at data bases, knowing which's more effective of searching at entri oftitle and subjec and also to know the cause ofeffectiveness difference retrieval at the both entri. Along with growth and information accretion, the main problem have shifted from way of accessing information become to chosen the relevant information with its requirement. Information retrieval is not possible to be done in the manual system, because very big information corps and non-stoped growing larger. The information retrieval system is very needed to to assist the consumer in finding information. One of the information retrieval system is online union catalog. With the online union catalog, by users easily can look for the book title, pickings of research and other documentation of library where from and any time. Getting a number of relevant document with the requirement represent the crux in the searching activity, and effectiveness from online union catalog is this represent the key. Effectiveness from a system influenced by a lot of component which each other related/relevant like: quality of input metadata in data bases, index, searching strategy, ability of system application and keyword election. A system told effective if the system can find more amount document/ appropriate information of request by precission /high accuracy. Research done by testing search at online union catalog to use the natural language keyword. Keyword inclusion done at entri of title and entri subjek. Keyword of taken as sampel come from one of title matakuliah of each; every faculty in UGM. From each; every the topic then translated /formulated into 4 natural language keyword. Data obtained is grouped by relevant level. From the acquirement data; then analysed with the test ofnonparametrik Mann Whitney. From processing data got by conclusion that ratio of retrieval at title entries

  3. Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide: relato de caso Chilaiditi's Syndrome with sigmoid colon volvulus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wilson Rocha Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masculino, branco, 51 anos, admitido no Pronto-Socorro de Pelotas queixando parada da eliminação de gases e fezes, dor abdominal difusa com distensão e inapetência, aceitando somente líquido. Tem diagnóstico de retardo mental e constipação intestinal crônica. Foi realizado Rx de abdome agudo, sendo evidenciada distensão difusa de cólon, e sinais sugestivos de volvo de sigmóide com imagem de cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. O paciente foi submetido a laparotomia exploradora, sendo constatado volvo de sigmóide, megacólon difuso e interposição do cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. Procedeu-se a colectomia subtotal, com colostomia terminal em cólon ascendente e fechamento do reto remanescente, recebendo alta no 9º dia. DISCUSSÃO: A interposição do cólon entre o fígado e a cúpula diafragmática (síndrome de Chilaiditi, associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide, constitui causa rara de abdome agudo obstrutivo, embora o volvo de sigmóide seja uma das principais causas de obstrução intestinal mecânica no Brasil. Geralmente o tratamento é clínico, porém se associado a complicações o tratamento é cirúrgico.INTRODUCTION: This study aims at reporting a case of Chilaiditi Syndrome associated to sigmoid colon volvulus. CASE REPORT: Male patient, white, 51 years old, arrives at an emergency hospital in Pelotas with complaints of stoping the elimination of gases, diffuse abdominal pain, increase of abdominal volume, gradual and progressive inappetence, accepting only liquid. He is diagnosed with mental retardation and a situation of intestinal constipation. An acute abdomen Rx highlighted a diffuse colon distension, suggestive of sigmoid volvulus with tranversum colon image between the liver and the diaphragm. The patient was submitted to exploratory

  4. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite

  5. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    dominantly by sand- to coarse sand-sized sediment. Sandy areas also include Raccoon Strait, off Point Tiburon, and on the subtidal Alcatraz, Point Knox, and Presidio Shoals. Drab-colored silty clays are the dominant sediment observed in gravity cores from central bay. Their dominance along the length of the core suggests that silty clays have been deposited consistently over much of this subembayment for the time period covered by the recovered sediments (Woodrow and others, this report). Stratification types include weakly-defined laminae, 1-3 mm thick. Few examples of horizontal lamination in very fine sand or silt were observed. Cross lamination, including ripples, was observed in seven cores. Erosional surfaces were evident in almost every core where x-radiographs were available (they are very difficult to observe visually). Minor cut-and-fill structures also were noted in three cores and inclined strata were observed in three cores. Textural patterns in central bay indicate that silts and clays dominate the shallow water areas and margins of the bay. Sand dominates the tidal channel just east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands and to the west of the islands to the Golden Gate. The pattern of sand-sized sediment, as determined by particle-size analysis, suggests that sand movement is easterly from the west-central part of the bay. A second pattern of sand movement is to the south from the southwestern extremity of San Pablo Bay (boundary approximated by the location of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge). Age dates for central bay sediment samples were obtained by carbon-14 radiometric age dating. Age dates were determined from shell material that was interpreted to be largely in-place (not transported). Age dates subsequently were reservoir corrected and then converted to calendar years. Sediments sampled from central bay cores range in age from 330 to 4,155 years before present. Foraminiferal distribution in the San Francisco Bay estuary is fairly well

  6. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  7. Final report of the drive of the TASS-tunnel; Slutrapport fraan drivningen av TASS-tunneln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlzen, Rickard; Johansson, Emmeli (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    , with good result of visible drill holes. The introduction of electronic detonators also took care of the problem of cut-off holes, which pretty much disappeared and re-blasting was minimized. The EDZ was evaluated in /Olsson et al. 2009/ and shows that no continuous EDZ was found. The performed drilling has been evaluated by looking at the drilling accuracy and precision. Geodetic surveying was performed of the collaring of 15-20 evenly distributed drill holes in the contour; all the drill holes in the floor and a varying amount of helpers and stope holes in each round. Afterwards the endpoints were calculated. The resulting data has then been evaluated and even compared with obtained data of the location of collaring and endpoints from the jumbo

  8. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran; Munier, Raymond

    2002-06-01

    seismically rather silent and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Seismic hazard has been calculated for Sweden and it is concluded that Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) greater than 2 m/s 2 is very unlikely the next coming 50-year period, in which the repository is planned to be constructed and operated. Damage due to shaking is very rare in underground facilities. Where such damage has occurred, the rock is either very poor or subject to very high stresses. None of these conditions will prevail in the Swedish repository. Most damage is also correlated to the presence of faults and the spent fuel will not be deposited in or close to important faults. Mining-induced earthquakes are known to cause damages in the mines. At the repository site it might be possible to experience local rock burst problems due to heterogeneous rock strengths and varying rock stresses. It is expected that these events, in case they appear, will take place when the tunnels are excavated rather than at the time of canister deposition. Earthquake impact during the post-closure phase: The present seismic activity in Sweden is expected to increase considerably in connection to the retreat of ice sheets in future glaciations. Peak ground accelerations may exceed 2 m/s 2 in association to large earthquakes. However, the effects of shaking, such as fallouts, cracking of lining are reduced since all tunnels will be backfilled by crushed rock and bentonite. The presence of the repository will not trigger earthquakes as the extraction ratio of the openings is very low compared to open stopes in a mine. There are also evidences for mines at great depth, that backfilling lower the mining-induced seismic activity compared to the situation when tunnels are not backfilled. The buffer and canister shake as a solid body without producing excess shear stresses or liquefaction of the buffer. Water-level changes will occur due to earthquakes but most of the changes are temporary and water-levels will return to

  9. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox, Djursholm (Sweden); Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    seismically rather silent and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Seismic hazard has been calculated for Sweden and it is concluded that Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) greater than 2 m/s{sup 2} is very unlikely the next coming 50-year period, in which the repository is planned to be constructed and operated. Damage due to shaking is very rare in underground facilities. Where such damage has occurred, the rock is either very poor or subject to very high stresses. None of these conditions will prevail in the Swedish repository. Most damage is also correlated to the presence of faults and the spent fuel will not be deposited in or close to important faults. Mining-induced earthquakes are known to cause damages in the mines. At the repository site it might be possible to experience local rock burst problems due to heterogeneous rock strengths and varying rock stresses. It is expected that these events, in case they appear, will take place when the tunnels are excavated rather than at the time of canister deposition. Earthquake impact during the post-closure phase: The present seismic activity in Sweden is expected to increase considerably in connection to the retreat of ice sheets in future glaciations. Peak ground accelerations may exceed 2 m/s{sup 2} in association to large earthquakes. However, the effects of shaking, such as fallouts, cracking of lining are reduced since all tunnels will be backfilled by crushed rock and bentonite. The presence of the repository will not trigger earthquakes as the extraction ratio of the openings is very low compared to open stopes in a mine. There are also evidences for mines at great depth, that backfilling lower the mining-induced seismic activity compared to the situation when tunnels are not backfilled. The buffer and canister shake as a solid body without producing excess shear stresses or liquefaction of the buffer. Water-level changes will occur due to earthquakes but most of the changes are temporary and water-levels will