WorldWideScience

Sample records for underhand cut-and-fill stope

  1. Rock mechanics of crown pillars between cut-and-fill stopes at the Mount Isa mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. F.; Bridges, M. C.

    1980-05-15

    At both levels, the leading stopes experienced bad ground conditions due to high stresses in the stope's backs when the crown pillars were about 35 m high. At 9 level, cut-and-fill mining stopped and most of the crown pillars were extracted by a slot-and-massfire method. At 11 level, cut-and-fill mining continued. Shear displacement along bedding planes began within and around the crown pillars of the leading stopes at 11 level, and spread through other crown pillars and to the hangingwall of the stoping system. Destressing and good ground conditions occurred where shear occurred, with further concentrations of stress in other areas. Crown pillars are being extracted to leave minimal 1:2 height to width diaphragms under the stopes above. Ground behavior of the 11 level crown pillars was investigated by observation, stress measurement, regional surveying of displacement and finite element models. An explanation of the ground behavior has evolved from this work. Bedding planes with an estimated angle of sliding friction of 10/sup 0/ were the main factor determining the behavior of this area.

  2. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  3. Rock mechanics applied to cut and fill mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, D. R.

    1980-05-15

    Cut and fill mining and recent changes made possible by the application of rock mechanics principles are briefly introduced. The principal interests of professional groups associated with the industry, and incentives that exist to encourage research of benefit to the industry in general, are identified. Details are given of recent advances in rock mechanics instrumentation and technique by drawing to a large extent on experience gained in projects that have been conducted jointly with the mining companies. Examples of the application of the results of this research are given on a mine site basis. Reference is made where possible to papers that describe the examples in more detail. The review is concluded with identification of topics that require further research.

  4. Rock mechanics and the economics of cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, G.

    1980-05-15

    The application of rock mechanics to mining has great economic potential. Factors such as loss of ore, rock-dilution, possibilities of machanization and rock support are all influenced by the degree of rock mechanics involvement. In particular loss of ore is limited by the correct dimensioning of pillars and remnants. Rock-dilution, depending upon caving, can in the same way be mastered by the right dimensions of stopes and pillars and of rock supporting. Possibilities of mechanization depend upon sizes of drifts and stopes, stope availabilities and access to the stopes, all depending upon a considered rock mechanic investigation. Also shut-downs in the stopes owing to caving can be affected in the same way. Consequences on the mining economy for cut-and-fil mining are illustrated concerning loss of ore, rock-dilution, mechanization levels and rock support. The biggest influence can be made on rock-dilution and mechanization. Under special circumstances loss of ore can be of the same magnitude, namely if the ore production per year is directly influenced by the loss of ore and can not be compensated by other mining activities. Rock support is of less economic importance compared with rock-dilution and mechanization, presupposed no less of ore-production.

  5. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  6. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  7. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  8. Extreme beach retreat history inferred from cut-and-fill beach deposits at Moruya, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Woodroffe, C. D.; Oliver, T.; Cunningham, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    A sequence of beach ridges often records a `cut and fill', where the fair-weather swash accretion of beach sand is punctuated by storm erosion. The detailed chronology of the sequence is thus a clue to decipher past storm events and associated beach erosion, but has not been explored much. Here we explore the potential of such a sequence to detect past extreme retreats in Bengello Beach at Moruya, southeastern Australia. Beach monitoring since 1972 reveals that Bengello beach has shown a typical cut and fill, in which the beach retreats several tens of meters in relation to storms and recovers within a following few years. A storm event caused extreme retreat up to 50 m in 1974. Since then, no retreat exceeded 30 m. The beach monitoring highlights the sporadic nature of the prograded beach deposits; they can only be preserved as stratigraphic records during rapid beach recovery following a large retreat deeper than the beach profile envelope. Thus, ages of the preserved beach deposits roughly correspond to timings of large retreat. Optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were determined for beach deposits at 5-10 m intervals along a shore-normal transect from the modern foredune to beach ridge 120 m inland. The most landward sample was dated as 510 yr, indicating that the net progradation rate is 0.24 m/yr, concordant with both the long- and short-term rates since the mid Holocene and 1972, respectively. Other ages show four events of retreat around 350, 180, 130 and 90 yr, and also reflect the beach scarp resulting from the 1974 event. The retreat of each event is given by the distance between the shoreline position prior to storm erosion and relevant gap in OSL age. The position of the pre-storm shoreline is estimated by assuming a constant rate of the net progradation of 0.24 m/yr, as with long- and short-term rates. The retreat of the four events is then determined as 45-55 m, similar to the 1974 event. In summary, extreme beach retreats, including that in

  9. Stope and Gully Support: Final report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, MKC

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This project had two objectives namely: Develop a rationale for the design of stope support systems. Determine support resistance criteria for the support of stope gullies for both static and dynamic loading and develop improved support systems...

  10. Sub level open stoping mining method for the Remaja type deposits, Kalan, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumaryanto, A.

    2014-01-01

    According to historic drilling, probing and trenching, geologists previously assumed that the Eko Remaja type deposits belonged to the vein type family. To test this assumption, it was decided to drive a tunnel into Eko Remaja hill, in which eighteen mineralized intersections were discovered. A small mining test has been carried out in the area where the potentially mineable veins are concentrated. The idea was to check the continuity of the mineralization and assist in considering possible mining methods. Two methods were considered: the traditional and well known cut and fill method, or the long parallel holes method. This second method has not been used a lot up to now so was dropped. Regarding cut and fill testing, it was decided to test vein 179 from the tunnel level at 450-460 m above sea level. As a vein continuity check a ramp was driven in vein 169 and a drift in vein 169 at both levels 169 and 179. Vein 179 vein seemed rather regular at 450 level, but was quite different in the ramp in 169 vein and in the 179 drift at level 460. No continuity at all existed between the two levels or at level 460. Although good quality ore was found, it was considered that it could not be mined by the cut and fill method due to a lack of continuity. Hence the regular vein type concept was abandoned for the Eko Remaja type deposits, which looked more like some kind of “stockwork”, although not very complicated, because there are at the maximum three general directions of the mineralization. Fortunately, the major part of the reserves are concentrated in the four veins 157,169,179 and 184 which are rather close to each other. Although the quantity of waste will be important, diluted ore could still be extracted. Fortunately ore and the waste are quite distinctive in aspect, colour, shape, specific gravity and radioactivity. Therefore sorting is included in the present study, considering low capital and operating costs means and equipment. Two methods have been studied

  11. Alternative support systems for mechanized stopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The stoping of platinum orebodies in the Bushveld has in the past been accomplished by using in-stope pillars to ensure stability of the workings. In the future, the use of continuous mining machines to mine the platinum orebodies is probable...

  12. Paleo erosion rates and climate shifts recorded by Quaternary cut-and-fill sequences in the Pisco valley, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaddour, Toufik; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vogel, Hendrik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin P.; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Fluvial cut-and-fill sequences have frequently been reported from various sites on Earth. Nevertheless, the information about the past erosional regime and hydrological conditions have not yet been adequately deciphered from these archives. The Quaternary terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, located at ca. 13°S, offer a manifestation of an orbitally-driven cyclicity in terrace construction where phases of sediment accumulation have been related to the Minchin (48-36 ka) and Tauca (26-15 ka) lake level highstands on the Altiplano. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget for the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in this valley to quantify the orbitally forced changes in precipitation and erosion. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast where denudation rates reached values as high as 600±80 mm/ka for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets register nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We relate these contrasts to different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that matches with the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation results in fast erosion and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires sufficient material on catchment hillslopes to be stripped off by erosion. This was most likely the case immediately before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span with poorly erosive climate conditions, allowing for sufficient regolith to build up on the hillslopes. Finally, this study suggests a strong control of orbitally and ice sheet forced latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ on the erosional gradients and sediment production on the western

  13. Realistic dynamic stope support testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available -August 1999. Construction of the steel superstructure commenced early in November 1999 and was completed within two weeks. Progress in commissioning the portal crane and the main compressed air hoist was hampered by small design faults and lack...’ for innovative developments. In particular, techniques for preventing collapses between support units and over the work area between the front line of support and the stope face can be explored. There can be little doubt that the facility could also serve a...

  14. 100 kyr fluvial cut-and-fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Cottle, John; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-09-01

    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable geomorphic archives that can record tectonically and/or climatically driven changes of the Earth-surface process system. However, often the preservation of fill terrace sequences is incomplete and/or they may form far away from their source areas, complicating the identification of causal links between forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over multi-millennial timescales. The intermontane Toro Basin in the southern Central Andes exhibits at least five generations of fluvial terraces that have been sculpted into several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary valley-fill conglomerates. New surface-exposure dating using nine cosmogenic 10Be depth profiles reveals the successive abandonment of these terraces with a 100 kyr cyclicity between 75 ± 7 and 487 ± 34 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by four 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages of three intercalated volcanic ash beds, range from 18 ± 141 to 936 ± 170 ka, indicating that there were multiple cut-and-fill episodes. Although the initial onset of aggradation at ∼1 Ma and the overall net incision since ca. 500 ka can be linked to tectonic processes at the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100 kyr cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by eccentricity-driven climate change. Within these cycles, the onset of river incision can be correlated with global cold periods and enhanced humid phases recorded in paleoclimate archives on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano, whereas deposition occurred mainly during more arid phases on the Altiplano and global interglacial periods. We suggest that enhanced runoff during global cold phases - due to increased regional precipitation rates, reduced evapotranspiration, or both - resulted in an increased sediment-transport capacity in the Toro Basin, which outweighed any possible increases in upstream sediment supply and thus triggered incision. Compared with two

  15. Shrink stope design using an inventory model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taylor

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fact that current practice in shrink-stoping in hard rock mining invariably ignores the inventory holding cost of the blasted ore. We believe, and show by example, that ignoring this cost could make the difference between profit and loss in an industry that, at present, needs all the help it can get.

  16. Squeezing the middleman: ending underhanded dealing in the pharmacy benefit management industry through regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies are the middlemen of the pharmaceutical industry, designing plans for sponsors and insurers and pushing the products of manufacturers. Their unique position can often create conflicts of interest, which has been the basis of much litigation. This article reviews the structure of the PBM industry and analyzes concerns arising from its handling of prescription drug pricing, manufacturer rebates and discounts, and mail order pharmacies. After surveying several legislative proposals, it concludes with a comprehensive outline for legislation to eliminate underhanded dealing in the industry and lower the cost of prescription drugs.

  17. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of overhand, sidearm and underhand lacrosse shot techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Charles A J; Katz, Larry; Stergiou, Pro; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Tomaghelli, Luciano

    2017-12-01

    Lacrosse requires the coordinated performance of many complex skills. One of these skills is shooting on the opponents' net using one of three techniques: overhand, sidearm or underhand. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine which technique generated the highest ball velocity and greatest shot accuracy and (ii) identify kinematic and kinetic variables that contribute to a high velocity and high accuracy shot. Twelve elite male lacrosse players participated in this study. Kinematic data were sampled at 250 Hz, while two-dimensional force plates collected ground reaction force data (1000 Hz). Statistical analysis showed significantly greater ball velocity for the sidearm technique than overhand (P  0.05). Kinematic and kinetic variables were not significantly correlated to shot accuracy or velocity across all shot types; however, when analysed independently, the lead foot horizontal impulse showed a negative correlation with underhand ball velocity (P = 0.042). This study identifies the technique with the highest ball velocity, defines kinematic and kinetic predictors related to ball velocity and provides information to coaches and athletes concerned with improving lacrosse shot performance.

  18. The new technology of dividing wall in stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    1999-01-01

    The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the ordinary separating methods between stopes at deep mine, points out the main problems of the original projects constructing dividing wall, presents an idea of new technology which can overcome the main problems, predicts effect adopting the new technology, and analyzes that feasibility applying the new technology to construct mortar pad in stope and dyke-dam

  19. Ground motion studies in a backfilled stope at West Driefontein

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available This report looks at the ground motion from 24 small magnitude seismic events recorded at various points inside a backfilled stope. The in-stope ground motion is compared to that recorded at an off-reef site. The seismic events are analysed...

  20. Application of short rockbolts in ultradeep tabular stoping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, MKC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Most rock related fatalities and injuries in South African gold mines occur in the stope face area. These mines generally do not use rockbolts to support this area. This paper describes short rockbolt applications in the stope face area in a narrow...

  1. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  2. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  3. Electrostatic purification of uranium mine stope atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.; Phyper, J.D.; Lowe, L.M.; Chambers, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Electrostatic precipitators have been and are currently being used to reduce levels of radioactive aerosols in uranium mine stope atmospheres. Historically, while the electrostatic precipitators have been reported to be successful in reducing levels of radioactive aerosols many practical problems have been encountered with their use in the underground mine environment. Electrical short circuiting appears to have been the major problem with the use of precipitators in humid underground environments. On the basis of literature reviewed for this study it seems that the problems encountered in the past can be overcome. The most likely use of a precipitator in an underground uranium mine is to treat some or all of the air immediately upstream of a work station. The possible locations and uses of a precipitator would vary from work station to work station and from mine to mine. The desirability and cost of using elctrostatic precipitators to purify the air entering a work station are application specific. SENES Consultants therefore is not recommending for or against the use of electrostatic precipitators in underground uranium mines. The information provided in this report can be used however to assist in such determinations. 72 refs

  4. Rock Mechanics Aspects of Stoping Without Back-area Support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    King, RG

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The report describes an experiment carried out at Hartebeesfontein Gold Mine, No. 6 Shaft, 77 N 25 Stope between October 1985 and November 1986, which involved mining two panels without back-area support and with different support resistances...

  5. A device for preventing a stope from caving in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, V Ia; Pototskaia, I I; Semenov, Yu A; I, Tsoi L

    1980-10-31

    The goal of the invention is to increase the operational effectiveness of the device by fortifying the roof between the roof timber and the stope and to simplify the design. This is achieved by an arrangement whereby the roof timber is built with a mobile section that has a lever mounted to it with an axle.

  6. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    programme, male involvement has the following basic aspects: Initiation of dialogue on child spacing within the ... that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are not outsiders. ... pioneering work of Marie Stopes in caring for women in the poor communities of London by extending the ...

  7. Analysis of factors affecting the effect of stope leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The industrial test and industrial trial production of stope leaching were carried out at Taoshan orefield of Dabu deposit. The results of test and trial production showed obvious differences in leaching rate and leaching time. Compared with industrial trial production of stope leaching, the leaching rate of industrial test was higher, and leaching time was shorter. It was considered that the blasting method and liquid arrangement were the main factors affecting the leaching rate and leaching time according to analysis. So we put forward the following suggestions: the technique of deep hole slicing tight-face blasting was used to reduce the yield of lump ores, the effective liquid arrangement methods were adopted to make the lixiviant infiltrating throughout whole ore heap, and bacterial leaching was introduced. (authors)

  8. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  9. Cracking the Stoping Paradigm: Field and Modeling Constraints From the Sierra Nevada Batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotta, G. S.; Paterson, S. R.; Okaya, D.

    2001-12-01

    The significance of stoping during pluton emplacement remains a controversial issue. This mechanism has fallen out of favor recently largely due to the apparent lack of stoped blocks preserved in plutons. Our field studies in plutons in a variety of tectonic settings clearly show evidence of stoping. This is not surprising since stoping should be favored when large thermal gradients exist at magma-host rock boundaries. Preservation of stoped blocks is uncommon however, since the rate at which blocks sink is much greater than the rate at which magmas crystallize (Paterson and Okaya, 1999). Thus, only during final crystallization when magmatic yield strength is high, should stoped blocks be trapped. The Mitchell Peak granodiorite, Sierra Nevada is a rare example of a pluton that preserves abundant stoped blocks, with the youngest intrusive phase preserving >25% stoped blocks, and locally, near the margins >50% of exposed surface area is stoped blocks. Thus stoping is an important process here, at least during the final stages of emplacement. This area is ideal to study the mechanisms of block formation and disintegration using both field and modeling techniques, because of abundant stoped blocks, excellent exposure, and nature of host rock. The host rock is a slightly older, coarse grained, granodioritic intrusion that preserves extremely weak to no magmatic fabric, and thus can be treated as a "homogeneous and isotropic" medium for the purposes of thermal-mechanical modeling. Detailed mapping indicates that preserved stoped blocks range in size from hundreds of m's to xenocrystic feldspars, and there is abundant evidence for mechanical disintegration of blocks. Thermal-mechanical models, using detailed maps from the Mitchell Peak area, further support field observations. Rates at which thermal stresses develop and exceed host rock tensile strength are extremely rapid (hours to days) compared to onset of crystal plastic flow and/or melting. The calculated pattern of

  10. The organization of professional predictions on the development of automation for stope equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanygin, U.M.; Markashov, V.E.; Pashchevskii, U.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of organizing and conducting experimental predictions on the development of automation for stope equipment are examined. Professional evaluations are developed, and the order for processing the results is given, together with a calculation program for use with the ES-1020 computer. Several results from predictive studies of the development of automation for use with stope equipment are given.

  11. Remote Sensing Extraction of Stopes and Tailings Ponds in AN Ultra-Low Iron Mining Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.; Wu, L.

    2018-04-01

    With the development of economy, global demand for steel has accelerated since 2000, and thus mining activities of iron ore have become intensive accordingly. An ultra-low-grade iron has been extracted by open-pit mining and processed massively since 2001 in Kuancheng County, Hebei Province. There are large-scale stopes and tailings ponds in this area. It is important to extract their spatial distribution information for environmental protection and disaster prevention. A remote sensing method of extracting stopes and tailings ponds is studied based on spectral characteristics by use of Landsat 8 OLI imagery and ground spectral data. The overall accuracy of extraction is 95.06 %. In addition, tailings ponds are distinguished from stopes based on thermal characteristics by use of temperature image. The results could provide decision support for environmental protection, disaster prevention, and ecological restoration in the ultra-low-grade iron ore mining area.

  12. Application of Three Existing Stope Boundary Optimisation Methods in an Operating Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Gamze; Yavuz, Mahmut

    2017-12-01

    The underground mine planning and design optimisation process have received little attention because of complexity and variability of problems in underground mines. Although a number of optimisation studies and software tools are available and some of them, in special, have been implemented effectively to determine the ultimate-pit limits in an open pit mine, there is still a lack of studies for optimisation of ultimate stope boundaries in underground mines. The proposed approaches for this purpose aim at maximizing the economic profit by selecting the best possible layout under operational, technical and physical constraints. In this paper, the existing three heuristic techniques including Floating Stope Algorithm, Maximum Value Algorithm and Mineable Shape Optimiser (MSO) are examined for optimisation of stope layout in a case study. Each technique is assessed in terms of applicability, algorithm capabilities and limitations considering the underground mine planning challenges. Finally, the results are evaluated and compared.

  13. Review of the stoping problem - GS Review of past work rockbreaking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pickering, RGB

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available supplemented by studies of work carried out by others, both in South Africa and overseas. The document has been prepared as part of a process of critically reviewing what progress has been made in solving the stoping problem and forms the basis for determining...

  14. Control technique of spontaneous combustion in fully mechan ized stope during period of end caving under complex mining influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Benqing

    2018-01-01

    In view of the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion of coal seam occurring during the period of end caving under complex mining conditions, taking the 1116 (3) stope of Guqiao mine as the object of study, the causes of spontaneous combustion during the period of end caving are analyzed, according to the specific geological conditions of the stope to develop corresponding fire prevention measures, including the reduction of air supply and air leakage in goaf, reduce the amount of coal left, reasonable drainage, nitrogen injection for spontaneous combustion prevention, grouting for spontaneous combustion prevention and permanent closure, fundamentally eliminates the potential for spontaneous combustion during the period of 1116(3) stope end caving. The engineering practice shows that this kind of measure has reference value for the prevention and control of spontaneous combustion during the period of stope end caving.

  15. Determination Of Optimal Stope Strike Length On Steep Orebodies Through Laser Scanning At Lubambe Copper Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalume H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lubambe Copper Mine is located in Chililabombwe Zambia and is a joint copper mining venture with three partners that include African Rainbow Minerals 40 Vale 40 and the Government of Zambia 20. The current mining method utilises Longitudinal Room and Pillar Mining LRP on 70m long panels strike length. However these long panels have resulted in unprecedented levels of dilution mainly from the collapse of hanging wall laminated ore shale OS2 leading to reduced recoveries. Observations made underground show high variability in geological and geotechnical conditions of the rock mass with factors such as weathering on joints lamina spaced joints and stress changes induced by mining all contributing to weakening and early collapse of the hanging wall. Therefore a study was undertaken to establish the optimal stope strike length of steep ore bodies at Lubambe. The exercise involved the use of Faro Laser Scanner every four stope rings blasted with time when the scan was performed noted. The spatial coherence of lasers makes them ideal measuring tools in situations where measurements need to be taken in inaccessible areas. Recent advances in laser scanning coupled with the exponential increase in processing power have greatly improved the methods used to estimate stope tonnages extracted from massive inaccessible stopes. The collected data was then used to construct digital three dimensional models of the stope contents. Sections were cut every metre with deformations taken and analysed with respect to time. Deformation rates from the hanging wall was reducing from 0.14thr to 0.07thr between rings 1 to 8. This reduction was as a result of slot blasting that involved drilling and blasting a number of holes at the same time. Between rings 8 to 25 deformation was constant averaging 0.28thr and between rings 26 and 28 a sharp increase in deformation rate was experienced from as low as 0.16thr to 6.33thr. This sharp increase defines the optimal stope length

  16. Optimization long hole blast fragmentation techniques and detonating circuit underground uranium mine stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Yang Lizhi; Song Lixia; Qin De'en; Xue Yongshe; Wang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Aim at high rate of large blast fragmentation, a big difficulty in long hole drilling and blasting underground uranium mine stope, it is pointed out at the same time of taking integrated technical management measures, the key is to optimize the drilling and blasting parameters and insure safety the act of one that primes, adopt 'minimum burden' blasting technique, renew the stope fragmentation process, and use new process of hole bottom indirect initiation fragmentation; optimize the detonating circuit and use safe, reliable and economically rational duplex non-electric detonating circuit. The production practice shows that under the guarantee of strictly controlled construction quality, the application of optimized blast fragmentation technique has enhanced the reliability of safety detonation and preferably solved the problem of high rate of large blast fragments. (authors)

  17. Application of combined shrinkage stoping and pillarless sublevel caving mining method to a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Changjun

    2012-01-01

    Pillarless sublevel caving mining method was used to mining ores in a uranium mine. Because ore-rock interface changed greatly, this part of ores can not be recovered effectively in the mining process, resulting in the permanent loss of these ores. Aimed at the problem, a combined shrinkage stoping and pillarless sublevel caving mining method is presented. Practices show that the ore recovery is increased, dilution rate is declined, and mining safety is improved greatly by using the combined method. (authors)

  18. A device for automatically recording information on the reasons for idling of stopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, L G; Kuzoyatov, G I; Tereshchenko, V N

    1979-01-01

    One substantial reserve for raising production efficiency in the coal industry is reduction of nonproductive time costs. The state of the art of stoping work and design features of stoping equipment and devices for obtaining information do not presently enable complete automation of the process of obtaining data on the reasons for down times. Therefore, together with automatic data formation manual recording of information is required through remote control equipment to the controlling computer directly from the work place. The Donetsk department of the Giprougleavtomatizatsiy institute has developed the UKIP-1 device for automatic recording of information on the reasons for stope down times. The device is designed for use in an automatic process control system of coal mines. It provides coding of information and its conversion to a form suitable for transmission through remote control channels, further processing, and recording. The device enables recording of information on down times of eight objects of the stope. Up to eight down time reasons can be recorded for each object. The device has 2 contact outputs, on one of which is formed an informational sequential eight-bit code; on the other, 8 clock pulses. The device's code is generated automatically, after it is activated by a switch. The length of the code packet results from the maximum possible information transmission rate of the existing mine remote control systems, and equals 12+2 sec. The clock pulse length equals half the length of the information pulse. The device has been tested at coal mines, and recommended for industrial production. UKIP-1 devices are being used in a pilot model of an automatic production control system of the Sotsialisticheskiy Donbass Newspaper mine of the Donetskugol' production association.

  19. Stress Ratios in Entire Mine Stopes with Cohesionless Backfill: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of stress states in backfilled mine stopes (or similar openings, using arching theory, can be largely impacted by the value selected for the earth pressure coefficient, K = σ′h/σ′v. Recently, the current study’s authors addressed the debate about the value of K near the opening center, based on Rankine’s active coefficient (Ka and at-rest coefficient (K0. Here, stress ratios in vertical backfilled stopes are numerically assessed (in two dimension, 2D, considering both the independent and related backfill internal friction angle (ϕ′ and Poisson’s ratio (ν. Emphasis is placed on the backfill state near stope walls, where local rotation of stresses occurs, so the coefficient (K and principal stress ratio, Kps (= σ′3/σ′1, should be distinguished. Parametric analyses indicate that values of K and Kps depend on the position and the relationship between ϕ′ and ν. Near the opening center, K (= Kps is close to Ka when ν or ϕ′ is below a critical value; otherwise the value approaches K0, defined from ν. Near both walls, Kps is always close to Ka, while K is near K0 for related ν − ϕ′ cases and depends on their respective values for independent ν and ϕ′. Additional simulations conducted with interface elements indicate that the stress ratios near the opening center line are insensitive to interface roughness and are almost identical to values obtained without interfaces, but the stress ratios near walls may change for less rough or smooth interfaces.

  20. New technology for real-time in-stope safety management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available with a clear idea of which portions of the hangingwall are safe, and which present risk. On the health side, if a network such as AziSA is deployed in the stope, it becomes much easier to monitor the condition of individual miners. The work strain... provide a safe environment in terms of rockfalls. Thermal imaging complements and enhances the current practices by allowing the miner to quickly scan a large area; his attention is being draw to potentially dangers hanging, with the benefit...

  1. Functional specifications for in-stope support based on seismic and rockburst observations in South African mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rockbursts pose a significant risk to workers in deep gold and platinum mines in South Africa. In-stope support systems are one of the measures used to mitigate the risk. Over the last two decades several new technologies have been introduced...

  2. Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JN

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available .7 m; and faults in the stope face with throws up to 2.5 m and rolls where the slope angle changes by up to 20o. The performance targets set for the system are a reduction in stope accidents of at least 50 % compared to the industry average, greater... than 15 m face advance per month, dilution and gold losses reduced by 15 % compared to adjacent stoping, consistent provision of recommended environmental conditions and finally cost effectiveness. The main areas of concern with current mining...

  3. Genesis and geomorphic evolution of the Velké pinky stopes in the Zlatohorská Highlands, Eastern Sudetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Jan; Tichavský, Radek; Večeřa, Josef; Kapustová, Veronika; Šilhán, Karel

    2017-11-01

    Montanogenic landforms are commonly viewed as hazards by society, but they are also holders of specific and uncommon morphology with unique dynamics that act as remarks on landscape history. The Velké pinky stopes in the Zlatohorská Highlands, Eastern Sudetes, are naturally revitalized post-mining landforms with long-term geoecological succession. Their genetic origin is diverse but recent processes, such as deep-seated slope deformations, rockfalls and ground subsidence, have resulted in a distinct morphology dominated by rock walls and the accumulation of blocks and debris wedges. This morphology predisposes the stopes to become the core area of the most recent dynamic geomorphic activity within the wider, relatively homogenous area. By dendrogeomorphic techniques, we identified more than 20 rockfall events within three of the stopes with increased activity since the 1980s. Only the 1991 and 2006 events were identical for all three stopes. We obtained the years of exposures from 10 roots, revealing the ground subsidence and opening of tension cracks or even the lateral retreat of the flanks of minor depressions. The Schmidt hammer test revealed the most recent and fresh gravitational activity in one of the stopes. A relationship between the superficial morphology and underground structure was proven by electrical resistivity profiling. Compared to the previous studies engaged with the abandoned mines, we presented how complex their evolution can be. Our study brings new information about the historical development of anthropogenic relief forms. Moreover, our results suggest that standard research approaches can be successfully applied for development analysis of these specific forms.

  4. Selection of methods and parameters for forced weakening of roofing in stoping faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekbulatov, A K

    1982-01-01

    The use of the method of advanced shooting on mines of different basins of the country indicated the need to generalize results of work for forced weakening of the roofing on mines in the sector in order to create ''Instructions For Selecting the Methods and Parameters of Forced Weakening of Roofing in the Stoping Faces'' with the participation of the basin scientific research institutes under the leadership of the VNIMI. The main method of weakening which has been introduced in the Karaganda basin is frontal shooting with the use of torpedo-charges. Shooting of the roofing in order reduce the intensity of the primary settling of the main roofing is done in parallel and perpendicular plans. With the parallel plan, the wells are drilled out from the adjoining roadways parallel to the stoping face, and with perpendicular plan, from the assembly chamber perpendicular to the stoping face. In order to reduce the intensity of secondary settling of the main roofing, the parallel or parallel-inclined method is used in designing of the torpedo-charge and the torpedo-head. It is reported that the torpedo-charge is a set of individual torpedos made of polyethylene pipes of length 1500 mm connected to each other with the help of couplings and splints. The torpedo-head consists of a polyethylene pipe of length 700 mm with wall thickness 15-17 mm filled with bulk explosives. Within the torpedo there are 2 explosive charges with electric-detonators for instantaneous action. The main cables of the explosive circuit are connected to the electric detonators and are passed through the packing pipe. In the improved design of the torpedo-head and the torpedo-charge, there are no metal parts. This excludes blow-out of particles of incandescent metal during the explosion and increases the level of work safety. The torpedo-charge is installed manually or mechanically with the help of a metal guide (rammer) which is removed from the well after it delivers the torpedo-charge.

  5. Meaningful use of peak particle velocities at excavation surfaces for the optimisation of the rockburst criteria for tunnels and stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milev, AM

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available to be bimodal. The source of the bimodality is not known, and could be an effect introduced by the instrumentation or an indication of a fundamental difference in the physical mechanism of failure. It is strongly suggested that further work be done... the discontinuous nature of the hangingwall into account, was developed. The model focuses on the stress changes caused by the passage of Rayleigh waves along a stope. The importance of maintaining horizontal compressive stress, to ensure hangingwall stability...

  6. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Ciss?, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outrea...

  7. Leading experience of reaching high labor productivity in the stoping face using grader extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikh, M P

    1982-01-01

    The main factors which hold back highly productive work are high labor intensity of reinforcing the terminal sections of the longwalls, difference in the speed characteristics of the worm and longwall conveyers, jamming of the worm conveyers, holdups in transportation, etc. Consequently under the leadership of the party and trade union organizations, organizational technical measures were developed and are constantly being improved. Shift working meetings are held at which specific solutions are adopted. In order to improve load on the face, specific measures were adopted: measures are regularly developed for maintenance and repair of the stoping face equipment; a cartogram of repair-technical operations is compiled for the longwall; the velocity of the worm conveyers is brought to the velocity of the longwall conveyer, on the scraper conveyers in the conveyer galleries the edge is increased to 0.6 m; supply of electricity to the grader and conveyer in the longwall is done by individual substations; the efficiency experts of the mines have developed and introduced an improved design of belt loader at the loading point; in order to repair equipment on off days, a special group of highly skilled mechanics has been created. Introduction of these measures together will make it possible to improve coal extraction, labor productivity, labor efficiency, reduce accident rate, reveal latent reserves. Practice has indicated that the use of the grader units with mechanized timbering IMKS makes it possible to achieve high technical-economic indicators both of the work of the brigade and the mine as a whole.

  8. CTL Industries simplifies mining processes : fill containment system a simple solution for backfilling stopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-12-01

    Several large mining companies are interested in a patent-pending fill containment system designed to replace shotcrete fences after a stope has been filled. The existing process is extremely labour and material intensive. This article discussed how the new system has made work easier, safer and increased the bottom line. The article described the design and specifications of the shotcrete containment system. The advantages of the system include no wait time for customers for shotcrete teams to build fences, and it is a quick, easy process that takes about 3 hours to set up, inflate and fill. The article also outlined a shaft guide electronic profiling mechanism that had been developed to complement the shaft guide laminating device. The product electronically measures shaft guides in mine shafts to determine how much wear has occurred on the timber. Last, the article described a refuge station door sealant kit with a cabinet that contains items required to seal the refuge station door should an emergency occur. This quick and easy system replaces the previous method in which clay slugs are soaked in a five-gallon pail of water and applied by hand. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  9. Influence of hole depth on output when excavating veins by small cuts to the course with the use of monorail stope equipment complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galchenko, Y.P.; Dadakuziev, B.M.; Saifutdinov, Y.N.

    1986-01-01

    A new comprehensive mechanization technology is discussed that uses monorail equipment installed along the course of the ore body. Trials of this machinery confirmed its efficiency, and a government commission has recommended the new technology for broad introduction in mines. The stope equipment complex with monorail advance has been recommended for mass production. It was noted that methods for determining the efficient parameters of the stope must be developed, especially a technique for estimating the breadth of the excavation cut as the principal indicator determining the cost-effectiveness and quality of stope excavation of veins worked to the course. An expression is presented that makes it possible to estimate the upper limit of the variation of hole depth that provides for the maximum excavation of the pay reserves

  10. Energy budgets of mining-induced earthquakes and their interactions with nearby stopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the mining-induced earthquakes. I report here updated versions of these two results based on more modern underground data acquired in the Witwatersrand gold fields. Firstly, an extensive suite of in situ stress data indicate that the ambient state of crustal stress here is close to the failure state in the absence of mining even though the tectonic setting is thoroughly stable. Mining initially stabilizes the rock mass by reducing the pore fluid pressure from its initial hydrostatic state to nearly zero. The extensive mine excavations, as Cook showed, concentrate the deviatoric stresses, in localized regions of the abutments, back into a failure state resulting in seismicity. Secondly, there appears to be two distinct types of mining-induced earthquakes: the first is strongly coupled to the mining and involves shear failure plus a coseismic volume reduction; the second type is not evidently coupled to any particular mine face, shows purely deviatoric failure, and is presumably caused by more regional changes in the state of stress due to mining. Thirdly, energy budgets for mining induced earthquakes of both types indicate that, of the available released energy, only a few per cent is radiated by the seismic waves with the majority being consumed in overcoming fault friction. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.In the early 1960's, N.G.W. Cook, using an underground network of geophones, demonstrated that most Witwatersrand tremors are closely associated with deep level gold mining operations. He also showed that the energy released by the closure of the tabular stopes at depths of the order of 2 km was more than sufficient to account for the

  11. Experience of attaining high labor productivity in a stoping face using mechanized complex 110PK-70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetnikov, M N

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 when the first 1 million T of coal was produced at the mine ''Zyryanovskaya'' high volumes of coal extraction were attained in individual months: in January 102,300 T, in July 122,200 T. In 1980, high results were also attained. In January 106,000 T were extracted and in November 108,500 T of coal. The brigade has accumulated experience for introducing scientific organization of labor and improving labor productivity. In 1977 labor productivity of the workers in the stoping face was 31.5 T per shift, in 1978 variable productivity was elevated to 48.2 T. In 1979 labor productivity reached 67.3 T per shift. The best results for productivity was reached in June 1979, 90 T at the outlet, in February 1980--81.1 T per shift. The success of the brigade is formed of many factors, technical, organizational, economic. The basis for high labor productivity of the workers is timely preparation of new longwalls, normal production conditions for fulfillment of plans and the adopted socialist commitments. An important factor in the work of the extraction brigade is the type and condition of mining equipment. The level of work organization as a whole depends on the brigade, directly on the miners and the section leaders themselves. High conscientiousness of all the brigade members also is important for improving labor productivity. The majority of workers in the brigade (about 70%) are members of the party. Mass technical creativity of all the brigade members is also a great reserve for improving labor efficiency. The brigade has 24 efficiency experts who annually introduce 20-30 suggestions each aimed at improving work efficiency.

  12. Surrounding rock abutment pressure distribution and thickness effect of dynamic catastrophic in fully mechanized sublevel mining stope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, G.; Yang, K.; Chang, J.; Wang, L. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2006-12-15

    Numerical simulation was carried out to analyse the distribution of surrounding rock stress with coal seams of different thickness (3.0, 5.4, 8.0, 12.0 m) based on engineering geology and exploitation technology of the 151(3) fully mechanized sublevel caving face in Xieqiao colliery. The research indicates that the variation of abutment pressure has obvious difference in coal seams of different thickness. The effect of abutment pressure distribution in seams of different thickness on coal-methane outbursts was analysed. With an increase in thickness of the caving seam, the research illustrates that the elastic energy resilience is reduced and the capability of resisting damage and deformation is strengthened in coal around the stope. The results show that fully mechanized sublevel caving slows down dynamic catastrophes. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-02-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice

  14. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-06-27

    Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing, can successfully create demand for a broad range of family

  15. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Cissé, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outreach teams; once accredited as franchisees, CSCOMs receive training, supervision, family planning consumables and commodities, and support for awareness raising and demand creation. To ensure availability and affordability of services, franchisees are committed to providing a wide range of contraceptive methods at low fixed prices. Methods and Results: The performance of the BlueStar network from inception in March 2012 until December 2015 was examined using information from routine monitoring data, clinical quality audits, and client exit interviews. During this period, the network grew from 70 to 135 franchisees; an estimated 123,428 clients received voluntary family planning services, most commonly long-acting reversible methods of contraception. Franchisee efficiency and clinical quality of services increased over time, and client satisfaction with services remained high. One-quarter of clients in 2015 were under 20 years old, and three-quarters were adopters of family planning (that is, they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit). Conclusion: Applying a social franchising support package, originally developed for for-profit private-sector providers, to public-sector facilities in Mali has increased access, choice, and use of family planning in 3 regions of Mali. The experience of BlueStar Mali suggests that interventions that support quality supply of services, while simultaneously addressing demand-side barriers such as service pricing

  16. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  17. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels—mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics—to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and

  18. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  19. Stability assessment of the stopes and crown pillar of the S’Argentera abandoned mines (Ibiza, Spain) using geomechanical classifications, an empirical approach and numerical analysis focused on a possible tourist exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.; Jordá-Bordehore, R.; Durán Valsero, J.J.; Romero-Crespo, P.L.

    2017-01-01

    The argentiferous lead mines of S’Argentera in Ibiza (Balearic Islands, Spain) are some abandoned underground workings from the first decade of the 20th century. The stability of the main stopes and the crown pillar of the mines has been evaluated - part of which is located below the road between Santa Eulalia and San Carles de Peralta. The possibility of allowing public access to the surface of the mining area and setting up a project of a “show mine” on the underground stopes and galleries is analysed. The stability is assessed with an empirical approach using the O index, the scaled span method and a stability graph together with a numerical approach. Results show that the stopes of the mines are globally stable but some lack an adequate safety factor. Therefore some local reinforcements and monitoring are needed. The finite element modelling in two dimensions yields realistic results on the current stope stability and possible rock falls which have already occurred. [es

  20. Stope face support systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary output of this report was the determination of geotechnical areas across the gold and platinum mines to form the basis for future understanding of the rock mass behaviour around reefs where the hanging wall and footwall rock types differ...

  1. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-06-17

    To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. We analyzed MSI's social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008-2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011-2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI "Impact 2" model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44.0), with 46.1% (95% CI = 40.9, 51.2) of

  2. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  3. On the penetrability of the floor rock in the stope in coal mining%采动影响下采场底板岩体渗透性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风达; 高召宁; 孟祥瑞

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we would like to present our research results on the penetrability of the floor rock in the stope in coal mining production. Taking the stope near an aquifer for an example, the paper puts its research focus on the stress redistribution after the coal is mined and penetrability of the stope has changed its regularity. It is from this research perspective that we have developed a stress-permeability interactive model and the equation of the permeability variation by using the fracture mechanics theory and elastic mechanics. In pro-ceeding with our research, we first of all took into full account the effect of crack dip on the permeability of fractured rock, which is likely to be responsible for the destruction of the dominant angle of the fracture by coal mining and by the criterion of compression-shear fracture according to the fracture mechanics theory based on the influence of seepage water pressure. Secondly, based on the dominance angle and the stress-permeability model for fractured rock mass, we have established a stress-permeability interactive model of the dominance angle of the floor fractured rock in the stope. The stress distribution of the stope has been worked out according to the fracture mechanics theory, though it can only be applied to the end of the stope. We have then worked out the equation of permeability zero position failure zone and the stress distribution around the stope through an improved calculation. And, finally, we have established the stress-permeability interactive model of dominance angle of floor rock in the plane stress state by integrating the redistribution of stresses, with the relation of the seepage coefficient ratio and its affecting factors further analyzed. The results show that the permeability of zero position with zone failure and gob increases by the coal mining. And, then, the permeability would be found increasing with the increase of pressure release. Thus, it can be seen that the stress

  4. Optimization of mining methods for steep vein uranium ore deposits of French COGEMA company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleix, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires is currently exploiting several steep vein uranium deposits in France. The upper parts are exploited using the open-cast method, in the lower parts underground mining is used. The veins with a thickness of several meters fill faults caused by tectonic activity. With regard to the low strength of the rocks, wooden supports are used or fills. In the course of the past 25 years several mining methods have been tried of which overhand stoping was selected with an oblique ramp driven in the ore, this mainly for securing operating safety and the profitability of selective exploitation. In overburdens with a low bearing capacity the method of underhand benching in slices was used with a concrete fill and later underhand benching in slices with concrete reinforcing plates. Overhand stoping is being tried with fill and electric self-propelled machines left in the stope and mechanized driving of raises by full profile drilling. (B.S.)

  5. CMI and the simulated test stope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teleka, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African mining industry is plagued by accidents ranging from vehicle incidents to roof/rock falls. In the attempt to carry out its mandate of improving the quality of life of South African citizens, the Council for Scientific...

  6. Effective roof support for tabular stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available hydraulic press of the servo hydraulic test facility of the University of Pretoria. The yielding mechanism was compressed at a constant speed of 10 mm/min and the force displacement characteristics was recorded. See figure 4-18. After reaching... damper absorbing the forces. The test of the yielding mechanism was done in a servo hydraulic press as described in paragraph 4.4.2. 5.1.2 Laboratory tests The load cycle chosen for the testing of the structure of the roof support system was: 5...

  7. Chasing U-Boats and Hunting Insurgents: Lessons from an Underhand Way of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breemer, Jan S

    2006-01-01

    .... Winston Churchill, then the Royal Navy's political head, was not willing to go quite that far, yet at one point during World War I, he ordered that captured U-boat crews be treated as criminals, not prisoners of war...

  8. Stability assessment of the stopes and crown pillar of the S’Argentera abandoned mines (Ibiza, Spain) using geomechanical classifications, an empirical approach and numerical analysis focused on a possible tourist exploitation; Evaluación de la estabilidad de las labores y pilar corona en las minas abandonadas de S’Argentera (Ibiza, España) combinando clasificaciones geomecánicas, métodos empíricos y análisis numérico - enfocado a su posible aprovechamiento turístico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordá-Bordehore, L.; Jordá-Bordehore, R.; Durán Valsero, J.J.; Romero-Crespo, P.L.

    2017-09-01

    The argentiferous lead mines of S’Argentera in Ibiza (Balearic Islands, Spain) are some abandoned underground workings from the first decade of the 20th century. The stability of the main stopes and the crown pillar of the mines has been evaluated - part of which is located below the road between Santa Eulalia and San Carles de Peralta. The possibility of allowing public access to the surface of the mining area and setting up a project of a “show mine” on the underground stopes and galleries is analysed. The stability is assessed with an empirical approach using the O index, the scaled span method and a stability graph together with a numerical approach. Results show that the stopes of the mines are globally stable but some lack an adequate safety factor. Therefore some local reinforcements and monitoring are needed. The finite element modelling in two dimensions yields realistic results on the current stope stability and possible rock falls which have already occurred. [Spanish] Las minas de S’Argentera en Ibiza (Islas Baleares, España) son unas labores subterráneas de plomo argentífero abandonadas desde la primera década del siglo XX. Se ha analizado la estabilidad geotécnica de las cámaras y del pilar corona de las minas (sobre parte del cual pasa la carretera entre Santa Eulalia y San Carles de Peralta), dado que se está contemplando en un futuro permitir el acceso a la parte superior del conjunto de minas e iniciar un proyecto de rehabilitación turística de las labores subterráneas. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad combinando un enfoque empírico mediante el índice Q, método gráfico de estabilidad y ancho escalado, y métodos numéricos de elementos finitos para análisis tensodeformacional. El resultado del análisis muestra que las cámaras de las minas son estables pero algunas no poseen un adecuado factor de seguridad. Por lo tanto son necesarios algunos refuerzos y monitoreo puntuales. La modelización tensodeformacional en dos

  9. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  10. Marie Stopes International Child Spacing Clinics in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distributed > 200,000 condoms, completed programmes in more than 30 ... that men feel that child spacing is also their concern and service providers feel men are .... there is often the denial of the fact that their child is sexually active inspite of ...

  11. Mine safety sensors: Test results in a simulated test stope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African mining industry is plagued by accidents, the most common of which are rock falls. In order to carry out its mandate of improving the quality of life of South African citizens, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  12. Methodology of simulation of underground working in metal mines. Application to a uranium deposit in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme, J.; de Fouquet, C.; Fraisse, H.

    1983-01-01

    For the Ben Lomond (Northern Queensland Australia) underground uranium mining project, studies were carried out to compare the feasibility of different mining methods according to their cost per ton and selectivity, i.e. cut and fill, sublevel stopping and both mixed. First, a geostatistical orebody model was built. The ore grade variability of this model results from the drillhole structural analysis. Working on two dimensional vertical cross sections, the usual hand drawing stope reserve estimate obtained with computer assisted design for each of the three different mining methods is compared with the results obtained with automatic algorithms allocated to the characteristics of each mining method. These algorithms use mathematical morphology to reproduce the geometrical constraints connected with each mining method and/or dynamic programmation. These techniques lead to fully automatic of optimal economical stope design. Comparison is positive: automatic stopes designs are in agreement with hand made drawings, but they can be defined faster through interactive questionning of the computer, and the total maximum profit obtained is a least as high as the best profit found through hand designed projects [fr

  13. Rock mechanics research in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corp, E. L.

    1980-05-15

    Over the past 20 years, the Bureau of Mines and mining companies of the Coeur d'Alene district have conducted cooperative research on problems of ground control. For the past six years emphasis has been placed on research to improve deep shaft design and to control rock bursts during cut-and-fill stoping. Finite-element modeling and construction of small-scale circular and rectangular test shafts have shown that circular openings are stable only when stresses are hydrostatic or weakly biaxial. Under a strongly-biaxial horizontal stress field, a rectangular shaft has a greater depth capability if its long axis can be oriented parallel to the major stress and normal to the bedding and joint system. Steel sets appear preferable to wood sets or concrete lining. Based on underground tests at Hecla's Star mine, destressing or preconditioning of the vein rock prior to mining was shown to be an effective means of controlling rock bursts. Drilling and shooting a radial pattern of longholes before stope mining starts has preconditioned or softened the vein material to the extent that seismic energy release during mining is reduced and no bursting occurred. Increased burst and seismic activity while mining about the preconditioned zone points out the need to precondition an entire stope block before mining.

  14. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  15. Industrial development of a simulation method for ore recovery evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deraisme; De Fouquet; Fraisse

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of downstream geostatistics is to provide to engineers, responsible for mining project studies, with a method for predicting the ore reserve recovery coming from different mining methods and for choosing the best one according to economic criteria. In the case of the BEN LOMOND uranium deposit, the metal recovery at the production stage depends on the geometry of mineralized lenses. For the first step of this study the usual technique for constructing a numerical model of deposit has been used. But this does not reproduce the geological structures very precisely. The recovered reserves have been computed for three more or less selective mining methods. This has been done inputing the outlines of stopes on a digitalizer. In the case of a cut and fill method an automatic algorithm for the optimization under constraints has been developed [fr

  16. The mining methods at the Fraisse mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurley, P.; Vervialle, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Fraisse mine is one of the four underground mines of the La Crouzille mining divisions of Cogema. Faced with the necessity to mechanize its workings, this mine also had to satisfy a certain number of stringent demands. This has led to concept of four different mining methods for the four workings at present in active operation at this pit, which nevertheless preserve the basic ideas of the methods of top slicing under concrete slabs (TSS) or horizontal cut-and-fill stopes (CFS). An electric scooptram is utilized. With this type of vehicle the stringent demands for the introduction of means for fire fighting and prevention are reduced to a minimum. Finally, the dimensions of the vehicles and the operation of these methods result in a net-to-gross tonnages of close to 1, i.e. a maximum output, combined with a minimum of contamination [fr

  17. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza García-Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  18. Hard-Rock Stability Analysis for Span Design in Entry-Type Excavations with Learning Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Fernández-Muñiz, Zulima; García Nieto, Paulino José; Bernardo Sánchez, Antonio; Menéndez Fernández, Marta

    2016-06-29

    The mining industry relies heavily on empirical analysis for design and prediction. An empirical design method, called the critical span graph, was developed specifically for rock stability analysis in entry-type excavations, based on an extensive case-history database of cut and fill mining in Canada. This empirical span design chart plots the critical span against rock mass rating for the observed case histories and has been accepted by many mining operations for the initial span design of cut and fill stopes. Different types of analysis have been used to classify the observed cases into stable, potentially unstable and unstable groups. The main purpose of this paper is to present a new method for defining rock stability areas of the critical span graph, which applies machine learning classifiers (support vector machine and extreme learning machine). The results show a reasonable correlation with previous guidelines. These machine learning methods are good tools for developing empirical methods, since they make no assumptions about the regression function. With this software, it is easy to add new field observations to a previous database, improving prediction output with the addition of data that consider the local conditions for each mine.

  19. Towards the prediction of pre-mining stresses in the European continent. [Estimates of vertical and probable maximum lateral stress in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, R. L.

    1980-05-15

    There are now available sufficient data from in-situ, pre-mining stress measurements to allow a first attempt at predicting the maximum stress magnitudes likely to occur in a given mining context. The sub-horizontal (lateral) stress generally dominates the stress field, becoming critical to stope stability in many cases. For cut-and-fill mining in particular, where developed fill pressures are influenced by lateral displacement of pillars or stope backs, extraction maximization planning by mathematical modelling techniques demands the best available estimate of pre-mining stresses. While field measurements are still essential for this purpose, in the present paper it is suggested that the worst stress case can be predicted for preliminary design or feasibility study purposes. In the Eurpoean continent the vertical component of pre-mining stress may be estimated by adding 2 MPa to the pressure due to overburden weight. The maximum lateral stress likely to be encountered is about 57 MPa at depths of some 800m to 1000m below the surface.

  20. Development of mining at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of mining and other infrastructural activities of the underground mine at Jaduguda. In the beginning open and shrinkage methods were used but gradually changed to Cut and Fill method, the fill being the deslimed mill tailings. This method gives much better recovery and provides adequate support to the worked out areas. The main entry to the mine is via a vertical shaft, 640 meters deep. The winders for ore hoisting and the services are installed on top of the concrete tower constructed above the shaft. As the winders are the life line of the mine, a high standard of maintenance is maintained. As the mine is located at the foot hill, there is a fair amount of seepage water. The seepage and the water from the fill is pumped to surface in stages. The sumps at various levels are designed to provide storage capacity. From time to time, the technological improvements in the various mining operations are brought about. The drilling of uppers by stope wagons, use of tyre mounted loaders in the stopes, use of ammonium nitrate for blasting purposes, the use of full column grout bolts are some examples. Studies are also conducted in the ground control in underground. Constant efforts are made to improve the support system. The training courses are regularly arranged for workers to update their skills. As the job in underground is hazardous, the workers are trained in the correct and safe methods of doing the various jobs. (author). 10 figs

  1. Naesliden Project: rock mechanics observations and measurements in the Naesliden mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, G.; Krauland, N.

    1980-05-15

    Observations and measurements of the reaction of the rock mass to mining have been made in the Naesliden Mine since the very start of mining operations in 1970. This observation program originated in the need of better understanding of the rock mechanics of cut-and-fill mining. The program comprises the following types of measurement - in the backfilled excavation convergence of the sidewalls pressure in the fill - in the orebody and alteration zones above the stopes horizontal deformation of the orebody and of the adjoining alteration zones horizontal stresses changes in horizontal stresses - in the stope amount and direction of roof and sidewall displacements convergence and sidewall deformation successively in roof and floor - in the sidewall surface subsidence horizontal displacements at 260 m level. Purpose, extent, methods and results of measurements are described. Qualitative observations concerning fracture processes due to mining are reported. The results are discussed and used for estimation of in situ modulus of elasticity of the orebody as well as the ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the orebody to the modulus of the alteration zone.

  2. Rock mechanics research in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corp, E. L.

    1980-05-15

    Over the past 20 years, the Bureau of Mines and mining companies of the Coeur d'Alene district have conducted cooperative research on problems of ground control. For the past six years emphasis has been placed on research to improve deep shaft design and to control rock bursts during cut-and-fill stoping. Factors contributing to ground control problems include: depth of mining ranging to 8000 feet; local tectonic activity that in many instances has produced horizontal stresses exceeding the vertical; unequal horizontal stresses at ratios ranging between 1.25 and 2.73; major faults, joints, and bedding planes; and hard, brittle quartzite rock capable of concentrating high levels of stress. Finite-element modeling and construction of small-scale circular and rectangular test shafts have shown that circular openings are stable only when stresses are hydrostatic or weakly biaxial. Under a strongly-biaxial horizontal stress field, a rectangular shaft has a greater depth capabiity if its long axis can be oriented parallel to the major stress and normal to the bedding and joint system. Steel sets appear preferable to wood sets or concrete lining. Based on underground tests at Hecla's Star mine, destressing or preconditioning of the vein rock prior to mining was shown to be an effective means of controlling rock bursts. Drilling and shooting a radial pattern of longholes before stope mining starts has preconditioned or softened the vein material to the extent that seismic energy release during mining is reduced and no bursting occurred. Increased burst and seismic activity while mining above the preconditioned zone points out the need to precondition an entire stope block before mining.

  3. Mapping seismic vulnerability in stopes in deep South African gold mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -JICA Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), 2Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa, 3University of the Witwatersrand, Republic of South Africa, 4Ritsumeikan University, Japan, 5Seismogen cc...

  4. CSIR Center for Mining Innovation and the simulated test stope: Paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teleka, R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African mining industry is plagued by accidents ranging from vehicle incidents to roof/rock falls. In the attempt to carry out its mandate of improving the quality of life of South African citizens, the Council for Scientific...

  5. Interaction between stope support and ground motion in the hangingwall and footwall Project.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available and limitations were verified by detailed testing with the strong ground motion data. The support response may be simulated using SDOF model when PGA is in the range 18 - 100 m/s2 ; for this data model shows that the maximal value of the stiffness is 120,000 k...

  6. Development of an effective face area support system for tabular stopes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Acheampong, E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ..................................................................................... 5 2.1.1 Link-bar system ...........................................................................................................5 2.1.2 Crank system... joints would be required for this application. There is no flexibility in this system to allow for various advancing distances. The headboard size would not be able to carry the required loads unless large steel sections were used. 2.1.2 Crank system...

  7. Stope gully support and sidings geometry at all depths and at varying dip.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available layout 149 5.4 Three dimensional analyses of gully layouts 152 5.4.1 Description of three – dimensional model geometries 152 5.4.2 Single step FLAC3D models 154 5.4.2.1 Analysis method 154 5.4.2.2 General comparison of ASG versus heading cases 154 5.4... ON UNDERGROUND INSPECTIONS 72 4.1 Introduction 72 4.2 Rating of gully conditions 72 4.3 Mining practice compliance with mine standards 72 4.4 Summary of observed gully behaviour resulting from geometry, stress state and ground conditions 80 4.4.1 Shallow...

  8. Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng-hua; Li, Xian-jie

    2012-09-01

    Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3-5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on.

  9. Naesliden Project: why, what for, and how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolsrud, B.

    1980-05-15

    Mechanization of cut-and-fill mining has resulted in larger span of mine openings as well as in demands on lower frequency of disruptions due to mine stability problems. These demands arose due to the heavy investment in machines as well as in preparation works per stope. Better knowledge of the rock mechanics of the mining method became a necessity. For this purpose it was decided to run a systematic monitoring program from the very start of mining at Boliden's Naesliden Mine in order to obtain a comprehensive record of the reaction of the rock mass to mining. It was also recognized that, for the purpose of prediction of future mining conditions, the use of reliable numerical models for mine design would be an advantage. The access to rock mechanics observations of the Naesliden Mine made it possible to evaluate the reliability of numerical modelling techniques as a practical planning tool in mining. This evaluation is the aim of the Naesliden Project. The project was organized in five stages; data collection and preliminary calculations. Establishing a FEM-model of the Naesliden Mine, based exclusively on the input parameters in stage 1 and comparison of model and mine behavior. Sensitivity aspects of the FEM-model and supplementary determination of input data. Development of an improved model based on sensitivity analysis and information derived from prototype behaviour. Application of the results to practical mining situation. This stage is not part of the study hiterto carried out.

  10. Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Penghua; Li Xianjie

    2012-01-01

    Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3–5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on.

  11. Naesliden Project: why, what for, and how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolsrud, B.

    1980-05-15

    Mechanization of cut-and-fill mining has resulted in larger span of mine openings as well as in demands on lower frequency of disruptions due to mine stability problems. These demands arose due to the heavy investment in machines as well as in preparation works per stope. Better knowledge of the rock mechanics of the mining method became a necessity. For this purpose it was decided to run a systematic monitoring program from the very start of mining at Boliden's Naesliden Mine in order to obtain a comprehensive record of the reaction of the rock mass to mining. It was also recognized that, for the purpose of prediction of future mining conditions, the use of reliable numerical models for mine design would be an advantage. The access to rock mechanics observations of the Naesliden Mine made it possible to evaluate the reliability of numerical modelling techniques as a practical planning tool in mining. This evaluation is the aim of the Naesliden Project. The project was organized in five stages; data collection and preliminary calculations. Establishing a FEM-model of the Naesliden Mine, based exclusively on the input parameters in stage 1 and comparison of model and mine behavior. Sensitivity aspects of the FEM-model and supplementary determination of input data. Development of an improved model based on sensitivity analysis and information derived from prototype behaviour. Application of the results to practical mining situation. This stage is not part of the study hiterto carried out.

  12. Survey and assessment of support for non-standard (anomalous) stope areas in the gold and platinum industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leach, AR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available of depth below surface Figure 2.5 Contributing factors to 89 accident incidents as a function of reef Figure 2.6 Relative proportion of key factors contributing to anomalous conditions on the VCR, as determined from 28 incidents Figure 3.1 Location... to correctly recognise and address problems. The project considers gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin and platinum mines in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, at all depths from near surface to in excess of 3500 m, on a range of economically important reefs...

  13. Improved understanding of the use of short tendons for stope support under rockfall and rockburst conditions, (Phase I).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ...........................................................................18 Figure 11. Generic VCR hangingwall............................................................................................19 Figure 12. Resin grouted rebar – tensile loading across a joint (after Stillborg, 1994)................20 Figure 13.... Split Set type SS 39 – tensile loading across a joint (after Stillborg, 1994)................21 Figure 14. Expansion shell anchored rockbolt - tensile loading across a joint (after Stillborg, 1994...

  14. Extended use of the Savuka dynamic test facility to improve material and analytical technology in deep-level stope support.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available of the support units, the potential benefit of simple mesh straps sandwiched between the tops of adjacent conventional timber elongates and the hangingwall surface above, as a means of linking individual support units and supporting potentially loose blocks...

  15. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie ...

  16. Meaningful use of peak particle velocities at excavation surfaces for the optimisation of the rockburst criteria for tunnels and stopes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available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

  17. Analysis of rockburst and rockfall accidents in relation to class of stope support, regional support, energy of seismic events and mining layout

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the assessment of safety risk and the analysis of Falls Of Ground (FOG) in mines due to seismic events and mining layout during the period of 1991-1992 on a single mine. The multivariate analysis was used to obtain a...

  18. Detection of mining-induced fractures around a stope in Ezulwini gold mine, South Africa, by using AE events with similar waveforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moriya, H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available the locations of rock failure. A study of AE in the Ezulwini gold mine in South Africa has been conducted under the Japan–South Africa collaborative project titled “Observational studies to mitigate seismic risks in mines”, in which a large number of events have...

  19. Stress–strain state of adjacent rock mass under slice mining of steeply dipping ore bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Gakhova, LN

    2018-03-01

    Under analysis is the stress state of rock mass surrounding stopes in the initial cutting layer displaced in plan relative to the above-lying extracted layer in the overcut rock mass. The authors determine the boundaries of the post-limiting deformation zones during stoping advance using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. The sequence of stoping to ensure better support conditions is proposed.

  20. Investigate the rock mechanics aspects of potholes in the platinum mines, their contribution to poor ground conditions, and if proactive identification is possible

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Urcan, H

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this project was to define and quantify the effect of potholes on ground conditions in platinum stopes, and assess whether these changes could be used to predict the occurrence of potholes ahead of stope faces. In order to gain...

  1. Blasting forward in underground work; Voladuras de camara de la mina de Aguas Tenidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Maneiro, C. H.; Maqueda Jimenez, S.; Pazos Perez, L.; Carnero Ortiz, F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explains the drilling and blasting techniques of stopes in Aguas Tenidas Mine (Huelva, Spain), including slot raises and slots. Highights are: application of electronic detonators and a 30'' hole in slot raise blasts, ANFO uphole chrging of 89 mm holes and high productive fan drillin, in order to maintain stoping production of 150.000 t/month. (Author)

  2. Uptake and early removals of Implanon NXT in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coverage over the past two decades.[3,4]. In South Africa (SA), .... with dealing with implant side-effects, counselling and management, and removal. ..... social franchising: The experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali. Glob Health: Sci ...

  3. Develop a quantitative understanding of rockmass behaviour near excavations in deep mines, part 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Control of the rock mass deformation near deep level stopes and the avoidance of damaging incidents of violent rock failure require a fundamental understanding of rock failure mechanisms. Research work to gain this understanding has been undertaken...

  4. Deep gold mine fracture zone behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the behaviour of the fracture zone surrounding deep level gold mine stopes is detailed in three main sections of this report. Section 2 outlines the ongoing study of fundamental fracture process and their numerical...

  5. Comparisons of environmental effects and productivity by road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... have been still commonly used in right-of-way, cut-and fill slope, and subgrade activities. Corresponding author. E-mail: tozturk@istanbul.edu.tr. Tel: 90 .... investigated. For each study area, the shapes of damages under.

  6. Wood strands as an alternative to agricultural straw for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy B. Foltz; James H. Dooley

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural straw is used in forested areas of the United States for erosion control on burned areas, harvest landings, decommissioned road prisms, road cuts and fills, and other areas of disturbed soil. However, an increased agronomic and ecological value for straw; an increased utilization for energy production, fiber panels, and other higher value uses; a...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.115 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... erosion, sedimentation or periodic flooding throughout the subdivision? (2) If there is a program... seeding in areas of heavy grading or cut and fill along with the construction of diversion channels, ditches, outlet channels, waterway stabilizers and sediment control basins.) (f) Nuisances. Are there any...

  8. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Stratford Army Engine Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Stratford-upon-Avon, England (Bixby 1974:266). The American Shakespeare Festival Theatre and Academy, attended by hundreds of thousands of visitors...cut and fill activities (GDAs 3, 4 and 5, Table 3-1, Figure 3-1). A companion grading and contour map (Dwg. B864x2) showing cross sections through the

  9. Underground bioleaching: extracting from low-grade ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, Denison Mines began a research and demonstration project on the engineering aspects of bacterial leaching of low-grade uranium ore at Elliot Lake. The leaching solution was acidic mine water enriched in bacterial nutrients and innoculated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Leaching of one stope was found to be impeded by fungi of the genus penicillium. Although fungal growth on leaching stopes must be prevented, research is proceeding on the potential use of the fungi to concentrate uranium from bioleaching solutions

  10. Problems occurred in prospecting and mining of a broken thick large uranium ore body and improvement scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Longfei; Fang Yang; Wang Yishun; Wang Long

    2014-01-01

    In prospecting and mining of a broken thick large uranium ore body, uncertain prospecting and shallow-hole shrinkage mining method resulted in large dilution rate and resource waste problems. Aimed at these problems, improvement schemes of enhancing the strength force of 'drilling prospecting instead of pit prospecting' and employing filling method stoping ore body were applied, and improvement result was analyzed. Experience was accumulated and evidence was provided for late prospecting and stoping work. (authors)

  11. Shoulder and Scapular Kinematics during the Windmill Softball Pitch

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Sherry I.; Kraszewski, Andrew; Kontaxis, Andreas; Gibbons, Mandi; Bido, Jennifer; Graziano, Jessica; Hafer, Jocelyn; Jones, Kristofer J.; Hillstrom, Howard; Fealy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pitch count has been studied extensively in the overhand throwing athlete. However, pitch count and fatigue have not been systematically evaluated in the female windmill (underhand) throwing athlete. Direct kinematic measurements of the glenohumeral and scapulo-thoracic joint have not to be correlated and determined. The purpose is to measure scapular kinematics for the high school female windmill softball pitcher and identify kinematic adaptions and changes in pitching performanc...

  12. Bing-Neel Syndrome: Illustrative Cases and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Varettoni, Marzia; Defrancesco, Irene; Diamanti, Luca; Marchioni, Enrico; Farina, Lisa Maria; Pichiecchio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The Bing-Neel syndrome is a rare neurological complication of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia which results from a direct involvement of central nervous system by malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. The clinical suspicion of Bing-Neel syndrome may be difficult because neurologic symptoms are heterogeneous, non specific and sometimes underhand. A definitive diagnosis of Bing-Neel syndrome can be confidently made using brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging as well as histopathology an...

  13. Privacy with Public Access: Digital Memorials on QR Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2015-01-01

    takes the departure in gravestones with QR-codes; objects at once physical and digital, underhandedly putting presumably private content within public reach. A plethora of issues of privacy and publicness are at play within the study's two connected but rather different empirical spaces: the physical...... in the borderland between private and public is exemplified, and with the presentation, we are ensuring a continued discussion on privacy as well as legacy in our digital society....

  14. Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Schmeling, Harro; Koyi, Hemin; Blythe, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Magmatic stoping is discussed to be a main mechanism of magma emplacement. As a consequence of stoping, abundant country-rock fragments should occur within, and at the bottom of, magma reservoirs as “xenolith graveyards”, or become assimilated. However, the common absence of sufficient amounts of both xenoliths and crustal contamination have led to intense controversy about the efficiency of stoping. Here, we present new evidence that may explain the absence of abundant country-rock fragments in plutons. We report on vesiculated crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks that experienced devolatilisation during heating and partial melting when entrained in magma. We hypothesise that the consequential inflation and density decrease of the xenoliths allowed them to rise and become erupted instead of being preserved in the plutonic record. Our thermomechanical simulations of this process demonstrate that early-stage xenolith sinking can be followed by the rise of a heated, partially-molten xenolith towards the top of the reservoir. There, remnants may disintegrate and mix with resident magma or erupt. Shallow-crustal plutons emplaced into hydrous country rocks may therefore not necessarily contain evidence of the true amount of magmatic stoping during their emplacement. Further studies are needed to quantify the importance of frothy xenolith in removing stoped material. PMID:27804996

  15. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  18. Chemical and biological attributes of a lowland soil affected by land leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil chemical and biological attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills after the land leveling process of a lowland soil. Soil samples were collected from the 0 - 0.20 m layer, before and after leveling, on a 100 point grid established in the experimental area, to evaluate chemical attributes and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC. Leveling operations altered the magnitude of soil chemical and biological attributes. Values of Ca, Mg, S, cation exchange capacity, Mn, P, Zn, and soil organic matter (SOM decreased in the soil profile, whereas Al, K, and MBC increased after leveling. Land leveling decreased in 20% SOM average content in the 0 - 0.20 m layer. The great majority of the chemical attributes did not show relations between their values and the magnitude of cuts and fills. The relation was quadratic for SOM, P, and total N, and was linear for K, showing a positive slope and indicating increase in the magnitude of these attributes in cut areas and stability in fill areas. The relationships between these chemical attributes and the magnitude of cuts and fills indicate that the land leveling map may be a useful tool for degraded soil recuperation through amendments and organic fertilizers.

  19. A law of removing radon by ventilation and air requirement calculation for eliminating radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang

    1988-06-01

    In accordance with testing data of removing radon and its daughters by ventilation from shrinkage and filling stopes of uranium mines, a law of removing radon by ventilation from the stopes is analyzed and summed. According to the decay law of radon and its daughters, an accumulation equation of potential alpha energy from radon daughters is presented with hyperbolic regression equation. the calculating formulae of ventilation flow are derived from the accumulation equation for eliminating radon daughters in inlet flow with or without contamination. It has been proved that the amount of ventilation air calcuated could meet the requirements of radiation safety rationally and economically

  20. Neandertal humeri may reflect adaptation to scraping tasks, but not spear thrusting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin N Shaw

    Full Text Available Unique compared with recent and prehistoric Homo sapiens, Neandertal humeri are characterised by a pronounced right-dominant bilateral strength asymmetry and an anteroposteriorly strengthened diaphyseal shape. Remodeling in response to asymmetric forces imposed during regular underhanded spear thrusting is the most influential explanatory hypothesis. The core tenet of the "Spear Thrusting Hypothesis", that underhand thrusting requires greater muscle activity on the right side of the body compared to the left, remains untested. It is unclear whether alternative subsistence behaviours, such as hide processing, might better explain this morphology. To test this, electromyography was used to measure muscle activity at the primary movers of the humerus (pectoralis major (PM, anterior (AD and posterior deltoid (PD during three distinct spear-thrusting tasks and four separate scraping tasks. Contrary to predictions, maximum muscle activity (MAX and total muscle activity (TOT were significantly higher (all values, p<.05 at the left (non-dominant AD, PD and PM compared to the right side of the body during spear thrusting tasks. Thus, the muscle activity required during underhanded spearing tasks does not lend itself to explaining the pronounced right dominant strength asymmetry found in Neandertal humeri. In contrast, during the performance of all three unimanual scraping tasks, right side MAX and TOT were significantly greater at the AD (all values, p<.01 and PM (all values, p<.02 compared to the left. The consistency of the results provides evidence that scraping activities, such as hide preparation, may be a key behaviour in determining the unusual pattern of Neandertal arm morphology. Overall, these results yield important insight into the Neandertal behavioural repertoire that aided survival throughout Pleistocene Eurasia.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus and myelofibrosis: A case report and revision of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del Porto

    Full Text Available Blood cytopenia represents one of the diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and may occur as the first symptom of the disease. Antibody-mediated peripheral destruction of blood cells is the main cause of cytopenia observed in patients affected by SLE, however, inflammatory anemia, nutritional deficiencies, immunosuppressive therapy and, more rarely, myelofibrosis (MF have also been documented. In the literature, 45 cases of autoimmune MF (AIMF and SLE have been previously reported. Here the 46th case of a 43-year-old female with a SLE and an underhand cytopenia, with a review of the literature. Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, Autoimmune myelofibrosis, Blood cytopenia

  2. Novel sensors for underground robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The end state of an autonomous system in South Africa’s deep mines is a “fait accompli”. The current unacceptable safety records, and the increasing dangers as the mines get deeper, necessitate the removal of miners from the dangerous stope areas...

  3. Impact of soft loading conditions on the performance of elongate support elements.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Daehnke, A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available rotating block and the resultant reaction force from the support units are brought closer together by increasing the support density (i.e. reducing the support spacing). The probability of blocks failing by rotating out of the hangingwall of a stope depends...

  4. Compositional differences between roof and floor rocks of the Skaergaard Intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian; Barfod, Gry

    2014-01-01

    of stoped gneissic blocks. Our new Sr and Nd data of the Upper Border Series exclude this as a first order process as has been shown before. Mixing models suggest that the Layered and Upper Border Series assimilated less than 3 percent Precambrian host gneiss. Furthermore, no correlation exists between...

  5. Geology and Environmental Impact Assessment and Benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria basement complex has shown that the older granites are high level intrusions emplaced by stoping and diapiric process and include spectrum of rocks varying in composition from tonalite through granodiorite to granite. The intense regional deformation which accompanied and preceded the emplacement of the ...

  6. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available of threedimensional cameras (SR 4000 and XBOX Kinect) and a thermal imaging sensor (FLIR A300) in order to create 3d thermal models of narrow mining stopes. This information can be used in determining the risk of rockfall in an underground mine, which is a major...

  7. Validation of choice and determination of geotechnology parameters with regard to stress–strain state of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, AM; Neverov, SA; Neverov, AA; Konurin, AI

    2018-03-01

    The paper illustrates efficiency and reliability of types of rock mass stress state conditioned by geological and structural features of rocks in design, selection and validation of geotechnology parameters. The authors of the paper present calculation of stresses in rock mass under sublevel stoping depending on the type of the geosphere and on the depth of the ore body occurrence.

  8. Violent failure of a remnant in a deep South African gold mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    1998-04-15

    Full Text Available and collapsed when subjected to intense seismic shaking. This response was due to the presence of a bedding-parallel fault and calcite-coated joints in the vicinity of a 'roll'. The stope support system failed to contain the seismically fragmented rock....

  9. In situ measurements of Merensky pillar behaviour at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available to stabilize the stoping excavations. This paper describes the in situ measurement, of stress within a Merensky pillar from Impala Platinum. These measurements were used to derive a stress-strain curve that includes pre and post failure behaviour. 2D FLAC...

  10. Report on the heat stroke position at the end of 1964

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wyndham, CH

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study for the Transvaal and Orange Free State Chamber of Mines Research Organization was to examine the heat stroke position at the end of 1964 in terms of the trends in the numbers of stopes and development ends and also...

  11. Study of rockburst source mechanism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The research project comprising GAP 524 involved detailed examination of a group of 3 rockburst ruptures or burst-fractures discovered in a VCR stope panel on a peninsular remnant on Mponeng Mine at a depth of 2550m below surface. A careful visual...

  12. A support shield for a powered support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korczynski, P; Rojicek, P

    1982-08-31

    The subject of this invention is a support shield for a powered support. This shield resists creep of the coal from the longwall face, including an inclined longwall. It involves an arrangement wherein the distributor hinge is separated into upper and lower sections. The lower section holds a second hinge and the end of the rod of the pressure cylinder, one end of which is connected to the roof support. An advantage of the support is that compared to existing supports, it is self-advancing and holds stopes with coal which slopes in its formation or has inrushes. To a certain degree it prevents the stope space from ejecting fine pieces of rock from the longwall roof using an inter-timber support between the powered support and the stope. The support shield is moved by a simple system of levers which makes it possible, using a pressurized cylinder, to transmit a significant force to the coal stope. In this case, when the coal inrushes exceed the designed capabilities of the shield, a wooden extension piece is placed between the support and the face, through which the support pressure is applied.

  13. Results of a backfill monitoring programme at Vaal Reefs 5 Shaft

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Squelch, AP

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available This report documents the results of the in situ measurements carried out in the 68-52 stope at Vaal Reefs 5 Shaft. The in situ stress-strain behaviour of classified tailing backfill has been measured in panel P3. There is good agreement between...

  14. Optimization and application of blasting parameters based on the "pushing-wall" mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng-yu; Sow, Thierno Amadou Mouctar; He, Rong-xing; Liu, Xin-rui

    2012-10-01

    The large structure parameter of a sublevel caving method was used in Beiminghe iron mine. The ores were generally lower than the medium hardness and easy to be drilled and blasted. However, the questions of boulder yield, "pushing-wall" accident rate, and brow damage rate were not effectively controlled in practical blasting. The model test of a similar material shows that the charge concentration of bottom blastholes in the sector is too high; the pushing wall is the fundamental reason for the poor blasting effect. One of the main methods to adjust the explosive distribution is to increase the length of charged blastholes. Therefore, the field tests with respect to increasing the length of uncharged blastholes were made in 12# stope of -95 subsection and 6# stope of Beiminghe iron mine. This paper took the test result of 12# stope as an example to analyze the impact of charge structure on blasting effect and design an appropriate blasting parameter that is to similar to No.12 stope.

  15. The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaochi; Zhou Xinghuo; Liu Bing

    2004-01-01

    The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m 3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

  16. The effect of the gas factor on selecting the thickness of a layer during two-layer getting of thick seams. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varekha, Zh P; Kurkin, A S; Vechera, V N

    1979-01-01

    For technico-economic verification of the selection of the efficient removed thickness of upper and lower layers under conditions of high gas abundance of seams, the KNIUI has developed an economic model of converted costs within a getting field, allowing for natural and technical factors. The calculation considers specific costs for stoping work when getting the upper and lower layers, digging and maintenance of development workings, coal transport, assembly-disassembly work, ventilation, labor costs, degassing, etc. The calculation dependences and nomogram obtained enable comparatively easy definition of efficient thicknesses of removed layers when designing stoping work at thick, gently sloping seams, as well as calculation converted costs using as the initial data the total thickness of the seam, its natural gas content, and the expected degree of preliminary degassing.

  17. Mining of sedimentary-type ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruha, J.; Slovacek, T.; Berka, J.; Sadilek, P.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is proposed for mining sedimentary-type ore deposits, particularly uranium deposits, using the stope-pillar technique. The stope having been mined out, the free room is filled with hydro-setting gob from the surface. A precondition for the application of this technique is horizontal ore mineralization in sediments where the total thickness of the mineralized ore layer is at least 3 to 5 m. Mining losses do not exceed 5%. For thicknesses greater than 5 m, the roof is reinforced and the walls are secured with netting. The assets of the technique include higher labor productivity of the driving, lower material demands in reinforcing and filling, lower power consumption, and reduced use of explosives. (Z.S.). 3 figs

  18. Algorithm of probabilistic assessment of fully-mechanized longwall downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domrachev, A. N.; Rib, S. V.; Govorukhin, Yu M.; Krivopalov, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of increasing the load on a long fully-mechanized longwall has several aspects, one of which is the improvement of efficiency in using available stoping equipment due to the increase in coefficient of the machine operating time of a shearer and other mining machines that form an integral part of the longwall set of equipment. The task of predicting the reliability indicators of stoping equipment is solved by the statistical evaluation of parameters of downtime exponential distribution and failure recovery. It is more difficult to solve the problems of downtime accounting in case of accidents in the face workings and, despite the statistical data on accidents in mine workings, no solution has been found to date. The authors have proposed a variant of probability assessment of workings caving using Poisson distribution and the duration of their restoration using normal distribution. The above results confirm the possibility of implementing the approach proposed by the authors.

  19. The hazardous nature of small scale underground mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale mining continues to contribute significantly to the growth of Ghana's economy. However, the sector poses serious dangers to human health and the environment. Ground failures resulting from poorly supported stopes have led to injuries and fatalities in recent times. Dust and fumes from drilling and blasting of ore present health threats due to poor ventilation. Four prominent small scale underground mines were studied to identify the safety issues associated with small scale underground mining in Ghana. It is recognized that small scale underground mining in Ghana is inundated with unsafe acts and conditions including stope collapse, improper choice of working tools, absence of personal protective equipment and land degradation. Inadequate monitoring of the operations and lack of regulatory enforcement by the Minerals Commission of Ghana are major contributing factors to the environmental, safety and national security issues of the operations.

  20. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  1. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  2. The perception of hazard. I. Hazard analysis and the contribution of visual search to hazard perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blignaut, C J.H.

    1979-09-01

    This is a study of the ability of miners to perceive warnings of imminent danger that a fall of rock will occur. Features of 745 rock falls (other than outbursts) were studied, and an experiment was carried out on groups of experienced or novice gold miners in a simulated stope. Novice workers, when compared with experienced men, lack the ability to search adequately for dangerous loose rock, but their search skills can be improved significantly by training.

  3. Disposal of solid radioactive waste of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YU Shichen.

    1986-01-01

    The contaminations of marine enviroment by the disposal of radwastes should not been expected, then ocean disposal has been stoped in some countries, and land disposal of solid radwastes should been a better method for mankind and environment protection. Ground burial near the surface is currently considered to be feasible. Storage in spent pit or in plant area also should been adapted in several countries

  4. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor....

  5. Experimental validation of a mine-wide continuous closure monitoring system as a decision making tool for gold mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available with strain bursting conditions, while low values (< 0.1) are associated with significant risks of falls of ground. The typical closure ratio calculated for the experimental site at Mponeng Mine was 0.5. Fortunately no face bursting occurred during... the period of monitoring but any possible changes in closure ratio preceding bursts could therefore not be investigated. Another preliminary finding is that it appears that the closure ratio is relatively independent of position along the stope face...

  6. Classification Identification of Acoustic Emission Signals from Underground Metal Mine Rock by ICIMF Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the drawback that fuzzy classifier was sensitive to noises and outliers, Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm was developed, in which bilateral Gaussian membership function parameters were set as constraint conditions and the indexes of fuzzy classification effectiveness and number of correct samples of fuzzy classification as the subgoal of fitness function. Moreover, Iris database was used for simulation experiment, classification, and recognition of acoustic emission signals and interference signals from stope wall rock of underground metal mines. The results showed that Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm could effectively improve the prediction accuracy of classification of data sets with noises and outliers and the classification accuracy of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines was 90.00%. It was obvious that the improved chaos immune Mamdani fuzzy (ICIMF classifier was useful for accurate diagnosis of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines.

  7. Radiation, ventilation and dust studies at Agnew Lake mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Gangal, M.; Knight, G.; Regan, R.; Stefanich, W.

    1980-08-01

    Measurements of radon gas, radon and thoron decay products, ventilation, and aerosol (<= 0.13 μm) and respirable dust (<= 10 μm) concentrations were conducted at an underground uranium mine in the Agnew Lake, Ontario, area. Radon gas measurements were carried out with a radon gas continuous monitoring system, whereas the other variables were determined by grab-sampling techniques. Studies were conducted at three mine locations: a working stope, an exhaust area near the stope and a general intake area supplying fresh air to several stopes. Radiation and dust studies were carried out for different mining operations (mainly mucking and drilling) and environmental conditions. Underground barometric pressure did not seem to affect radon gas levels. No obvious effect on radiation and dust levels was readily observed nor could be correlated with underground meteorological data within the relatively narrow range the (meteorological) variables changed. Theoretical calculations for some radiation variables were done and compared with experimental values. Within the limitations of some of the calculations, overall fair agreement between experimental and theoretical data was found

  8. STRUCTURE OF ISOLATED PRECISION FACTORS OF THE MALE STUDENT ON VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Gjinovci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the current status of accuracy in volleyball for the students of the faculty of physical education and sports of the University of Prishtina, all the students have successfully passed the exam in volleyball. Also, another aim was to observe whether there are significant statistical differences between both generations of students. In the study were included 70 students (35 from the second academic year and 35 from the fourth academic year. To achieve the aim, were applied standard tests of accuracy in volleyball, such as the following: overhand pass, underhand pass, as well as underhand serve on the six positions and float (tactic serve on three positions. From the basic statistical parameters, it has been noticed that grouping of results from the students of forth academic year are more homogenous, and for this group showed that results are better than at students of first year of studying. While, in the variables is noticed that there are changes into the favour of students of fourth academic year, it has also been noticed that standard deviation is smaller with this group, which shows even more homogenous groups, for example, SFIP group 1 mean 21.65 ±6.48 SD, gr.2 mean 23.68 ±5.76 SD. The obtained results from T-test shows significant statistical changes in both applied tests. The best obtained results are a derivate of continuous professional work, as well as result of “selection”, due to continuous testing and completion of both exams of hand sports and volleyball as an elective subject.

  9. Cooling water facilities at a nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, W.L.; Ghadiali, B.M.; Kanovich, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of ponds for holding a reserve of cooling water obtained as sewage effluent and also for collection of waste water for disposal by evaporation, was made at a nuclear power plant site in southern Arizona. The power output of the plant will be 3,900 MW. Two single cell ponds are 80 acres (30 ha) and 250 acres (100 ha) in size. Excavated materials from the 80-acre (30ha) pond were used for structural backfill as planned, and the 250-acre (100ha) pond was designed for limited dike height with balanced cut and fill and some excess materials used as side berms for additional safety. Both ponds are being lined with a unique combination of linings to provide environmental safeguards and at the same time cost-effectiveness is compared to alternative schemes

  10. Evolution and Submarine Landslide Potential of Monterey Canyon Head, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Johnson, S. Y.; Hart, P. E.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Monterey Canyon, offshore central California, incises the shelf from near the shoreline to 30 km seaward where axial water depths approach 2,000 m. It is one of the world's most studied submarine canyons, yet debate continues concerning its age, formation, and associated geologic hazards. To address these issues, the USGS, with partial support from the California Seafloor Mapping Program, collected hundreds of kilometers of high-resolution, mini-sparker, single-channel (2009 and 2011 surveys) and multichannel (2015 survey) seismic-reflection profiles near the canyon head. The seismic data were combined with multibeam bathymetry to generate a geologic map of the proximal canyon, which delineates numerous faults and compound submarine landslide headwall scarps (covering up to 4 km2) along canyon walls. Seismic-reflection data reveal a massive ( 100 km2 lateral extent) paleochannel cut-and-fill complex underlying the proximal canyon. These subsurface cut-and-fill deposits span both sides of the relatively narrow modern canyon head, crop out in canyon walls, and incise into Purisima Formation (late Miocene and Pliocene) bedrock to depths of up to 0.3 s two-way travel time ( 240 m) below the modern shelf. We propose that the paleochannel complex represents previous locations of a migrating canyon head, and attribute its origin to multiple alternating cycles of fluvial and submarine canyon erosion and deposition linked to fluctuating sea levels. Thus, the canyon head imaged in modern bathymetry is a relatively young feature, perhaps forming in the last 20,000 years of sea-level rise. The paleocanyon deposits are significantly less consolidated than bedrock in deeper canyon walls, and therefore, are probably more prone to submarine landsliding. Nearby mapped faults occur within the active, distributed, San Andreas fault system, and earthquake-generated strong ground motions are likely triggers for past and future submarine landslides and potential associated tsunamis.

  11. Optimal location of emergency stations in underground mine networks using a multiobjective mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Reza; Najafi, Mehdi

    2018-02-26

    Background Every year, many mining accidents occur in underground mines all over the world resulting in the death and maiming of many miners and heavy financial losses to mining companies. Underground mining accounts for an increasing share of these events due to their special circumstances and the risks of working therein. Thus, the optimal location of emergency stations within the network of an underground mine in order to provide medical first aid and transport injured people at the right time, plays an essential role in reducing deaths and disabilities caused by accidents Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the location of emergency stations (ES) within the network of an underground coal mine in order to minimize the outreach time for the injured. Methods A three-objective mathematical model is presented for placement of ES facility location selection and allocation of facilities to the injured in various stopes. Results Taking into account the radius of influence for each ES, the proposed model is capable to reduce the maximum time for provision of emergency services in the event of accident for each stope. In addition, the coverage or lack of coverage of each stope by any of the emergency facility is determined by means of Floyd-Warshall algorithm and graph. To solve the problem, a global criterion method using GAMS software is used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the model. Conclusions 7 locations were selected from among 46 candidates for the establishment of emergency facilities in Tabas underground coal mine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. New developments in uranium mining in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium mining is so far restricted to underground mines only. Uranium mining is similar to other non-coal (metalliferous) mining. Mode of entries has been adits, inclines and vertical shafts. Decline have been constructed at Narwapahar and Turamdih. Access decline (7 deg) at Narwapahar has been driven to about 900 m length and reached depth of about 100 m. Stoping methods are mainly with filling, open stopes supported with adequate pillars with or without post filling to prevent surface subsidence are also being adopted. Appreciable degree of mechanization has been adopted in Jaduguda mines however, Narwapahar mine has been made highly mechanized. Face mechanization in the present operations is by way of air leg mounted jack hammers and stope wagons for drilling and small capacity (upto 1 cu. yd) rail mounted/trackless loaders for loading. Alimak raise climber has been used for raising work. For horizontal transport in mines, Hunselet diesel locomotives (4 tonne size) with Granby car, 3.5 tonne capacity, are being used, vertical transport is by means of drum winders and tower mounted friction winders. At Narwapahar mine twin boom drill jumobs, LHDs-1.78 m 3 and 2.8 m 3 capacity, PLDTs-15 tonner and 23 tonner capacity and relevant service equipment like passenger carriers, supply trucks, service cum lube truck, motor grader, etc. are being used. These rubber tyrred trackless equipment enter the mine directly from the surface through the service/access decline entry. These new developments in mining are detailed hereinafter. (author). 11 figs., 4 photos

  13. Protection of mechanized timberings on beds dangerous for mine impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budirsky, S

    1982-01-01

    In some stoping faces on beds which are dangerous for mine impacts, mechanized timbering is successfully used which is not equipped with protection from the effect of these dynamic phenomena. This generated the idea that in the indicated conditions, mechanized timbering may not be equipped with protective devices against dynamic loads. Theoretical studies have shown that the effects of mine impacts depends on the total energy of the impact, distance of this stoping face from the epicenter of the impact, as well as the capacity of the rock massif to transmit and absorb energy of the mine impact. This means that the effect of the mine impact under different conditions is not the same, the mine impacts of lower energy under definite conditions can result in greater damages to the mechanized timbering than mine impact with higher energy. It is believed that the effect of absorption of energy of the mine impact depends on the method of control of the roofing in the stoping face, the presence of hydraulic fill quarantees absorption of up to 80% of its energy. The experience of working beds which are dangerous for mine impacts in the upper Silesia coal basin indicated that the designs of the mechanized timbering, especially shield, in which the stands are not rigidly connected to the roof timber, during operation on beds with thickness 2.5-4 m withstand mine impacts with energy 10/sup 7/ J without significant disorders (mine impacts with this energy occur very frequently . For energy of mine impact of 108 J (impacts with this energy are observed comparatively rarely), the mechanized timberings are considerably damaged.

  14. Stress measurements in the Naesliden Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, B. [Univ. of Luleaa, Sweden; Carlsson, H.; Myrvang, A.

    1980-05-15

    Determinations of virgin stresses were performed at an early stage of the Naesliden Project in order to obtain input data for the finite element models of the mine. The Leeman three-dimensional overcoring technique was used at five locations on levels ranging from 210 m to 460 m below surface. Stress data were obtained at four of these locations. The results show an excess of horizontal stresses whilst the vertical stress is in accordance with the gravitational load from the overburden. The major and intermediate principal stresses are sub-horizontal and directed respectively perpendicular and parallel to the schisotsity of the wall rock and the strike of the tabular ore body. The minor principal stress is directed almost vertically. Stresses were also measured close to a stope on 300 m level in the mine. Biaxial and triaxial overcoring measurements were made at eighteen points between 0.25 m and 7.2 m above the roof of the stope. The stresses were found to have magnitudes of about 70 MPa close to the roof and to decrease rapidly with the distance from the roof. Stress measurements were made in connection with slot blastings in the foot wall, the latter measure being made in an attempt to de-stress the roof of stope 3. Two methods were used for stress monitorings, both showing that expected stress changes did not take place. Long-term stress guages have been installed in the ore body in order to monitor expected re-distributions of stresses due to mining. So far, the recorded stress changes are below 5 MPa.

  15. Modelling a uranium ore bioleaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, D.C.H.; Douglas, P.L.; Herman, D.H.; Marchbank, A.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model for the bioleaching of uranium ore in a stope leaching process has been developed. The model incorporates design and operating conditions, reaction kinetics enhanced by Thiobacillus ferroxidans present in the leaching solution and transport properties. Model predictions agree well with experimental data with an average deviation of about ± 3%. The model is sensitive to small errors in the estimates of fragment size and ore grade. Because accurate estimates are difficult to obtain a parameter estimation approach was developed to update the value of fragment size and ore grade using on-line plant information

  16. Vasectomy: preliminary report on 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, V M; Makokha, A E

    1989-05-01

    Preliminary data on 25 men who underwent vasectomy for contraception between June 1986 and May 1988 at the Marie Stopes Clinic--Nairobi is presented. The majority (76.0%) of the subjects were aged between 25 and 39 years. 68.0% had 4 living children or less. Professionals including lecturers, lawyers, teachers, engineers etc, formed 88.0% of the total. Three clients(12.0%) had documented complications; one had aseptic wound, one had haematoma and the last one had a failed vasectomy. All were treated successfully. Complications of vasectomy and the need for follow-up of vasectomised men are discussed.

  17. Effect of face fracturing on shear wave coda quality factor estimated from acoustic emission events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available by the number of events. It was found that the Qc dependency on frequency follows a power law. For face events, the power law is given by ( ) 99.006.0 ffQ = and ( ) 58.1003.0 ffQ = for fault slip events. Qc derived from face events was found to be lower than... to be n = 0.99, resulting in the relation: ( ) 99.006.0 ffQ = . For fault slip events, n = 1.58, resulting in the relation: ( ) 58.1003.0 ffQ = . The lower degree of dependency suggests that fractures ahead of the stope face tend to reduce...

  18. Experimental validation of tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available hanging wall (roof has to be inspected for loose rock that could potentially fall and cause injuries. This inspection is typically performed by a miner who is in constant danger while performing the task. The aim of the MSP project is to remove the miner... form danger by sending in a robot to perform the post-blast inspection. The platform will explore and create a map of the mine stope and it’s manipulator will then perform inspections of the hanging wall. An iRobot PackBot510 robot is currently being...

  19. Taoshan uranium ore fields in situ blasting heap leaching rate influence factors to investigate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wangnan; Dong Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Taoshan ore field ore in situ blasting heap leaching out build industrial test and production process, stope leaching rate and leaching cycle is large than that, after analysis, blasting method and cloth liquid way is to affect leaching rate and leaching cycle of the main factors. This paper holds that as far as possible using stratified deep hole blasting of squeezing up ways to reduce the building pile of in-situ leaching ore block rate; Adopting effective cloth tube way, increase the leaching agent and ore contact comprehensive; Introduction of bacterial leaching, and other means to improve leaching rate, shorten production cycle, etc to solve it. (authors)

  20. The use of filters to reduce the potential α-energy due to radon daughters in the cabs of mining vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettwoog, P.; Duport, P.; Campbell, F.E.; Caplan, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the performance of filters for use in ventilation systems and describes an experiment performed in an inactive stope in an operating uranium mine in France. A series of truck engine air filters were used, designed to remove dust in the tens of microns range with an efficiency of about 5-20. They were chosen because they were designed from the outset to operate under the conditions of shock and vibration likely to be encountered in a mine. It was concluded that the use of the Liebherr filter will reduce the working level in the machine cab by a factor of two. (U.K.)

  1. Identify and draft outcomes-based training material in strata control for underground workers.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, RA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available were selected to cover the spread of mining groups, districts, 5 reefs and general diversity of conditions in the gold and platinum mining industries. A full list of the contributors is provided in Appendix D. 4.3 Questionnaire design One... procedures and in drilling of blast and support holes at levels 1 and 2. Similarly stope support, tunnel support, installing support, drilling and blasting and some topics in layouts, barring and geology are covered at levels 3 and 4. The more advanced...

  2. The allocation of gold production from multiple shafts feeding a common treatment plant using run-of-mine sampling of ore deliveries

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, H.E.; Korff, L.; Minnitt, R.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, the grade of ore at the shaft head was taken to be equivalent to the grade measured in the faces by means of chip sampling. The tonnage mined from the stopes is determined from survey volumetric measurements. Estimates of shaft head grade and tons include the grades and tons of waste, development ore, sweepings from old areas, and other sources, not all of which are sampled. The tonnage of ore delivered at the shaft is often estimated using skip factors. These factors are subject ...

  3. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  4. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  5. Design guidelines for multi-seam mining at Elliot Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, D.G.F.

    1978-04-01

    With the current expansion in uranium mining, multi-seam mining could again be practised at Elliot Lake as it was in the 1960s. Information on the dimensions of stopes, pillars, and parting zone was gathered from plans and sections of the relevant closed mines. Discussions were held with personnel familiar with these mines to establish instances of pillar, roof, and parting zone failures. Design guidelines are formulated for stope and pillar dimensions in multi-seam mining for a range of orebody configurations using past practice in a back-analysis approach. Constraints imposed by dip and seam thickness on the choice of equipment and mining layout are evaluated. An attempt is made to bring together the engineering aspects, including rock mechanics, of multi-seam mine design with uranium recovery and other economic factors for three alternative mine layouts: single-seam mining, double-seam mining, and seams-and-parting mining. A series of examples are worked through, showing how the design guidelines can be applied for typical orebody configurations

  6. Relationship between collapse history and ore distribution in Sage Breccia pipe, northwestern Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.A.; Mead, R.H.; McMurray, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Sage pipe is similar to other collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona which have their beginnings in cave systems in the Redwall Limestone. Stoping of successively younger units caused the upward propagation of the pipe and provided the pipe-filling breccia. The Sage pipe extends at least 2,500 ft (762 m) vertically; the horizontal dimensions range from 100 to 300 ft (30.5-91 m), depending on variations in the adjoining host stratigraphy. The composition and distribution of breccia facies suggest a complex collapse history and variability in the mechanics of collapse. Rock failure took place both by block stoping and by decementation of sandstone and siltstone followed by flow of unconsolidated grains. The resulting breccias range from matrix to fragment-dominated, to sand flow breccia resulting from flow of individual grains. Episodic secondary collapse or readjustment within the breccia pile complicated facies distribution. Paragenetic studies indicate multiple periods of mineralization at Sage resulting in enrichment in an extensive suite of elements. Ore-grade uranium mineralization extends vertically for nearly 700 ft (213 m). Lateral distribution of the ore is variable and is directly related to breccia facies distribution. In generally, the more permeable breccias tend to be the most highly mineralized. Fracture, intergranular, and interfragment permeability were important to mineral distribution. Breccia continuity or plumbing was also important to lateral and vertical mineral distribution

  7. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  8. Determination of radon flux rates in a uranium mine (Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board contracted SENES Consultants Limited to design and implement a field program at Amok Limited's Cluff Lake uranium mine, with the overall objective of obtaining reliable radon flux data applicable for use in the VENTRAD computer model. The VENTRAD model was developed to model underground mine ventilation systems. To avoid the uncertainties inherent in localized flux measurements made on small surfaces, radon flux measurements were determined through measurement of incremental changes in the concentration of radon between the incoming and outgoing air in selected areas of the underground workings. The locations were selected throughout the mine in both ore and sterile rock. Average radon flux rates measured during three field campaigns were as follows: sterile rock decline 4 pCi/m 2 .second; sterile rock mainway 25 pCi/m 2 .second; worked-out stope 100 pCi/m 2 .second; active work stope 240 pCi/m 2 .second; and work face 14,000 pCi/m 2 .second. Data collected during the three field programs were used to validate the VENTRAD computer model. The results of the validation exercise suggest close agreement between predicted and measured air flow rates and radon concentrations were overestimated for areas immediately impacted by auxiliary ventilation fans and ore transfer mill holes which connect the ore extraction and haulage levels of the mine

  9. Research of Cemented Paste Backfill in Offshore Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Yang, Peng; Lyu, Wensheng; Lin, Zhixiang

    2018-01-01

    To promote comprehensive utilization of mine waste tailings and control ground pressure, filling mine stopes with cement paste backfill (CPB) is becoming the most widely used and applicable method in contemporary underground mining. However, many urgent new problems have arisen during the exploitation in offshore mines owing to the complex geohydrology conditions. A series of rheological, settling and mechanical tests were carried out to study the influences of bittern ions on CPB properties in offshore mining. The results showed that: (1) the bittern ion compositions and concentrations of backfill water sampled in mine filling station were similar to seawater. Backfill water mixed CPB slurry with its higher viscosity coefficient was adverse to pipeline gravity transporting; (2) Bleeding rate of backfill water mixed slurry was lower than that prepared with tap water at each cement-tailings ratio; (3) The UCS values of backfill water mixed samples were higher at early curing ages (3d, 7d) and then became lower after longer curing time at 14d and 28d. Therefore, for mine production practice, the offshore environments can have adverse effects on the pipeline gravity transporting and have positive effects on stope dewatering process and early-age strength growth.

  10. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  11. Bribery and Its Ethical Implications for Aid Workers in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, J Scott

    2017-02-01

    Bribery is a complicated, multi-dimensional issue. Upon first glance, most westerners would immediately condemn it as an underhanded, unfair means of gaining an advantage in a competitive or legal situation, and so it is in virtually every case in the westernized world. However, the issue becomes much more complicated in the international context, particularly in developing nations, where giving and accepting bribes is often normal and expected. This paper serves to inform ethical decision-making in situations where the "right choice" is unclear with regards to bribery, primarily for individuals performing aid work in foreign countries with corrupt officials and police officers. In such contexts, a simple offering of food, money, or a small trinket may make the difference between a person being able to accomplish meaningful, life-changing work for the local populace or having that work significantly slowed at best and being thrown out of the country, robbed, or imprisoned in worse cases. The larger scale bribery issues in international business and the laws pertaining to them are also discussed.

  12. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Felipe Nazario

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  13. Relationship between motor performance and physical fitness score in 7- to 8-year-old children. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Jornada Krebs

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many tests for the evaluation of motor performance or physical fitness that take into account different criteria such as movement forms and patterns, time, distance, and repetitions of each task for the analysis of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance and physical fitness scores in children. Fifty children of both genders aged 7 to 8 years (25 boys and 25 girls participated in this study. The Test of Gross Motor Development – Second Edition (TGMD-2 was used for the evaluation of motor performance. Physical fitness was assessed by three specific tests proposed by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD. The results showed statistical significance and weak correlations among some skills such as run, horizontal jump, hop, leap, underhand roll, and medicine ball throw. The equivalent use of both tests may not be adequate since each test has its own peculiarities in terms of assessment criteria.

  14. BING-NEEL SYNDROME: ILLUSTRATIVE CASES AND COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

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    Marzia Varettoni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bing-Neel syndrome is a rare neurological complication of Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia which results from a direct involvement of central nervous system by malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. The clinical suspicion of Bing-Neel syndrome may be difficult because neurologic symptoms are heterogeneous, non specific and sometimes underhand. A definitive diagnosis of Bing-Neel syndrome can be confidently made using brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging as well as histopathology and/or cerebrospinal fluid analysis to confirm the neoplastic infiltration of central nervous system. The detection in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Bing-Neel syndrome of the MYD88 (L265P somatic mutation, which is highly recurrent in Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia, revealed useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement. Despite recommendations recently published, there is still no clear consensus on treatment of Bing-Neel syndrome, which includes systemic immunochemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy and brain irradiation as possible options. Ibrutinib, a Bruton kinase inhibitor highly active in patients with Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia, has been recently added to the therapeutic armamentarium of Bing-Neel syndrome due to its ability to pass the blood-brain barrier. However, prospective clinical trials are eagerly awaited with the aim to define the optimal treatment strategy.  Here we describe four illustrative cases of Bing-Neel syndrome diagnosed and treated at our Institution and review the literature on this topic.

  15. The end-state comfort effect in bimanual grip selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G; Stodden, David F; Lehman, Davana M

    2003-03-01

    During a unimanual grip selection task in which people pick up a lightweight dowel and place one end against targets at variable heights, the choice of hand grip (overhand vs. underhand) typically depends on the perception of how comfortable the arm will be at the end of the movement: an end-state comfort effect. The two experiments reported here extend this work to bimanual tasks. In each experiment, 26 right-handed participants used their left and right hands to simultaneously pick up two wooden dowels and place either the right or left end against a series of 14 targets ranging from 14 to 210 cm above the floor. These tasks were performed in systematic ascending and descending orders in Experiment 1 and in random order in Expiment 2. Results were generally consistent with predictions of end-state comfort in that, for the extreme highest and lowest targets, participants tended to select opposite grips with each hand. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the concept of constraint hierarchies within a posture-based motion-planning model.

  16. Impulse noise: can hitting a softball harm your hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Korrine; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite) are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12'' core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher's mound and batter's box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6 dBC) bat followed by the composite (121.2 dBC) and wooden (120.0 dBC) bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700 Hz and 2260 Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping) sound after being struck. Impulse (transient) sounds less than 140 dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing.

  17. Impulse Noise: Can Hitting a Softball Harm Your Hearing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrine Cook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not different materials of softball bats (wooden, aluminum, and composite are a potential risk harm to hearing when batting players strike a 12′′ core .40 softball during slow, underhand pitch typical of recreational games. Peak sound pressure level measurements and spectral analyses were conducted for three controlled softball pitches to a batting participant using each of the different bat materials in an unused outdoor playing field with regulation distances between the pitcher’s mound and batter’s box. The results revealed that highest recorded peak sound pressure level was recorded from the aluminum (124.6 dBC bat followed by the composite (121.2 dBC and wooden (120.0 dBC bats. Spectral analysis revealed composite and wooden bats with similar broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response. The aluminum bat also produced a broadly distributed amplitude-frequency response, but there were also two very distinct peaks at around 1700 Hz and 2260 Hz above the noise floor that produced its ringing (or ping sound after being struck. Impulse (transient sounds less than 140 dBC may permit multiple exposures, and softball bats used in a recreational slow pitch may pose little to no risk to hearing.

  18. Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Minto, Christine; Lander, Natalie; Hardy, Louise L

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to examine interrater reliability of the object control subtest from the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 by live observation in a school field setting. Reliability Study--cross sectional. Raters were rated on their ability to agree on (1) the raw total for the six object control skills; (2) each skill performance and (3) the skill components. Agreement for the object control subtest and the individual skills was assessed by an intraclass correlation (ICC) and a kappa statistic assessed for skill component agreement. A total of 37 children (65% girls) aged 4-8 years (M = 6.2, SD = 0.8) were assessed in six skills by two raters; equating to 222 skill tests. Interrater reliability was excellent for the object control subset (ICC = 0.93), and for individual skills, highest for the dribble (ICC = 0.94) followed by strike (ICC = 0.85), overhand throw (ICC = 0.84), underhand roll (ICC = 0.82), kick (ICC = 0.80) and the catch (ICC = 0.71). The strike and the throw had more components with less agreement. Even though the overall subtest score and individual skill agreement was good, some skill components had lower agreement, suggesting these may be more problematic to assess. This may mean some skill components need to be specified differently in order to improve component reliability. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. End-state comfort trumps handedness in object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Chase J; Studenka, Breanna E; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-04-01

    A goal of research on human perception and performance is to explore the relative importance of constraints shaping action selection. The present study concerned the relative importance of two constraints that have not been directly contrasted: (1) the tendency to grasp objects in ways that afford comfortable or easy-to-control final postures; and (2) the tendency to grasp objects with the dominant rather than the nondominant hand. We asked participants to reach out and grasp a horizontal rod whose left or right end was to be placed into a target after a 90° rotation. In one condition, we told participants which hand to use and let them choose an overhand or underhand initial grasp. In another condition, we told participants which grasp to use and let them choose either hand. Participants sacrificed hand preference to perform the task in a way that ensured a comfortable or easy to control thumb-up posture at the time of object placement, indicating that comfort trumped handedness. A second experiment confirmed that comfort was indeed higher for thumb-down postures than thumb-up postures. A third experiment confirmed that the choice data could be linked to objective performance differences. The results point to the importance of identifying constraint weightings for action selection and support an account of hand selection that ascribes hand preference to sensitivity to performance differences. The results do not support the hypothesis that hand preference simply reflects a bias to use the dominant hand.

  20. Maar net nog ’n butch? ’n Feministiese lesing van die Halewijnlied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jordaan

    1995-04-01

    In this article the authors argue that a form of covert feminism is present in the Halewijnlied (Song of Halewijn, an important Middle Dutch text. Utilizing the poststructuralist notion of écriture rather than lecture, the latent content of the text is explored, enabling the authors to (re-construct the ‘meaning' of the text within the context of Kristeva's notion that the Virgin cult constitutes "a triumph of the unconscious in monotheism This "triumph of the unconscious "amounts to a form of female power which is the “underhand double of explicit phallic power" and sets up a temporary "commonality of the sexes" within the patriarchal system. By means of the personage of the Princess, Freudian displacement in terms of social sex roles occurs, negating some of the binary oppositions characterising the man:woman dichotomy. This process results in an 'androgenic’ space in which both sexes are temporarily set free from the sexual roles forced upon them by a patriarchal system.

  1. Integrating millennial and interdecadal shoreline changes: Morpho-sedimentary investigation of two prograded barriers in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. S. N.; Tamura, T.; Hudson, J. P.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    Prograded barriers are distinctive coastal landforms preserving the position of past shorelines as low relief, shore-parallel ridges composed of beach sediments and commonly adorned with variable amounts of dune sand. Prograded barriers have been valued as coastal archives which contain palaeoenvironmental information, however integrating the millennial timescale geological history of barriers with observed inter-decadal modern beach processes has proved difficult. Technologies such as airborne LiDAR, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL) were utilised at Boydtown and Wonboyn, in southeastern Australia, and combined with previously reported radiocarbon dates and offshore seismic and sedimentological data to reconstruct the morpho-sedimentary history of prograded barrier systems. These technologies enabled reconstruction of geological timescale processes integrated with an inter-decadal model of ridge formation explaining the GPR-imaged subsurface character of the barriers. Both the Boydtown and Wonboyn barriers began prograding 7500-8000 years ago when sea level attained at or near present height along this coastline and continued prograding until the present-day with an initially slower rate of shoreline advancement. Sources of sediment for progradation appear to be the inner shelf and shoreface with a large shelf sand body likely contributing to progradation at Wonboyn. The Towamba River seems to have delivered sediment to Twofold Bay during flood events after transitioning to a mature estuarine system sometime after 4000 cal. yr BP. Some of this material appears to have been reworked onto the Boydtown barrier, increasing the rate of progradation in the seaward 50% of the barrier deposited over the past 1500 years. The GPR imaged beachfaces are shown to have similar geometry to beach profiles following recent storm events and a model of ridge formation involving cut and fill of the beachface, and dune building in the

  2. Orbital controls on paleo erosion rates in the Western Escarpment of the Andes at 13° latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Bekaddour, Toufik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin; Akçar, Naki; Vogel, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    The formation of fluvial terrace sequences in mountainous areas requires that two boundary conditions have to be fulfilled. First, hilllslope material available for erosion needs to be sufficiently thick and abundant. Second stripping off of this regolith cover has to occur fast and within a short time period. Contrariwise, if hillslope erosion operates at a pace concordant with the fluvial regime and in equilibrium to the prevailing climate, then no terrace sequence will form. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget from the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, and particularly the Minchin terrace sequence deposited between 48-36 ka, to illustrate how the erosional regime and the precipitation pattern has changed in response to orbitally-driven climate cycles. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast during which denudation rates reached values as high as 600 mm/ka (provided that the lateral valley flanks have been the major sediment source) for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger orbitally-controlled pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets yield nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We interpret these contrasts to indicated different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that is similar to the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north near the boundary between Peru and Ecuador, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation are associated with landsliding and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires the supply of sufficient material through erosion on the catchment's hillslopes. It is likely that a relatively thick regolith sequence had accumulated before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span

  3. Longitudinal Variation in Paleo-channel Complex Geometry and Associated Fill: Offshore South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. M.; Hill, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    In northeastern South Carolina, several shallow (migration of the ancestral Pee Dee River system along the southern limb of the Cape Fear Arch since the Pliocene. These paleo-channel complexes can be traced 80 km across the continental shelf via Boomer and Chirp subbottom data. The Murrells Inlet paleo-channel complex is the most well imaged offshore; and this data coverage provides an opportunity for a detailed seismic stratigraphic interpretation and analysis of downstream variability. Initial observations from this case study indicate that inner shelf incisions, where bedrock is folded and faulted, tend to be shallow with numerous channels, while the incisions across the middle shelf appear to be deeper and contains larger, more sinuous channels that are cut into broadly tilted strata with a gentle south-southeastward dip. This suggests the geometry and spatial distribution of the incisions were a function of the inherited fabric of the underlying basement, which created local deflection and areas of aggradation and degradation. The inner shelf paleo-channel complex fill is dominated by fluvial cut and fill seismic facies, while the middle shelf contains a wide variety of seismic facies (i.e. transparent, layered, chaotic, etc). This overall longitudinal fill pattern is most likely due to each location's general proximity to base level. The variation in the cut and fill seismic facies may be driven by substantial changes in discharge, driven locally by the joining of another major river or by climatic changes in the drainage basin. There also appears to be preferential reoccupation of previously filled paleo-channels, as the basement in this region is Tertiary and Cretaceous carbonates and siliciclastic rocks that are more resistant to erosion. The most recent occupation in any given paleo-channel tends to be on the southern margin, which may imply tectonic forcing from the uplift of the Cape Fear Arch. Preliminary results from this case study suggest that first

  4. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  5. Geomechanical effects of stress shadow created by large-scale destress blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Vennes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine if large-scale choked panel destress blasting can provide sufficient beneficial stress reduction in highly-stressed remnant ore pillar that is planned for production. The orebody is divided into 20 stopes over 2 levels, and 2 panels are choke-blasted in the hanging wall to shield the ore pillar by creating a stress shadow around it. A linear-elastic model of the mining system is constructed with finite difference code FLAC3D. The effect of destress blasting in the panels is simulated by applying a fragmentation factor (α to the rock mass stiffness and a stress reduction factor (β to the current state of stress in the region occupied by the destress panels. As an extreme case, the destress panel is also modeled as a void to obtain the maximum possible beneficial effects of destressing and stress shadow. Four stopes are mined in the stress shadow of the panels in 6 lifts and then backfilled. The effect of destress blasting on the remnant ore pillar is quantified based on stress change and brittle shear ratio (BSR in the stress shadow zone compared to the base case without destress blasting. To establish realistic rock fragmentation and stress reduction factors, model results are compared to measured stress changes reported for case studies at Fraser and Brunswick mines. A 1.5 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 20 m away from the panel at Fraser Mine, and a 4 MPa immediate stress decrease was observed 25 m away at Brunswick Mine. Comparable results are obtained from the current model with a rock fragmentation factor α of 0.2 and a stress reduction factor β of 0.8. It is shown that a destress blasting with these parameters reduces the major principal stress in the nearest stopes by 10–25 MPa. This yields an immediate reduction of BSR, which is deemed sufficient to reduce volume of ore at risk in the pillar.

  6. IUD discontinuation rates, switching behavior, and user satisfaction: findings from a retrospective analysis of a mobile outreach service program in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram Azmat, Waqas Hameed, Ghulam Mustafa, Wajahat Hussain, Aftab Ahmed, Mohsina BilgramiMarie Stopes Society, Research and Metrics Department, Technical Services, Karachi, Sindh, PakistanBackground: In Pakistan, the uptake rate for the intrauterine device (IUD is very low at 2.5%. The most popular modern contraceptive methods in Pakistan are female sterilization and use of condoms. The Marie Stopes Society established its mobile outreach service delivery program with the aim of increasing use of modern quality contraceptive services, including the long-term reversible IUD, by women living in hard-to-reach areas. The present study attempts to assess IUD discontinuation rates and associated factors, including switching behavior and level of satisfaction with this type of service delivery.Methods: Using a cross-sectional approach, we contacted 681 women who had received an IUD from the Marie Stopes Society mobile outreach program during July and August 2009. Successful interviews were conducted with 639 of these women using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with Stata 11.2 using simple descriptive Chi-square and Cox proportional techniques.Results: Analysis revealed that 19.4% (95% confidence interval 16.3–22.5 of the women discontinued use of their IUD at 10 months and, of these women, the majority (69.4% cited side effects as the main reason for discontinuation. Other factors, such as geographical catchment province, age of the woman, history of contraceptive use before IUD insertion, and side effects following insertion of the device, were found to be significantly associated with IUD. Amongst the women who had their IUD removed, 56.5% did not switch to any other contraceptive method, while 36.3% switched to either short-term or traditional methods, such as withdrawal, rhythm, and folk methods. Degree of satisfaction with the device was also significantly associated with discontinuation.Conclusion: Early

  7. Supplementary recovery of uranium by in-situ leaching at the Brugeaud deposit (Limousin, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyaudet, G.

    1980-01-01

    The actual mining operations at the Brugeaud Deposit (West Brugeaud and East Brugeaud) were followed by supplementary recoveries of uranium by means of in-situ leaching. There were a number of factors which favoured consideration of these operations: the amounts of uranium present at the edge of the stoped areas; the underground mining infrastructure, which did not require supplementary operations for the recovery of solutions; the nature of the rock, which presented a dense network of fractures and micro-fractures conducive to impregnation by the acid solutions; and the immediate proximity of a concentration plant. The amount of uranium recovered by in-situ leaching is close to 200 t. This production is approximately nine per cent of all the uranium extracted from the deposit. The cost of the metal obtained in this way was always less than FF 100 (FF of 1978) per kilogram of uranium. (author)

  8. Application of Computer Aided Design (CADD) in data display and integration of numerical and field results - Stripa phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, D.E.; Halliday, S.M.; Gale, J.E.

    1990-12-01

    Existing CAD/CADD systems have been reviewed and the micro-computer compatible solids modelling CADD software SilverScreen was selected for use in constructing a CADD model of the Stripa site. Maps of the Stripa mine drifts, shafts, raises and stopes were digitized and used to create three-dimensional images of the north-eastern part of the mine and the SCV site. In addition, the use of CADD sub-programs to display variation in fracture geometry and hydraulic heads have been demonstrated. The database developed in this study is available as either raw digitized files, processed data files, SilverScreen script files or in DXF or IGES formats; all of which are described in this report. (au)

  9. Pessimistic Determination of Mechanical Conditions and Micro/macroeconomic Evaluation of Mine Pillar Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu

    2017-12-01

    Numerous pillars are left after mining of underground mineral resources using the open stope method or after the first step of the partial filling method. The mineral recovery rate can, however, be improved by replacement recovery of pillars. In the present study, the relationships among the pillar type, minimum pillar width, and micro/macroeconomic factors were investigated from two perspectives, namely mechanical stability and micro/macroeconomic benefit. Based on the mechanical stability formulas for ore and artificial pillars, the minimum width for a specific pillar type was determined using a pessimistic criterion. The microeconomic benefit c of setting an ore pillar, the microeconomic benefit w of artificial pillar replacement, and the economic net present value (ENPV) of the replacement process were calculated. The values of c and w were compared with respect to ENPV, based on which the appropriate pillar type and economical benefit were determined.

  10. Controlled blasting experiments in a small drift at the CANMET experimental mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Experiments on controlled blasting conducted at the CANMET Experimental Mine to develop suitable controlled blasting techniques for small development headings are described. The methods selected for study must maintain the drill-blast-muck cycle achieved each work shift. The experiments also examine blast damage mechanisms to formulate criteria for dilution minimization with blast designs in stopes. The drift faces are 2.4 m square, with 34 to 43 holes drilled 2.4 m deep. Cartridged water gels, emulsions, and semi-gelatin dynamite were used in the cuts and as primers, ANFO as the main explosive, and semi- gelatin dynamite in 19 mm diameter cartridges was used in perimeter holes. The results of the first set of experiments show the efficiency of controlled blasting techniques to reduce blast damage. 60 refs., 71 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Deformation Failure Characteristics of Coal Body and Mining Induced Stress Evolution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates that the pore distribution of coal body with different compressed volume has fractal character; it appears to be the linear relationship between propagation range of internal stress field and compressed volume of coal body and nonlinear relationship between the range of outburst coal mass and the number of pores which is influenced by mining pressure. The results provide theory reference for the research on the range of mining-induced stress and broken coal wall.

  12. Silica exposure and silicosis among Ontario hardrock miners: II. Exposure estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D K; Sebestyen, A; Julian, J A; Muir, D C; Schmidt, H; Bernholz, C D; Shannon, H S

    1989-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation was carried out to determine the relationship between silicosis in hardrock miners in Ontario and cumulative exposure to silica (free crystalline silica--alpha quartz) dust. This second report describes a side-by-side air-sampling program used to derive a konimeter/gravimetric silica conversion curve. A total of 2,360 filter samples and 90,000 konimeter samples were taken over 2 years in two mines representing the ore types gold and uranium, both in existing conditions as well as in an experimental stope in which dry drilling was used to simulate the high dust conditions of the past. The method of calculating cumulative respirable silica exposure indices for each miner is reported.

  13. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast.

  14. Potential of breccia pipes in the Mohawk Canyon Area, Hualapai Indian Reservation, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Billingsley, G.H.; Van Gosen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Hualapai Indian Reservation is on the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona. Hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northern Arizona. The pipes originated in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone and stoped their way upward through the upper Paleozoic strata, locally extending into the Triassic Moenkopi and Chinle Formations. The occurrence of high-grade U ore, associated with potentially economic concentrations of Cu, Ag, Pb, Zn, V, Co, and Ni in some of these pipes, has stimulated mining activity in northern Arizona despite the depressed market for most of these metals. Two breccia pipes, 241, and 242, have significant mineralized rock exposed on the Esplanade erosion surface; unfortunately, their economic potential is questionable because of their inaccessibility at the bottom of Mohawk Canyon. All warrant further exploration

  15. Development and prospect of china uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Weimin; Wang Haifeng; Niu Yuqing; Gu Wancheng; Zhang Feifeng

    2007-01-01

    The development of industry of uranium mining and metallurgy in China has been reviewed generally, emphasizing on investigation approaches and application levels of uranium mining technologies such as in-situ leaching, heap leaching, stope leaching: on the basis of analysis on status of uranium mining and metallurgy and problems existed, also considering the specific features of deposit resources, the development orientation of uranium mining and metallurgy in China is pointed out. The industry of China uranium mining and metallurgy is faced to new opportunity of development and challenge in 21st century, the only way to realize sustainable development of uranium mining and metallurgy and harmonious development between economy and environment is to develop new technology on mining, ore beneficiation and metallurgy, increase the utilization level of uranium resources, low down impact on environment caused by mining and metallurgy. (authors)

  16. IMPROVMENT OF THE MINING METHOD IN THE BAUXITE MINE ĆUKOVAC-GRIŽINICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of bauxite in region of Dalmatia has tradition of more than 50 years. The biggest underground mine of this bauxite hearing area was developed in deposit Ćukovac-Grižinica with proved workable reserves of 1.2 x 106 t. Yearly output in 1990. was 100.000 t. Production in this mine started 1987, and sublevel caving method was used. Coefficient of extraction in the parts with weak rocks is low, and unsufficient security in the conditions with firm roof. Therefore investigation of improvement of mining method was carrying on to coinside characteristics of rocks, and mining methods. Following methods were selected: sublevel caving (actually retreat stoping, sublevel sloping and sublevel caving with bauxite protection layer (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. The development of an ore reserve methodology for the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    At the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit in South Australia, evolution in the understanding of the controls on mineralisation coupled with the changing demands of the project have led to changes in the approach to reserve estimation. The project has moved into a phase where detailed stope mining reserves are now required as distinct from global ore reserves. To enable the selective manipulation of geological and assay information and its characterisation, a relational database has been developed. For reserve calculations themselves, initial computations were based on a system derived from that used for the Kambalda nickel orebodies. The Olympic Dam system differed mainly in the use of statistical analyses in the estimation of grade instead of the previous polygonal area of influence weighting method. Three dimensional weighting techniques are now being used for local reserve estimates

  18. Estimating Soil Displacement from Timber Extraction Trails in Steep Terrain: Application of an Unmanned Aircraft for 3D Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pierzchała

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Skid trails constructed for timber extraction in steep terrain constitute a serious environmental concern if not well planned, executed and ameliorated. Carrying out post-harvest surveys in monitoring constructed trails in such terrain is an onerous task for forest administrators, as hundreds of meters need to be surveyed per site, and the quantification of parameters and volumes is largely based on assumptions of trail symmetry and terrain uniformity. In this study, aerial imagery captured from a multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was used in generating a detailed post-harvest terrain model which included all skid trails. This was then compared with an Airborne Laser Scanning derived pre-harvest terrain model and the dimensions, slopes and cut-and-fill volumes associated with the skid trails were determined. The overall skid trail length was 954 m, or 381 m·ha−1 with segments varying from 40–60 m, inclinations from 3.9% to 9.6%, and cut volumes, from 1.7 to 3.7 m3 per running meter. The methods used in this work can be used in rapidly assessing the extent of disturbance and erosion risk on a wide range of sites. The multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was found to be highly suited to the task, given the relatively small size of harvested stands, their shape and their location in the mountainous terrain.

  19. Natural Radiation Spread Status at Pongkor Gold Mining Business Unit, PT. Aneka Tambang Tbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajab Taofik Hidayat

    2003-01-01

    Pongkor Gold Mine Business Unit (UBPE Pongkor) is ones of six business units in PT. Antam Tbk., which is located in Nanggung District, Bogor Residence, West Java. The geological exploration had carried out in 1988, and plant commenced in 1994 for 500 ton per day mill throughput. In 1997 the expansion plant built for 720 tpd. The mining system is used underground with cut and fill type. A waste solid tailing are used to fulfill stop ex-mine to maintain a continuously mining cycle. The process plant are used conventional methods, a ground ore is leached by sodium cyanide as chemical Reagents. A activated carbon is used for absorbs a leached gold and silver included a concentration process. By sequential process from elution, electro winning, and smelting process to made final product dore bullion (gold and silver alloys and sent to refinery Jakarta. Coarse tailing solid are used for backfill material, and there are 2 (two) Waste Water Installation to reduce a rest chemical before flow out system. Since 1997 Pongkor has a ISO 9000 Certified for Quality, and in 2002 got ISO 14000 certified for Environmental. (author)

  20. Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited

  1. NILAI VERNAKULAR DALAM PENATAAN LINGKUNGAN PADA PERMUKIMAN LERENG GUNUNG (Studi di Desa Kapencar, Lereng Gunung Sindoro, Wonosobo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VG Sri Rejeki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plateau settlement is one typology of settlement in Java. Some theory about the it have been presented the problem solving of contour or sloping land, but not discuss about the strategy of climatic solution yet. At Kapencar Village we founded some phenomenas of problem solving naturally. Some strategies are 1 the building typologies have the jogan as strategy to multy activities and the pogo as strategy to suport the tobacco and corn own activities. 2 The cut and fill construstion as the strategy of sloping land. 3 The pebble became the building material locally, that it put from yard themselves. 4 The little ventilation and the zink material as the strategy of the too cold and high humidity climate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Permukiman di dataran tingi merupakan salah satu tipe permukiman di Jawa. Selama ini teori dan konsep permukiman lerengan yang berkembang sebatas membahas tentang bentuk kontur/ kelerengan. Tetapi belum mendiskusikan tentang strategi menyelesailan masalah iklim secara vernakular. Di Desa Kapencar ditemukan beberapa fenomena strategi penyelesaian masalah secara natural oleh masyarakat. Beberapa temuan yang dapat dijadikan pembahasan antara lain 1 adanya tipologi rumah dengan prioritas ruang jogan multi fungsi dan pogo, sebagai strategi mendukung kegiatan berladang tembakau dan jagung. 2 penyelesaian kontur diselesaikan dengan cut – fill,. 3 penggunaan batu alam sebagai bahan lokal, diambil dalam pekarangan sendiri, 4 sesedikit mungkin lubang di rumah dan pemilihan bahan seng , sebagai strategi mengarasi suhu dingin dan kelembaban tinggi di lokasi tersebut. Kata kunci: Permukiman, lereng gunung, bahan bangunan, iklim, tipologi.

  2. Underground Mining Method Selection Using WPM and PROMETHEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusa, Bhanu Chander; Singam, Jayanthu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to represent the solution to the problem of selecting suitable underground mining method for the mining industry. It is achieved by using two multi-attribute decision making techniques. These two techniques are weighted product method (WPM) and preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE). In this paper, analytic hierarchy process is used for weight's calculation of the attributes (i.e. parameters which are used in this paper). Mining method selection depends on physical parameters, mechanical parameters, economical parameters and technical parameters. WPM and PROMETHEE techniques have the ability to consider the relationship between the parameters and mining methods. The proposed techniques give higher accuracy and faster computation capability when compared with other decision making techniques. The proposed techniques are presented to determine the effective mining method for bauxite mine. The results of these techniques are compared with methods used in the earlier research works. The results show, conventional cut and fill method is the most suitable mining method.

  3. Geomorphic reclmation of a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, L. C.; Quaranta, J.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic reclamation is a technique that may offer opportunities to improve mine reclamation in Central Appalachia. The design approach is based on constructing a steady-state, mature landform condition and takes into account the long-term climatic conditions, soil types, terrain grade, and vegetation. Geomorphic reclamation has been applied successfully in semi-arid regions but has not yet been applied in Central Appalachia. This work describes a demonstration study where geomorphic landforming techniques are being applied to a coarse coal refuse pile in southern West Virginia, USA. The reclamation design includes four geomorphic watersheds that radially drain runoff from the pile. Each watershed has one central draining channel and incorporates compound slope profiles similarly to naturally eroded slopes. Planar slopes were also included to maintain the impacted area. The intent is to alter the hydrology to decrease water quality treatment costs. The excavation cut and fill volumes are comparable to those of more conventional refuse pile reclamation designs. If proven successful then this technique can be part of a cost-effective solution to improve water quality at active and future refuse facilities, abandoned mine lands, bond forfeiture sites, landfills, and major earthmoving activities within the region.

  4. Expressway construction in landslide areas. ; Construction work between Fujioka interchange and Saku interchange of Joshin'etsu expressway. Ugoku yama wo tsuranuku. ; Joshin'etsu Jidoshado Fujioka IC/Saku IC kan kensetsu koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, Y [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-15

    The Joshin'etsu motorway is a 204km expressway. Various technological studies have been made for the remediation work for the 69.5km section which is opened to traffic this spring, because not only a series of tunnels, bridges, long cut and fill soil particular to mountain roads are included but also the section has many landslide areas. The length of the Higureyama tunnel is 2,314m. Although strong andesite is prevailing as the nature of the soil, the central area of the tunnel is consisted of brittle mudstone and self-crushing andesite with faults because the tunnel runs through the lower portion of a landslide zone. The mudstone is a squeezing ground, and buckling of H supporting, breakage of lock bolts, and damage of sprayed concrete occurred in many places. 2 years and 10 months are required for the construction of the tunnel. The average monthly drilling is only 10m/month which is an unprecedented case in tunnel excavation. Even limited to large-scale landslides, 13 occurrences are experienced. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Modelling and design of undercarriage components of large-scale earthmoving equipment in tar sand operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.; Frimpong, S.; Sobieski, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the fundamental and applied research work which has been carried out at the University of Alberta's Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research to improve the undercarriage elements of large scale earthmoving equipment used in oil sands mining operations. A new method has been developed to predict the optimum curvature and blade geometry of earth moving equipment such as bulldozers and motor graders. A mathematical relationship has been found to approximate the optimum blade shape for reducing cutting resistance and fill resistance. The equation is a function of blade geometry and soil properties. It is the first model that can mathematically optimize the shape of a blade on earth moving equipment. A significant saving in undercarriage components can be achieved from reducing the amount of cutting and filling resistance for this type of equipment working on different soils. A Sprocket Carrier Roller for a Tracked Vehicle was also invented to replace the conventional cylindrical carrier roller. The new sprocket type carrier roller offers greater support for the drive track and other components of the undercarriage assembly. A unique retaining pin assembly has also been designed to detach connecting disposable wear parts from earthmoving equipment. The retaining pin assembly is easy to assemble and disassemble and includes reusable parts. 13 figs.

  6. Applications of a computer model to the analysis of rock-backfill interaction in pillar recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, T. J.E. [Dames and Moore, London, England, United Kingdom; Shillabeer, J. H. [Dames and Moore, Toronto (Canada); Herget, G. [CANMET, Ottawa (Canada)

    1980-05-15

    This paper describes the application of a computer model to the analysis of backfill stability in pillar recovery operations with particular reference to two case studies. An explicit finite difference computer program was developed for the purpose of modelling the three-dimensional interaction of rock and backfill in underground excavations. Of particular interest was the mechanics of stress transfer from the rock mass to the pillars and then the backfill. The need, therefore, for a model to allow for the three-dimensional effects and the sequence of operations is evident. The paper gives a brief description of the computer program, descriptions of the mines, the sequences of operations and how they were modelled, and the results of the analyses in graphical form. For both case studies, failure of the backfill was predicted at certain stages. Subsequent reports from the mines indicate that such failures did not occur at the relevant stage. The paper discusses the validity of the model and concludes that the approach accurately represents the principles of rock mechanics in cut-and-fill mining and that further research should be directed towards determining the input parameters to an equal degree of sophistication.

  7. [Vegetation spatial and temporal dynamic characteristics based on NDVI time series trajectories in grassland opencast coal mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Duo; Wang, Cang Jiao; Mu, Shou Guo; Zhao, Hua

    2017-06-18

    The spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of vegetation in mining area are still unclear. This study utilized time series trajectory segmentation algorithm to fit Landsat NDVI time series which generated from fusion images at the most prosperous period of growth based on ESTARFM algorithm. Combining with the shape features of the fitted trajectory, this paper extracted five vegetation dynamic patterns including pre-disturbance type, continuous disturbance type, stabilization after disturbance type, stabilization between disturbance and recovery type, and recovery after disturbance type. The result indicated that recovery after disturbance type was the dominant vegetation change pattern among the five types of vegetation dynamic pattern, which accounted for 55.2% of the total number of pixels. The follows were stabilization after disturbance type and continuous disturbance type, accounting for 25.6% and 11.0%, respectively. The pre-disturbance type and stabilization between disturbance and recovery type accounted for 3.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Vegetation disturbance mainly occurred from 2004 to 2009 in Shengli mining area. The onset time of stable state was 2008 and the spatial locations mainlydistributed in open-pit stope and waste dump. The reco-very state mainly started since the year of 2008 and 2010, while the areas were small and mainly distributed at the periphery of open-pit stope and waste dump. Duration of disturbance was mainly 1 year. The duration of stable period usually sustained 7 years. The duration of recovery state of the type of stabilization between disturbances continued 2 to 5 years, while the type of recovery after disturbance often sustained 8 years.

  8. Structuralistic Analysis of the Poem “The Stone Chat” by Taufeeq Rafat in perspective of Binary Opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Munawar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study is to apply Structuralism (a Linguistic movement related to scientific study of words as signs as a theoretical framework on the poem “The Stone Chat” by Taufiq Rafat, a prominent Pakistani poet. The study focuses on, presenting Structuralistic analysis (relation between sign and signifier of the selected text, as proposed by the Swiss Structuralist, De Saussure. Besides, this paper particularly is a textual analysis of a Pakistani piece of poetry by application of linguistic concept of binary opposites (paired opposite as proposed by a Linguist Levi-Strauss (a linguist in his book Structuralist Anthropology, (1950. The searching of text for binary oppositions is the targeted endeavor of this study with the focus to analyze how far they are skillfully and contextually positioned in this poem. Hence, the researchers intend to focus on the antithetical forces and binary ideas present in the text. The close textual analysis of the poem is aimed at in this context, since The Stone Chat has antithetical ideas in abundance. Furthermore, the proposed study underhand, focuses upon bringing to foreground the syntagmatic relation (concept of chain between signifiers as they are employed in linguistic framework or pattern of this poem. Besides, to the fact how text (signifiers acts and reacts (contradicts to its linguistic framework, this paper aims to analyze the variations in tone, attitude and thinking perspectives of speaker in the poem. Furthermore, the close textual analysis, descriptive and interpretive methods as research techniques have been utilized in this study. This research study is likely to contribute to fields of Linguistics, Literary theory and Pakistani literature as a distinct genre.

  9. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and After a Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a 1-week overreach followed by a 3-week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre-ORT and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d = 1.21, p ≤ 0.05) and RPETL/session (d = 0.9, p ≤ 0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of 6 athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance after the ORT (d = 0.50, p ≤ 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased after the in-season training phase (d = 0.28, p ≤ 0.05) but did not change after the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly after the ORT (d = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05, d = 0.31, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  10. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zask Avigdor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: ‘Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools’. Methods Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1, five (T2 and eight years (T3 for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0 was used. Results Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560. Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73. Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002, but intervention boys did not (p = .591. At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801. Conclusion Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  11. Proficiency deficiency: mastery of fundamental movement skills and skill components in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Steele, Julie R; Baur, Louise A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to compare the mastery of 12 fundamental movement skills (FMS) and skill components between a treatment-seeking sample of overweight/obese children and a reference sample from the United States. Mastery of six locomotor and six object-control skills (24 components in each subdomain) were video-assessed by one assessor using the test of gross motor development-2 (TGMD-2). The 153 overweight/obese children (mean ± s.d. age = 8.3 ± 1.1 years, BMI z-score = 2.78 ± 0.69, 58% girls, 77% obese) were categorized into age groups (for the underhand roll and strike: 7-8 years and 9-10 years; all other FMS: 6-7 years and 8-10 years) and mastery prevalence rates were compared with representative US data (N = 876) using χ(2) analysis. For all 12 skills in all age groups, the prevalence of mastery was lower among overweight/obese children compared with the reference sample (all P skill components (all P movement patterns that could be targeted for improvement include positioning of the body and feet, the control or release of an object at an optimal position, and better use of the arms to maintain effective force production during the performance of FMS. Physical activity programs designed for overweight and obese children may need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency to foster the movement capabilities required for participation in health-enhancing physical activity.

  12. Examination of motor skill competency in students: evidence-based physical education curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. Methods Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568–857; girls = 526–695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students’ motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests. Results The students in the intervention year 1 and year 2 cohorts performed at the Competent Level or higher in the four skill assessments. The prevalence of the students’ demonstration of skill competency across the four skills was high in the two intervention years. The intervention year 2 cohort scored significantly higher than the intervention year 1 cohort in the four skill assessments. The boys significantly outperformed than the girls in the two manipulative skills in the intervention year 1 and in the two manipulative skills and the weight transferring skill in the intervention year 2. No gender differences in the running skill in either year were found. Conclusions The evidence-based CATCH PE play a critical role in developing and building K-1 students’ ability to demonstrate motor skill competency in four fundamental skills. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03015337 , registered date: 1/09/2017, as "retrospectively registered".

  13. Three year follow-up of an early childhood intervention: is movement skill sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zask, Avigdor; Barnett, Lisa M; Rose, Lauren; Brooks, Lyndon O; Molyneux, Maxine; Hughes, Denise; Adams, Jillian; Salmon, Jo

    2012-10-22

    Movement skill competence (e.g. the ability to throw, run and kick) is a potentially important physical activity determinant. However, little is known about the long-term impact of interventions to improve movement skills in early childhood. This study aimed to determine whether intervention preschool children were still more skill proficient than controls three years after a 10 month movement skill focused intervention: 'Tooty Fruity Vegie in Preschools'. Children from 18 intervention and 13 control preschools in NSW, Australia were assessed at ages four (Time1), five (T2) and eight years (T3) for locomotor (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and object control proficiency (strike, bounce, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Multi-level object control and locomotor regression models were fitted with variables time, intervention (yes/no) and a time*intervention interaction. Both models added sex of child and retained if significant, in which case interactions of sex of child with other variables were modelled and retained. SPSS (Version 17.0) was used. Overall follow-up rate was 29% (163/560). Of the 137 students used in the regression models, 53% were female (n = 73). Intervention girls maintained their object control skill advantage in comparison to controls at T3 (p = .002), but intervention boys did not (p = .591). At T3, there were no longer intervention/control differences in locomotor skill (p = .801). Early childhood settings should implement movement skill interventions and more intensively target girls and object control skills.

  14. Remedios, a bela: beleza, erotismo e poder de morte em Cem anos de solidão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Aguiar Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Remedios, the Beauty, female character in One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967, by Gabriel García Márquez, is a testimony that “small” characters could be as complex as a main character in great works. The narrator’s speech try to convince us that the Beauty have death powers. In this masterpiece by García Márquez, four men who died in different situations have something in common: they have known Remedios. Those deaths are because they have lost their minds for the reason that she is a “deranging woman”. Her smell, her manners and her beauty became these men to be able to do things that brought their deaths. The work, full of rebellious, strong and sexual female characters, shows the Beauty as a character with a new feminine behavior, a new way to be transgressive. Our purpose was introduce her and analyze her by means of bibliographic search, as a erotic, magical and transgressive female character, telling happenings of her life. Therefore, we reached a conclusion that she has all of those characteristics, and the author isn’t sure about if she is innocent or underhanded about lecherous feelings that she causes. Helped us in this article, on theoretical and critique feminist literature field and matters of gender the research by Perrot (2007, Ribeiro (2006, Galvão e Prado Jr. (1979, Badinter (1985 and Imbriaco (2009. On theoretical and critique literature field, our analyzes were based on research by Rodrigues (1988, Vargas Liosa (2007, De La Concha (2007 and Josef (1993.

  15. Optimal Solution Volume for Luminal Preservation: A Preclinical Study in Porcine Intestinal Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, M; Papurica, M; Jiga, L; Hoinoiu, B; Glameanu, C; Bresler, A; Patrut, G; Grigorie, R; Ionac, M; Hellström, M

    2016-03-01

    Rodent studies suggest that luminal solutions alleviate the mucosal injury and prolong intestinal preservation but concerns exist that excessive volumes of luminal fluid may promote tissue edema. Differences in size, structure, and metabolism between rats and humans require studies in large animals before clinical use. Intestinal procurement was performed in 7 pigs. After perfusion with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), 40-cm-long segments were cut and filled with 13.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 solution as follows: V0 (controls, none), V1 (0.5 mL/cm), V2 (1 mL/cm), V3 (1.5 mL/cm), and V4 (2 mL/cm). Tissue and luminal solutions were sampled after 8, 14, and 24 hours of cold storage (CS). Preservation injury (Chiu score), the apical membrane (ZO-1, brush-border maltase activity), and the electrolyte content in the luminal solution were studied. In control intestines, 8-hour CS in HTK solution resulted in minimal mucosal changes (grade 1) that progressed to significant subepithelial edema (grade 3) by 24 hours. During this time, a gradual loss in ZO-1 was recorded, whereas maltase activity remained unaltered. Moreover, variable degrees of submucosal edema were observed. Luminal introduction of high volumes (2 mL/mL) of PEG solution accelerated the development of the subepithelial edema and submucosal edema, leading to worse histology. However, ZO-1 was preserved better over time than in control intestines (no luminal solution). Maltase activity was reduced in intestines receiving luminal preservation. Luminal sodium content decreased in time and did not differ between groups. This PEG solution protects the apical membrane and the tight-junction proteins but may favor water absorption and tissue (submucosal) edema, and luminal volumes >2 mL/cm may result in worse intestinal morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions of Flow, Sediment Transport, and Vegetation in the Long-Term Evolution of Arroyos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Griffin, E. R.; Tucker, G. E.; Friedman, J. M.; Overeem, I.

    2014-12-01

    Arroyos in the Southwestern United States have experienced multiple cut-and-fill cycles in the late Quaternary. Extensive studies fo the Lower Rio Puerco, New Mexico, USA, show that it has most recently progressed from an (1) unincised state with a broad floodplain in the mid 1800s, through a period of (2) incision, forming a deep gully with steep walls by the early 1900s, and to the (3) present-day stage of arroyo widening and filling. The arroyo cycle is driven by a combination of autogenic processes and external forcings, although the relative influence of each process is under debate. We use the morphodynamic model ANUGA to explore the influences of discharge, sediment transport, and vegetation on the geomorphic evolution of the Lower Rio Puerco through the arroyo cycle. The predictive power of the numerical model is first established by using it to hind-cast the morphologic evolution of a reach of the river during a large flood in 2006, and comparing the model predictions to real-world magnitudes and patterns of topographic change recorded for this event by multi-temporal airborne lidar. The morphodynamic model is then used to simulate the response of this stream to floods in the past. A comprehensive dataset of the topography and hydrology of the Lower Rio Puerco since the 1920s is used to reproduce the morphology of the arroyo at multiple points in time, and historical descriptions serve to extrapolate these into the 19th century. We test the sensitivity of the reconstructed landscapes to changes in peak discharge, sediment supply, and the distribution and characteristics of vegetation in order to determine the relative influence of each forcing in the evolution of the stream, and to understand how the interactions of different processes could drive its progression through the arroyo cycle.

  17. VEGETAL COVERING IN CUT SLOPES BY MEANS OF GEOCELLS OF RUBBERIZED SISAL BIOBLANKETS IN BRASILIA/DF, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sponga

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The strongly wavy relief transposition for implantation of highways has became intensely used in the last decades by means of tunnels, cuts and fillings, causing impacts to the landscape in result of some factors, as decapitation of surfaces, abrupt transformation of land morphology, disequilibrium of superficial and sub superficial water circulation, waste handling sistems, enchainment of erosive processes etc. As an alleviating measure of part of the impacts generated for the excavations for constructing the roadways, procedures of containment and vegetal resetting of surfaces for reduction of the erosive processes and stabilization of mass movements are adopted. The found terrain are very diversified and several occasions the vegetal covering becomes difficult in reason of the physical-chemical characteristics for germination to be inadequate. In areas of high risk to the occupation with stability problems, commonly they use covering with projected concrete for containment of hillsides, that parallelly causes strong environmental and visual impact in the intervention area, and furthermore, possibly, not consisting insolutions duly adequate or definitive for these situations.The search for alternatives is frequent in academic medium as much as in the private initiative for techniques for containment of hillsides and more economic erosion control, looking for lesser ambient impacts and better results. The search of these alternatives gradually becomes technically systemizing itself, aiming at the recovery of the conditions of dynamic balance of the impacted landscapes due to the explosive increase of social and environmental problems intrinsically related.In this direction, it will be presented the description of a work of vegetal covering by grass in plates, antierosive bioblanket and geocells in fibers of rubberized sisal for the confinement of soil in cut slopes of a highway in Brasilia/DF, in Brazil. This technique presented excellent

  18. Comparative Study of the Volumetric Methods Calculation Using GNSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şmuleac, Adrian; Nemeş, Iacob; Alina Creţan, Ioana; Sorina Nemeş, Nicoleta; Şmuleac, Laura

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to achieve volumetric calculations for different mineral aggregates using different methods of analysis and also comparison of results. To achieve these comparative studies and presentation were chosen two software licensed, namely TopoLT 11.2 and Surfer 13. TopoLT program is a program dedicated to the development of topographic and cadastral plans. 3D terrain model, level courves and calculation of cut and fill volumes, including georeferencing of images. The program Surfer 13 is produced by Golden Software, in 1983 and is active mainly used in various fields such as agriculture, construction, geophysical, geotechnical engineering, GIS, water resources and others. It is also able to achieve GRID terrain model, to achieve the density maps using the method of isolines, volumetric calculations, 3D maps. Also, it can read different file types, including SHP, DXF and XLSX. In these paper it is presented a comparison in terms of achieving volumetric calculations using TopoLT program by two methods: a method where we choose a 3D model both for surface as well as below the top surface and a 3D model in which we choose a 3D terrain model for the bottom surface and another 3D model for the top surface. The comparison of the two variants will be made with data obtained from the realization of volumetric calculations with the program Surfer 13 generating GRID terrain model. The topographical measurements were performed with equipment from Leica GPS 1200 Series. Measurements were made using Romanian position determination system - ROMPOS which ensures accurate positioning of reference and coordinates ETRS through the National Network of GNSS Permanent Stations. GPS data processing was performed with the program Leica Geo Combined Office. For the volumetric calculating the GPS used point are in 1970 stereographic projection system and for the altitude the reference is 1975 the Black Sea projection system.

  19. Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-03-21

    The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly

  20. Processes of paleoarroyo aggradation in Kanab Creek, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, K. F.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many alluvial valleys in the southwest United States have experienced repeated periods of arroyo entrenchment and re-aggradation during the Holocene. Previous research suggests arroyo dynamics were regionally synchronous, implying that climate fluctuations are the dominant drivers. However, intrinsic reach- or catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds to entrenchment are also hypothesized to partially control the timing of arroyo processes. This study focuses on the Holocene alluvial history of three entrenched reaches of Kanab Creek, southern Utah, to explore these competing hypotheses. Episodes of prehistoric arroyo cutting and filling are reconstructed by recognition of buttress unconformable contacts in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy and age control derived from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating. A combined dataset of 47 OSL and 47 radiocarbon ages is produced, and results indicate at least five periods of aggradation occurred since ~6.0 ka, each interrupted by an episode of arroyo entrenchment. Comparison of this record to recently completed chronologies from arroyo systems in the region indicates near-synchronous arroyo processes over the last ~1.5 ka; however, beyond 1.5 ka correlations are less clear. Broadly contemporaneous alluviation suggests a climatic driver, and comparison to paleoclimate records suggests that arroyo entrenchment events may be driven by transitions from periods of multi-year drought to wetter periods. However, the detailed alluvial chronology indicates that the initiation of aggradation is transient, with each period of paleoarroyo aggradation beginning downstream and propagating upstream, which suggests that potentially regionally synchronous, climate-driven events may not appear as such in the stratigraphic record.

  1. The success of headwater rehabilitation towards gully erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    rehabilitation, check dam, cut-and fill cycle, soil and water conservation, erosion

  2. Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-03-21

    The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly

  3. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (> 10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor ( 10 Be and 36 Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2 to 4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22 to 18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time

  4. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  5. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention—youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring—with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Methods: Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees—private providers accredited by MSM—are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher

  6. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-03-24

    Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the

  7. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram Azmat,1 Waqas Hameed,1 Anja Lendvay,2 Babar Tasneem Shaikh,3 Ghulam Mustafa,1 Muhammad Ahmed Siddiqui,1 Sajid Brohi,1 Asif Karim,1 Muhammad Ishaque,1 Wajahat Hussain,1 Mohsina Bilgrami,1 Paul J Feldblum2 1Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Department, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Pakistan; 2FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 3Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan Introduction: The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab. Materials and methods: A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Discussion: Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018, 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end

  8. [Psychiatric aspects in workers subject to mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabei, A; Gebhardt, Eva; Petrucci, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    Mobbing in the language of ethologists means a particular behaviour of a group of animals consisting of several members forming an alliance against a single animal, in order to eliminate this animal away from the group. This term has been adopted in current usage to mean a kind of relationship at the workplace that, by aggressive and underhand means, aims at influencing or expelling the person. The term "bossing" is used to indicate a negative action, under the meaning described above, made by one or more senior persons, or possibly by the employer. In the Italian Parliament, under the current legislature, several bills are pending regarding this problem. Besides the aspects of topical interest in the problem, there are first and foremost the different kinds of reaction-adaptation to mobbing, according to the type of individual internal working models in action, that can be anxious/avoiding, anxious/resistant or disorganised. The purpose of our study was a clinical evaluation of the different ways of adaptation-reaction to a mobbing-type relationship at the workplace, and of the type of internal working models found among the examined patients. A clinical interview was carried out with 40 patients who, over a period of 12 months of observation, came to request a clinical assessment, for medical-legal reasons, of their psycho-pathological state and ways to react to adverse situations at the workplace, such as a mobbing or bossing. Besides the psychological and relational effects of mobbing, the reactions of the examined subjects to mobbing are also described, considering also the different cognitive self-organization possibilities, according to the individual internal working model, regarding patterns of attachment in adult age. The most frequent internal working model seems to be the one related to resistant attachment, followed by the avoidance and lastly--rarely--the disorganized model. Furthermore we observed among these subjects a certain deficit in meta

  9. ¿QUÉ OCURRE EN EL AULA COSTARRICENSE? LOS NIÑOS Y LAS NIÑAS QUE MALTRATAN A SUS COMPAÑEROS (WHAT HAPPENS IN COSTA RICAN CLASSROOM? CHILDREN ABUSE THEIR PARTNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro Hannia Cabezas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo es un estudio exploratorio que buscó identificar la presencia de conductas agresivas en escolares costarricenses. Se seleccionó una muestra intencional de 916 estudiantes de 9 a 14 años que cursan de tercero a sexto grado en diversos centros educativos del país, ubicados tanto en zonas rurales como urbanas y se aplicó una encuesta piloto. Del análisis de datos se desprende que un 14.3% de alumnos ha agredido de una u otra forma a sus iguales. Se concluye que la presencia de conductas agresivas en niños en edad escolar en la escuela costarricense es una realidad. De los datos se desprende que un 21% de los estudiantes que agreden a sus iguales son hombres y un 9% son mujeres. Los varones utilizan más la fuerza física y las mujeres acosan a sus iguales de forma solapada. Los datos se analizan porcentualmente en función de la incidencia del criterio que se pretende valorar.Abstract:This article was an exploratory study that seeks to identify the presence of aggressive behavior in Costa Rican school. We selected a purposive sample of 916 students from 9 to 14 years old enrolled in third through sixth grade in various schools in the country, located in both rural and urban areas. This was a pilot survey. Data analysis showed that 14.3% of students have been assaulted in one way or another to their peers. We conclude that the presence of aggressive behavior in school-age children in school in Costa Rica is a reality. Data showed that 21% of students who bully their peers were men and 9% were women. Males used more physical force while women harass their peers in an underhanded way. The data were analyzed based on the percentage incidence of the criteria that is intended to assess.

  10. CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and use of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelholm, C.-J.; Raiski, T.; Teir, S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Mineral carbonation has been investigated at Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), laboratory of energy engineering and environmental protection since year 2000. The Finnish Technology Agency Tekes and the Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee are funding through the ClimBus technology programme, in conjunction with the Nordic Energy Research Programme, the research regarding the application of ex situ mineral carbonation processes. One aspect is to verify the possible use of mineral carbonation for the separation, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has been screening since 2004 the location, quality and suitability of the Finnish processed serpentine and stoped serpentinite storage of mines and in situ serpentinite bodies of ultramafic rock formations for mineral carbonation of CO 2 . Tekes and the GTK are funding development work through the ClimBus technology programme on the utilisation of serpentine and serpentinite for CO 2 sequestration purposes, based on economical and environmental evaluation of mineral and mining processing operations. Also the options for other use of serpentine and serpentinite are evaluated. The most promising magnesium- and calcium-based sources for carbonation are by-products of mining processes of ultramafic rocks (such as serpentinites and serpentine) and steelmaking slags. Carbonated minerals could possibly be used as paper coating materials (PCC), fillers or construction materials. For magnesium carbonate new markets and applications must be developed. (orig.)

  11. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  12. ISP Descriptions of Four Military Computer Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    SOn Tot) ENDI IENC JEP JOPi. I JUMP ON 000 PARITY BE GIN OP TD I I GLTO NEXT T7A - ’rM AND TAI NEXT PARITY •TEXT I CEtCk PARITY (TI TO .> P * so Tot...WIo10lc6iO1 I NEXT NUIAO I STOPE (T019) IN PCcWI&ATW? (As) I NEXT EN~i ILNO HSC? UvP 7,1!sr Iwx7inr-non 1.tt-1 I tD 3-7,b-?S 11806 wiCI ~utJ-I8O Page 91...8217 ((C t4,3 YPMiNPE~ SF * d.ttýp(iiIZ) L53 MAWR.u, 1, NO I COGl. - IPIOI GC..’r ".Ced half r"o.’iv - I P411 11.Pi-4i * M,’r~pCINUCS, P’PIOWfu-.",,I)Q2𔃺i

  13. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  14. Conceptual costing study for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Comparative conceptual cost estimates for several possible options for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes have been developed. Five potentially applicable concepts were considered in the study: shallow land burial, using either unlined trenches, lined trenches or concrete canisters; engineered storage mounds; above-ground concrete vaults; below-ground concrete vaults; and intermediate-depth caverns using either open stopes or shrinkage mining. The objective was to develop comparative estimates. The differences in costs between concepts reflect the differences in handling methodology or costs of additional engineered barriers around the stored waste. An in situ waste volume of 805 000 m 3 , relatively favorable site conditions, a four-year disposal schedule and a consistent costing basis were assumed for each concept. Limited effort was made to optimize specific facility designs or disposal operations. The projected disposal costs vary from $68/m 3 of waste for shallow land burial in unlined trenches, to $312/m 3 of waste disposal in concrete canisters in trenches. The results of this study are reasonably consistent with previous estimates prepared for the low-level Radioactive Waste Management Office

  15. Uranium-production forecasting: the simulation of a South African gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program is described that estimates the amount of uranium that will be produced from a mine as a co-product of gold subject to a changing economic environment. The program makes use of two models. The first simulates activities underground, whereas the second simulates the performance of processing plant on the surface. The combination of these models generates a description of the flow of ore from stopes and from development, through hoisting, sorting, and the metallurgical plant to the despatch of saleable product. The total production of uranium to the end of the life of the mine constitutes the uranium reserve. The effects on production forecasts and reserve estimates of future trends in cost and price factors are illustrated by results generated from the application of the program to a typical South African mine producing gold and uranium. The graphs presented show that South Africa's future uranium production from underground sources is critically dependent on the gold price in the years ahead. (author)

  16. Finnish Official Development Aid for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland is one of the donor countries that is most supportive in family planning (FP, Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR and gender issues. This study examines Finnish ODA for FP and SRHR: its decision-making structure, other stakeholders and funding levels. Data consists of documents from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA and interviews conducted at the MFA and with other experts. While Parliament decides on the overall level of ODA funding, the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development has considerable autonomy. Other stakeholders such as the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Population and Development and the Family Federation of Finland (Vestliitto engage in advocacy work and have influenced development policy. Although the Development Policy 2007 mentions the importance of health and SRHR issues and HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue, interviewees stated that the importance of health and SRHR in ODA has declined and that the implementation of cross-cutting issues is challenging. Multilateral funding for UNFPA, UNAIDS and GFATM, and thus the proportion of SRHR funding within the health sector, is however currently rising. Funding for population-related activities has increased and represented 4.8% of Finlands total ODA in 2009. Almost all of this funding is directed towards basic reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues and the majority is directed through multilateral channels (78% in 2009, mainly UNFPA and UNAIDS. IPPF, Ipas and Marie Stopes International also receive support.

  17. Elastic waves at periodically-structured surfaces and interfaces of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Every

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple treatment of elastic wave scattering at periodically structured surfaces and interfaces of solids, and the existence and nature of surface acoustic waves (SAW and interfacial (IW waves at such structures. Our treatment is embodied in phenomenological models in which the periodicity resides in the boundary conditions. These yield zone folding and band gaps at the boundary of, and within the Brillouin zone. Above the transverse bulk wave threshold, there occur leaky or pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW, which are attenuated via radiation into the bulk wave continuum. These have a pronounced effect on the transmission and reflection of bulk waves. We provide examples of pseudo-SAW and pseudo-IW for which the coupling to the bulk wave continuum vanishes at isloated points in the dispersion relation. These supersonic guided waves correspond to embedded discrete eigenvalues within a radiation continuum. We stress the generality of the phenomena that are exhibited at widely different scales of length and frequency, and their relevance to situations as diverse as the guiding of seismic waves in mine stopes, the metrology of periodic metal interconnect structures in the semiconductor industry, and elastic wave scattering by an array of coplanar cracks in a solid.

  18. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Abbas, Ghazanfer; Ishaque, Muhammad; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-30

    High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women's health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as 'Suraj' (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group.

  19. The effect of time-dependent ventilation and radon (thoron) gas emanation rates in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical radiation mine model, suitable for underground uranium mines, has been investigated. In this model, the rate of ventilation and/or the radon (thoron) gas emanation from mine walls are time-dependent. Several cases of practical interest have been investigated including sinusoidal, linear, exponential, stepwise, or a combination of two or more of the above. Analytical solutions were obtained for the time-dependent radon (thoron) gas emanation rate. However, because of the extreme analytical complexity of the solutions corresponding to the time-dependent ventilation rate case, numerical solutions were found using a special Runge-Kutta procedure and the Hamming's modified predictor-corrector method for the solution of linear initial-value problems. The mine model makes provisions for losses of radioactivity, other than by ventilation and radioactive decay, by, say, plate-out on mine walls, and by other mechanisms. Radioactivity data, i.e., radon, thoron, and their progeny, obtained with the above mine model for a number of ventilation and emanation conditions, are presented. Experimental data obtained in an inactive stope of an underground uranium mine for a time-dependent air flow case are shown. Air flow conditions (ventilation rate) were determined by tracer gas techniques using SF 6

  20. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golik Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator’ driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  1. The nature of a deformation zone and fault rock related to a recent rockburst at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. A.; Reimold, W. U.; Charlesworth, E. G.; Ortlepp, W. D.

    2001-07-01

    In August 1998, a major deformation zone was exposed over several metres during mining operations on 87 Level (2463 m below surface) at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, southwest of Johannesburg, providing a unique opportunity to study the products of a recent rockburst. This zone consists of three shear zones, with dip-slip displacements of up to 15 cm, that are oriented near-parallel to the advancing stope face. Jogs and a highly pulverised, cataclastic 'rock-flour' are developed on the displacement surfaces, and several sets of secondary extensional fractures occur on either side of the shear zones. A set of pinnate (feather) joints intersects the fault surfaces perpendicular to the slip vector. Microscopically, the shear zones consist of two pinnate joint sets that exhibit cataclastic joint fillings; quartz grains display intense intragranular fracturing. Secondary, intergranular extension fractures are associated with the pinnate joints. Extensional deformation is also the cause of the breccia fill of the pinnate joints. The initial deformation experienced by this zone is brittle and tensile, and is related to stresses induced by mining. This deformation has been masked by later changes in the stress field, which resulted in shearing. This deformation zone does not appear to be controlled by pre-existing geological features and, thus, represents a 'burst fracture', which is believed to be related to a seismic event of magnitude ML=2.1 recorded in July 1998, the epicentre of which was located to within 50 m of the study locality.

  2. About the burial of nuclear power plants, damaged or in the process of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbrond, J.

    1994-01-01

    Some underground mining methods leave deep empty holes in the earth's surface behind them. In this paper it is described how to use such mining methods for the burial of damaged nuclear power plants and for the decommissioning by burial of nuclear reactors. The design of a new power plant should be integrated with that of an escapeway - an underground arrangement for burial. The described mining methods are block caving for catastrophy burial, and various stoping methods for planned burial and decommissioning. Blind shaft sinking by full face boring machines for burial and decommissioning of the reactor vessel is also described. All the described activities of mining and shaft sinking are well known. The total costs of burial by these methods are estimated using standard mining industry cost data. These include the costs for normal mine ventilation and groundwater control. However, the estimates of the cost and duration do not include the capital and operational costs of the pre- and post burial activities of ventilation and groundwater control related to the radioactivity. (author)

  3. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods/Design This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. Discussion The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group. PMID:24885657

  4. Application of Confined Blasting in Water-Filled Deep Holes to Control Strong Rock Pressure in Hard Rock Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In extra-thick coal seams, mining operations can lead to large-scale disturbances, complex overburden structures, and frequent and strong strata behavior in the stope, which are serious threats to mine safety. This study analyzed the overburden structure and strata behavior and proposed the technique of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes as a measure to prevent strong rock pressure. It found that there are two primary reasons for the high effectiveness of the proposed technique in presplitting hard coal and rock. First, the fracture water enables much more efficient transfer of dynamic load due to its incompressibility. Second, the subsequent expansion of water can further split the rock by compression. A mechanical model was used to reveal how the process of confined blasting in water-filled deep holes presplit roof. Moreover, practical implementation of this technique was found to improve the structure of hard, thick roof and prevent strong rock pressure, demonstrating its effectiveness in roof control.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-an Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault slip burst is a serious dynamic hazard in coal mining. A static and dynamic analysis for fault slip was performed to assess the risk of rock burst. A numerical model FLAC3D was established to understand the stress state and mechanical responses of fault rock system. The results obtained from the analysis show that the dynamic behavior of fault slip induced by stress waves is significantly affected by mining depth, as well as dynamic disturbance intensity and the distance between the stope and the fault. The isolation effect of the fault is also discussed based on the numerical results with the fault angle appearing to have the strongest influence on peak vertical stress and velocity induced by dynamic disturbance. By taking these risks into account, a stress-relief technology using break-tip blast was used for fault slip burst control. This technique is able to reduce the stress concentration and increase the attenuation of dynamic load by fracturing the structure of coal and rock. The adoption of this stress-relief method leads to an effective reduction of fault slip induced rock burst (FSIRB occurrence.

  6. Epigene and Hypogene Gypsum Karst Manifestations of the Castile Formation: Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Kevin W.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Permian evaporites of the Castile Formation crop out over ~1,800 km2 in the western Delaware Basin (Eddy County, New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas, USA with abundant and diverse karst manifestations. Epigene karst occurs as well-developed karren on exposed bedrock, while sinkholes dominate the erosional landscape, including both solutional and collapse forms. Sinkhole analyses suggest that more than half of all sinks are the result of upward stoping of subsurface voids, while many solutional sinks are commonly the result of overprinting of collapsed forms. Epigene caves are laterally limited with rapid aperture decreases away from insurgence, with passages developed along fractures and anticline fold axes. Hypogene karst occurs as diverse manifestations, forming the deepest and longest caves within the region as well as abundant zones of brecciation. Hypogene caves exhibit a wide range of morphologies from complex maze and anastomotic patterns to simple, steeply dipping patterns, but all hypogene caves exhibit morphologic features (i.e. risers, outlet cupolas and half-tubes that provide a definitive suite of evidence of dissolution within a mixed convection (forced and free convection hydrologic system. Extensive blanket breccias, abundant breccia pipes and numerous occurrences of calcitized evaporites indicate widespread hypogene speleogenesis throughout the entire Castile Formation. Although most cave and karst development within the Castile outcrop region appears to have hypogene origins, epigene processes areactively overprinting features, creating a complex speleogenetic evolution within the Castile Formation.

  7. An Investigation of the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Cemented Hydraulic Backfill Made of Alluvial Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Backfill is commonly used in underground mines. The quality control of the backfill is a key step to ensure it meets the designed strength requirement. This is done through sample collection from the underground environment, followed by uniaxial compression tests to obtain the Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS in the laboratory. When the cylindrical cemented backfill samples are axially loaded to failure, several failure modes can be observed and mainly classified into diagonal shear failure and axial split failure. To date, the UCS obtained by these two failure modes are considered to be the same with no distinction between them. In this paper, an analysis of the UCS results obtained on a cemented hydraulic backfill made of alluvial sand at a Canadian underground mine over the course of more than three years is presented. The results show that the UCS values obtained by diagonal shear failure are generally higher than those obtained by axial split failure for samples with the same recipe and curing time. This highlights the importance of making a distinction between the UCS values obtained by the two different modes of failure. Their difference in failure mechanism is explained. Further investigations on the sources of the data dispersion tend to indicate that the UCS obtained by laboratory tests following the current practice may not be representative of the in-situ strength distribution in the underground stopes due to segregation in cemented hydraulic backfill.

  8. Spatial Variation and Assessment of Heavy Metal and Radioactive Risk in Farmland around a Retired Uranium Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Shi, Chen-hao; Zeng, Guang-ming; Zhong, Min-zhou; Yuan, Yu-jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, heavy metal contamination in the environment has been attracted worldwide attention due to their toxicity, persistence,extensive sources and non-biodegradable properties. We herein investigate variation trend and risk of heavy metal and radiation distribution in the former mine stope, former mineral ore stockyard, and mine road with surface soils of a retired uranium mine in the mid-south of China. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Pb,Cd,Cu,Zn,As,Hg,Cr,Mn,Ni,U, and 232Th were analyzed according to the corresponding background values in Hunan, China. The Geo-accumulation index (Igeo ) were used for the assessment of pollution level of heavy metals and the radioactive elements of U and 232Th. Then, Pollution load index (PLI) and GIS techniquewere integrated to assess spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination and radioactive contamination. Results confirmed that three areas in the retired uranium mine was a primary source of pollution, which showed anthropogenic origin mainly from agricultural runoff, hydrometallurgy from chemical industries, radioactive tailings, and electroplating industriesfinally drained into Zishui River and Xiangjiang River. Based on the actual situation, some suggestions were put forward for the treatment of the retired uranium mine in conclusion.

  9. Backfilling behavior of a mixed aggregate based on construction waste and ultrafine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiusong; Zhang, Qinli; Xiao, Chongchun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To study the possibility of utilizing mixed construction waste and ultrafine tailings (CW&UT) as a backfilling aggregate that can be placed underground in a mine, physicochemical evaluation, proportioning strength tests, and pumpability experiments were conducted. It was revealed that mixed CW&UT can be used as a backfilling aggregate due to the complementarities of their physicochemical properties. In addition, as the results of the proportioning strength tests show, the compressive strength of a cemented CW&UT backfilling specimen cured for 28 days, with a mass fraction of 72-74%, a cement-sand ratio of 1:12, and a CW proportion of 30%, is higher than 1.0 MPa, which meets the safety requirements and economic consideration of backfilling technology in many underground metal mines, and can also be enhanced with an increase in the cement-sand ratio. The results of the pumpability experiments show that cemented backfilling slurry based on CW&UT can be transported to the stope underground with a common filling pump, with a 16.6 MPa maximum pressure, with the condition that the time of emergency shut-down is less than approximately 20 min. All in all, the research to utilize mixed CW&UT as a backfilling aggregate can not only provide a way to dispose of CW&UT but also will bring large economic benefits and can provide constructive guidance for environmental protection.

  10. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  11. [Piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Biao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Zhixu; Wang, Xudong

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates piezosurgery for surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) under local anesthesia. SARME was performed on adults with maxillary transverse deficiency under local anesthesia with a piezosurgical device. Fourteen patients (six males and eight females) underwent lateral maxillary osteotomies, midpalatal osteotomies, and bilateral pterygomaxillary disjunction. The feelings of patients during the operation were determined through questionnaires. All patients underwent SARME in the out-patient operating room. The surgical procedures were completed under local anesthesia. All patients exhibited satisfactory tolerance. Ultrasonic bone-cutting surgery was recently introduced as a feasible alternative to the conventional tools of cranio-maxillofacial surgery for its technical characteristics of precision and safety. The device used was unique in that cutting action occurred when the tool was employed on mineralized tissues, but stoped on soft tissues. The results of the questionnaires showed that eight (57.14%) patients felt a mild sensation of ultrasonic vibration, tweleve (85.7 1%) felt mild tolerable pain and tooth soreness during surgery, and eleven (78.57%) felt little fear and hardly heard the ultrasonic sound. Preoperative and postoperative six months later measurements showed an evident effect of expansion. Piezosurgery enabled patients to undergo all the steps of SARME under local anesthesia, but more cases and longer follow-up are needed to verif ' the results.

  12. Ground Support Strategies at the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbak, L. A.; Rai, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    Weak rock masses of high grade Carlin-trend gold mineralization are encountered in the Turquoise Ridge Joint Venture underground mine. The sediments consist of very weak and altered limestone, mudstone, and carbon-rich clays. The rock mass ratings are described as very poor to poor (Bieniawski in Proceedings of the symposium on exploration for rock engineering, Johannesburg, South Africa, pp. 97-106, 1976). The undercut and fill or boxes stoping mining methods are used because of the low dipping ore body geometry, complex geology, and weak rock mass. Design criteria are chosen to keep openings in weak rock as small as possible to prevent unraveling and to minimize supplementary support. Typical ground support for drifting includes the use of bolts, mesh, spiling, and shotcrete. Quality control of cemented rock fill (CRF) through sampling and aggregate sieve testing is necessary to insure high support strength. Specific support may include shotcrete arches with steel ring sets and CRF "arches" as a replacement of weak rock masses around long-term mine openings. Movement monitoring is utilized in problem areas and is needed to quantify and validate computer modeling.

  13. The influence of the formation pitching angle on the area for employing the KM-103 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A I; Teryanik, V I

    1982-01-01

    Mining sections in which the KM-103 powered complexes are used should be selected and planned on the basis of the actual pitching angle of the formation, and the anticipated vertical and lateral rock displacement in the workings. With the shapes and dimensions characteristic of galley cross-sections which are reinforced by arched 3 and 5-arm supports, and with the anticipated values of rock displacement, a maximum pitching angle exists, above which it is difficult to facilitate the drives of stope face conveyors. For arch-shaped galleys, which are reinforced by an arched 5-arm support, the maximum pitching angle of the formation is greater than in galleys which are reinforced by arched three-arm supports, with equal cross-sections even with large rock displacements. An increase in the cross-section of upwards of 13 square meters does not result in an increase in the maximum pitching angle of the formation due to the extension of the support roof timber. In the trapezoidal workings which are supported by the KPS-3 supports and are worked without employing roof blasting, the maximum pitching angle of the formation is 12 degrees. The thickness of the formation worked must be less than 1.1 meter.

  14. Geological control in computer-based resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic assessment of mineral deposits potentially involves a number of phases from initial assessment through to detailed orebody evaluation and subsequently to estimation of bench or stope grades in an operational mine. Obviously the nature and quantity of information varies significantly from one extreme to the other. This paper reports on geological interpretation which obviously plays a major part during the early phases of assessment and it logically follows that computerized orebody assessment techniques must be able to effectively utilize this information. Even in an operational mine the importance of geological control varies according to the type of orebody. The method of modelling coal seams is distinctly different from those techniques used for a massive sulphide deposit. For coal seams significant reliance is placed on the correlation of seam intercepts from holes which are widely spaced in relation to the seam (i.e.) orebody) thickness. The use of geological interpretation in this case is justified other experience gained in the past, compared to the cost of reliance only on samples from a very dense drill hole pattern

  15. SOCIAL FRANCHISING AND SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING: A QUALITATIVEANALYSIS OFFACILITATORS’PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Schalkwyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Franchising, a business concept that originated in the United States of America (USA, is asystem of doing business via contracts through which the franchiser shares a system ofknowledge, intellectual property and trade secrets in return for fees and royalties. Socialfranchising, on the other hand, utilises the same principles and format to achieve socialbenefits. Social franchising has been associated with, among others, the health services andeducation. Health services such as Marie Stopes International make use of social franchisingto increase their services by engaging existing private providers to deliver high quality sexualreproductive health services in underserved areas. In education, social franchising can be seenas a quick fix to national problems regarding education. The purpose of this study was toqualitatively analyse facilitators’perceptions of social franchising in education through theprovision of supplementary lessonsand its potential to improvestudents’ performance. Thesample of the study comprised facilitatorsactively involved in the facilitation of lessons tosupplement existing knowledge/impart new learning methodologies in mathematics, scienceand languages for school-going learners. An interview schedulewas developed andparticipants were interviewed at the site of deliveryduring the period when students were onrecess. From a content analysis of the transcripts of the interviewsfour themes, namely,challenges,opportunities,motivationandsustainabilityemerged. It is recommended thatthere should be greater parental as well as university involvement in the provision ofsupplementary tuition for learners. Existing schools with adequate resources should also beconsidered as possible venues for supplementary tuition.

  16. The peculiarities of structurizing enclosing rock massif while developing a coal seam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, E. N.; Shinkevich, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Different concepts of the development of geo-mechanical processes during longwall mining of a seam which are fundamentally different from the conventional ones are introduced in the article. Fundamental principles of the model for structurizing enclosing rock mass while longwall mining along the strike are described. The model was developed on the bases of non-linear geomechanical laws. According to the model, rock mass in the area of mining operation is organized as rock geomechanical layers with shifting arches. And the formation period of shifting arches in disintegrated rock mass is divisible by the length of the stope. Undulate characteristic of a massif as a peculiarity of man-made structurization of a massif is defined. It is shown that structuring the broken massif causes the formation of block-structured system and it can be detected while monitoring the ground pressure in powered support props. The results of the research allow decreasing the negative influence of a ground pressure and can be applied to specify parameters for controlling the roof, defining geometrical dimensions of a mining section and positioning of holing chute (face entry).

  17. Primary observation of clinical curative effect of superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changfu; Zhang Heping; Zhang Hongxia; Jin Haiying; Wang Binjie; He Xiang; Zhang Jie; Li Changbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the curative effect on superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta. Methods: Pelvic arteriography was performed to confirm bleeding vessels. Then a 5 F Cobra catheter was inserted superselectively into uterine artery ipsilateral to bleeding, through which methotrexatum (MTX) and gelatin sponge were injected for embolization. After the procedure, bleeding, blood pressure, dischargement of placenta tissue, uterine recuperation, and plasma β-HCG were monitored. Results: Bleeding vessels were confirmed in all of the 5 cases of placenta increta. Uterine artery embolization was successful at sole procedure. The operation time was 25.0 to 60.0 min, with the mean time (37.4 ± 5.8) min. Vaginal bleeding stoped in 3.0 to 12.0 minutes after embolization and the mean time was (5.7 ± 2.4) min. Blood pressure returned to normal after operation and vital signs were stable. Placenta tissue discharged on the 5th day to the 4th week after embolization and the mean time was 17 d. The uterus recuperated and blood β-HCG recovered simutaneously. The menstruation and ovulation during follow-up returned to normal. Conclusion: Superselective uterine artery embolization for treatment of placenta increta has advantages such as short operation time, minimal invasion, definite curative effect and reservation of uterus, which is worthy in clinical application. (authors)

  18. Uranium mill tailings backfill management. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Heggen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Backfilling, the disposal of spent uranium mill tailings in empty mine stopes, has been practiced in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico for nearly 20 years. The principal objective of backfilling is the prevention of roof collapse and hydraulic connection with overlying aquifers, increasing mine dewatering requirements. Backfilling is accomplished by gravity feed of a slurry of sand-fraction tailings and treated mine water into the slope. The effects of backfilling on surface discharge of mine wastewater are negligible due to the small fraction of the total flow represented by slurry decant. Furthermore, quality of the decant is not significantly below that of other mine waters. Groundwater effects of backfilling may be classified as short-term (while the mine is operational) and long-term (after dewatering operations have been terminated). Short-term effects are insignificant because of rapid and continuous flow to the mine sump. Long-term effects on aquifer water quality are predicted to be minimal due to (1) the small amount of slurry liquor present after drainage, (2) the precipitation of SO 4 and CO 3 phases, and (3) the reestablishment of reducing conditions and subsequent precipitation of major contaminants including U, As, Mo, Se, and V. 28 references, 19 figures, 9 tables

  19. Parameters of Solidifying Mixtures Transporting at Underground Ore Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, Vladimir; Dmitrak, Yury

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of providing mining enterprises with solidifying filling mixtures at underground mining. The results of analytical studies using the data of foreign and domestic practice of solidifying mixtures delivery to stopes are given. On the basis of experimental practice the parameters of transportation of solidifying filling mixtures are given with an increase in their quality due to the effect of vibration in the pipeline. The mechanism of the delivery process and the procedure for determining the parameters of the forced oscillations of the pipeline, the characteristics of the transporting processes, the rigidity of the elastic elements of pipeline section supports and the magnitude of vibrator' driving force are detailed. It is determined that the quality of solidifying filling mixtures can be increased due to the rational use of technical resources during the transportation of mixtures, and as a result the mixtures are characterized by a more even distribution of the aggregate. The algorithm for calculating the parameters of the pipe vibro-transport of solidifying filling mixtures can be in demand in the design of mineral deposits underground mining technology.

  20. The Communities R and D Programme: radioactive waste management and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The European Community's programme is the first and to this date the only joint international action dealing with those issues, which might well become decisive for the future of nuclear energy -the management and storage of radioactive waste. The first Annual Progress Report describes the scope and the state of advancement of this indirect action programme. At present 24 research contracts with research institutes in almost every member country of the EC are either signed or in the final stages of negociation. The objective of the R and D actions to be achieved by 1980 is the demonstration of either the technical potential or, for further advanced projects, the feasibility and even the industrial availability of methods for treating and stoping radwaste. The following aspects are investigated: processing of solid waste from reactors, reprocessing plants and the plutonium manufacture; intermediate and terminal storage of high activity and alpha wastes; advanced waste management methods as the storage of gaseous waste and the separation and transmutation of actinides. In addition to the scientific-technical R and D actions, a survey of the legal, administrative and financial problems encountered in radwaste management and storage is an essential part of the Communities' programme

  1. A Complementary Vision Strategy for Autonomous Robots in Underground Terrains using SRM and Entropy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Isafiade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates robots' perception in underground terrains (mines and tunnels using statistical region merging (SRM and the entropy models. A probabilistic approach based on the local entropy is employed. The entropy is measured within a fixed window on a stream of mine and tunnel frames to compute features used in the segmentation process, while SRM reconstructs the main structural components of an imagery by a simple but effective statistical analysis. An investigation is conducted on different regions of the mine, such as the shaft, stope and gallery, using publicly available mine frames, with a stream of locally captured mine images. Furthermore, an investigation is also conducted on a stream of dynamic underground tunnel image frames, using the XBOX Kinect 3D sensors. The Kinect sensors produce streams of red, green and blue (RGB and depth images of 640 × 480 resolution at 30 frames per second. Integrating the depth information into drivability gives a strong cue to the analysis, which detects 3D results augmenting drivable and non-drivable regions in 2D. The results of the 2D and 3D experiment with different terrains, mines and tunnels, together with the qualitative and quantitative evaluations, reveal that a good drivable region can be detected in dynamic underground terrains.

  2. Flow and geochemical modeling of drainage from Tomitaka mine, Miyazaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Tomiyama, Shingo; Metugi, Hideya; Ii, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Akira

    2015-10-01

    The chemistry and flow of water in the abandoned Tomitaka mine of Miyazaki, western Japan were investigated. This mine is located in a non-ferrous metal deposit and acid mine drainage issues from it. The study was undertaken to estimate the quantities of mine drainage that needs to be treated in order to avoid acidification of local rivers, taking into account seasonal variations in rainfall. Numerical models aimed to reproduce observed water levels and fluxes and chemical variations of groundwater and mine drainage. Rock-water interactions that may explain the observed variations in water chemistry are proposed. The results show that: (1) rain water infiltrates into the deeper bedrock through a highly permeable zone formed largely by stopes that are partially filled with spoil from excavations (ore minerals and host rocks); (2) the water becomes acidic (pH from 3 to 4) as dissolved oxygen oxidizes pyrite; (3) along the flow path through the rocks, the redox potential of the water becomes reducing, such that pyrite becomes stable and pH of the mine drainage becomes neutral; and (4) upon leaving the mine, the drainage becomes acidic again due to oxidation of pyrite in the rocks. The present numerical model with considering of the geochemical characteristics can simulate the main variations in groundwater flow and water levels in and around the Tomitaka mine, and apply to the future treatment of the mine drainage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Episodic sediment delivery and landscape connectivity in the Mancos Shale badlands and Fremont River system, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Andrew E.; Everitt, Benjamin L.; Duque, José F. Martín

    2008-12-01

    century and millennial time scales, and changes over time depending on the cycle of arroyo cutting and filling.

  4. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  5. Non-linearities in Holocene floodplain sediment storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Bastiaan; Nils, Broothaerts; Jean-François, Berger; Gert, Verstraeten

    2013-04-01

    Floodplain sediment storage is an important part of the sediment cascade model, buffering sediment delivery between hillslopes and oceans, which is hitherto not fully quantified in contrast to other global sediment budget components. Quantification and dating of floodplain sediment storage is data and financially demanding, limiting contemporary estimates for larger spatial units to simple linear extrapolations from a number of smaller catchments. In this paper we will present non-linearities in both space and time for floodplain sediment budgets in three different catchments. Holocene floodplain sediments of the Dijle catchment in the Belgian loess region, show a clear distinction between morphological stages: early Holocene peat accumulation, followed by mineral floodplain aggradation from the start of the agricultural period on. Contrary to previous assumptions, detailed dating of this morphological change at different shows an important non-linearity in geomorphologic changes of the floodplain, both between and within cross sections. A second example comes from the Pre-Alpine French Valdaine region, where non-linearities and complex system behavior exists between (temporal) patterns of soil erosion and floodplain sediment deposition. In this region Holocene floodplain deposition is characterized by different cut-and-fill phases. The quantification of these different phases shows a complicated image of increasing and decreasing floodplain sediment storage, which hampers the image of increasing sediment accumulation over time. Although fill stages may correspond with large quantities of deposited sediment and traditionally calculated sedimentation rates for such stages are high, they do not necessary correspond with a long-term net increase in floodplain deposition. A third example is based on the floodplain sediment storage in the Amblève catchment, located in the Belgian Ardennes uplands. Detailed floodplain sediment quantification for this catchments shows

  6. Description of chronostratigraphic units preserved as channel deposits and geomorphic processes following a basin-scale disturbance by a wildfire in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2017-10-11

    nearly horizontal erosional and depositional surfaces and left a landscape consisting of a series of cut-and-fill terraces as a legacy of this wildfire disturbance. 

  7. Does slab-window opening cause uplift of the overriding plate? A case study from the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Chris; Chew, David; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2017-11-01

    Complete subduction of an oceanic plate results in slab-window opening. A key uncertainty in this process is whether the higher heat flux and asthenospheric upwelling conventionally associated with slab-window opening generate a detectable topographic signature in the overriding plate. We focus on the Baja California Peninsula, which incorporates the western margin of the Gulf of California rift. The topography and tectonics of the rift flank along the peninsula are strongly bimodal. North of the Puertecitos accommodation zone, the primary drainage divide attains a mean elevation of ca. 1600 m above sea level (asl), above an asthenospheric slab-window opened by Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge subduction along this section of the trench at ca. 17-15 Ma. To the south, mean topography decreases abruptly to ca. 800 m asl (excluding the structurally distinct Los Cabos block at the southern tip of the peninsula), above fragments of the oceanic Farallon slab which stalled following slab tear-off at ca. 15-14 Ma. Along the peninsula, a low-relief surface established atop Miocene subduction-related volcaniclastic units has been incised by a west-draining canyon network in response to uplift. These canyons exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with widespread post-subduction lavas. Here, we utilise LANDSAT and digital elevation model (DEM) data, integrated with previously published K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar lava crystallisation ages, to constrain the onset of rift flank uplift to ca. 9-5 Ma later than slab-window formation in the north and ca. 11-10 Ma later in the south. These greatly exceed response time estimates of ca. 2 Ma or less for uplift triggered by slab-window opening. Instead, uplift timing of the high-elevation northern region is consistent with lower-lithospheric erosion driven by rift-related convective upwelling. To the south, stalled slab fragments likely inhibited convective return flow, preventing lithospheric erosion and limiting uplift to the isostatic response

  8. Sediment pathways in a tropical forest: effects of logging roads and skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.; Sasaki, Shozo; Otsuki, Mieko; Noguchi, Shoji; Rahim Nik, Abdul

    2004-03-01

    Significant erosion occurred from recently constructed forest logging roads and skid trails in a small headwater catchment in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil loss was estimated by measuring dimensions of all significant rills and gullies along the road, as well as by measuring height of preserved soil pedestals in sidecast and fill material and on skid trails. Estimates of surface erosion from logging roads and skid trails were 272 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 and 275 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 respectively. However, owing to lack of connectivity of skid trails to the stream, much of the sediment mobilized on skid trails was stored either on adjacent hillslopes or the trails themselves, rather than being transported to the stream system, as was the case for the road. Steeper skid trails (>20% gradient) had slightly higher erosion rates (320 +/- 24 t ha-1 year-1) than trails with gentler gradients (245-264 t ha-1 year-1). Some 60% of the soil loss on logging roads comes from erosion of the running surface. Disturbed cut and fill material along the road supplied the remaining 40% of the soil loss from roads. Roads and skid trails had no designed drainage systems; runoff discharged onto the hillslope at 25 major discharge nodes from the logging road (690 m total length) and at 34 nodes from skid trails (2300 m). Sediment pathways were either fully or moderately connected to headwater channels at 64% of the logging road nodes, but at only 26% of the nodes emanating from skid trails. A detailed sediment budget revealed that 78% of the soil loss from the road system (including log landings) was delivered to the stream in the first 16 months after logging began. Most (90%) of the deposition from skid trails occurred below just three discharge nodes. Runoff from and onto skid trails often exacerbated the sediment connectivity to channels. Clearly, sediment discharge from logging roads was more highly connected to the stream than discharge from skid trails. Once in the channel, much of this

  9. Mountain Rivers and Climate Change: Analysis of hazardous events in torrents of small alpine watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzmann, Silke; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Torrential processes like flooding, heavy bedload transport or debris flows in steep mountain channels emerge during intense, highly localized rainfall events. They pose a serious risk on the densely populated Alpine region. Hydrogeomorphic hazards are profoundly nonlinear, threshold mediated phenomena frequently causing costly damage to infrastructure and people. Thus, in the context of climate change, there is an ever rising interest in whether sediment cascades of small alpine catchments react to changing precipitation patterns and how the climate signal is propagated through the fluvial system. We intend to answer the following research questions: (i) What are critical meteorological characteristics triggering torrential events in the Eastern Alps of Austria? (ii) The effect of external triggers is strongly mediated by the internal disposition of catchments to respond. Which factors control the internal susceptibility? (iii) Do torrential processes show an increase in magnitude and frequency or a shift in seasonality in the recent past? (iv) Which future changes can be expected under different climate scenarios? Quantifications of bedload transport in small alpine catchments are rare and often associated with high uncertainties. Detailed knowledge though exists for the Schöttlbach catchment, a 71 km2 study area in Styria in the Eastern Alps. The torrent is monitored since a heavy precipitation event resulted in a disastrous flood in July 2011. Sediment mobilisation from slopes as well as within-channel storage and fluxes are regularly measured by photogrammetric methods and sediment impact sensors (SIS). The associated hydro-meteorological conditions are known from a dense station network. Changing states of connectivity can thus be related to precipitation and internal dynamics (sediment availability, cut-and-fill cycles). The site-specific insights are then conceptualized for application to a broader scale. Therefore, a Styria wide database of torrential

  10. Excursions in fluvial (dis)continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon E.; O'Connor, James E.; Safran, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    : punctuated episodes of cutting and filling, discretization of landscapes into hierarchies of structure and control, the work of extreme events. Orderly and progressive evolution towards a steady or ideal state is replaced by chaotic episodes of disturbance and recovery. Recent developments in the field of geomorphology suggest that we may be on the cusp of a new paradigm that recognizes that both continuous and discontinuous processes and mechanisms play a role in fluvial processes and landscape evolution with neither holding sway over the other and both needed to see rivers as they are.

  11. Geology and preliminary dating of the hominid-bearing sedimentary fill of the Sima de los Huesos Chamber, Cueva Mayor of the Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J L; Fitzpatrick, J A; León, L; Arsuagà, J L; Falgueres, C; Bahain, J J; Bullen, T

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of the Sima de los Huesos vary greatly over distances of a few meters. This is typical of interior cave facies, and caused by cycles of cut and fill. Mud breccias containing human bones, grading upwards to mud containing bear bones, fill an irregular surface cut into basal marks and sands. The lack of Bedding and the chaotic abundance of fragile speleothem clasts in the fossiliferous muds suggests that the deposit was originally a subterranean pond facies, and that after emplacement of the human remains, underwent vigorous post-depositional rotation and collapse and brecciation, caused by underlying bedrock dissolution and undermining. The fossiliferous deposits are capped by flowstone and guano-bearing muds which lack large-mammal fossils. U-series and radiocarbon dating indicates the capping flowstones formed from about 68 ka to about 25 ka. U-series analyses of speleothem clasts among the human fossils indicate that all are at, or close to, isotopic equilibrium (> 350 ka). The distribution of U-series dates for 25 bear bones (154 +/- 66 ka) and for 16 human bones (148 +/- 34 ka) is similar and rather broad. Because the human bones seem to be stratigraphically older than chose of the bears, the results would indicate that most of the bones have been accumulating uranium irregularly with time. Electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses of six selected bear bones indicates dates of 189 +/- 28 ka, for which each is cordant with their corresponding U-series date (181 +/- 41 ka). Combined ESR and U-series dates for these samples yielded 200 +/- 4 ka. Such agreement is highly suggestive that uranium uptake in these bones was close to the early-uptake (EU) model, and the dates are essentially correct. Another three selected samples yielded combined ESR U-series dates of 320 +/- 4 ka with a modeled intermediate-mode of uranium uptake. The dating results, therefore, seem to provide a firm minimum age of about 200 ka for the human entry: and suggestive evidence of

  12. Geologic map of the Fort Morgan 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-06-08

    The Fort Morgan 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the late Pliocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Fort Morgan quadrangle. Distribution and characteristics of the alluvial deposits indicate that during the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling a deep paleochannel near the south edge of the quadrangle. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at and near their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan composed of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Wildcat Creek, also originating on the Colorado Piedmont, and the small drainage of Cris Lee Draw dissect the map area north of the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the

  13. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  14. Late Proterozoic glacially controlled shelf sequences in western Mali (west Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deynoux, M.; Prousti, J. N.; Simon, B.

    The Late Proterozoic deposits of the Bakoye Group (500 m) in western Mali constitute a remarkable example of a glacially influenced sedimentary record on an epicratonic platform. They are composed of alternating marine and continental formations which represent accumulation in a basin located in the vicinity of upland areas covered by ice sheets. One of these formations (the Ba4 Formation), which is the focus of this study, is composed of three major units. The basal Unit 1 is made up of carbonaceous coarse to fine grained sandstones which are organized in fining upward sequences and which comprise lenticular diamictite intercalations. This Unit is considered to represent the fore slope gravity flows of a subaqueous ice-cootact fan fed by meltwater streams (≪glacioturbidites≫). Unit 2 is made up of coarse to fine grained sandstones in a highly variable association of facies. This Unit is characterized by the abundance of wave ripples associated with convolute beddings. planar or wavy beddings and tabular or hummocky crossbeddings in a general shallowing upward trend. It also comprises evidence of gravity processes including debris flows and large slumped sandstone bodies. Unit 2 represents the progressive filling of the Ba4 basin and reflects the combined effect of glacially induced eustatism and isostacy during a phase of glacial retreat. The basal part of Unit 3 is made up of a succession (a few meters thick) of conglomerates, diamictites, sandstones, siltstones or carbonates lying on an erosional unconformity marked by periglacial frost wedges. The upper part of Unit 3 is thicker (100-150 m) and onlaps on these basal facies with a succession of sandstone bars exhibiting swaley and hummocky crossbeddings, large cut and fill structures, and planar laminations. Unit 3 is strongly transgressive, the lower shoreface and backshore deposits include algal mats and are onlapped by sand ridges emplaced in a high energy upper to middle shoreface environment. Overall

  15. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    . Optimized pit filling techniques use both cut and fill operations to minimize modifications of the original DEM. Satellite image interpretation and field surveying provide the baseline upon which to test the accuracy of each model simulation. By outlining areas that could potentially be inundated by debris flows, these efforts can be used to more accurately identify the places and assets immediately exposed to landslide hazards. We contextualize the results of the previous and ongoing efforts into how they may be incorporated into decision support systems. We also discuss if and how these analyses would have provided additional knowledge in the past, and identify specific recommendations as to how they could contribute to a more robust decision support system in the future.

  16. Seismic risk mitigation in deep level South African mines by state of the art underground monitoring - Joint South African and Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Durrheim, R.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Naoi, M.

    2012-04-01

    quantify post slip behavior of the source. An attempt to associate the different type of deformations with the various fracture regions and geological structures around the stopes was carried out. A model, was introduced in which the coseismic deformations are associated with the stress regime outside the stope fracture envelope and very often located on existing geological structures, while the aseismic deformations are associated with mobilization of fractures and stress relaxation within the fracture envelope. Further research to verify this model is strongly recommended. This involves long term underground monitoring using a wide variety of instruments such as tilt, closure and strain meters, a highly sensitive AE fracture monitoring system, as well as strong ground motion monitors. A large amount of numerical modeling is also required.

  17. Does courtesy bias affect how clients report on objective and subjective measures of family planning service quality? A comparison between facility- and home-based interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed W

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waqas Hameed, Muhammad Ishaque, Xaher Gul, Junaid-ur-Rehman Siddiqui, Sharmeen Hussain, Wajahat Hussain, Aftab Ahmed, Asma Balal Strategy Department, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan Purpose: Despite a general understanding that exit interviews being conducted at service providers’ facilities may influence clients’ responses favorably to health professionals, there is very little evidence available that demonstrates the extent to which this problem exists. This study aimed at assessing and comparing clients’ perceptions of the quality of family planning services and their satisfaction levels between facility- and home-based interviews. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among clients receiving family planning services across three service delivery channels – nongovernmental organization (NGO clinics, social franchise (SF centers, and outreach camps. The survey took place from December 2015 to January 2016 in 70 districts across all four provinces of Pakistan. A total of 2,807 clients were interviewed, of whom 1,404 clients were interviewed at health facilities after receiving services and 1,403 were interviewed at their homes within 3 days of method uptake. Results: Overall, we found no significant differences between the characteristics of study participants interviewed at health facilities or at home. The findings suggested that experiences reported in exit surveys at facilities were strongly biased positively. This was true for both experiential (service quality and perception-based (satisfaction questions in the context of SF centers, while at NGO clinics the interview location only affected clients’ responses regarding service quality. However, in outreach settings, clients are more likely to share bad experiences in exit interviews than in home-based interviews on objectively asked questions (service quality. Conclusion: Our study indicates signs of courtesy bias and possibly the Hawthorne effect in

  18. Gamma ray fluorescence for in situ evaluation of ore in Witwatersrand gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1979-01-01

    A system for quantitative in situ evaluation of ore in Witwatersrand gold mines was researched and subsequently developed. The principle of measurement is based on the excitation of gold K X-rays in rock face samples by the 88 keV gamma radiation from a Cadmium-109 radioisotope source. The X-rays and scattered radiation from the rock matrix are detected by a hyperpure germanium detector cooled by liquid nitrogen in a portable probe. In the fluorescence spectrum the intensity ratio of the gold Kβ peaks to their immediate scattered background is evaluated and quantitatively converted in the portable analyser to area concentration units. All aspects of the physical and instrumental measurement had to be investigated to arrive at a system capable of quantitative evaluation of trace concentrations in stope face ore samples. The parameters of spectrum evaluation were investigated from fundamental principles to allow quantitative assessment of different methods of peak evaluation for optimization of the method as a whole. The basic concepts of random signal processing times were developed together with new concepts of pileup parameters to allow a quantitative description of the data acquisition rate of a complete analog pulse processing system. With this foundation a practical measuring geometry and optimum values for signal processing time parameters, for detector size and for discriminator positions for spectrum evaluation could be determined. Parallel with the derivation of optimum measurement parameters went the development of instruments, their field testing and appraisal of the method. The development of the gamma ray fluorescence method has shown the potential of the method to serve as an ore valuation tool and to assist in the geological identification of strata in Witwatersrand gold mines

  19. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nigeria using more condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  1. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ali, Muhammad; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Ahmed, Aftab

    2012-03-29

    Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  2. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS) established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun) in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8) months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%); of which a majority (70.2%) returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications. PMID:22458444

  3. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Khurram Azmat, Syed; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the service providers

  4. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-09-27

    From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were "additional users" of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. © Bellows et al.

  5. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Syed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is very safe, highly effective reversible and inexpensive family planning method which offers 5-10 years of protection against pregnancy. The contraceptive use in Pakistan has been merely 30% for over a decade with IUCD being the least used method. Higher discontinuation rates are documented in developing countries; however no such data is available for Pakistan. Marie Stopes Society (MSS established a social franchise outlets network branded as 'SURAJ' (Sun in Pakistan to provide quality family planning services. This study attempts to determine IUCD discontinuation rates and its associated risk factors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 3000 clients who availed IUCD services from Suraj provider 6, 12 and 24 month back,. Data were analyzed in SPSS 17.0; adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to see associations between discontinuation and its risk factors. Case presentation We found that 22.7% of the IUCD acceptors experienced some health problem; while the overall discontinuation rate was 18.9% with average time of usage of 7.4 (SD ± 5.8 months before discontinuation. Half of them showed health concerns (49.8%; of which a majority (70.2% returned to Suraj provider for IUCD removal. Women living in Punjab, residing at a travelling time of 30-60 minutes and no previous use of contraceptive are more likely to discontinue IUCD. However, among total women 81.7% still expressed willingness to avail IUCD services from Suraj provider in future, if needed. Conclusion The findings suggest a need for training the providers and field workers to prevent early discontinuation of IUCD among the Suraj clients and by addressing the health concerns through proper counseling, continued follow-up and immediate medical aid/referral in case of complications.

  6. Granitoids of the Dry Valleys area, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica : plutons, field relationships, and isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Cox, S.C.; Johnstone, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed mapping throughout much of the Dry Valleys area indicates the region is underlain by 15 major granitoid plutons and numerous smaller plugs and dikes. Intrusive relationships of these plutons and dikes indicate repeated intrusion of superficially similar granitoids at different times. Sufficient internal lithologic variation occurs within individual plutons, to allow correlation with several of the previously defined granitoid units based on lithologic character. Consequently, previous subdivision schemes based on lithology are no longer tenable and are here replaced with a subdivision scheme based on the identification of individual plutons. The elongate, concordant Bonney, Denton, Cavendish, and Wheeler Plutons, which range in composition between monzodiorite and granodiorite, are the oldest relatively undeformed plutons in the Dry Valleys area. Each pluton is characterised by flow alignment of K-feldspar megacrysts, hornblende, biotite, and mafic enclaves. Field relationships and radiometric dating indicate these are deep-level plutons, emplaced synchronous with upper amphibolite facies metamorphism of the adjacent Koettlitz Group between 589 and 490 Ma ago. Elongate, discordant plutons of equigranular homogeneous biotite granodiorite and granite (Hedley, Valhalla, St Johns, Suess) were subsequently emplaced by stoping at a relatively high crustal level at 490 Ma. These eight plutons are cut by numerous swarms of Vanda mafic and felsic porphyry dikes. The ovoid, discordant, high level Pearse, Nibelungen, Orestes, Brownworth, Swinford, and Harker Plutons, emplaced between c. 486 and 477 Ma, display mutually crosscutting relationships with the youngest of the Vanda dikes. These younger plutons range in composition between monzonite and granite. Some are characterised by K-feldspar megacrystic textures superficially similar to some of the oldest concordant plutons. (author). 57 refs.; 2 tabs.; 4 figs

  7. Women's views and experiences of a mobile phone-based intervention to support post-abortion contraception in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris; Ly, Sokhey; Uk, Vannak; Warnock, Ruby; Free, Caroline

    2017-06-12

    The MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) trial assessed a mobile phone-based intervention comprising voice messages and counsellor support to increase post-abortion contraception at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. The aim of this process evaluation was to assess women's views and experiences of receiving the MOTIF intervention, gain insights into the mechanism of action of the intervention and seek recommendations for improvements. We conducted a qualitative study comprising15 semi-structured interviews with women who had received the intervention and undertook a simple thematic analysis. We identified themes relating to communication via mobile phone, supporting contraception use, broader post-abortion care, interaction with family and friends and suggestions for improvement. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention to support contraception use and reported it to be a convenient way to ask questions or get advice without going to a health centre, although a few women found the voice messages intrusive. The intervention supported contraception use by provision of information, encouragement, reminders to return to clinic, reassurance and advice for problems and had a positive effect on contraceptive uptake and continuation. Women reported a sense of being cared for and received support for additional physical and emotional issues. Most women thought that the duration of the intervention and frequency of messages were acceptable. The majority of women were positive about the mobile phone-based intervention which provided support for contraception use as well as additional physical and emotional issues. The study provides some insights into how the intervention might have worked and considers how the intervention could be improved.

  8. Differential diagnosis of recurrent bronchitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zakirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest of the doctors — pediatricians to recurrent bronchitis is caused by its high specific weight in the structure of bronchopulmonary pathology in children, the complexity and the need to search the differential selection of an individual regimen and prevention. Recurrent bronchitis with bronchoobstructive syndromes patient is regarded as a predictor of asthma, however, erroneously consider these nosological forms as the stages of a single pathophysiological chain as congenital and acquired diseases of respiratory system, pathology of gastro-intestinal tract, cardio-vascular system can masquerade as recurrent bronchitis. The aim of this work — to analyze the current medical literature on the problem of differential search causes leading recurrent respiratory syndrome in children. Materials and methods. The review publications domestic and foreign authors studied data from clinical and epidemiological studies. Results and its discussion. Anatomical physiological characteristics of the respiratory tract, complicated premorbid background, the re-infection of the child respiratory infection contribute to the recurrent course of bronchitis. The most common recurrent bronchitis is transient, recurrent bronchitis episodes completely stoped with the age of the child. Recurrent respiratory infections can fix bronchial hyperreactivity and with the presence of aggravated allergic history lead to the development of asthma. Severe bronchitis, resistance to standard scheme of therapy, the frequent recurrence of respiratory syndrome dictate the need to expand the diagnostic research to clarify the leading cause of recurrent bronchitis. Conclusion. Recurrent bronchitis is considered as a separate nosological form. At the same time, by repeated episodes of respiratory infection may be masked by malformations, hereditary diseases of respiratory system, bronchus foreign body microaspiration syndrome, pathology of the cardio-vascular system. 

  9. Evaluating a LARC Expansion Program in 14 Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Service Delivery Model for Meeting FP2020 Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Nuccio, Olivia; Pereira, Shreya K; Footman, Katharine; Reiss, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Objectives In many sub-Saharan African countries, the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is low while unmet need for family planning (FP) remains high. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LARC access expansion initiative in reaching young, less educated, poor, and rural women. Methods Starting in 2008, Marie Stopes International (MSI) has implemented a cross-country expansion intervention to increase access to LARCs through static clinics, mobile outreach units, and social franchising of private sector providers. We analyzed routine service statistics for 2008-2014 and 2014 client exit interview data. Indicators of effectiveness were the number of LARCs provided and the percentages of LARC clients who had not used a modern contraceptive in the last 3 months ("adopters"); switched from a short-term contraceptive to a LARC ("switchers"); were aged <25; lived in extreme poverty; had not completed primary school; lived in rural areas; and reported satisfaction with their overall experience at the facility/site. Results Our annual LARC service distribution increased 1037 % (from 149,881 to over 1.7 million) over 2008-2014. Of 3816 LARC clients interviewed, 46 % were adopters and 46 % switchers; 37 % were aged 15-24, 42 % had not completed primary education, and 56 % lived in a rural location. Satisfaction with services received was rated 4.46 out of 5. Conclusions The effectiveness of the LARC expansion in these 14 sub-Saharan African FP programs demonstrates vast untapped potential for wider use of LARC methods, and suggests that this service delivery model is a plausible way to support FP 2020 goals of reaching those with an unmet need for FP.

  10. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  11. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  12. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Lendvay, Anja; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Mustafa, Ghulam; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Brohi, Sajid; Karim, Asif; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Feldblum, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant) in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18-44 years) at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab). A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization) in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Over the next 5-year period (2013-2018), 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end users with Femplant (Sino-implant II). This will help to guide policies to enhance access to and the use of long-acting contraceptive implants in Pakistan and similar developing countries.

  13. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sub-level development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  14. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later.

  15. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later

  16. Geoscientific investigations in the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad for safe disposal of certain radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1980-01-01

    Besides the disposal of high-active waste in a salt formation the national policy of the Federal Republic of Germany provides for a second underground storage facility for non-α-emitting and low-active waste. Due to the short decay times of such wastes the demands made on the geological barrier are in some respect different, in particular as regards long-term stability and impermeability to liquids. Within the 1000-year-phase all wastes will have reached a concentration with a content of radionuclides far below that of a uranium deposit. The abandoned iron ore mine Konrad (Lower Saxony) has some exceptional geological features which make it a very good choice for a radioactive waste repository. The mine is 1200 m deep. Stopes and galleries are extremely dry. The hanging rock formations are mainly claystones. The mining installations are of modern design. The geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have to examine in detail the covering claystone formations for their extension and mineralization, the origin and the age of the mine's seepage water as well as the mechanical stability of the underground cavities during and after the operational period. Via radiological investigations a catalogue of various low-active waste types, the waste volumina and the total activities accumulating over a period of 30 years is being established. For a safety assessment the hazard indices of a uranium ore deposit containing 0.2 wt% U 3 O 8 and a waste repository corresponding to the above figures were compared. The research programme has not been terminated yet since it is being financed by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) of the Federal Republic of Germany until the end of 1981

  17. Public sphere of politics: between classical grounds and new political actuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tretyak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The public sphere of politics as a theoretical concept of modern political science has been discussed in the article. The reasons of the increasing interest to the public sphere is a dominating subject. Studied The phenomenon of the public sphere being a tool of theoretical and methodological definition of the political world’s boundaries has been studied. The value aspects of media activity in the contemporary politics has been investigated. An attempt has been made to establish the potential of political publicity for the qualitative understanding of participatory democracy. The potential of the public sphere in the development of civil society and social capital has been described. The distinction between the public sphere of politics and political communication in the specific conditions of modern transformational societies has been reasonably grounded. The importance of the presence of state power in all spheres of life of the transformational society has been stressed. Such transformation has not been stoped after the liberal market reforms, which had to ensure the existence of a formal representative democracy. The influence of the elite and expert groups being the reason of the absence of really functioning future civil society has been considered. The features of the formation of civil and social activities as a precondition for the democratic political class’ functioning have been studied. The specifics of public political activity being the prerogative of the competent entities’ political broadcasting have been analyzed. The gradual formation of cyber public sphere and its political branch segment has been revealed. Thorough attention has been given to the processes of the public sphere’s politicization which are usual for primarily authoritarian and closed societies.

  18. Vocal local versus pharmacological treatments for pain management in tubal ligation procedures in rural Kenya: a non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Fry, Kenzo; Mbugua, Edwin; Ayallo, Mark; Quinn, Heidi; Otieno, George; Ngo, Thoai D

    2014-02-04

    Vocal local (VL) is a non-pharmacological pain management technique for gynecological procedures. In Africa, it is usually used in combination with pharmacological analgesics. However, analgesics are associated with side-effects, and can be costly and subject to frequent stock-outs, particularly in remote rural settings. We compared the effectiveness of VL + local anesthesia + analgesics (the standard approach), versus VL + local anesthesia without analgesics, on pain and satisfaction levels for women undergoing tubal ligations in rural Kenya. We conducted a site-randomised non-inferiority trial of 884 women receiving TLs from 40 Marie Stopes mobile outreach sites in Kisii and Machakos Districts. Twenty sites provided VL + local anesthesia + analgesics (control), while 20 offered VL + local anesthesia without additional analgesics (intervention). Pain was measured using a validated 11-point Numeric Rating Scale; satisfaction was measured using 11-point scales. A total of 461 women underwent tubal ligations with VL + local anesthesia, while 423 received tubal ligations with VL + local anesthesia + analgesics. The majority were aged ≥30 years (78%), and had >3 children (99%). In a multivariate analysis, pain during the procedure was not significantly different between the two groups. The pain score after the procedure was significantly lower in the intervention group versus the control group (by 0.40 points; p = 0.041). Satisfaction scores were equally high in both groups; 96% would recommend the procedure to a friend. VL + local anesthesia is as effective as VL + local anesthesia + analgesics for pain management during tubal ligation in rural Kenya. Avoiding analgesics is associated with numerous benefits including cost savings and fewer issues related to the maintenance, procurement and monitoring of restricted opioid drugs, particularly in remote low-resource settings where these systems are weak. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201304000495942.

  19. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khurram Azmat

    Full Text Available Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan.We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11.Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1% was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers.Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the

  20. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were “additional users” of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. PMID:28963175

  1. Ventilation of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Dumas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the authors describe the ventilation of French mines in terms of the primary ventilation system, which brings the outside air close to the working places using the overall structure of the mine to form the airways, and the secondary ventilation system, which is for the distribution of the primary air or for the ventilation of the development drifts and blind tunnels. Brief mention is made of the French regulations on the ventilation of mines in general and uranium mines in particular. The authors describe the equipment used and discuss the installed capacities and air flow per man and per working place. The difficulties encountered in properly ventilating various types of working places are mentioned, such as sublevel development drifts, reinforced stopes, and storage chambers with an artificial crown. The second part of the paper is devoted to computer calculations of the primary ventilation system. It is explained why the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has found it necessary to make these calculations. Without restating the mathematical theories underlying the methods employed, the authors demonstrate how simple measuring instruments and a small-size computer can be used to solve the ventilation problems arising in French mines. Emphasis is given to the layout of the ventilation system and to air flow and negative pressure measurements at the base of the mine. The authors show how calculations can be applied to new heading operations, a change in resistance, the replacement or addition of a ventilator, and a new air inlet or outlet. The authors come to the conclusion that since ventilation is at present the most reliable way of avoiding the pollution of mines, a thorough knowledge of the capabilities in this respect can often help improve working conditions. Despite the progress made, however, constant surveillance of the ventilation systems in uranium mines by a separate team with no responsibility for production problems is

  2. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  3. Assessment of hydration process and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill by electrical resistivity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin; Tian, Xichun; Cao, Peiwang

    2018-04-01

    Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is an emerging mine backfill technique that allows environmentally hazardous tailings to return to the underground openings or stopes, thereby maximising the safety, efficiency and productivity of operation. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is one of the most commonly used parameters for evaluating the mechanical performance of CPB; the prediction of the UCS of CPB structures from early to advanced ages is of great practical importance. This study aims to investigate the predictability of the UCS of CPB during the hydration process based on electrical resistivity (ER) measurement. For this purpose, the samples prepared at different cement-to-tailing ratios and solid contents were subjected to the ER test during the whole hydration process and UCS tests at 3, 7, 28 days of curing periods. The effect of cement-to-tailing ratio and solid content on the ER and UCS of CPB samples was obtained; the UCS values were correlated with the corresponding ER data. Microstructural analysis was also performed on CPB samples to understand the effect of microstructure on the ER data. The result shows that the ER of CPB decreases first and then increases with the speed which is faster in the previous part than the latter. The ER and UCS of CPB samples increased with increasing cement-to-tailing ratio and solid content and curing periods. A logarithmic relationship is established for each mixture in order to predict the UCS of CPB based on ER. Scanning electron microscope analyses have revealed that the microstructure of the CPB changes with the age from the initial floc to honeycomb, and eventually to the compact clumps. The ER properties of CPB samples were highly associated with their respective microstructural properties. The major output of this study is that ER test is effectively capable for a preliminary prediction of the UCS of CPB.

  4. A Visualization Tool for Integrating Research Results at an Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, S.; Macdonald, B. D.; Orr, T.; Johnson, W.; Benton, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are conducting research at a deep, underground metal mine in Idaho to develop improvements in ground control technologies that reduce the effects of dynamic loading on mine workings, thereby decreasing the risk to miners. This research is multifaceted and includes: photogrammetry, microseismic monitoring, geotechnical instrumentation, and numerical modeling. When managing research involving such a wide range of data, understanding how the data relate to each other and to the mining activity quickly becomes a daunting task. In an effort to combine this diverse research data into a single, easy-to-use system, a three-dimensional visualization tool was developed. The tool was created using the Unity3d video gaming engine and includes the mine development entries, production stopes, important geologic structures, and user-input research data. The tool provides the user with a first-person, interactive experience where they are able to walk through the mine as well as navigate the rock mass surrounding the mine to view and interpret the imported data in the context of the mine and as a function of time. The tool was developed using data from a single mine; however, it is intended to be a generic tool that can be easily extended to other mines. For example, a similar visualization tool is being developed for an underground coal mine in Colorado. The ultimate goal is for NIOSH researchers and mine personnel to be able to use the visualization tool to identify trends that may not otherwise be apparent when viewing the data separately. This presentation highlights the features and capabilities of the mine visualization tool and explains how it may be used to more effectively interpret data and reduce the risk of ground fall hazards to underground miners.

  5. Interferência contextual e nível de habilidade na aprendizagem do serviço do voleibol Interferencia contextual y nivel de habilidad en el aprendizaje del servicio de voleibol Contextual interference and level of skill in the learning of volleyball serve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Manuel Nhamussua

    2012-12-01

    contextual interference on acquiring the volleyball serve in adolescents with different skill levels, considering then immediate and delayed transfer tests. Participants were 56 schoolgirls separated in four practice groups: random practice with higher level skill subjects (GAS, blocked practice with higher level skill subjects (GBS, random practice with lower level skill subjects (GAI and blocked practice with lower level skill subjects (GBI. The acquisition task consisted in performing underhand and overhead services directed at two targets affixed to the ground. The results showed no effect of contextual interference on the lower level skill subjects. However when comparing the types of practice between the higher level skill subjects, the effect was observed in the immediate transfer test. The absence of significant differences between groups in the delayed transfer test suggest that the contextual interference effect may be temporary.

  6. Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Drinking-water supplies from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system at the Puchack well field in Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium-the most toxic and mobile form-at concentrations exceeding the New Jersey maximum contaminant level of 100 micrograms per liter. Also, scattered but widespread instances of volatile organic compounds (primarily trichloroethylene) at concentrations that exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels in the area's ground water have been reported. Because inorganic and organic contaminants are present in the ground water underlying the Puchack well field, no water from there has been withdrawn for public supply since 1998, when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) added the area that contains the Puchack well field to the National Priorities List. As part of the USEPA's investigation of the Puchack Well Field Superfund site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study during 1997-2001 to (1) refine previous interpretations of the hydrostratigraphic framework, hydraulic gradients, and local directions of ground-water flow; (2) describe the chemistry of soils and saturated aquifer sediments; and (3) document the quality of ground water in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the area. The four major water-bearing units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system-the Upper aquifer (mostly unsaturated in the study area), the Middle aquifer, the Intermediate Sand (a local but important unit), and the Lower aquifer-are separated by confining units. The confining units contain areas of cut and fill, resulting in permeable zones that permit water to pass through them. Pumping from the Puchack well field during the past 3 decades resulted in downward hydraulic gradients that moved contaminants into the Lower aquifer, in which the production wells are finished, and caused ground water to flow northeast, locally. A comparison of current (1997

  7. Living terraced landscapes: Exploring the viability of mountain terraced vineyards in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumides, Christos; Giannakis, Elias; Bruggeman, Adriana; Camera, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    Dry-stone terracing is an intensive cultivation practice that has been implemented for centuries in the Mediterranean region. The Troodos Ophiolite Complex on the island of Cyprus covers an area of 2332 km2 with 31% mean slope gradient, and consists of 140 small communities with a total population of around 50,000 inhabitants. Agriculture is practiced on dry-stone terraces with narrow (1-3 m) to medium-base (3-6 m) bench, constructed by cutting and filling in slopes with gradient between 20 and 40%. The main crop grown on terraces is wine grapes. However, many of the vineyards on terraced hillsides are being gradually abandoned and dry-stone walls remain unmaintained, causing a domino effect of collapsing terraces and leading to soil erosion and sedimentation of downstream infrastructure. The main reasons for the gradual decline of terraced landscapes are the ageing of farming population, the depopulation and marginalization of Troodos communities, the small size of agricultural plots, the high cost of labour and the loss of know-how on dry-stone wall maintenance. Despite these socio-economic issues, policy reforms, especially after the accession of Cyprus to the European Union in 2004, have created new challenges and opportunities, and have focused on improving the viniculture's quality rather than quantity. The new appellation of origin launched in 2007 that define where the wine-grapes are grown, as well as the incentives to create small regional wineries, helped maintain the population of some communities and the vine cultivations on dry-stone terraces. The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of success or failure in sustaining the terraced vineyards in Cyprus. More precisely, the study explores the characteristics that determine the investment (or not) in terrace maintenance and analyses the interlinkages between farming practices and business strategies. The analysis is based on grape and wine production cost data that is acquired by interviews

  8. Understanding the paleo environment in the Danish North Sea using 2D and 3D seismic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Lasse K.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.

    2017-04-01

    river system incisions can be mapped. The tunnel valleys have a strong NE-SW orientation and are typically characterized by an irregular base. The fluvial river systems which are the youngest, are smaller, typically with an anastomosing appearance. They generally have an NW-SE strike perpendicular to the older tunnel valleys. Clear sedimentary structures can be recognized on the high-resolution 2D seismic data indicating a complex history of cut and fill. In general, the study area displays a very heterogenic sedimentation pattern with varying valley types and significant lateral variations within the same valleys revealing a subtle interplay between incision and infilling. In some areas we furthermore see a distinct control of the river system morphology by deeper salt structures adding to the complexity of controlling factors for the rivers and tunnel valleys in the study area. The results of the study provide valuable information on the evolution of the Quaternary ice-sheets and drainage patterns and hence exemplify the use of seismic data for Quaternary paleo-environmental studies. With the good control on the distribution and infill of buried valleys and river systems, the study furthermore provides the first constrain to a detailed 3D model of different litho-facies based on seismic facies analysis combined with information from shallow borings.

  9. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  10. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    running on PostgreSQL/PostGIS. This provides advanced functionality for spatial data analysis and forms the basis for future data provision and visualization using a WebGIS application. Analysis of landslide database contents shows that in most parts of Germany landslides primarily affect transportation infrastructures. Although with distinct lower frequency, recent landslides are also recorded to cause serious damage to hydraulic facilities and waterways, supply and disposal infrastructures, sites of cultural heritage, as well as forest, agricultural, and mining areas. The main types of landslide damage are failure of cut and fill slopes, destruction of retaining walls, street lights, and forest stocks, burial of roads, backyards, and garden areas, as well as crack formation in foundations, sewer lines, and building walls. Landslide repair and mitigation at transportation infrastructures is dominated by simple solutions such as catch barriers or rock fall drapery. These solutions are often undersized and fail under stress. The use of costly slope stabilization or protection systems is proven to reduce these risks effectively over longer maintenance cycles. The right balancing of landslide mitigation is thus a crucial problem in managing landslide risks. Development and analysis of such landslide databases helps to support decision-makers in finding efficient solutions to minimize landslide risks for human beings, infrastructures, and financial assets.

  11. Geologyy of the Yucca Mountain Site Area, Southwestern Nevada, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Keefer; J.W. Whitney; D.C. Buesch

    2006-09-25

    Pleistocene and Holocene times; these paleoseismic studies form the basis for evaluating the potential for future earthquakes and fault displacements. Thermoluminescence and U-series analyses were used to date the surficial materials involved in the Quaternary faulting events. The rate of erosional downcutting of bedrock on the ridge crests and hillslopes of Yucca Mountain, being of particular concern with respect to the potential for breaching of the proposed underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2 to 4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22 to 18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time.

  12. Sediment transfer dynamics in the Illgraben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G. L.; Molnar, P.; McArdell, B. W.; Schlunegger, F.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of the volumes of sediment removed by rock-slope failure and debris flows and identification of their coupling and controls are pertinent to understanding mountain basin sediment yield and landscape evolution. We analyzed photogrammetrically-derived datasets of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition along with hydroclimatic variables from the Illgraben, an active debris flow catchment in the Swiss Alps, spanning 1963 - 2010. Two events in the recent history of the catchment make it particularly interesting and challenging to study: a large rock avalanche in 1961, which filled the channel with sediment, and the construction of check dams along the channel in the late 1960s and 1970s. We aimed to (1) identify the nature of hillslope-channel coupling, (2) identify the dominant controls of hillslope sediment production, channel sediment transfer and total sediment yield, (3) observe the response of the channel system to the 1961 rock avalanche and check dam construction, and (4) develop a conceptual model with which to investigate sediment transfer dynamics in various scenarios, including the absence of check dams along the channel. The study captures a multi-decadal period of channel erosion in response to the 1961 rock avalanche, punctuated by shorter cut-and-fill cycles that occur in response to changes in hillslope sediment supply and changes in transport capacity. Hillslopes eroded rapidly at an average rate of 0.34 myr¯ 1, feeding the channel head with sediment. A near doubling of hillslope erosion in the 1980s coincided with a significant increase of air temperature and reduction in snow cover duration and depth, whilst precipitation variables did not change significantly. We find that the main influence of check-dam construction on channel sediment transfer was an initial reduction in sediment transport and a drop in debris flow activity between 1963 and 1986. After 1986 sediment storages in the channel were filled and debris flow activity

  13. UPAYA PERBAIKAN KUALITAS KERUPUK UDANG TIPE MILD-B PADA PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naniek Utami Handayani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan makanan adalah satu bisnis yang menghasilkan makanan untuk manusia. Salah satu bentuk makanan adalah kerupuk udang. Perusahaan makanan berkembang luas di Indonesia. Banyak perusahaan di dalam dan juga luar negeri aktif dalam hal ini. Konmpetisi membuat setiap perusahaan mencari cara untuk mampu berdiri. Tak terkecuali PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. Salah satu usaha PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mampu bertahan sebagai satu industri makanan di Indonesia adalah tidak berhenti meningkatkan kualitas produk yang mana mereka hasilkan. Tetapi dalam proses produksi masih ditemukan produk cacat dan rework dalam jumlah tinggi. Sebagian besar produk rework terjadi pada jenis Mild B dari kerupuk udang karena Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai standar. Laporan ini bertujuan untuk mencari dan meneliti penyebab Moisture Content level (MC tidak sesuai dari standar sehingga didapatkan solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah. Metoda yang digunakan dalam laporan ini adalah Sig Sigma dengan proses tahap adalah DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control. Dari penerapan metoda dihasilkan perbaikan untuk PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP untuk mengurangi sejumlah produk rework. Kata kunci : Sig Sigma, MC (Moisture Content, Kerupuk udang               Food Manufacturing is a business that produce food for human. One of forming food that is prawn crisply. Food manufacturing expand in Indonesia. A lot of good company own in and also abroad active in this. Tighten emulation make every company look for the way of in order to still able to stand up. Do not aside from PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP. One of effort of PT. INDOSIGMA SURYA CORP in order to able to hold out as one of food industry in Indonesia is non-stoped to improve the quality of product which they yield. But from the production process remain to be found defect product and high rework. Mostly rework happened in type Mild B of  prawn crisply because Moisture Content level (MC inappropriate from the

  14. Relações entre uso do solo, relevo e fertilidade do solo em escala de microbacia Relationships among land use, relief and soil fertility at watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. dos Santos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade em sistemas agrícolas de subsistência depende do nível de fertilidade natural do solo. Em condições de relevo forte ondulado, espera-se que a fertilidade do solo se modifique não apenas pelo tipo de uso mas, também, devido à sua posição no relevo. Para avaliar essas modificações, 260 amostras simples de solo (0-20 cm da microbacia Vaca Brava, PB, representando combinações de três usos do solo, cinco posições no relevo e cinco classes texturais, foram analisadas quanto aos teores de P disponível, bases e acidez trocáveis. Ca e Mg compreenderam 75-80% dos cátions trocáveis, K e Na, de 10 a 15%, e H+Al, 10%; o valor de pH médio foi 5,5, enquanto P Mehlich-1 foi, em média, 3,8 mg kg-1 solo. Apesar dos efeitos significativos (p Productivity in subsistence agricultural systems relies on natural soil fertility levels. Under strongly undulated relief conditions, it is expected that soil fertility will be determined not only by land use, but also by the position in the landscape. To study these relationships 260 single soil samples (0-20 cm from the Vaca Brava watershed, Paraiba, representing combinations of three land uses, five positions in the landscape and five textures were analyzed for extractable P, exchangeable bases and soil acidity. Ca and Mg comprised 75-80% of exchangeable cations, K and Na between 10 and 15% and H+Al 10%. The average pH was 5.5, while extractable P (Mehlich-1 averaged 3.8 mg kg-1 soil. Although land use, relief and texture exerted significant effects (p < 0.05 upon certain nutrient concentrations, in a broad sense the watershed appeared relatively uniform. The main effect of land use resulted from the use of animal manure in areas of subsistence agriculture and fodder, which were preferentially located at the base of stopes and low lands positions. Approximately 80% of the samples were low in extractable P, while 70% had medium levels of extractable K. However, when available K was

  15. Assessing Family Planning Service Quality And User Experiences In Social Franchising Programme - Case Studies From Two Rural Districts In Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hameed, Waqas; Awan, Muhammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Studies have documented the impact of quality family planning services on improved contraceptive uptake and continuation, however, relatively little is known about their quality of service provision especially in the context of social franchising. This study examined the quality of clinical services and user experiences among two models in franchised service providers in rural Pakistan. This facility-based assessment was carried out during May-June 2015 at the 20 randomly selected social franchise providers from Chakwal and Faisalabad. In our case, a franchise health facility was a private clinic (mostly) run by a single provider, supported by an assistant. Within the selected health facilities, a total 39 user-provider interactions were observed and same users were interviewed separately. Most of the health facilities were in the private sector. Comparatively, service providers at Greenstar Social Marketing/Population Services International (GSM/PSI) model franchised facilities had higher number of rooms and staff employed, with more providers' ownership. Quality of service indices showed high scores for both Marie Stopes Society (MSS) and GSM/PSI franchised providers. MSS franchised providers demonstrated comparative edge in terms of clinical governance, better method mix and they were more user-focused, while PSI providers offered broader range of non-FP services. Quality of counselling services were similar among both models. Service providers performed well on all indicators of interpersonal care however overall low scores were noted in technical care. For both models, service providers attained an average score of 6.7 (out of the maximum value of 8) on waste disposal mechanism, supplies 12.5 (out of the maximum value of 15), user-centred facility 2.7 (out of the maximum value of 4), and clinical governance 6.5 (out of the maximum value of 11) and respecting clients' privacy. The exit interviews yielded high user satisfaction in both service models. The

  16. FEATURES OF DRILLING-AND-BLASTING AT CONSTRUCTION OF BESKIDSKIY TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this article it is necessary to analyze the possibility of developing technology and increasing its efficiency during the Beskidskiy tunnel construction in difficult engineering and geological conditions. Methodology. The authors have performed analysis of the technological level of mining and construction works, new technique, equipment and production. One of the important issues of blasting operation is to ensure the seismic safety, acting at a distance of 30 m in the axes of single-track tunnel, as the distance to it will be 20 m from the nearest charge in the laying tunnel. This problem was solved by applying the combined blasting of blast-hole charges with delay-action and long-delay ways. Herewith the total mass of charges in the stope was divided into three groups, in which the first group is exploded by short-delay firing with, and the second one is exploded by short-delay firing too with intervals of 200…400 ms, the third is exploded by long-delay blasting at intervals of 500…10000 ms. The combined blasting of short-delay charges and delay action ones let significantly reduce seismic action at a mass explosion of charges when driving of double-track railway tunnel of a large cross-section. Findings. The paper presents the developed technology model, describing dependence of the machines from engineering and geological conditions. The methodology of drilling and blasting works at the construction of the tunnel callote and stross as well as a technique of arrangement determination and intervals of shot-delay and delay blasting of blasthole explosive charges was developed. Maximum permissible concentration of gases and vapours at blasting was presented. The calculations showed that the maximum level of gas contamination of the working area in Beskidskiy tunnel is achieved at blast operations. In accordance with this ventilation of the tunnel when driving is carried out by independent systems with mechanical ventilation by

  17. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    correlated to Fermilab instruments (for comparative analysis) and others in independent arrays. All tiltmeter data will be analyzed with water reduction data (currently being collected from the #6 winze as the mine is dewatered) and data from rock stress/fracture experiments to document net ground settling due to dewatering, potential collapse of stope areas and renewed excavation activities.

  18. A Preliminary Heat Flow Model for Cooling a Batholith near Ica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L. U.; Clausen, B. L.; Molano, J. C.; Martinez, A. M.; Poma, O.

    2014-12-01

    This research models the cooling of a suite in the Linga Super-unit located at the north end of the Arequipa segment in the Cretaceous Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The monzogabbro to granite Linga suite is approximately 50 km long and 15 km wide, with an estimated vertical extent of about 5 km originally intruded to a depth of 3 km. The emplacement was in andesitic volcanics on the west and the Pampahuasi diorite Super-unit on the east and has incorporated earlier gabbroic bodies. The Linga suite is thought to be the result of a sequence of three pulses: an elongate unit to the west then two elliptical units to the northeast and southeast. The data for modeling comes from field observations on internal and external contacts, some well-defined magma chamber walls and roof, pendant and stoped blocks, magma chamber zoning, the nature and distribution of enclaves and xenoliths, magmatic fabric, evidences of magma mingling, rock porosity, mineralogical associations in metamorphic aureoles, extensive mineralization and brecciated conduits, and the types of hydrothermal alteration varying with distance from contacts. More than forty hand samples, thin sections, and geochemical analyses were used to estimate water content, magma and country rock temperature, liquid density, and viscosity. Further data will come from: zircon U-Pb ages for country rock and magma batch timeframes, fluid inclusions for magma pressure and temperature, and δ18O data for source of hydrothermal fluids. Simple heat conduction calculations using MATLAB and HEAT 3D for a single tabular intrusion estimated a cooling time to solidus of about 300 k.y. More complex modeling includes magma convection and multiple intrusions. Extensive veining and pervasive alteration suggested the use of HYDROTHERM to model possible additional heat flow effects from hydrothermal fluids. Extensive propylitic and significant potassic alteration were observed and, with TerraSpec infrared spectroscopy to identify

  19. Granite ascent and emplacement during contractional deformation in convergent orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.

    1998-09-01

    Based on a case study in the Central Maine Belt of west-central Maine, U.S.A., it is proposed that crustal-scale shear zone systems provide an effective focussing mechanism for transfer of granite melt through the crust in convergent orogens. During contractional deformation, flow of melt in crustal materials at depths below the brittle-plastic transition is coupled with plastic deformation of these materials. The flow is driven by pressure gradients generated by buoyancy forces and tectonic stresses. Within the oblique-reverse Central Maine Belt shear zone system, stromatic migmatite and concordant to weakly discordant irregular granite sheets occur in zones of higher strain, which suggests percolative flow of melt to form the migmatite leucosomes and viscous flow of melt channelized in sheet-like bodies, possibly along fractures. Cyclic fluctuations of melt pressure may cause instantaneous changes in the effective permeability of the flow network if self-propagating melt-filled tensile and/or dilatant shear fractures are produced due to melt-enhanced embrittlement. Inhomogeneous migmatite and schlieric granite occur in zones of lower strain, which suggests migration of partially-molten material through these zones en masse by granular flow, and channelized flow of melt carrying entrained residue. Founded on the Central Maine Belt case study, we develop a model of melt extraction and ascent using the driving forces, stress conditions and crustal rheologies in convergent, especially transpressive orogens. Ascent of melt becomes inhibited with decreasing depth as the solidus is approached. For intermediate a(H 2O) muscovite-dehydration melting, the water-saturated solidus occurs between 400 and 200 MPa, near the brittle-plastic transition during high- T-low- P metamorphism, where the balance of forces favors (sub-) horizontal fracture propagation. Emplacement of melt may be accommodated by ductile flow and/or stoping of wall rock, and inflation may be accommodated

  20. Social franchising and vouchers to promote long-term methods of family planning in rural Pakistan: a qualitative stocktaking with stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hameed, Waqas; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ahmed, Aftab; Shaikh, Babar T

    2013-04-01

    The overall use of modern contraception in Pakistan is quite low, especially in rural areas. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of social franchising (SF) approaches in increasing access to modern contraception and improving the quality of healthcare in resource-poor areas in Asia and Africa. Drawing on best practices in SF, the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) implemented an SF model in certain rural areas of Pakistan to increase access to affordable and quality family planning (FP) services. The model was branded as Suraj (sun) and complemented with an innovative voucher scheme for intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). This paper describes the perspectives of Suraj clients, field workers mobilization (FWMs), and providers on various components of the Suraj model. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in six randomly selected intervention districts in the Sindh and Punjab provinces. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) with clients and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers and FWMs. Data were manually analyzed using constant comparison and the thematic analysis approach. Clients showed positive attitudes towards modern contraceptive methods and identified Suraj FWMs and signboards as sources of information. Almost all clients reported IUCDs as effective methods as they have manageable side effects and require fewer visits to clinics. They spoke highly of voucher schemes as these enabled them to avail free IUCD services. Clients also appreciated many components of Suraj clinics, including cleanliness, privacy, confidentiality, the sterilization of instruments, and courteous Suraj providers and FWMs. Most Suraj providers said that IUCD insertion and infection-prevention training enhanced their ability to provide IUCD services and increased their standing in local communities. They reported that the role of FWMs was crucial in mobilizing the community and increasing their FP clientele. The FWMs said that attitudes

  1. Study of geological details towards feasibility of uranium project: Indian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.

    2014-01-01

    mining (e.g. stoping) method. Large ore samples generated during the process helps in detailed pilot plant studies and operation of the plant on continuous mode while fine-tuning all process related steps. The period of exploratory mining is further utilised in locating and planning infrastructure needs, preparation of different reports for regulatory clearances and generating public opinion in favour of uranium mining. All Indian uranium deposits have gone through glorious phase of exploratory mining generating large volume of data which are of immense value to the operators during the life of the mines and plants. (author)

  2. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Hamza, Hasan Bin; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Abbas, Ghazunfer; Khan, Omar Farooq; Asghar, Jamshaid; Munroe, Erik; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Wajahat; Ali, Sajid; Ahmed, Aftab; Ali, Moazzam; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-03-17

    Family planning (FP) interventions aimed at reducing population growth have negligible during the last two decades in Pakistan. Innovative FP interventions that help reduce the growing population burden are the need of the hour. Marie Stopes Society--Pakistan implemented an operational research project--'Evidence for Innovating to Save Lives', to explore effective and viable intervention models that can promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy in rural and under-served communities of Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. We conducted a quasi-experimental (pre- and post-intervention with control arm) study to assess the effectiveness of each of the two intervention models, (1) Suraj model (meaning 'Sun' in English), which uses social franchises (SF) along with a demand-side financing (DSF) approach using free vouchers, and (2) Community Midwife (CMW) model, in promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods compared to respective controls. Baseline and endline cross-sectional household surveys were conducted, 24 months apart, by recruiting 5566 and 6316 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) respectively. We used Stata version 8 to report the net effect of interventions on outcome indicators using difference-in-differences analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the net effect of the intervention on current contraceptive use, keeping time constant and adjusting for other variables in the model. The Suraj model was effective in significantly increasing awareness about FP methods among MWRA by 14% percentage points, current contraceptive use by 5% percentage points and long term modern method--intrauterine device (IUD) use by 6% percentage points. The CMW model significantly increased contraceptive awareness by 28% percentage points, ever use of contraceptives by 7% percentage points and, IUD use by 3% percentage points. Additionally the Suraj intervention led to a 35% greater prevalence

  3. SEEPAGE FIELD-STRAIN FIELD COUPLING ANALYSIS FOR ROCK MASSES OF COAL SEAM FLOOR DURING MINING ABOVE A CONFINED AQUIFER%煤层底板岩体采动渗流场-应变场耦合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚多喜; 鲁海峰

    2012-01-01

    根据五沟煤矿1018 工作面地质及水文地质条件,应用三维快速拉格朗日(FLAC3D)流固耦合分析模块,采用变渗透系数方法,对该工作面底板岩体采动渗流应变机制进行数值模拟研究.分析结果表明:采动影响下,围岩渗透系数发生较大的变化,处在采空区正上方的泥岩段最大达到原始渗透系数的1293倍;根据渗流场分析,工作面采动并没有破坏底板隔水层的阻水性能,采动裂隙没有导通灰岩含水层,灰岩水涌入回采工作面形成水害可能性较小;工作面正下方岩体单元安全度小于1的区域最大深度为30 m.综合渗流场以及隔水底板单元安全度分析结果,10煤底板下灰岩水溃入工作面形成水害可能性较小.%Based on the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the face 1018 in Wugou coal mine, the fluid-solid coupling module in FLAC3D with changeable permeability coefficient is adopted to simulate the whole process of damage and failure of rock masses at floor of the coal seam No. 10. The results indicate that the permeability coefficient of surrounding rocks changes a lot due to mining. The maximum permeability coefficient reaches 1 293 times of the original one, which happens at the immediate roof of mined-out area. According to the analysis of seepage field, mining does not destroy water resistance of floor aquifer. Mining fissures do not connect limestone aquifers, and water in the limestone is less likely to flow into stopes to cause damage. The maximum depth of rock masses with element safety degree less than one is about 30 m. According to the change of permeability coefficient of and the analytical results of element safety degree of rock masses, safe mining of the face 1018 can be ensured.

  4. Using restored cross sections to evaluate magma emplacement, White Horse Mountains, Eastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Wayne T.; Yoshinobu, Aaron S.

    2011-03-01

    serial cross sections oriented perpendicular to the pluton contact, the aureole was shortened approximately 54% during emplacement. Extrapolating this shortening value over the exposed area of the pluton indicates that approximately 48% of the exposed pluton area may be accounted for by the restoration. Therefore, host rocks must have been displaced out of the map plane and likely downward based on geometrical constraints provided by the cross sections. The preferred emplacement model requires in-situ chamber dilation accommodated by ductile deflection of host rocks followed by fracturing and removal of the aureole rocks via cauldron subsidence and/or stoping.

  5. Estimating the hypothetical dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom in selected sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvundura M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy Mvundura, Neeti Nundy, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Patricia S Coffey Technology Solutions Global Program, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Female condoms are the only currently available woman-initiated option that offers dual protection from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The Woman’s Condom is a new female condom designed to provide dual protection and to be highly pleasurable and acceptable. Objective: We sought to estimate the potential dual health impact and cost-effectiveness of a Woman’s Condom distribution program in 13 sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates >4% among adults aged 15–49 years. We used two separate, publicly available models for this analysis, the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International and the Population Services International disability-adjusted life years (DALY calculator program. We estimated the potential numbers of pregnancies and DALYs averted when the Woman’s Condom is used as a family planning method and the HIV infections and DALYs averted when it is used as an HIV prevention method. Results: Programming 100,000 Woman’s Condoms in each of 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa during a 1-year period could potentially prevent 194 pregnancies and an average of 21 HIV infections in each country. When using the World Health Organization CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective (WHO-CHOICE criteria as a threshold to infer the potential cost-effectiveness of the Woman’s Condom, we found that the Woman’s Condom would be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: This was a first and successful attempt to estimate the impact of dual protection of female condoms. The health impact is greater for the use of the Woman’s Condom as an HIV prevention method than for contraception. Dual use of the Woman’s Condom increases the overall health impact. The Woman’s Condom was found to be very cost-effective in all 13 countries in our sample. Keywords

  6. Developing mHealth Messages to Promote Postmenstrual Regulation Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh: Participatory Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Pearson, Erin; Andersen, Kathryn; Hossain, Altaf; Footman, Katharine; Biswas, Kamal Kanti; Nuremowla, Sadid; Reiss, Kate

    2017-12-14

    Abortions are restricted in Bangladesh, but menstrual regulation is an approved alternative, defined as a procedure of regulating the menstrual cycle when menstruation is absent for a short duration. Use of contraception after menstrual regulation can reduce subsequent unintended pregnancy, but in Bangladesh, the contraceptive method mix is dominated by short-term methods, which have higher discontinuation and failure rates. Mobile phones are a channel via which menstrual regulation clients could be offered contraceptive support after leaving the clinic. This study aimed to support the development of a mobile phone intervention to support postmenstrual regulation family planning use in Bangladesh. It explored what family planning information women want to receive after having a menstrual regulation procedure, whether they would like to receive this information via their mobile phone, and if so, what their preferences are for the way in which it is delivered. We conducted participatory interviews with 24 menstrual regulation clients in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions in Bangladesh. Women were recruited from facilities in urban and peri-urban areas, which included public sector clinics supported by Ipas, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO), and NGO clinics run by Marie Stopes. Main themes covered in the interviews were factors affecting the use of contraception, what information and support women want after their menstrual regulation procedure, how respondents would prefer to receive information about contraception, and other key issues for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, such as language and privacy. As part of the in-depth interviews, women were shown and played 6 different messages about contraception on the research assistant's phone, which they were given to operate, and were then asked to give feedback. Women were open to both receiving messages about family planning methods on their mobile phones and talking to a counselor about family

  7. Emplacement of the La Peña alkaline igneous complex, Mendoza, Argentina (33° S): Implications for the early Miocene tectonic regime in the retroarc of the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, D. S.; Galliski, M. A.; Márquez-Zavalía, M. F.

    2014-03-01

    dikes cross-cutting the clinopyroxenite, (3) a malignite facies that causes a small breccia in the clinopyroxenite, (4) a central syenite facies that develops breccias at the contact with the clinopyroxenite and, finally, (5) porphyry necks and a system of radial dikes intruding all units. At the moment of the emplacement different mechanisms would have acted, they summarized in: 1) opening of discontinuities synchronous to the magma circulation as the principal mechanism for formation of dikes and conduits; 2) stoping processes, that play an important role in the development of the breccia zone and enabling an efficient transference of material during the emplacement of the syenitic magma and 3) shear-related deformation (regional stress), affected the internal fabric of the facies, causing intracrystalline deformation and submagmatic flow, which is very evident in the central syenite intrusive. The kinematic analysis of shear planes allows proposing that emplacement of the LPC took place in a transtensive regime, which would have occurred in the back-arc of the Andes orogen, during a long period spanning from Miocene to the present, of the compressive deformation responsible, westward and at the same latitude, for the development of the Aconcagua fold and thrust belt.

  8. La mirada de los porteros de fútbol sala ante diferentes tipos de respuesta motriz. [Futsal goalkeepers’ gaze behavior with different type of motor response].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graupera Sanz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se exploró y analizó el comportamiento visual de un grupo de porteros expertos de fútbol sala con el objetivo de comprobar cómo el tipo de respuesta motriz solicitada influía en su comportamiento visual. Participaron 4 porteros a los que se les presentó un total de 48 clips de vídeo en una pantalla a tamaño real, bajo dos condiciones de respuesta: con movimiento de parada y sin movimiento de parada. Se registró su mirada con el pupilómetro ASL Mobile Eye durante dos condiciones de tiro de penalti. Se analizó la mirada en el intervalo de -250 a 205 ms en torno al disparo. Los resultados mostraron que cuando respondían con la acción habitual de parada, solo se encontraron fijaciones en la mitad de los casos, estas fijaciones eran de corta duración y localizadas principalmente en la zona del suelo justo enfrente del balón. Por el contrario, cuando se mantenían en posición estática, su mirada se dirigía hacia la zona entre el balón y la pierna de apoyo, empleando fijaciones de una duración más larga. Se puede concluir que el comportamiento visual fue diferente entre las dos condiciones como resultado de la adaptación a las demandas espacio-temporales específicas de cada condición, ya que el grado de movimiento en la respuesta solicitada tuvo influencia en el comportamiento visual asociado.AbstractThis study explored and analyzed the visual behavior of a group of experts from futsal goalkeepers in order to check on if the type of requested motor response influenced their visual behavior. Four goalkeepers were presented with a total of 48 video clips on a real-size screen, under two response conditions: with and without movement. Gaze was recorded with the ASL Mobile Eye eyetracker, and was analyzed in the range of -250 to 205 ms around the penalty kick. The results showed that when responding with the usual stoping action, fixations were found only in the half of the cases, being of short duration, and

  9. TEMU KEMBALI INFORMASI BIBLIOGRAFI DENGAN BAHASA ALAMI PADA FIELD JUDUL DAN SUFJEK (Studi Efektivitas Katalog Induk Terpasang Perpustakaan UGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janu Saptari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This Research aim to know the retrieval effectiveness on Online Union Catalog of UGM Library, index pattern at data bases, knowing which's more effective of searching at entri oftitle and subjec and also to know the cause ofeffectiveness difference retrieval at the both entri. Along with growth and information accretion, the main problem have shifted from way of accessing information become to chosen the relevant information with its requirement. Information retrieval is not possible to be done in the manual system, because very big information corps and non-stoped growing larger. The information retrieval system is very needed to to assist the consumer in finding information. One of the information retrieval system is online union catalog. With the online union catalog, by users easily can look for the book title, pickings of research and other documentation of library where from and any time. Getting a number of relevant document with the requirement represent the crux in the searching activity, and effectiveness from online union catalog is this represent the key. Effectiveness from a system influenced by a lot of component which each other related/relevant like: quality of input metadata in data bases, index, searching strategy, ability of system application and keyword election. A system told effective if the system can find more amount document/ appropriate information of request by precission /high accuracy. Research done by testing search at online union catalog to use the natural language keyword. Keyword inclusion done at entri of title and entri subjek. Keyword of taken as sampel come from one of title matakuliah of each; every faculty in UGM. From each; every the topic then translated /formulated into 4 natural language keyword. Data obtained is grouped by relevant level. From the acquirement data; then analysed with the test ofnonparametrik Mann Whitney. From processing data got by conclusion that ratio of retrieval at title entries

  10. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. Methods National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey-4. Findings We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million–17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2–52·1) per

  11. [The preparation and characterization of fine dusts carried out in the Clinica del Lavoro di Milano in support of experimental studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occella, E; Maddalon, G; Peruzzo, G F; Foà, V

    1999-01-01

    pestles and rotating drum mills with autogenic grinding load were used for grinding: the size of the treated samples was reduced to 0.05 mm and an extremely fine fraction was extracted, smaller than 7-10 microns, which was used for pneumoconioses research. The characterization of the dust produced was in any case achieved by means of preliminary examination under the optical microscope (polarized light, sometimes supplemented with phase contrast), followed by quantitative analysis using chemical/petrographic, chemical diffraction or, more commonly, petrographic/diffraction techniques. Microscopic examination, if necessary supplemented with photo-micrography, was also used for particle size control, for numerical counting and subsequent reference to weight proportion. For all operational procedures the essential data on instruments and methods are reported. During studies on production, separation of fine dusts and their characterization, partly performed with support from the European Community (EEC/European Coal and Steel Commission), the following topics in particular were addressed: connections between particle size and free silica content in the measurable dust size fraction of the grinding products and in airborne dusts; characteristics of the dusts and risk indices in Italian iron and pyrite mines; possibility of abatement of the ultrafine classes of airborne dusts in pneumatically filled stopes by the addition of salts; comparison of the latest dust selectors used within the European Community; influence of the grinding methods on the results of fibrous and soft mineral measurement using X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide: relato de caso Chilaiditi's Syndrome with sigmoid colon volvulus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wilson Rocha Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de Síndrome de Chilaiditi associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masculino, branco, 51 anos, admitido no Pronto-Socorro de Pelotas queixando parada da eliminação de gases e fezes, dor abdominal difusa com distensão e inapetência, aceitando somente líquido. Tem diagnóstico de retardo mental e constipação intestinal crônica. Foi realizado Rx de abdome agudo, sendo evidenciada distensão difusa de cólon, e sinais sugestivos de volvo de sigmóide com imagem de cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. O paciente foi submetido a laparotomia exploradora, sendo constatado volvo de sigmóide, megacólon difuso e interposição do cólon transverso entre o fígado e o diafragma. Procedeu-se a colectomia subtotal, com colostomia terminal em cólon ascendente e fechamento do reto remanescente, recebendo alta no 9º dia. DISCUSSÃO: A interposição do cólon entre o fígado e a cúpula diafragmática (síndrome de Chilaiditi, associada a volvo de cólon sigmóide, constitui causa rara de abdome agudo obstrutivo, embora o volvo de sigmóide seja uma das principais causas de obstrução intestinal mecânica no Brasil. Geralmente o tratamento é clínico, porém se associado a complicações o tratamento é cirúrgico.INTRODUCTION: This study aims at reporting a case of Chilaiditi Syndrome associated to sigmoid colon volvulus. CASE REPORT: Male patient, white, 51 years old, arrives at an emergency hospital in Pelotas with complaints of stoping the elimination of gases, diffuse abdominal pain, increase of abdominal volume, gradual and progressive inappetence, accepting only liquid. He is diagnosed with mental retardation and a situation of intestinal constipation. An acute abdomen Rx highlighted a diffuse colon distension, suggestive of sigmoid volvulus with tranversum colon image between the liver and the diaphragm. The patient was submitted to exploratory

  13. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  14. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maceral is a term to introduce organic components visible under a microscope (Stopes, 1935. The physical and chemical characteristics of macerals such as elemental composition, moisture content, hardness, density and petrographic characteristics differ. The differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of macerals are reflected in their industrial behavior.(Parkash, 1985. Petrographic analysis provides information on the various physical components of coals (Suwarna and Hemanto, 2007 and determination of quality of coal, coalification rate, composition and characteristics of coke and paleoenvironmental deposition (Taylor et al., 1998. Sampling and methodology Coal samples were collected from freshly mined coal from 11 coal seams of 4 active coal mines (Cheshlagh, Zemestan Yourt, Narges Chal and Cheshmehsaran for organic petrography in the Gheshlagh coal deposits. All samples were collected and stored in plastic bags to prevent contamination and weathering. Samples were prepared for microscopic analysis by reflected light following ASTM Standard procedure D2797-04. For microscopic study, coal samples were crushed to1-mm size fraction (18 mesh size, mounted in epoxy resin and polished. Three polished samples were prepared for each coal seam. The petrographic composition was obtained by maceral analyses under standard conditions (ISO 7404/3, 2009, for maceral analysis. Maceral point counting (based on 400 points analyses were performed using an Olympus BX51 reflected light microscope. The terminology used to identify and describe the organic matter particles is the one proposed by the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998; ICCP, 2001; Scott and Glasspool, 2007; Taylor et al., 1998; Stach et al., 1982; Hower et al., 2009; Hower and Wagner, 2012. Organic petrography of theGheshlagh coal seams The vitrinite maceral group is dominant in all coal seams (66.2 to 87.2 vol.% and includes collodetrinite

  15. Final report of the drive of the TASS-tunnel; Slutrapport fraan drivningen av TASS-tunneln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlzen, Rickard; Johansson, Emmeli (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    , with good result of visible drill holes. The introduction of electronic detonators also took care of the problem of cut-off holes, which pretty much disappeared and re-blasting was minimized. The EDZ was evaluated in /Olsson et al. 2009/ and shows that no continuous EDZ was found. The performed drilling has been evaluated by looking at the drilling accuracy and precision. Geodetic surveying was performed of the collaring of 15-20 evenly distributed drill holes in the contour; all the drill holes in the floor and a varying amount of helpers and stope holes in each round. Afterwards the endpoints were calculated. The resulting data has then been evaluated and even compared with obtained data of the location of collaring and endpoints from the jumbo

  16. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, Goeran; Munier, Raymond

    2002-06-01

    seismically rather silent and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Seismic hazard has been calculated for Sweden and it is concluded that Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) greater than 2 m/s 2 is very unlikely the next coming 50-year period, in which the repository is planned to be constructed and operated. Damage due to shaking is very rare in underground facilities. Where such damage has occurred, the rock is either very poor or subject to very high stresses. None of these conditions will prevail in the Swedish repository. Most damage is also correlated to the presence of faults and the spent fuel will not be deposited in or close to important faults. Mining-induced earthquakes are known to cause damages in the mines. At the repository site it might be possible to experience local rock burst problems due to heterogeneous rock strengths and varying rock stresses. It is expected that these events, in case they appear, will take place when the tunnels are excavated rather than at the time of canister deposition. Earthquake impact during the post-closure phase: The present seismic activity in Sweden is expected to increase considerably in connection to the retreat of ice sheets in future glaciations. Peak ground accelerations may exceed 2 m/s 2 in association to large earthquakes. However, the effects of shaking, such as fallouts, cracking of lining are reduced since all tunnels will be backfilled by crushed rock and bentonite. The presence of the repository will not trigger earthquakes as the extraction ratio of the openings is very low compared to open stopes in a mine. There are also evidences for mines at great depth, that backfilling lower the mining-induced seismic activity compared to the situation when tunnels are not backfilled. The buffer and canister shake as a solid body without producing excess shear stresses or liquefaction of the buffer. Water-level changes will occur due to earthquakes but most of the changes are temporary and water-levels will return to

  17. Effects of earthquakes on the deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden based on case studies and preliminary model results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckblom, Goeran [Conrox, Djursholm (Sweden); Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    seismically rather silent and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Seismic hazard has been calculated for Sweden and it is concluded that Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) greater than 2 m/s{sup 2} is very unlikely the next coming 50-year period, in which the repository is planned to be constructed and operated. Damage due to shaking is very rare in underground facilities. Where such damage has occurred, the rock is either very poor or subject to very high stresses. None of these conditions will prevail in the Swedish repository. Most damage is also correlated to the presence of faults and the spent fuel will not be deposited in or close to important faults. Mining-induced earthquakes are known to cause damages in the mines. At the repository site it might be possible to experience local rock burst problems due to heterogeneous rock strengths and varying rock stresses. It is expected that these events, in case they appear, will take place when the tunnels are excavated rather than at the time of canister deposition. Earthquake impact during the post-closure phase: The present seismic activity in Sweden is expected to increase considerably in connection to the retreat of ice sheets in future glaciations. Peak ground accelerations may exceed 2 m/s{sup 2} in association to large earthquakes. However, the effects of shaking, such as fallouts, cracking of lining are reduced since all tunnels will be backfilled by crushed rock and bentonite. The presence of the repository will not trigger earthquakes as the extraction ratio of the openings is very low compared to open stopes in a mine. There are also evidences for mines at great depth, that backfilling lower the mining-induced seismic activity compared to the situation when tunnels are not backfilled. The buffer and canister shake as a solid body without producing excess shear stresses or liquefaction of the buffer. Water-level changes will occur due to earthquakes but most of the changes are temporary and water-levels will