WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground water cistern

  1. Rain water quality of a cistern used for pigs and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lourenço Guidoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina State has encouraged the use of cisterns as a technology to offer water in quantity and quality to livestock. The region is characterized by severe droughts in the summer months. The aims of the study were: to monitor physical, chemical and microbiological rain water quality parameters of a cistern; to evaluate if water had quality for pigs and beef cattle water consumption. Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia were in accordance with the standards for animal consumption. E. coli was present in some samples. The rainfall and speed of wind influenced the concentrations of nitrogen. Investigations of the relations between these environmental parameters and water quality must be conducted to avoid agricultural and livestock emission sources to have a negative impact on water quality. The water stored in the cistern showed satisfactory quality for use of pigs and beef cattle drinking. This gives support to the utilization of this technology to improve the water use efficiency for livestock.

  2. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  3. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  4. Sustainable Water Management in the Tourism Economy: Linking the Mediterranean’s Traditional Rainwater Cisterns to Modern Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Enriquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Communities on islands with mass-tourism, like Santorini, rely on vast quantities of water to develop the local economy. Today’s inhabitants of Santorini have largely abandoned the traditional cisterns that were used to sustain the island’s pre-modern civilizations in favor of water obtained from desalinization, ship deliveries, and well withdrawals. In June 2016, Cornell University researchers worked with the Water and Sewage Authority of Thera (DEYATH to assess the viability of improving sustainability and water efficiency by restoring traditional rainwater harvesting and storage cisterns. The team surveyed five cisterns, held meetings with water authority staff and mayoral leadership, conducted interviews with local tourism stakeholders, and coordinated with Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean. One conclusion was that cisterns could be rehabilitated as decentralized storage reservoirs and integrated into the island’s centralized water systems, or alternatively, serve as educational and cultural spaces used to communicate the importance of water to residents and tourists. The research findings highlight how multi-stakeholder partnerships could assist local authorities with developing new water management initiatives to foster more sustainable models of tourism development.

  5. Cisterns as sediment archives in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Andrea; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Lomax, Johanna; Finkelstein, Israel; Fuchs, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Ancient cisterns are frequently occurring archaeological structures in semiarid, arid and hyperarid regions. These systems to collect and store water were constructed to enable the establishment of settlements, livestock farming and agricultural activity even under dry conditions. During precipitation events surface runoff from adjoining slopes erodes and transports sediments, which then can be deposited in the cistern. Therefore, these archaeological structures serve also as sediment traps and represent the fluvial processes of the cistern's catchment. Additionally, the cisterns are usually constructed to prevent any water outlet, resulting in an undisturbed, often continuous sediment record. Crucial for investigating cisterns and their sediments is the establishment of robust chronologies, with optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating as the preferred dating method. This enables to determine the time of construction, utilisation and abandonment of the cistern. In addition, the sediment record within the cistern represents an archive including numerous environmental proxies (e. g. pollen), which can be used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, serving as an important paleoenvironmental archive in dryland areas, where continuous sediment records are rare.

  6. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  7. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  9. Underground Water Assessment using Water Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan YISA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the quality of selected hand dug wells in Maikunkele area of Niger State, Nigeria using Water Quality Index (WQI. ten hand dug wells were randomly selected in Maikunkele area of Bosso Local Government and were tested for nine (9 parameters of National Sanitation Foundation (NSF using standard analytical procedures. WQI results indicated that the quality of the selected well water samples were medium except for sample 2 that was extremely bad. The findings also revealed that all the samples except samples 2 and 3 had high coliform levels as high as 91 coliform/100cm3. This was an indication of faecal contamination substantiating the proximity of some of the wells to septic systems. The nitrate levels in all the samples exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of WHO, EPA, APHA and the Nigerian Drinking Water Standards. Based on the results obtained, the quality of the well water samples was therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were highly recommended.

  10. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  11. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  12. Field solar photocatalytic purification of pesticides-containing rinse waters from tractor cisterns used for grapevine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, P. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon (France). Lab. Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environnement; Vannier, S. [Chambre d' Agriculture de Vaucluse, Avignon (France); Dussaud, J. [Ahlstrom Research, Pont Eveque (France); Rubis, J.P. [Lycee Viticole, Orange (France)

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to assess in a vineyard the effect of purifying by solar photocatalysis the title rinse waters (presently rejected or, extremely rarely, cleaned in specific installations) in terms of efficacy and on-site ease-of-use for the wine grower. The on-site, self-functioning, solar purifying unit included a corrugated-steel inclined plate of area S=1 m{sup 2} onto which a TiO{sub 2}-coated thin material had been stuck, a 100-l tank, and an aquarium-type pump powered by a photovoltaic panel. For a vineyard of area A=0.15 km{sup 2}, the rinse water (about 80 l) corresponding to each of four typical vine treatments was analysed (major pesticides for each treatment, TOC, Microtox test and, in one case, BOD{sub 5}) by independent laboratories, before and after purification for 8 days. These analyses showed that the S/A ratio tested was insufficient. From the relatively low final organic content reached in one case, it is calculated that a three-time higher S/A ratio might suffice, but new trials are necessary to determine whether it is valid for the other typical cases. Inferred contribution of inorganic ions to the post-photocatalytic treatment toxicity points out to the need for an additional detoxification. However, even with a too small S, the photocatalytic treatment markedly improved the quality of the rinse waters. These field experiments have also demonstrated that the purifying prototype is robust, and easy to install and use on site by the wine grower. (Author)

  13. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the municipal solid waste landfill a Ring Road Ibadan on the quality of the underground water in the surrounding area and adjacent surface water was investigated. Samples of water from these sources were analyzed for the following physico-chemical parameters: Ph , conductivity, total solid, dissolved solid, ...

  14. Solubility studies of Np(V) in simulated underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Ren Lihong; Jiao Haiyang; Yao Jun; Su Xiguang; Fan Xianhua

    2000-01-01

    The solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water has been measured with the variation of pH, storage time (0-100 days). All experiments were performed in an Ar glove box which contained high purity Ar, with an oxygen content of less than 5 ppm. Experimental results show that the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water decreased with increasing pH value of solution; the solubility of Np(V) in simulated underground water determined at different pH are: pH=6.96, [Np(V)]=(3.52±0.37) x 10 -4 mol/l; pH=8.04, [Np(V)]=(8.24±0.32) x 10 -5 mol/l; pH=9.01, [Np(V)]=(3.04±0.48) x 10 -5 mol/l, respectively

  15. Determination of the Level of Contamination of Underground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misrak

    Determination of the Level of Contamination of. Underground Water (hand- dug well) by Organic Waste: A case Study of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. O.S. Omotoyinbo *. Abstract. The recent increase in urbanization has lead to increase in city population, spatial size, and generation of waste. This is a common phenomenon in Nigeria ...

  16. Tritium in the underground waters of the Karazheera coal deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Artamonova, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Karazheera coal deposit is the unique geological object due to it's location on the Balapan site of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon (SNP) with its wide range of underground nuclear tests fulfilled here (more than 130 explosions). That is why some radiological problems may appear with the geological ones which take place in the open mining work of the deposit. The radio-active pollution of SNP has been actively discussed in scientific literature for a long time. The present report evaluates the radio-active tritium pollution ( 3 H) of the deposit's underground waters. That very component of nature is subjected to radiation pollution in large extent after underground nuclear tests. 3 H radio-active isotope with 12-13 year period of half-decay. 3 H is generated in the result of nuclear reactions caused by cosmic radiation and nuclear reactions of explosions. The total number of 3 H on the globe comes to 12 kg. The content of 3 H has been studied in underground waters of self-pouring wells number 76, 82, springs and dipholes of the deposit. It has been fixed that concentration of 3 H in the deposit is fluctuating within 0.4-37.9 tritium units (TU) while the average content 10.3 TU (1 TU - 3.2x10 -12 Curie/liter). The analysis of 3 H decay shows that its maximum concenliaiion has been fixed in the deposit 82 (37.9 TU) and in diphole (32.3 TU). The background content of 3 H in water was evaluated on the level of 1-8 TU till 1945. In the result of nuclear weapon tests the background has been considerably increased and according to First data (1994) it is corresponded to 23 TU. The average content of the 3 H in underground waters of Karazheera is half the size of this index (10.3 TU). It comprises 3.3x10 -11 and it is more lower than quota 4x10 -6 Ci/l. It is considered that the content of more than 10 TU in waters is caused by thermal nuclear test. Precipitations fallen after 1961 are presented in subsoil waters containing of 20 TU or more

  17. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  18. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  19. The influence of increased temperature of waters from Cernavoda NPP on underground water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbasoiu, Eugen Constantin; Marinov, Anca Mariana; Moraru, Carina Nicoleta; Rizescu, Gheorghe

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies the change of thermal regime of waters in the Danube-Black Sea channel zone. The Danube water is used to cool the NPP systems before being delivered into channel and used in irrigations. The temperature increase of water in Cernavoda NPP installations is between 7 and 12 deg. C. The negative effects of this warming are: 1. limitation of water use for irrigations; 2. occurrence and persistence of fog in channel area; 3. thermal pollution of underground waters and limitation of underground potable water supply. The paper presents a general approach of thermal pollution problems of an aquifer and a mathematical model of forecasting the underground water temperature variation in Danube-Black Sea channel area. (authors)

  20. Feasibility of a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector: UNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chang Kee

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector is examined and a conceptual design (UNO) is presented. The design has a linear detector configuration with a total volume of 650 kton which is 13 times the total volume of the Super-Kamiokande detector. It corresponds to a 20 times increase in fiducial volume for physics analysis. The physics goals of UNO are to increase the sensitivity of the search for nucleon decay by a factor of ten and to make precision measurements of the solar and atmospheric neutrino properties. In addition, the detection sensitivity for supernova neutrinos will reach as far as the Andromeda galaxy

  1. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  2. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    temperature was expected to be lower compared to surface water without any geothermal energy in the area. The level of protection of the ground water sampling sites 5 and 6 was very minimal and methodological constraints of ground water sampling might have resulted in a slight increase of temperature in ground water ...

  3. Water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductivity, total hardness and all the species of nitrogen (nitrite, nitrate and ammonium) were higher in the inner city than the remaining water habitats except the outer ground water stations. Conductivity decreased along the presumptive pollution categories significantly, i.e. inner > middle > out skirt (P< 0.05) and showed ...

  4. Cistern Performance for Stormwater Management in Camden, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed different types of green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The installed SCMs include cisterns. Cisterns provide a cost effective approach to reduce st...

  5. Cistern Performance for Stormwater Management in Camden, NJ - presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed different types of green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The installed SCMs include cisterns. Cisterns provide a cost effective approach to reduce st...

  6. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  7. Biodegradation of roxarsone by a bacterial community of underground water and its toxic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafla, S; Moraga, R; León, C G; Guzmán-Fierro, V G; Yañez, J; Smith, C T; Mondaca, M A; Campos, V L

    2015-08-01

    Roxarsone is included in chicken food as anticoccidial and mainly excreted unchanged in faeces. Microorganisms biotransform roxarsone into toxic compounds that leach and contaminate underground waters used for human consumption. This study evaluated roxarsone biotransformation by underground water microorganisms and the toxicity of the resulting compounds. Underground water from an agricultural field was used to prepare microcosms, containing 0.05 mM roxarsone, and cultured under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Bacterial communities of microcosms were characterized by PCR-DGGE. Roxarsone degradation was measured by HPLC/HG/AAS. Toxicity was evaluated using HUVEC cells and the Toxi-ChromoTest kit. Roxarsone degradation analysis, after 15 days, showed that microcosms of underground water with nutrients degraded 90 and 83.3% of roxarsone under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Microcosms without nutrients degraded 50 and 33.1% under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Microcosms including nutrients showed more roxarsone conversion into toxic inorganic arsenic species. DGGE analyses showed the presence of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Spirochaetes. Toxicity assays showed that roxarsone biotransformation by underground water microorganisms in all microcosms generated degradation products toxic for eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Furthermore, toxicity increased when roxarsone leached though a soil column and was further transformed by the bacterial community present in underground water. Therefore, using underground water from areas where roxarsone containing manure is used as fertilizer might be a health risk.

  8. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., all aquifers or parts of aquifers which meet the definition of an “underground source of drinking... underground source of drinking water if it meets the definition in § 144.3. (b)(1) The Director may identify... mineral or hydrocarbon producing. Information contained in the mining plan for the proposed project, such...

  9. Utilization of Thermal Energy of Mine Waters from Flooded Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Grmela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of ore, uranium and coal underground mines have been closed in the Czech Republic recently as a result of ending or considerable cutting down the mining of raw materials. After the completion of all necessary works associated with the decommissioning of underground mine workings, the mines were mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. The volumes of mine waters in the underground reach up to millions of cubic metres. Taking into account the huge volumes and temperature of waters, which is in range of 10 to 290C at the site of draining from the underground, mine waters represent a considerable and stable source of thermal energy, the utilization of which is still wholly neglected. The authors inform about the principles of the use of mine waters for this purpose and about two projects that are in a different stage of realization.

  10. Water-Tree Modelling and Detection for Underground Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi

    In recent years, aging infrastructure has become a major concern for the power industry. Since its inception in early 20th century, the electrical system has been the cornerstone of an industrial society. Stable and uninterrupted delivery of electrical power is now a base necessity for the modern world. As the times march-on, however, the electrical infrastructure ages and there is the inevitable need to renew and replace the existing system. Unfortunately, due to time and financial constraints, many electrical systems today are forced to operate beyond their original design and power utilities must find ways to prolong the lifespan of older equipment. Thus, the concept of preventative maintenance arises. Preventative maintenance allows old equipment to operate longer and at better efficiency, but in order to implement preventative maintenance, the operators must know minute details of the electrical system, especially some of the harder to assess issues such water-tree. Water-tree induced insulation degradation is a problem typically associated with older cable systems. It is a very high impedance phenomenon and it is difficult to detect using traditional methods such as Tan-Delta or Partial Discharge. The proposed dissertation studies water-tree development in underground cables, potential methods to detect water-tree location and water-tree severity estimation. The dissertation begins by developing mathematical models of water-tree using finite element analysis. The method focuses on surface-originated vented tree, the most prominent type of water-tree fault in the field. Using the standard operation parameters of North American electrical systems, the water-tree boundary conditions are defined. By applying finite element analysis technique, the complex water-tree structure is broken down to homogeneous components. The result is a generalized representation of water-tree capacitance at different stages of development. The result from the finite element analysis

  11. Monitoring underground water leakage pattern by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 800 MHz antenna frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, T. S. T.; Ismail, M. P.; Ahmad, M. R.; Amin, M. S. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sani, S.; Masenwat, N. A.; Basri, N. S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most treasure natural resources, however, a huge amount of water are lost during its distribution that leads to water leakage problem. The leaks meant the waste of money and created more economic loss to treat and fix the damaged pipe. Researchers and engineers have put tremendous attempts and effort, to solve the water leakage problem especially in water leakage of buried pipeline. An advanced technology of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been established as one of the non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect the underground water pipe leaking. This paper focuses on the ability of GPR in water utility field especially on detection of water leaks in the underground pipeline distribution. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out using 800-MHz antenna, where the performance of GPR on detecting underground pipeline and locating water leakage was investigated and validated. A prototype to recreate water-leaking system was constructed using a 4-inch PVC pipe. Different diameter of holes, i.e. ¼ inch, ½ inch, and ¾ inch, were drilled into the pipe to simulate the water leaking. The PVC pipe was buried at the depth of 60 cm into the test bed that was filled with dry sand. 15 litres of water was injected into the PVC pipe. The water leakage patterns in term of radargram data were gathered. The effectiveness of the GPR in locating the underground water leakage was ascertained, after the results were collected and verified.

  12. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.82 What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking... contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other health...

  13. Study on underground-water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process with electrodialytic desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chongyuan; Meng Jin; Li Weicai

    2003-01-01

    The study focus undergrounder water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process with electrodialysis desalination in Yining Uranium Mine. It is shown in field test that electrodialysis desalination is an effective method for underground water restoration of acid in-situ leaching process. When TDS of underground-water at the decommissioning scope is 10-12 g/L, and TDS will be less than 1 g/L after the desalination process, the desalination rate is more than 90%, freshwater recovery 60%-70%, power consumption for freshwater recovery 5 kW·h/m 3 , the distance of the desalination flow 12-13 m, current efficiency 80%, and the throughput of the twin membrane 0.22-0.24 m 3 /(m 2 ·d)

  14. ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT OF THE POLLUTANTS FROM FEED-LOT WASTEWATER ON THE UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter M. Glessi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study is investigated the impact of pollutant from wastewater generated for twelve feed-lot of the southeast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, to determine the significant aspects on the vulnerability of the underground water. The Conesa (2010 methodological impact assessment guide was used starting from twelve Environmental Impact Assessment and is analyzed the influence of the feed-lot on the underground water. The amount of livestock, type of soil, groundwater deep, kind of practice (Seasonal or continuous and twelve matrix impact in the pollutant emission and its impact on the underground water was analyzed. The result shows that destruction grade, influence area, regularity and moment of manifestation were the parameters of great influence.

  15. The paediatric suprasellar cistern as an important CT review area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathology affecting the suprasellar cistern is varied in paediatric neuroradiology practice. Although MRI is the imaging modality of choice for lesions of the suprasellar cistern, abnormalities can be detected on CT with knowledge of the normal anatomy and a sound approach to the possible pathological entities. We present ...

  16. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  17. Underground Water Distribution System, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Leak Detection Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The survey was conducted by myself, Donald Muir, Operations Coordinator, and required 12.25 working days. This was not a survey of the entire water distribution system but instead a survey of water mains 8 inch and larger...

  18. Determination of the Level of Contamination of Underground Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the level of contamination of hand-dug well which is one of the major source of water supply for the population. Water samples were taken from a total of fifteen wells at the vicinity of three major refuse dumpsite taking measurement of depth of the well, diameter, volume of water, distance ...

  19. Modeling and locating underground water pipe leak with microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Jiangping; Liu, Hao; Tian, Zhijian; Cheng, Fei

    2017-01-01

    for locating underground pipelines leak from an array located on the ground surface.

  20. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  1. Controlling the Distribution of Cold Water in Air Cooling Systems of Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Piergies, Kazimierz

    2016-12-01

    In Polish underground mines in which excavations are subjected to high heat load, central and group cooling systems based on indirect cooling units are implemented. Chilled water, referred to as cold water and produced in chillers, is distributed through a pipeline network to air coolers located in mining and development districts. The coolers are often moved to other locations and the pipeline network undergoes constant modification. In such a system, parameters of cold water in different branches of the pipeline network need to be controlled. The article presents the principles for controlling the cooling capacity of air coolers installed in an underground mine. Also, the authors propose automatic control of water flow rate in underground pipeline network and in particular coolers, depending on the temporary cooling load in the system. The principles of such a system, controlling cold water distribution, and the functions of its individual components are described. Finally, an example of an automatic control of water flow rate in a central cooling system currently implemented in a mine is presented.

  2. The paediatric suprasellar cistern as an important CT review area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Table I. Relations and contents of suprasellar cistern and the more common paediatric pathological entities. Structure. Pathology. Relations. Inferior: pituitary gland/sella. • Craniopharyngioma/ Rathke cleft cyst (embryological rests along vestigeal craniopharygeal duct). • Pituitary adenoma (rare). Superior: hypothalamus.

  3. Cistern and planter box monitoring in Camden, NJ revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The Stormwater Control Measures include raised downspout planter boxes and cisterns. EPA is monitoring a subset of the ...

  4. Analysis of the chemical quality of underground waters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some parts of Benin, like in many African countries, the fluorine rates contained in waters are higher than the rate recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (0.7-1.5 mg- /- L). Fluorine is useful against dental caries and makes the tooth enamel stronger. Nevertheless, at a higher concentration, it stains on ...

  5. Distribution of Phthalate Esters in Underground Water from Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    reservoir bottle; calibrated syringe; ultrasonic bath; bunsen burner; drying oven; muffle furnace; desiccators; measuring cylinders; test tubes; pasteur pipettes; calibrated pipette. Sample Handling and pre-treatment: Water samples were collected in amber glass containers. Conventional sampling practices were followed. No.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area

  7. Water quality restoration during and after flooding of the underground Banat mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, T.; Bragadireanu, M.; Filip, D.; Dumitrescu, N.

    2001-01-01

    Closing out and flooding of the underground Banat mines are priority concerns of the Uranium National Company S.A during the period 2000-2007, the economical uranium ores being exhausted after some 45 years of underground exploitation. Water quality restoration during the flooding process and after its completion was a part of a pilot project undertaken in the frame of a PHARE programme. The mines have two water treatment plants in operation with four modules with 3 ion exchange columns each, being in exploitation. The long term plans for the remediation of uranium mines will stop the Ciudanovita water treatment facility, all the underground mine waters being further pumped and treated within a single plant located at Lisava. The exploitation of the treatment plant will be ensured as long as needed, with a first foreseen period of ten years after total flooding of the Banat mines, linked with a long term environment monitoring programme. Necessary measures to be taken for ensuring the foreseen both uranium and radium separation are presented within this paper. Proposals for radium removal are present as a decision should be taken in the nearest future. (orig.)

  8. Research for Preseismic Phenomena on the Underground Water Level and Temperature in Selected Areas of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Asteriadis, G.

    1997-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the tectonic activity require the contribution of a variety of methods, geological, seismic, geodetic, satellite etc., being currently available in our days. On the other hand, the risk evaluation in areas of high seismicity, like this one of the South Balkan Peninsula, is of vital importance. To this purpose an interdisciplinary following up of the tectonic activity in the area may provide the best provision to the administration for an effective confrontation and intervention for the elimination of the possible disastrous effects in human life cost, financial and social cost of the communities, to which may result a strong earthquake. Among the various methods of indirect monitoring of the tectonic activity in an area, which in addition is of a low cost, is that of the following up of the underground water level and temperature changes in the area of interest. This method is based on the fact that tectonic activity is expected to result to tectonic stresses producing alterations to the local water table which in its turn is expected is expected to be observed as variation of the underground water level and temperature. The method of the following up of the underground water and temperature changes has been applied, among others by the Department of Geodesy and Surveying of the University of Thessaloniki in two areas of high seismicity in Greece: (a) The seismic zone of the lake Volvi in North Greece (40.5 deg N and 23.5 deg E) for ten years (1983-1992) and (b) the area of South Thessaly (39.2 deg N and 21 deg E) for three years (1994-1996). The statistical analysis of the observations, shows that the low frequency constituent (Sa,Ssa,Mf,Mm) of the earth tides and the barometric pressure have a small influence on the water level measurements. The shallow underground water network of South Thessaly is more sensitive to the non tectonic factors than the network of Volvi. Tentative correlation of the underground wat! er and temperature

  9. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  10. Integral study of the quantity and quality of the underground water in the Santa Lucia basin in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work study different aspects about the underground water in the Santa Lucia sedimentary basin in Uruguay. It is situated between the San Jose and Santa Lucia river as well as the adyacent Rio de La Plata coast.

  11. Radium balance in discharge waters from coal mines in Poland the ecological impact of underground water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.; Wysocka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Saline waters from underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from the uranium decay series and 228 Ra from the thorium series. More than 70% of the total amount of radium remains underground as radioactive deposits due to spontaneous co-precipitation or water treatment technologies, but several tens of MBq of 226 Ra and even higher activity of 228 Ra are released daily into the rivers along with the other mine effluents from all Polish coal mines. Mine waters can have a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. Additionally high levels of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation were also observed. Sometimes radium concentrations in rivers exceeded 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which was the permitted level for wastewaters under Polish law. The investigations described here were carried out for all coal mines and on this basis the total radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements in the vicinity of mine settling ponds and in rivers have given an opportunity to study radium behaviour in river waters and to assess the degree of contamination. For removal of radium from saline waters a method of purification has been developed and implemented in full technical scale in two of Polish coal mines. The purification station in Piast Colliery was unique, the first underground installation for the removal of radium isotopes from saline waters. Very good results have been achieved - approximately 6 m 3 /min of radium-bearing waters were treated there, more than 100 MBq of 226 Ra and 228 Ra remained underground each day. Purification has been started in 1999, therefore a lot of experiences have been gathered during this period. Since year 2006, a new purification station is working in another colliery, Ziemowit, at the level -650 meters. Barium chloride is used as a cleaning , agent, and amount of water to be purified is reaching 9 m 3 /min. Technical measures such as

  12. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  13. Hydrogeology, water chemistry, and subsidence of underground coal mines at Huntsville, Missouri, July 1987 to December 1988. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, D.W.; Ziegler, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal mining in and near Huntsville, in Randolph County in north-central Missouri, began soon after 1831. Mining in the Huntsville area was at its peak during 1903 and continued until 1966 when the last underground mine was closed and the economically recoverable coals under Huntsville had been mostly, if not completely, removed. The now abandoned mines are of concern to the public and to various State and Federal agencies for two reasons: (1) mine drainage acidifies streams and leaves large, soft, dangerous deposits of iron oxyhydroxides at mine springs and on streambeds (data on file at the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Land Reclamation Commission), and (2) collapse of mine cavities sometimes causes surface subsidence resulting in property damage or personal injury. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, in 1987 initiated a study to: determine the location of mine springs, the seasonal variation of stream-water chemistry, and the effects of underground-mine water on flow and water quality of nearby ground water and receiving streams; and identify areas susceptible to surface subsidence because of mine collapse. The purpose of the report is to present the findings and data collected for the study

  14. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Wenk, H.R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 497 McCone 94720-4767, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages.

  16. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.; Wenk, H.R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages

  17. Underground coal mines as sources of water for public supply in northern Upshur County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobba, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water use for the public supply in northern Upshur County, West Virginia exceeds the 1930 drought flow of its water source, the Buckhannon River. Three underground flooded coal mines near Buckhannon store about 1,170 acre-ft of water. This stored water , plus an additional 500 gal/min of groundwater infiltration into the mine, is enough to supply current public water needs of the area (1,500 gal/min) for 265 days, and projected needs (2 ,500 gal/min) for the year 2018 for about 135 days. This is also adequate enough for the year 2018 during droughts comparable to those in 1953 and 1930, for which 1900 gal/min and 2400 gal/min would be needed, respectively, to augment the surface-water source. Water from the flooded mines is chemically similar to water from nearby wells; however, nearby coal mining or pumpage from the mines may cause roof falls or subsidence, turbidity, changes in water quality, or leakage into or from the mines. More than 70 communities in West Virginia use water from coal mines for public supply. The flooded coal mines near Buckhannon could supply the public-water supply needs of northern Upshur County for about 265 days, but the water will require treatment to remove dissolved substances. (USGS)

  18. THE FORMATION OF RADIATION FACTOR DURING THE USE OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lisachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural radioactivity of underground water and particular qualities of industrial technologies for their use and/or processing cause the formation of wastes with enhanced content of natural radionuclides and the formation of the radiation factor in the sphere of production. The data is present on the radiation factor significance at  different  production  areas  in  metallurgy,  thermal  power  plants,  heat  power  engineering,  upon  production  of groundwater iodine.

  19. [Perchlorate removal from underground water by anaerobic biological reduction with bark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Fei; Chen, Nan; Chen, Hong-Han

    2013-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to check the feasibility of perchlorate removal from underground water with bark as a carbon source and reaction media, the effect of bark dosage, temperature and initial perchlorate concentrations on perchlorate reduction were also investigated. The results indicated that compared to corn cob, sweet potato and potato, bark in combination with perchlorate reducing microorganisms (PRMs) can efficiently achieve perchlorate removal from underground water, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which was available to PRMs was the limiting factor that affected the perchlorate removal efficiency. Degradation of 10 mg perchlorate needed to consume 35-40 mg DOC when using bark as the solid carbon source. The removal rate of perchlorate was increased by about 3 fold when the bark dosage was increased from 1:500 to 3:500; however, further increase of solid-liquid ratio (over 5:500) provided no further benefit to the perchlorate reduction rate. The rate constant reached 1.365 mg x (L x d)(-1) at (38 +/- 1) degrees C which was the highest in the batch experiments. The activation energy was 31.08 kJ x mol(-1). Anaerobic biological reduction supported by bark had a good impact on the water quality; the high perchlorate concentration did not cause substrate inhibition.

  20. PATTERNS UTILIZED IN THE SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER FLOW AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAHLUI DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. – Patterns utilized in the simulation of underground water flow and the transportation of pollutants in the Bahlui drainage basin. In the actual context of accelerate economic development, the excessive exploatation of water resources from the underground and the contamination of these with different water pollutants has become a major problem which has enetered the attention of many researchers. For the evaluation of an underground water flow and pollutants transport sistem we have chosen the package of programs MODFLOW which includes a whole series of applications,such as MOC3D, MT3D, MT3DMS, PEST, UCODE, PMPATH, which allow simulations and multiple recalibrations of the capacity of recharging of the aquifers, the flowing of the water towards wells and drillings the transport of a pollutant agent in the underground or the evaluation of the exchange of water between the hidrographic network and aquifers. The sistem targets both the evaluation of the modelation of the underground flowing and the simulation of a punctual polluation of the canvas of groundwater scenery, in the meadow of the river Bahlui, west from Letcani village.

  1. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-01-01

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two

  2. Method and apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water with the aid of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, Thomas R.; McCann, Larry D.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing -volatile contaminants comprising continuously contacting in situ underground water containing non-volatile contaminants with a liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, allowing the non-volatile contaminants to deposit in the material while the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, allowing substantially decontaminated water to be volatilized by impinging solar radiation, and then allowing the volatilized water to escape from the material into the atmosphere. An apparatus for the in situ decontamination of underground water containing non-volatile contaminants comprising at least one water-impermeable elongated conduit having an upper portion and first and second open ends and containing a homogeneous liquid-absorbent material possessing high capillary activity, means for supporting said conduit, and means for accelerating the escape of the volatilized decontamined water from the material, said means being detachably connected to the second end of the elongated conduit; wherein when underground water contaminated with non-volatile contaminants is continuously contacted in situ with the material contained in the first end of the conduit and the second end of the conduit is placed in contact with atmospheric air, non-volatile contaminants deposit in said material as the water moves upwardly through the material by capillary action, is then volatilized by impinging solar energy and escapes to the atmosphere.

  3. Characteristics and Correlation Analysis for nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water and shallow underground water of Coal Mining Subsidence Water Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, T.; Wang, S.; Zhan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the nine monitoring data from November 2012 to September 2013,the temporal distribution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water and shallow underground water of open and closed subsidence area in Panji of Huainan were analyzed. It revealed the various response relationship and migration characteristics between nitrogen and phosphorus in each water body through the correlation analysis. The limiting nutrient status was analyzed through the ratio of each form nitrogen and phosphorus. Results showed there existed certain differences in the time distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus between the two types of subsidence area, the main influential factors were precipitation, non-point source, recharge and discharge of river, etc. There were different levels of response between nitrogen and phosphorus in all kinds of water bodies which is stronger in the surface water and shallow underground water of closed subsidence area, these two types of subsidence area were all phosphorus restricted water.

  4. Methodology for {sup 210}Po extraction from underground waters; Metodologia para a extracao de Po-210 em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia

    1998-07-01

    This work describes the first results obtained by the implementation of the methodology of {sup 210}Po extraction from underground waters. This methodology was first tested in the analysis of uranite sample from the Pocos de Caldas plateau (MG-Brazil) which constitutes a important natural source of {sup 210}Po. For the uranine sample a counting rate of 1.67 cpm for {sup 210}Po was obtained and for underground water 0.3 cpm was obtained which demonstrates that the used methodology is efficient for water analysis.

  5. Data of groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. 2011-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Nanjyo, Isao; Murakami, Hiroaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Yamazaki, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Oyama, Takahiro

    2012-02-01

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2010. (author)

  6. Investigation of surface and underground waters about the Blayais nuclear site - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migeon, A.; Bernollin, A.; Dunand, E.; Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation aims at proposing a first assessment of the impact of releases on surface and underground waters around the Blayais nuclear power station, i.e. the assessment of the (mainly radiological) quality of waters. The report identifies the various pollution sources: old sources (like atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear accidents), incidents in the Blayais station, and potential sources for the present contamination. Different radionuclides are searched like tritium, carbon 14, gamma radioactivity (from different elements), some beta emitters, radon as well as some chemicals related to the station activity (hydrazine, boric acid, EDTA, lithium, morpholine). Sampling sites are presented (estuary, canals, reservoirs). Radiological and chemical analysis are reported and commented. Significant presence of Tritium and Nickel-63 are noticed

  7. Calculational model for condensation of water vapor during an underground nuclear detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    An empirally derived mathematical model was developed to calculate the pressure and temperature history during condensation of water vapor in an underground-nuclear-explosion cavity. The condensation process is non-isothermal. Use has been made of the Clapeyron-Clausius equation as a basis for development of the model. Analytic fits to the vapor pressure and the latent heat of vaporization for saturated-water vapor, together with an estimated value for the heat-transfer coefficient, have been used to describe the phenomena. The calculated pressure-history during condensation has been determined to be exponential, with a time constant somewhat less than that observed during the cooling of the superheated steam from the explosion. The behavior of the calculated condensation-pressure compares well with the observed-pressure record (until just prior to cavity collapse) for a particular nuclear-detonation event for which data is available

  8. Energy and electrode consumption analysis of electrocoagulation for the removal of arsenic from underground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villafañe, J F; Montero-Ocampo, C; García-Lara, A M

    2009-12-30

    A systematic study of the effect of design and operation conditions of an electrochemical reactor on the treatment time for arsenic (As) electro-removal from underground water (GW) was carried out to analyse the energy and electrode consumption. The effects of four factors--current density, interelectrode distance, electrode area-volume ratio, and liquid motion driving mode--were evaluated. The response variables were the energy and the electrode consumption and the treatment time to reduce the GW residual As concentration to 10 microg L(-1), which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in drinking water. The results obtained in this study showed that the factor that had the greatest effect on most of the response variables was the liquid motion driving mode. The best residence time was 20s, which favoured low energy consumption (58.78 Wh m(-3)) and low electrode material loss (9.59 g m(-3)).

  9. Water quality changes of a closed underground coal mine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang Woo; Kang, Sang Soo; Skousen, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in mine water quality as an underground mine flooded from July 2005 to October 2008. The effect of air injection with a blower into the water was used to evaluate the potential to convert ferrous to ferric iron and to provide in situ treatment and precipitation. Mine flooding averaged 31 cm/day with a linear shape until November 2007, when it flattened out due to outflow. During flooding, mine water pH remained around 6, but Eh shifted from 200 to -150 mV. After the mine water level stabilized, contents of elements such as Fe and SO(4) tended to decrease as time passed. Air was injected by diffusers (150 L/min/each) at three different depths of 2, 3, and 5 m below the water level in the shaft. Dissolved oxygen eventually increased to 4 or 5 mg/L depending on the depth of the diffusers. Aeration caused conversion of ferrous iron to ferric iron and about 30 mg/l of iron was removed from the mine water. Therefore, air injection shows potential as a semi-active treatment or part of conventional treatment to precipitate iron in the mine pool.

  10. Assessment of surveillance and of surface and underground water quality at the vicinity of base nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the environment surveillance context (regulatory framework, contents of nuclear site environment surveillance programs), this reports gives an assessment of the underground and surface water surveillance and quality at the vicinity of French nuclear sites. For each of these sites, this document briefly reports the activities performed by AREVA, gives some figures of the radiological impact on residents, presents the applicable regulatory framework and public information, describes the underground and surface water surveillance process, and gives the main results of possible radiological measurements

  11. Assessment of Underground Water Contamination and Effect of Textile Effluents on Noyyal River Basin In and Around Tiruppur Town, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to assess the underground water contamination and the effect of textile effluents on Noyyal River basin in and around Tiruppur Town. Twenty six sampling locations were selected at random and the ground water samples were collected mostly from tube wells at Noyyal River basin in and around Tiruppur area. The samples were analyzed for major physical and chemical water quality parameters like pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, total hardness (TH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl & SO42-. It was found that the underground water quality was contaminated at few sampling sites due to the industrial discharge of the effluents on to the river or land from the Tiruppur town. The sampling sites namely Orathupalayam, Karuvapalayam, Kulathupalayam, Uttukuli and Kodumanalpudur showed high deviations in total alkalinity, total hardness, Ca, Mg and chloride concentrations. Hence our study concludes that the underground water quality study in this region shows a constant variation in different parameters in different periods (before and after monsoon. So it is highly important to take periodical monitoring of the underground water quality in this region for our future sustainability

  12. Concentration of arsenic in underground and drinking water in Kostolac coal basin (northern-east Serbia, Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panic, Lj.; Vlajkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread element in nature. Increased amounts of arsenic in drinking water are appearing in regions and areas with intensive exploitation of coal ant it's combustion in thermoelectrical power plants (China, Taiwan). That is why we studied containment of arsenic in flood, drainage and underground waters from ash deposits of Kostolac thermoelectrical power plants, wells and local water system in Kostolac and four surrounding villages. Increased amounts of arsenic in ash (19-33 mg/kg), which is hydraulically transported from thermoelectrical power plants are causing contamination of underground waters under and near ash deposits (0.1-0.08 mg/l). However, increased amount of arsenic in those underground waters don't pollute wells for water supplying population with drinking water, because in these causes, amount's of arsenic found in examined areas are under 0.05 mg/l. We have concluded that despite increased amounts of arsenic in the ashes of thermoelectrical power plants, contamination of residents water supplying wells has not occurred for the last few decades, but the risk of that still exists. Therefore we suggest regular controls of arsenic containment in drinking water and further construction of regional water supply system. (author)

  13. Using of ozone and UV in the treatment of N'djamena's municipal underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagir, A. M.; New, M. Tchadanaye; Nanadoum, M.; Tchadanaye, M.; Kapseu, C.; Kamga, R.; Tchiegang, C.; Bup, N. D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of some epidemics such as cholera typhoid and renal failure were reported frequently in the last 3 years. Since the quality of potable water might be responsible for those diseases. this research work was focused on underground water of N'djamena's municipal on which almost all population of this capital used it as drinking water without purifications samples from 3 different locations were analysed for pH, Ca ++ , Fe ++ , Na + , C1 - , NO 3 - , and SO 4 2- . In addition some microbial analyses before and after treatment were done. Ozone and UV as oxidative and destructive agents were used among the procedure of treatment. The result revealed that filtration process has a significant at P> 0.01 for the removal of total hardness. On the other hand, using of ozone and UV showed a significant difference at P> 0.001 for overcoming the presence of bacteria and aerobic germs. Intensive research works were recommended to minimize the risk that could be associated with drinking water. (author)

  14. Application of cryptocrystalline magnesite-bentonite clay hybrid for defluoridation of underground water resources: implication for point of use treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available -second-order and Langmuir models, respectively indicating chemical and monolayer adsorption. Findings illustrated that the newly synthesized adsorbent was a promising adsorbent for the environmental pollution clean-up of excess fluoride in underground water and it can...

  15. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljoe, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  16. Geochemical and isotopic investigations on the thermal and mineral underground waters from the Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Bogdevich, Oleg; Vaselli, Orlando; Nicoara, Igor; Tassi, Franco; Culighin, Elena; Mogorici, Cristina; Jeleapov, Victor; Mussi, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Republic of Moldova (RM) has a large spectrum of underground mineral waters (16 reservoirs) of eight principal aquifers, most of which affected by contaminants originated by natural sources and anthropogenic activities. Inorganic natural tracers and stable isotopes are useful tools to fingerprint the water source and solutes, respectively. The aim of this investigation was to determine the geochemical and isotopic features of the most important thermo- and mineral waters from RM to trace their flow pathways and evaluate the presence of deep fluid sources discharging from fault systems, developed in response to the structural setting of the area. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic geochemical investigations were previously carried out in this area. RM has an area of 33,840 km2 and lies within the East European Precambrian Platform, two structural and/or stratigraphic layers, which are distinguishable in basement and sedimentary cover in the northern and central part of country. The basement rocks include granites, gneisses and gabbros. The sedimentary cover, overlying the crystalline basement, is almost undeformed and consists of Upper Proterozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. The geological structure is like a matrix formed from different layers of rocks consisting of permeable and impermeable strata. The deep aquifers are situated down to 1,000 m depth from the bottom to the top: Vendian (Ediocariam) and crystalline basement rocks, Silurian crystalline limestone, Cretaceous limestone, Baden-Sarmatian limestone and clay-sand deposits, middle Sarmatian limestone and clay-sand layers. Other younger aquifers were not investigated. In this framework, 54 samples from the most important underground reservoirs of RM were collected and analyzed for major, trace species and dissolved gases. An inventory of isotopic (18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios in water and 13C/12C in dissolved CO2) features (including tritium units in selected samples) was also provided. By a

  17. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium

  18. Upscaling laboratory results for water quality prediction at underground collieries in South Africa's Highveld Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, B.H. [University of Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute for Groundwater Studies

    2009-01-15

    The prediction of future acidity and water quality is a key aspect of water management in mining environments. In this paper, different prediction techniques tested in an isolated underground compartment at a colliery in the Highveld Coalfield of South Africa are discussed. Considerations for upscaling these results are explained, and a methodology for upscaling is tested at this facility. Over 30 samples were collected around the compartment and through cored boreholes. These samples were tested using acid-base accounting tests, humidity cells, and mineralogy. From this, an integrated interpretation of potential water quality evolution was made, supported by detailed water quality sampling with the use of surface boreholes, stratified sampling underground, and pumped qualities over a period of two years. The results show that analytical tests play an integral role in water quality predictions at underground collieries. The results also show that, despite the vast differences between laboratory test conditions and the situation in the field, by taking site conditions into account to properly contextualise the results, improved predictions of expected water quality can be obtained.

  19. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total α and β activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 ± 0,0004 Bq.L -1 to 0,80 ± 0,04 Bq.L -1 for total alpha activity and from 0,045 ± 0,003 to 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L -1 described in its recommendations, 0,80 ± 0,040 Bq.L -1 and 0,57 ± 0,03 Bq.L -1 respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L -1 limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 ± 0,2 Bq.L -1 ; 1,63 ± 0,13 Bq.L -1 and 1,19 ± 0,07 Bq.L -1 ., all of them situated in the Lagoa

  20. [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Kiselev, S M; Akhromeev, S V

    2016-01-01

    This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.

  1. Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Mixtures in Underground Contaminated Water in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aoudia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in diesel contaminated underground water in Oman (Rustaq, Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry was first used to determine the different concentrations in a standard mixture containing 16 PAHs. Retention time and calibration curves were obtained for all aromatic compounds and were used to identify a given analyte as well as its concentration in the contaminated underground water. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF was then used to treat standard aqueous solution of PAHs at low concentration (~ 1 ppb using an edible nonionic surfactant (Tween 80. The totality of the mixture components was completely rejected. Within the experimental detection limit (± 0.01 ppb, the residual PAH concentrations were less than 0.01 ppb in accord with the allowed concentrations in drinking water. Likewise, excellent rejections of PAHs in MEUF treatment of diesel contaminated underground water at an Omani site (Rustaq were observed. The concentration of PAHs was reduced to less than 0.01 ppb, the accepted limit for the most toxic member of the PAH group (benzo(apyrene.

  2. Integrated Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Observations of Underground Seepage of Hot Water at Blawan-Ijen Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Maryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal resource investigation was accomplished for Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Blawan geothermal field which located in the northern part of Ijen caldera presents hydrothermal activity related with Pedati fault and local graben. There were about 21 hot springs manifestations in Blawan-Ijen area with calculated temperature about 50°C. We have performed several geophysical studies of underground seepage of hot water characterization. The geoelectric resistivity and GPR methods are used in this research because both of them are very sensitive to detect the presence of hot water. These preliminary studies have established reliable methods for hydrothermal survey that can accurately investigate the underground seepage of hot water with shallow depth resolution. We have successfully identified that the underground seepage of hot water in Blawan geothermal field is following the fault direction and river flow which is evidenced by some hot spring along the Banyu Pahit river with resistivity value less than 40 Ωm and medium conductivity.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area.

  4. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  5. Tritium dating of underground water from the Jian River valley and Houjialiang loess platform in the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsheng; Wu Qinghua

    1991-01-01

    The tritium content is measured in underground water from the basin side-band of the East-Mountain Region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and hence the age, i.e. resident time, of underground water is estimated. The region belongs to deep water-poor zone in a long loess ridge situated in a loess hill plateau. The level of underground water is 40-80 m deep hidden. In the runway and the scouring channel the aqueous bed is of river pebble and cobble, with a level of 2-10 m in depth. The age of underground water from different wells were determined to be 23a, 14a, 25a, 41a and 53a respectively

  6. Integrated Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar Observations of Underground Seepage of Hot Water at Blawan-Ijen Geothermal Field

    OpenAIRE

    Maryanto, Sukir; Suciningtyas, Ika Karlina Laila Nur; Dewi, Cinantya Nirmala; Rachmansyah, Arief

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal resource investigation was accomplished for Blawan-Ijen geothermal system. Blawan geothermal field which located in the northern part of Ijen caldera presents hydrothermal activity related with Pedati fault and local graben. There were about 21 hot springs manifestations in Blawan-Ijen area with calculated temperature about 50°C. We have performed several geophysical studies of underground seepage of hot water characterization. The geoelectric resistivity and GPR methods are used i...

  7. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  8. Effect of underground explosions on the migration of elements and characteristics of water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Lunin, S.E.; Zhdanov, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    During the analysis process of nuclear explosions effect to the earth' crust condition, among the others results it was extracted the changes of chemical staff of underground water at the testing place. For the control of this suggestion logging potentiometric measurement of chemical containment of water environment took place before and after calibrate explosions of non nuclear nature. The investigations were conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site for September to October 1997 year. The observations for hydrochemical parameters changes before and after seismic event were carried out in the 4103 hydrogeological hole, during 700 hours. 2 measurement in a week after the seismic event were conducted also on the ruins of the 1349 structural hole (55 m depth). As measuring equipment the potentiometric tester PT-64 was used, developed by the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy (patent 1681643, 6.07.93) and allowed to record the changes of pressure (P, abs), temperature (T, C), p H, Eh and concentrations of Na (p Na), Cl (p CI), S (p S). Conducted measurements verify the supposition about influence of explosions on the chemical water structure for the distance to 1 -5 km from epicenter. At the moment of explosions discontinuity all measured parameters and pres-sure to 20 abs were noted. By preliminary data's all the temporal range momentary and more smooth long-term changes measuring equipment are picked out. Pronounced first kind of changes were noted in one day (twenty-four hours) and in ten days after explosion (Table). In the first case, value p H is decreased sharply, concentrations of CI and Na are increased . In 10 days after explosion values p H appears to be increased, so as values Cl and Na. Long-time changes are manifested themselves in the smooth increasing of value p H and containing Cl during 5 days, but Na has smooth tendency to decrease. Then these processes changed their behavior: concentration of Na smooth increases and concentrations of CI and p H

  9. Pilot-scale study of the radiation-induced silica removal from underground brackish water in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Silica scaling deposition in industrial water systems is one of the biggest challenges facing the water treatment industry due the low solubility of the scalants in the feed waters. In this preliminary work, we investigated the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation induced removal of silica in water sample from the Salbukh, Saudi Arabia, water treatment plant by using metallic iron as the source of ferric hydroxide to co-precipitate the silica. The influence of several reaction parameters, i.e. iron powder dosage, radiation dose, initial pH and equilibrium pH effect were investigated. In the optimum conditions, up to 75% of silica was removed. This preliminary study showed that this environmentally friendly process is effective in silica removal from underground water.

  10. Characteristics of the forerunner field of underground water regime during the Tangshan earthquake and its focal evolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, S.

    1980-03-01

    On the basis of data obtained from long-term observations of groundwater regime and taking the Tangshan earthquake as an example, the authors proposed first the principles and approaches for recognizing the precursory anomalies of earthquakes and classified the subsurface water regime into underground water, interlayer water and confined water. For the Tangshan earthquake, the forerunner field of underground water is characterized by its spatial distribution (limited to a certain quadrant), its stages of development in time and the synchronism of anomaly-changes during and after a shock. In addition, this study stresses the importance of the principles mentioned above in predicting the space, time, and magnitude of future earthquakes and discusses the relationship between the focal stress field and regional stress field and the indicator to distinguish them. It is suggested that the former develops progressively and its principal axis of compression stress changes in direction just before an earthquake, thus enabling us to divide the focal process into two basically different stages - brewing and originating stages.

  11. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The ground-water system and possible effects of underground coal mining in the Trail Mountain area, central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Gregory C.

    1985-01-01

    The ground-water system was studied in the Trail Mountain area in order to provide hydrologic information needed to assess the hydrologic effects of underground coal mining. Well testing and spring data indicate that water occurs in several aquifers. The coal-bearing Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer is regional in nature and is the source of most water in underground mines in the region. One or more perched aquifers overlie the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer in most areas of Trail Mountain.Aquifer tests indicate that the transmissivity of the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer, which consists mainly of sandstone, siltstone, and shale, ranges from about 20 to 200 feet squared per day in most areas of Trail Mountain. The specific yield of the aquifer was estimated at 0.05, and the storage coefficient is about IxlO"6 per foot of aquifer where confined.The main sources of recharge to the multiaquifer system are snowmelt and rain, and water is discharged mainly by springs and by leakage along streams. Springs that issue from perched aquifers are sources of water for livestock and wildlife on Trail Mountain.Water in all aquifers is suitable for most uses. Dissolved solids concentrations range from about 250 to 700 milligrams per liter, and the predominant dissolved constituents generally are calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Future underground coal mines will require dewatering when they penetrate the Blackhawk-Star Point aquifer. A finitedifference, three-dimensional computer model was used to estimate the inflow of water to various lengths and widths of a hypothetical dewatered mine and to estimate drawdowns of potentiometric surfaces in the partly dewatered aquifer. The estimates were made for a range of aquifer properties and premining hydraulic gradients that were similar to those on Trail Mountain. The computer simulations indicate that mine inflows could be several hundred gallons per minute and that potentiometric surfaces of the partly dewatered aquifer could be drawn

  13. Detection of elastic waves for the leakage locating of underground water supply pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Jeong, Jung Chae; Lee, Seung Seok

    2003-01-01

    Leaks in underground pipelines can cause social, environmental and economical problems. One of a good countermeasures of leaks is to find and repair of leak points of pipes. Leak noise is good source to identify the location of leak points of pipelines. Although there have been several methods to detect the leak location with leak noise, such as listening rods, hydrophones or ground microphones, they were not so efficient tools. In this paper, two accelerometers are used to detect leak locations which could provide an easier and efficient method. The filtering signal processing and algorithm is described for the detection of leak location. A 120 m-long pipeline system for experiment is installed and the results with the system show that the algorithm with the two accelerometers gives very accurate pinpointing of leaks. Theoretical analysis of sound wave propagation speed in underground pipes is also described.

  14. Detection of elastic waves for the leakage locating of underground water supply pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Jeong, Jung Chae; Lee, Seung Seok

    2003-01-01

    Leaks in underground pipelines can cause social, environmental and economical problems. One of a good countermeasures of leaks is to find and repair of leak points of pipes. Leak noise is a good source to identify the location of leak points of pipelines. Although there have been several methods to detect the leak location with leak noise, such as listening rods, hydrophones or ground microphones, they were not so efficient tools. In this paper, two accelerometers are used to detect leak locations which could provide an easier and efficient method. The filtering, signal processing and algorithm is described for the detection of leak location. A 120 m-long pipeline system for experiment is installed and the results with the system show that the algorithm with the two accelerometers gives very accurate pinpointing of leaks. Theoretical analysis of sound wave propagation speed in underground pipes is also described.

  15. Changes in cisternal compartment based on stage of lactation and time since milk ejection in the udder of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, G; Ayadi, M; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study changes induced by stage of lactation and milk ejection in the cisternal compartment of the udder in dairy cows. In experiment 1, 18 cows grouped according to stage of lactation were used 12 h after milking for measuring alveolar and cisternal milk volumes...... compartment. We termed this 'cisternal recoil.' In conclusion, ultrasonography was a useful method to evaluate dynamic changes in cisternal milk throughout lactation and after udder stimulation in dairy cows. Evidence exists that udder cisterns decrease when lactation advances and milk returns to the alveolar...

  16. A Mass Balance Model for Designing Green Roof Systems that Incorporate a Cistern for Re-Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Chopra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs, which have been used for several decades in many parts of the world, offer a unique and sustainable approach to stormwater management. Within this paper, evidence is presented on water retention for an irrigated green roof system. The presented green roof design results in a water retention volume on site. A first principle mass balance computer model is introduced to assist with the design of these green roof systems which incorporate a cistern to capture and reuse runoff waters for irrigation of the green roof. The model is used to estimate yearly stormwater retention volume for different cistern storage volumes. Additionally, the Blaney and Criddle equation is evaluated for estimation of monthly evapotranspiration rates for irrigated systems and incorporated into the model. This is done so evapotranspiration rates can be calculated for regions where historical data does not exist, allowing the model to be used anywhere historical weather data are available. This model is developed and discussed within this paper as well as compared to experimental results.

  17. Modern radionuclide content of the underground water and soils near the epicentral zone of cratering explosion at the Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.K.; Kvasnikova, E.V. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation wells for a control of the underground water contamination were bored after the cratering explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, now they are restored partially. The analysis of the retrospective information of the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology (Moscow, Russia) give a possibility to choose wells and terrains for the successful study of radionuclide migration with the underground water. The epicentral zone, the crater and the territory with radius 1,5 km around the underground cratering explosion '1003' were investigated under the ISTC project K-810. Underground water and soil samples were taken at the two expeditions of 2003. The chemical extraction methods taking into account the water mineral composition, gamma-spectrum methods, methods of the liquid scintillation spectrometry and methods of alpha-spectrometry were used. The modern radionuclide content ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) of the underground water will be presented and compare with a radionuclide content of soils around crater. The retrospective information will be added by these modern data. The vertical radionuclide distribution in soils will be presented. (author)

  18. Endoscopic examination and tissue sampling of the bovine teat and udder cistern

    OpenAIRE

    Vangroenweghe, Fr; Van Den Broeck, Wim; De Ketelaere, Adelheid; van Bree, Henri; Duchateau, Luc; Burvenich, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of an endoscopic technique to investigate the teat and udder cisterns of the bovine mammary gland, and to biopsy tissues within the cisterns. An anesthetic protocol for application in standing animals was designed, using a combination of general and local anesthesia. Individual quarter milk production (QMP), quarter somatic cell count (SCC), and occurrence of new intramammary infection were assessed after application of the technique, and ...

  19. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  20. Study on the leach mechanism of 90-19/U glass form in underground water of disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Luo Shanggeng; Tang Baolong

    1996-01-01

    The leach behavior of 90-19/U glass form in underground water (UW) of disposal site and in the deionized water (DIW) is studied. The total mass losses of glass form and the normalized element mass losses of B, Li and Si in UW are presented and compared to DIW. It is found that the ions in UW affect the leach behavior of 90-19/U glass. At the beginning of the reaction the reaction rate of the glass is smaller in UW than in DIW due to the low glass dissolution affinity in UW which is defined as (1-c/K). The rate determining step of leach reaction of 90-19/U glass in UW during the entire reaction period is the ion-exchange reaction. The apparent activation energy of glass reaction in UW is 51.6 kJ/mol

  1. Quality of underground water and hydro-geological situation caused by oil exploitation in the area of Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašić Milana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous oil fields were discovered in the area of North Banat and its regional centre, the city of Kikinda. These oil fields were explored and exploited in the second half of the XX century. Oil rigs in the area of the city zone can endanger the environment, as well as the quality of life of the citizens. In order to discover the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon we have applied GC/MSD technique, whereas we have applied GC/MSD Purge and trap. technique to discover the presence of aromatic hydrocarbon. Chemical analyses of water samples from the area of Kikinda did nit prove that underground water was polluted with oil. .

  2. Radon in underground waters as a natural analogue to study the escape of CO2 in geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; Ruano Sánchez, A B; de la Torre Pérez, J; Jurado Vargas, M

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of dissolved (222)Rn and (226)Ra were measured in several underground aquifers, which are candidates for repositories or for the study of analogue natural escapes of CO2. The concentration of both radionuclides in water was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The values obtained for the (222)Rn concentrations varied from 0 to 150 Bq l(-1), while the levels of (226)Ra were in general very low. This indicates that (222)Rn is coming from the decay of the undissolved (226)Ra existing in the rocks and deep layers of the aquifers, being later transported by diffusion in water. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Geostatistical analysis of space variation in underground water various quality parameters in Kłodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Kłodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial variation in the different quality parameters of underground water in the water intake area (SW part of Poland. The research covers the period 2011-2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e., contents of: iron, manganese, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion, total organic carbon, pH redox potential and temperature, were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial variation in the parameters was analyzed on the basis of data obtained (November 2011 from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012 were obtained (gained from 3 new piezometers, made in other locations in the relevant area. A depth of these piezometers amounts to 9-10 m.

  4. Microseismic response characteristics modeling and locating of underground water supply pipe leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    In traditional methods of pipeline leak location, geophones must be located on the pipe wall. If the exact location of the pipeline is unknown, the leaks cannot be identified accurately. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of the pipeline leak, we propose a continuous random seismic source model and construct geological models to investigate the proposed method for locating underground pipeline leaks. Based on two dimensional (2D) viscoacoustic equations and the staggered grid finite-difference (FD) algorithm, the microseismic wave field generated by a leaking pipe is modeled. Cross-correlation analysis and the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm were utilized to obtain the time difference and the leak location. We also analyze and discuss the effect of the number of recorded traces, the survey layout, and the offset and interval of the traces on the accuracy of the estimated location. The preliminary results of the simulation and data field experiment indicate that (1) a continuous random source can realistically represent the leak microseismic wave field in a simulation using 2D visco-acoustic equations and a staggered grid FD algorithm. (2) The cross-correlation method is effective for calculating the time difference of the direct wave relative to the reference trace. However, outside the refraction blind zone, the accuracy of the time difference is reduced by the effects of the refracted wave. (3) The acquisition method of time difference based on the microseismic theory and SA algorithm has a great potential for locating leaks from underground pipelines from an array located on the ground surface. Keywords: Viscoacoustic finite-difference simulation; continuous random source; simulated annealing algorithm; pipeline leak location

  5. Release of natural radionuclides in the Czech Republic - from water treatment plants where water from underground water sources is treated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaglova, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this abstract author deals with the treatment of drinking water in the Czech Republic with removing of natural radionuclides as well as with treatment of filter cartridges. The advantage of these technologies is that flushing is not required so no wastewater occurs. Used ion exchangers with higher content of uranium are processed in the chemical treatment of uranium ores, managed by DIAMO, state enterprise. (authors)

  6. Mining influence on underground water resources in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A. K.; Hou, Y.; Hu, X. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Coordinated mining of coal and water resources in arid and semiarid regions has traditionally become a focus issue. The research takes Energy and Chemical Base in Northern Shaanxi as an example, and conducts statistical analysis on coal yield and drainage volume from several large-scale mines in the mining area. Meanwhile, research determines average water volume per ton coal, and calculates four typical years’ drainage volume in different mining intensity. Then during mining drainage, with the combination of precipitation observation data in recent two decades and water level data from observation well, the calculation of groundwater table, precipitation infiltration recharge, and evaporation capacity are performed. Moreover, the research analyzes the transforming relationship between surface water, mine water, and groundwater. The result shows that the main reason for reduction of water resources quantity and transforming relationship between surface water, groundwater, and mine water is massive mine drainage, which is caused by large-scale coal mining in the research area.

  7. Chromatographic method of measurement of helium concentration in underground waters for dating in hydrological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Research methods which use natural environmental indicators are widely applied in hydrology. Different concentrations of indicators and their isotopic components in ground waters allow to determine the genesis of waters and are valuable source of information about the water flow dynamics. One of the significant indicator is helium. The concentration of 4 He (helium) in ground water is a fine indicator in water dating in a range from a hundreds to millions of years (Aeschbach-Hertig i in., 1999; Andrews i in., 1989; Castro i in., 2000; Zuber i in., 2007). 4 He is also used for dating young waters of age about 10 years (Solomon i in., 1996). Thesis consist the description of elaborated in IFJ PAN in Krakow chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground waters in aim of dating. Chapter 1 contain short introduction about ground water dating and chapter 2 description of helium property and chosen applications of helium for example in technology and earthquake predictions. Helium sources in ground waters are described in chapter 3. Helium concentration in water after infiltration (originated from atmosphere) to the ground water system depends mainly on the helium concentration coming from the equilibration with the atmosphere increased by additional concentration from '' excess air ''. With the increasing resistance time of ground water during the flow, radiogenic, non-atmospheric component of helium dissolves also in water. In chapter 4 two measurement methods of helium concentration in ground waters were introduced: mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic method. Detailed description of elaborated chromatographic measurement method of helium concentration in ground water contain chapter 5. To verify developed method the concentration of helium in ground waters from the regions of Krakow and Busko Zdroj were measured. For this waters the concentrations of helium are known from the earlier mass spectrometric measurements. The results of

  8. Pilot project on underground hot water store in Rottweil; Pilotvorhaben Erdbecken-Heisswasserwaermespeicher in Rottweil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, P.; Benner, M.

    1998-12-31

    The PC-assisted measurement data recording system with modem for data transmission has proved to work reliably. The modular structure enable to process and evaluate all kinds of data measured. On-line presentation provides a quick overview of the system data. Data obtained from test measurements confirmed the previously calculated temperature gradients in the store and tank walls. Leaks in the lining caused a time delay preventing a complete optimisation of the plant. It was not possible to prove that a combination of underground storage and cogeneration plant would increase the heat amount as predicted or that the cogeneration plant`s operation could be shifted from night-time to daytime. The costs for building stores with a volume of 5,000 cubic metres and 10,000 cubic metres were estimated on the basis of the construction concept. Construction costs determined on the basis of the solicitation amount to DM 207 and DM 189 per cubic metre. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die installierte PC gestuetzte Messdatenerfassung mit Modemanlage zur Datenfernuebertragung hat sich als ein zuverlaessiges System erwiesen. Ihr modularer Aufbau erlaubt es, alle relevanten Messgroessen aufzubereiten und auszuwerten. Die Online-Darstellung gibt dabei einen schnellen Ueberblick ueber die aktuellen Systemdaten. Die Messergebnisse waehrend des Probebetriebes bestaetigten die vorausberechneten Temperaturgradienten im Speicher und in der Behaelterwand. Die Undichtigkeiten der Auskleidung bedingten eine zeitliche Verzoegerung, so dass nur ein Fehlbetrieb einiger Komponenten nicht aber einer Betriebsoptimierung stattfinden konnte. Die verbunden mit dem Bau des Waermespeichers prognostizierte Steigerung der mittels Kraft-Waermekopplung erzeugten Waerme und die Verschiebung der Blockheizkraftwerk-Laufzeit von der Nacht auf den Tag konnte deshalb nicht nachgewiesen werden. Ausgehend von dem erarbeiteten Baukonzept wurden Kostenschaetzungen fuer Speichervolumina von 5000 m{sup 3} und 10000 m{sup 3

  9. Bypassing and tightening of an underground water retention system in permeable karst: case study of the hydropower plant (HPP) Bribin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudella, Peter; Loges, Iryna; Mutschler, Thomas; Eiche, Elisabeth; Ruppert, Julia; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) joint research project in the karst area of Gunung Kidul, Province of Yogyakarta Special Region on the Java Island, Indonesia, an underground hydropower driven water extraction facility in the cave "Bribin" was developed using pump-as-turbine-driven systems for freshwater supply of the rural area. As numerous other caves in the Gunung Kidul area, Bribin is part of a ramified system of all-season water-bearing subterraneous rivers and natural caves in karstic limestone. The elliptic cross section of the cave was completely closed with a concrete barrage, thus creating a year-round underground retention volume with an operational storage level of approx. 15 m. This contribution highlights the geotechnical and geohydraulic challenges handled within the sub-project "Short-time and long-time behaviour of karst rock surrounding pressure-bearing underground water-retaining structures". One key to the feasibility of an artificial water retention scheme in a natural cave is to ensure the mechanical stability of the cave roof and sidewalls. The necessary geotechnical investigations are described. Another key to the effectiveness of such a water retention concept is the control and minimization of "lost" seepage water bypassing the barrage structure through the karst rock mass. Measures to monitor and to explain the seepage phenomena are presented as well as grouting efforts to minimize them. The limitations of improving the overall tightness will be discussed. Interpretation includes the use of analytical and numerical methods.

  10. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE... and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration of...

  11. El Nino and ground/underground water decreasing effects on coffee cultivation in DakNong Province, Vietnam by using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Anh Quan; Quy Bui, Ngoc; Luu, The Anh; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    El Nino is one of most common climatic events which are widely spread over the world. In case of Vietnam, the El Nino or ENSO event has various effects on agricultural cultivation over whole country; in the Central Highlands area, the coffee cultivation also has been affected heavily. The coffee is one of most important products of this area. Our study area, the Dak Nong province located in the Central Highlands, the mountainous and highlands in central of Vietnam. The coffee production contributes roughly 40% of total GDP of the province. This province climate is influenced by tropical monsoon and high altitude terrain. The area has two seasons in which dry season from November to end of March and the wet season cover the rest. There is 80-90% of precipitation concentrated in wet season. In El Nino years, the dry season is longer and drier than normal which affects the agricultural cultivation especially coffee. The effects of El Nino phenomenon on coffee cultivation need to clarify in order to help farmers and decision makers making their solutions. The ground/underground water has been decreased by over watering of coffee growers as well as deforestation making water shortage in dry season. The over watering of coffee cultivation wasted more than 80% water resources especially underground water use. In years of 1997-1998, coffee productivity decreased 30%; in years of 2003, the coffee productivity was downed by 25%; both examples show the relation between the combination of ENSO and decreasing of Ground/underground water and the coffee production in Dak Nong province. This is a necessary research to evaluate the effects of the combination. This paper using GIS tools to estimate the effects of El Nino phenomenon combined with ground/underground water and the coffee cultivation in Dak Nong province

  12. Removal of organic compounds from natural underground water in sorption and sono-sorption processes on selected activated carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzyk Andżelika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article rated removal efficiency of organic matter in the processes of sorption and sono-sorption of underground water grasped for municipal purposes. The studies were conducted in laboratory scale and verified in pilot scale at the Water Treatment Plant Tarnobrzeg-Jeziórko. In the research used granular activated carbons, ie. WD-Extra, WG-12, Norit Row 0.8 and Filtrasorb 300. The processes efficiency was evaluated on the basis of changes in the following parameters, ie.: total organic carbon (TOC, permanganate index, UV absorbance, turbidity and colour. The ultrasounds were generated by means of disintegrator Sonics&Materials VCX 130, using the sonication time of 1 and 5 minutes. The results obtained for the batch tests allowed to observe a beneficial effect of ultrasound on the efficiency of the removal of organic material in the sorption process. The combination of sonication and sorption on activated carbon increased the efficiency of the removal of organic matter by 6–37% for TOC, and 18.6–27.9% for permanganate index, depending on the sorbent used. The positive laboratory results were not confirmed in a pilot scale. In the flow conditions the sonication process did not affect the efficiency of removal of organic matter on the filter model with a bed of activated carbon.

  13. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  14. Physico-chemical behaviour of underground waters after October 1, 1995 Dinar earthquake, SW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woith, H.; Milkereit, C.; Maiwald, U.; Pekdeger, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports the investigations conducted by a team of the German Earthquake Task Force arrived in the city of Dinar (SW Turkey) after the October 1, 1994 earthquake. The investigations recorded post-seismic changes in water discharge, water temperature and conductivity. In the first month after the event, the groundwater discharge increased at springs located within the down-thrown block, whereas a slight decrease was observed at sites on the hanging wall

  15. Clear of underground water from ferric and manganese modified filtering material active pink sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolubovich, Yury; Voytov, Evgeny; Skolubovich, Alexey; Ilyina, Lilia

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes the methods of purification of groundwater from iron and manganese. A particular problem is the removal of the manganese compounds from water. For the water treatment plants of small and medium capacity economically viable use of the modified filter materials. This research paper presents the technological characteristics of different catalytically active materials. The article describes the results of a study of a new modified material Active pink sand to clean groundwater from iron, manganese and other impurities.

  16. A unified approach for designing a photovoltaic solar system for the underground water pumping well-34 at Disi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, Munzer S.Y.; Qandil, Hasan; Hammad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system for the underground water pumping wells at Disi aquifer was designed. • Solar irradiation values on horizontal and tilted surfaces were identified. • Method of the worst month MWM and peak sun hours PSH method were applied. • Thirty-eight percentage of the total PV panels would not be used beyond the design conditions (December). • Dust accumulation problem were solved by cleaning or as a 5% power loss factor. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a detailed design of a standalone photovoltaic system used to power continuously a submersible water pump from a selected well (Well-34 of a current static water level, SWL = 147.3 m), out of 55 production wells located at the Disi aquifer, where each of these wells should have a continuously-operating water flow rate of 80 l/s (288 m 3 /h) according to the Disi project specifications. Initially, solar irradiation calculations on horizontal and tilted surfaces were carried out to identify the potential of solar energy available in kW h/m 2 /day in the Disi aquifer. Then, a system design approach based on the worst month of the year (December) was carried out to choose and size the components of photovoltaic system that is required to operate the submersible pump over the 25-year operation period. The system sizing implies defining the number and type of solar panels required to capture the available solar energy, the capacity and number of batteries, inverter rating, cable sizing, charge controller numbers and rating to ensure the maximum reliability of the system. Furthermore, beyond the design conditions of the worst month (December), extra energy can be produced by the PV system during the rest of the year time, which can be used for many purposes. Also, the design process considers the problem of dust accumulation on PV surfaces and this can be dealt with by periodic cleaning

  17. Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1971-01-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass ground-water basin is divided into the Beaumont, Banning, Cabazon, San Timoteo, South Beaumont, Banning Bench, and Singleton storage units. The Beaumont storage unit, centrally located in the agency area, is the largest in volume of the storage units. Estimated long-term average annual precipitation in the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency drainage area is 332,000 acre-feet, and estimated average annual recoverable water is 24,000 acre-feet, less than 10 percent of the total precipitation. Estimated average annual surface outflow is 1,700 acre-feet, and estimated average annual ground-water recharge is 22,000 acre-feet. Projecting tack to probable steady-state conditions, of the 22.000 acre-feet of recharge, 16,003 acre-feet per year became subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley, 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, and 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon. After extensive development, estimated subsurface outflow from the area in 1967 was 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon, and 800 acre-feet into the fault systems south of the Banning storage unit, unwatered during construction of a tunnel. Subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley in 1967 is probably less than 50 percent of the steady-state flow. An anticipated 17,000 .acre-feet of water per year will be imported by 1980. Information developed in this study indicates it is technically feasible to store imported water in the eastern part of the Beaumont storage unit without causing waterlogging in the storage area and without losing any significant quantity of stored water.

  18. Contraption and Prediction of Exhalation Tight Brownstone in Exhalation Cistern

    OpenAIRE

    XhingZhiwang, -; Xuchao, -

    2012-01-01

    The reservoir connate water saturation is high and gas wells generally produce water which seriously affects the productivity of gas wells in Xujiahe tight sandstone gas reservoirs in Sichuan Basin. Take the sixth formation for example, there are 39 wells producing water unequally in the 42 commissioning wells, and the excessive water production leads to the production of the gas well declining rapidly. Studying of the mechanism of water production in tight sandstone gas reservoirs and predic...

  19. EFFECT OF SEALED MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Halina Grygorczuk-Petersons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the groundwater environment. The assessment of water status in the region of landfill sealed with a layer of clay with a thickness of 0.5 m, was based on the own research and monitoring received from the municipal office, and conducted in 2007–2010. Waters flowing out of the landfill revealed an increase in pollution indicators such as: total organic carbon (TOC, concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, and chromium. It was demonstrated that the landfill sealed with a clay layer does not reduce the outflow of leachate to groundwater, but also that the purity of these waters is influenced by increased agricultural activity in the areas adjacent to the landfill.

  20. Determination of the radon Concentration in underground water in selected areas in and around Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Seth Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Radon (Rn-222) is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and different types of water: surface, borehole, well and spring. It is worth to carry out surveys for the radon in water for radiation protection as well as for geological considerations. The research presenters here was carried out in selected towns in and around Kumasi for the determination of radon concentration in groundwater. The major towns from which samples were taken are , Mowire, Kronum, Aburaso, Medoma, Kenyase, Buokrom, Bomfa, Ayeduase, Kotei, Tikrom. All the samples are used for domestic purposes such as cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. Waters from boreholes and wells in the selected towns were sampled and the radon concentration level measured. The Roll’s method was used for the radon concentration analysis on all the 100 samples. The results shows that, the minimum radon concentration in groundwater was 13015.934 Bq/m3 and it was found at Bomfa, and the highest was found to be 964628.480 Bq/m3, recorded at Mowire. It is believed that this variation of levels is mainly due to the difference in rock type, soil type and geology of the area as well as the depth of the water samples. This information can be used to estimate the possible health hazards from radon in the selected towns in the future from environmental point of view. The data would promote public awareness related to risk of radon exposure. (au)

  1. A new wireless underground network system for continuous monitoring of soil water contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Kuipers, H.; Kleiboer, L.; Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Oostindie, K.; Wesseling, J.G.; Wolthuis, J.W.; Havinga, P.

    2009-01-01

    A new stand-alone wireless embedded network system has been developed recently for continuous monitoring of soil water contents at multiple depths. This paper presents information on the technical aspects of the system, including the applied sensor technology, the wireless communication protocols,

  2. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  3. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P.; Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The 222 Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  4. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria V, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  5. Application of cryptocrystalline magnesite-bentonite clay hybrid for defluoridation of underground water resources: implication for point of use treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masindi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis method was established to fabricate a nanocomposite material comprising of cryptocrystalline magnesite and bentonite clay that has high adsorption capacity for ionic pollutants. To synthesize the composite at 1:1 weight (g: weight (g ratio, a vibratory ball mill was used. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine optimum conditions for fluoride adsorption. Parameters optimized included: time, dosage, concentration and pH. Optimum conditions for defluoridation were found to be 30 min of agitation, 0.5 g of dosage, 0.5:100 solid to liquid (S/L ratios and 25 mg L−1 of initial fluoride ions. Fluoride removal was independent of pH. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, respectively, indicating chemical and monolayer adsorption. Findings illustrated that the newly synthesized adsorbent was a promising adsorbent for the environmental pollution clean-up of excess fluoride in underground water and it can be used as a point source treatment technology in rural areas of South Africa and other developing countries.

  6. Study of gases and volatiles in samples of underground water bodies in the State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Cisniega, G.; Tamez, E.

    2000-01-01

    It was realized a preliminary study of radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC ) in spring water of the State of Mexico. The radon was determined by the liquid scintillation method and the VOC by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The radon concentration range was between 0.50 - 4.42 KBq/m 3 . Its were found some VOC of probably anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  7. Surface deformation induced by ground water pumping in Taipei Basin: A case study in rban underground construction of Taipei metro station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chin; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Since 1955, the rapid development of population has requested for large amount of water usage in Taipei city. Thus, the overuse of ground water leads to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. In 1989, the government stated to put restrictions on water pumping. Consequently, ground water recovered and resulted in the a wideapred uplift in Taipei basin. Due to the underground transportation and wiring, ground water were massively pumped for the safety of construction sites. In this study, persistent scatterer interferometry technique is used for processing 37 high resolution X-band radar images to characterize deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. From the ground table records of 30 wells in Taipei basin, the results indicated that the main factor to the surface deformation of Taipei basin is the elevation change of water table. In the case of Wuku groundwater well, the elevation change of the ground water table is about 15 m during September 2011 to April 2015. In the same period of the time, the change of surface deformation within 100 m of Wuku groundwater well is consistent to the elevation change of ground water table, and is more than 5 cm along line of sight. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, in the case of Taipei metro construction, according to the analytical results of radar image and the 380 vertical control points of Taipei, the high water pumping before the underground construction project will inflict surface deformation. It is noticeable that, the Jingmei Formation and the Wuku Formation are composed of the sediments with high porosity. Thus, the actual land subsidence caused by water pumping would be five times than the underground construction areas.

  8. Evaluation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in underground drinking water and transfer of their resistant character to normal flora of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Naqab; Rehman, Khurram; Khan, Samiullah; Niazi, Zahid Rasul; Shah, Kifayatullah; Baloch, Natasha; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-03-01

    The untreated surface water for drinking and domestic use is an alarming situation to public health especially in prevalence of antibiotics resistant bacteria. This investigation aimed to isolate and identify the antibiotic resistance bacteria in underground water samples in district Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The underground water samples were collected from four different places using hand pumps (Khyber town, riverside, Gomal University and united town). Cultured on nutrient agar media, identified by Gam staining and biochemical tests. There after antibiotic resistance assay were performed by measuring zone of inhibition of different antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Six different bacterial colonies were isolated and identified as Enterobacteriaceae, Serriata specie, Proteues, Pseudomonas, all these bacterial colonies were 33% resistant to chloramphenicol with and 100% resistant to amoxicillin. Some colonies were also considered as resistant, according to the criteria of National Committee for Clinical Records (NCCL) that less than 10mm zone of inhibition are considered as resistant. Subsequently, the chloramphenicol resistance bacteria were analyzed for their ability to transfer resistant gene to sensitive bacteria. In in-vitro method, an isolate M1b (resistant) was found capable to transfer resistance gene to M1a isolate (sensitive) in nutrient rich environment. It was concluded that antibiotics resistance bacteria found in underground water, moreover capable of transferring the antibiotic resistant character to suitable recipient i.e. normal flora of the body or to other pathogens by conjugation.

  9. Simulation of Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Allocation of Surafce and Underground Water Resources to Drinking Water Demand in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Atashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that both surface and groundwater resources inside and outside the city of Mashhad have been already exploited to their maximum capacity and that the large water transfer Doosti Dam Project has been already implemented to transfer a considerable quanity of water to Mashhad, the city will be encountering a daily water shortage of about 1.7 m3/s by 2021. The problem would be even worse if the quality of the water resources are taken into account, in which case, the shortage would start even sooner in 2011 when the water deficit will be about 0.9 m3/s. As a result, it is essential to develop short- and medium-term strategies for secure adequate water supplies for the city's domestic water demand. The present study aims to carry out a qualitative and quantitative modeling of surface and groundwater resources supplying Mashhad domestic water. The qualitative model is based on the quality indices of surface and groundwater resources according to which the resources are classified in the three quality categories of resources with no limitation, those with moderate limitations, and those with high limitations for use as domestic water supplies. The pressure zones are then examined with respect to the potable water demand and supply to be simulated in the MODSIM environment. The model thus developed is verified for the 2012 data based on the measures affecting water resources in the region and various scenarios are finally evaluated for a long-term 30-year period. Results show that the peak hourdaily water shortage in 2042for the zone supplied from no limitation resources will be 38%. However, this value will drop to 28% if limitations due to resource quality are also taken into account. Finally, dilution is suggested as a solution for exploiting the maximum quantitative and qualitative potential of the resources used as domestic water supplies. In this situation, the daily peak hour water shortage will be equal to 31%.

  10. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  11. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  12. The establishment of a method for evaluating the long-term water-tightness durability of underground concrete structure taking into account some deteriorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Kawanishi, Motoi

    1996-01-01

    To establish a method of evaluating the long-term water-tightness durability of underground concrete structures, the authors firstly studied a deterioration evaluation model to express the deterioration condition of concrete structures and constructed, on the basis of this model, a function evaluation model to estimate the lowering of functions due to deterioration, consequently indicating a 'concept for evaluating the deterioration and functions of concrete structures' which will make it possible to perform the functional evaluation of concrete structures. Based on this concept, the authors then discusses a technique for evaluating the long-term water-tightness durability of underground concrete structures, specifically indicating the technique by means of illustrations. (author)

  13. Spatial an temporal analysis of chloride concentrations in underground water in the coastal wetland of l'Albufera, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Evelina; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal wetlands are of great interest for their richness in biodiversity. They are also fragile systems because they are exposed to various human pressures, such as farming systems and urban sprawl. Most Mediterranean coastal wetlands have a transient underground inter phase of continental and marine water. In many cases, the variations of the rain regime towards an increasing dryness and the overexploitation of aquiphers in these zones could favour the marine water intrusion, being a source of continental water salinisation and loss of its quality. This process can directly affect the ecosystems and produce loss of biodiversity. Thus, studies to assess the dynamics in time and space of the possible marine intrusion are necessary to evaluate coastal environment health and quality. The study has been applied to L'Albufera Natural Park, the largest Coastal Wetland in eastern Spain. Due to its importance, it has been included in the list of Wetlands of the RAMSAR Convention. In the area there is a complex relationship between the intrinsic natural importance (endemicity and biodiversity) and the human activities (traditional agriculture and hinterland industrial and settlement development). The methodological approach is based in the analysis of chloride concentrations time series of thirteen sample water points distributed in and around the boundaries of the Natural Park. All time series, between 1982 and 2008, have been analysed to establish trends both in time and space. Results show that in samples close to the see (between 1500 and 2000 metres) chloride concentrations are not too high, with values between 37 mg/l and 213 mg/l. Nonetheless, the shorter is the distance to the see the higher are the chloride levels, with values between 58 mg/l and 1131 mg/l. For longer distances, more than 2000 from the coast line, values are quite similar in most sample points, from 52 mg/l to 691 mg/l. Among all the thirteen time series analysed trends are detected

  14. An Investigation of the Quality of Underground Water at Eloor in Ernakulum District of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of groundwater in Eloor, an industrial region, have been investigated to evaluate the extent of pollution. The study area was divided into four zones and a total of 40 water samples from different locations were collected, analyzed and correlation analysis has been carried out among the measured parameters. A comparison of the observed parameters with the limits prescribed by BIS revealed that in some area pH values are lower than the prescribed limit. The concentration of the major cations and anions were found to be significant. Magnesium and chloride exceed the desirable limit in some areas but less than the upper limit prescribed by BIS. Significant linear relationship was observed between pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+ and chloride. The importance of these parameters in predicting the quality characteristics of groundwater is discussed.

  15. Methodology for the determination of underground water velocity, direction and flow, by using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    A basic route determining velocity and direction of ground water flow by using radioactive tracers is presented. Emphasis has been given to hydrology and nuclear energy concepts, to the construction of some specific equipment, to the calibration of radiation detectors and to the practical applications in borehole. 82 Br and 51 Cr have been chosen as tracers for the Darcy's velocity and direction determinations, respectively. From the obtained value of Darcy's velocity, the laminar flow was confirmed according to the admitted hypothesis. Comparisons of the Darcy's velocity values and flow direction have been made with values obtained using pumping tests and survey of the equipotential curves, where it can be concluded that they are of the same largeness and then, from a practical view, approximate. (Author) [pt

  16. Uranium in underground water public supply of the metropolitan region of Recife; Uranio em aguas subterraneas de abastecimento publico da regiao metropolitana do Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.M.; Sousa, G.H.; Vasconcelos, W.E.; Hazin, C.A.; Amaral, R.S. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, R.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The geologic formation of the metropolitan region of Recife is of sedimentary origin. In the coast area, where the phosphate deposits are located, it is sufficiently rich in underground hydric features. In the superposed layers of the sedimentary basin exists three underground aquifers and 80% of the underground hydric features of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife are located in the phosphate deposits, which are rich in uranium. Physiologically the uranian are in the steady state (6+) with bivalent cations U{sup 2+}{sub 2}. The ingestion of uranium by man occurs through foods and water ingestion. The places of the human body where it has greater clamping of this radionuclides are the bones. The uranium is deposited slowly from surface of the bone, redistributing itself in route to the marrow. An important competition between Ca{sup 2+}{sub 2} and the UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} exists in the kidneys, where the Ca{sup 2+}{sub 2} efficiently is absorbed. This work was carried through aiming to determine the concentrations of uranium in waters of the wells of public supplying of the metropolitan region of Recife, collating them with the limits established for the Health Department, that establishes the level of 0.1 Bq/L referring to the total alpha radioactivity in drinking waters.

  17. Investigation of thermal stratification in cisterns using analytical and Artificial Neural Networks methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameri Siahoui, H.R.; Dehghani, A.R.; Razavi, M.; Khani, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of an underground cold-water reservoir are investigated analytically and using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). An analytical solution is developed for the temperature distribution in the reservoir by assuming a linearized boundary condition at the water surface. For the general non-linear boundary condition, the temperature distribution is modeled using ANN. Very good agreements between the analytical and ANN results at various times during the withdrawal cycle are observed, ensuring the accuracy of the analytical and ANN procedures. The results show that a stable thermal stratification is preserved in the reservoir throughout the entire course of withdrawal cycle. As one important outcome of this research, two different regions are observed inside the thermally stratified tank during discharge cycle. The bottom region with a linear temperature distribution and the upper one in which a nearly exponential thermal stratification are developed. During withdrawal cycle, the outside temperature reaches as high as 42 o C, while cool water with the temperature varying from 12 to 13 o C is easily available from the underground water reservoir under investigation.

  18. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  19. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  20. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  1. COSTEAU - preheating and cooling by means of underground collectors with water circulation - case study (Perret building at Satigny, Geneva) and generalisation; COSTEAU. Prechauffage et rafraichissement par collecteurs souterrains a eau. Etude de cas (batiment Perret a Satigny, Geneve) et generalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmuller, P.; Lachal, B.

    2003-07-01

    Since a couple of years, underground collectors with air circulation have been becoming increasingly popular as a simple means for preheating (at winter time) and cooling (at summer time) of outdoor air ahead of a ventilation system for well insulated buildings. This report considers underground collectors with water circulation used for similar purposes. They are connected to the ventilation system via an air/water heat exchanger. Starting from a case study - one-year detailed in-situ measurements and data analysis from an air-heated office building near Geneva, Switzerland - computerised simulations have been performed as a sensitivity analysis tool as well as to establish recommendations and sizing rules for planners, including cost considerations. In the case study it turned out that the water-circulated underground collector, which is installed right under the basement of this well insulated building, is in thermal contact with the basement. Its main function is to damp the daily temperature oscillation of the inlet ventilation air, bringing the expected thermal comfort improvement in the summer time. However, this underground collector is unable to collect seasonally stored heat from the ground. Hence, in the winter time the main preheating contribution arises from the series-connected heat-recovery unit from the exit air. Numerical simulations show that optimal sizing of underground collectors is essential, and that both the underground collector and the well insulated building as a physical system with thermal inertia have to be simultaneously considered in the optimization process. Optimization also has to include parasitic energy (electricity) needed by fans and pumps. As outdoor air inlet can never be flooded in the case of underground collectors with water circulation the sanitary risk encountered with air-circulated underground collectors does not exist for them. Initial investment cost for water-circulated underground collectors is higher than for a

  2. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  3. Pilot project: Underground hot-water heat store at Rottweil. Final report; Pilotvorhaben Erdbecken-Heisswasserwaermespeicher in Rottweil. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirt, N.; Benner, M.; Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N.; Hahne, E.

    1997-09-01

    The concept for an underground hot water heat store was developed, and a 600 m{sup 3} pilot store was constructed at Rottweil as part of the district heating system. Heat from cogeneration units is transferred to a reinforced-concrete tank lined with steel sheets and thermally insulated with rockwool. Leaktightness of the steel liner was found to be a problem, so that automatic operation was impossible and the floor had to be relined in summer 1997. After reconstruction of the heat supply system, the overall system including the heat store was scheduled for full-scale operation by the end of 1997. The PC-supported data acquisition system with modem for remote transmission of data functioned reliably. Owing to its modular structure, it is able to process and evaluate all relevant measured data. The experience gained and the cost calculations made provide a basis for the construction of further underground heat stores which may also be used for seasonal storage of heat. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer einen Erdbecken-Heisswasser-Waermespeicher entwickelt und in Rottweil ein Pilotspeicher mit 600 m{sup 3} Volumen errichtet. Dieser Waermespeicher ist Bestandteil einer Fernwaermeversorgung und wird mit Waerme aus Blockheizkraftwerken beladen. Der Behaelter aus Stahlbeton ist aussen an Decke und Wand mit Mineralwolle waermegedaemmt und innen vollstaendig mit einem Edelstahlblech ausgekleidet. Die wasserdichte Verbindung der Edelstahlbahnen stellte sich dabei als kritischer Faktor heraus, da durch Undichtigkeiten der Betrieb des Waermespeichers stark beeinflusst wird. So konnte trotz verlaengerter Projektlaufzeit kein automatischer Betrieb des Waermespeichers stattfinden. Die erneute Auskleidung des Bodenbereichs wurde im Sommer 1997 durchgefuehrt. Nach Umbau der Waermeerzeugungsanlagen soll das Gesamtsystem inkl. Waermespeicher Ende 1997 in Betrieb genommen werden. Die installierte PC gestuetzte Messdatenerfassung mit Modemanlage zur

  4. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of communication between middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts and cisterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Nikaido, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuaki; Fujimoto, Takatoshi; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Taoka, Toshiaki.

    1996-01-01

    Cine-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations were performed in 10 patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts to evaluate communication between the cysts and the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Eight of 10 patients were evaluated by time of flight cine-MR imaging, and two by phase contrast cine-MR imaging. Two patients underwent membranectomy of the cysts, and were evaluated both pre-and postoperatively. Computed tomography cisternography was used to confirm communication between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns. Pulsatile fluid motion within the cysts was present in all patients. However, marked fluid motion and jet flow between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns were only observed in communicating cysts. In the two patients who underwent membranectomy, postoperative examination found greater fluid motion and jet flow not previously present. Cine-MR imaging demonstration of marked pulsatile fluid motion accompanied by jet flow suggests that a cyst communicates with the normal CSF space. (author)

  5. Fiscal 1981 Sunshine Project research report. Research on underground reinjection mechanism of hot water; 1981 nendo nessui no chika kangen mechanism no chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1981 research result on the behavior and flow mechanism of underground reinjected hot water, and the effect of reinjected hot water on the ground. In the tracer survey in Takinoue area, Iwate prefecture, the re-upwelling rate and mixing rate of reinjected hot water were lower than those in previous surveys, showing the smaller effect of hot water on productivity. In Nigori-Gawa area, Hokkaido, natural conditions prior to industrial production and reinjection were observed by tracer survey. In the simulation research, it was confirmed that the hydraulic structural model and analysis technique established by previous researches are effective for new production and reinjection systems different from previous ones enough. On observation of minute earthquakes, study was made on the effect of reinjected hot water on the ground in Takinoue area. In Nigori-Gawa area, the data were collected under natural conditions prior to industrial production and reinjection through minute earthquake observations. (NEDO)

  6. Diagnosis of moyamoya disease using 3-T MRI and MRA: value of cisternal moyamoya vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Kasahara, Seiko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Miki, Yukio [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kikuta, Ken-ichiro [Fukui University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuyama, Hidenao [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to propose new magnetic resonance (MR) criteria of diagnosing moyamoya disease (MMD) from cisternal moyamoya vessels (MMVs) on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the existing MR criteria and the proposed MR criteria. Participants comprised 20 consecutive patients with MMD (4 males, 16 females) diagnosed clinically using conventional angiography and 20 controls (13 male and 7 female arteriosclerosis patients). In these participants, 3-T MRI/MRA was evaluated by the existing MR criteria, which use MMVs in the basal ganglia, and the proposed MR criteria, which use cisternal MMVs, and then these two criteria were statistically compared by McNemar's test. Diagnostic accuracy was 62.5% with the existing MR criteria and 97.5% with the proposed MR criteria. The proposed MR criteria was more sensitive (1.00) than the existing MR criteria (0.45), but less specific (0.95) than the existing MR criteria (1.00). The proposed MR criteria using cisternal MMVs showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than the existing MR criteria. We believe that our proposed MR criteria will be beneficial for diagnosing MMD. (orig.)

  7. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used to evaluate udder compartments (cisternal and alveolar) and cisternal recoil after an oxytocin (OT) challenge at different milking intervals (8, 16, and 24 h) during wk 7 of lactation. Goats were milked once (1x; n = 7) or twice (2x; n = 7) daily...... from wk 2 of lactation. Average milk yields for wk 4 and 8 were 1.76 and 2.24 L/d, for goats milked 1x and 2x, respectively. For each half udder, cisternal area was measured by ultrasonography and cisternal milk was measured by machine milking after i.v. injection of an OT receptor blocking agent...... in the cistern at any alveoli filling degree. Cisternal to alveolar ratio increased with milking interval (from 57:43 to 75:25), but differences between milking intervals were significant at 8 h only, at which time goats milked 2x showed a greater ratio (1x = 51:49; 2x = 62:38). Despite extended milking...

  8. Synergistic efficiency of the desilication of brackish underground water in Saudi Arabia by coupling γ-radiation and Fenton process: Membrane scaling prevention in reverse osmosis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Mohammed S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the main water resources in arid Saudi Arabia is underground water. However, this brackish water has high silica content which can cause a recalcitrant deposit on the membrane in the reverse osmosis units during its desalination. In this study, we examined the synergistic efficiency of the removal of silica from the Buwaib water sample, when combining two advanced oxidation processes, γ-irradiation and the Fenton process, using hydrogen peroxide and zero valent metal iron as source of Fe3+. This latter adsorbs effectively on silica and co-precipitate. The influence of absorbed dose, iron dosage and pH effect were investigated. This preliminary study showed that these attractive and effective hybrid processes are very efficient in removing silica.

  9. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  10. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  11. In vitro study of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in a shaken basal cistern after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kertzscher

    Full Text Available Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters.A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force.From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space.

  12. The cisternal segment of the abducens nerve in man: three-dimensional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Alpay E-mail: aalkan@inonu.edu.tr; Sigirci, Ahmet; Ozveren, M. Faik; Kutlu, Ramazan; Altinok, Tayfun; Onal, Cagatay; Sarac, Kaya

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the abducens nerve in its cisternal segment by using three-dimensional turbo spin echo T2-weighted image (3DT2-TSE). The abducens nerve may arise from the medullopontine sulcus by one singular or two separated rootlets. Material and methods: We studied 285 patients (150 males, 135 females, age range: 9-72 years, mean age: 33.3{+-}14.4) referred to MR imaging of the inner ear, internal auditory canal and brainstem. All 3D T2-TSE studies were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. Imaging parameters used for 3DT2-TSE sequence were TR:4000, TE:150, and 0.70 mm slice thickness. A field of view of 160 mm and 256x256 matrix were used. The double rootlets of the abducens nerve and contralateral abducens nerves and their relationships with anatomical structures were searched in the subarachnoid space. Results: We identified 540 of 570 abducens nerves (94.7%) in its complete cisternal course with certainty. Seventy-two cases (25.2%) in the present study had double rootlets of the abducens nerve. In 59 of these cases (34 on the right side and 25 on the left) presented with unilateral double rootlets of the abducens. Thirteen cases presented with bilateral double rootlets of the abducens (4.5%). Conclusion: An abducens nerve arising by two separate rootlets is not a rare variation. The detection of this anatomical variation by preoperative MR imaging is important to avoid partial damage of the nerve during surgical procedures. The 3DT2-TSE as a noninvasive technique makes it possible to obtain extremely high-quality images of microstructures as cranial nerves and surrounding vessels in the cerebellopontine cistern. Therefore, preoperative MR imaging should be performed to detect anatomical variations of abducens nerve and to reduce the chance of operative injuries.

  13. Congenital Giant Hydroureteric Cistern in a Duplex System of an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. T. Awolaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex collecting system is a congenital genitourinary anomaly commonly found incidentally. Our experience with a duplex system associated with giant hydroureter presenting as mobile abdominal swelling that was noticed from birth, constipation, and failure to thrive is described. Ultrasound and IVU did not assist in making the diagnosis, while a barium enema suggested a colonic duplication. Congenital giant hydroureter should be considered as a differential diagnosis in infants with cystic abdominal swelling. A preserved renal moiety attributed to a dilated ureteric cistern was a unique theory in this case.

  14. Clinical significance of diminution of high-density areas in basal cisterns following acute aneurysmal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Takeda, Rihei; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sato, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the sequential changes in the high density in basal cisterns in the acute stage of aneurysmal bleeding. We could recognize Group 3 (clot or thick layer), according to Fisher's classification, in 66.3% of the intracranial aneurysms at admission (83 cases). In the early stage of an intracranial aneurysm, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected in all the patients on CT. We evaluated 40 cases of Group 3 sequentially on CT. This investigation showed that 55% of the Grade I--Ii group, 27.3% of the Grade III group, and 11.1% of the Grade IV--V group changed to Group 2(thin or diffuse pattern) in approximately 20 hours on the average. As for the correlation between the high density in basal cisterns and the neurological condition (Hunt and Hess), we found a neurological improvement in the decreased-high-density group. The unchanged- high-density group showed deterioration. Compared with the decreased-high-density group, the unchanged group showed a greater increase in the CVI (Cerebro Ventricular Index). RI ( 111 In) cisternography also showed a disturbance of the CSF circulation. To lower the vasospasm it is important to decrease the high density in an early stage by carrying out CSF. It was considered to be prognostic when a CT scan was performed within 24 hours after SAH. (author)

  15. Stable isotopes, δ18O and δ2H, in the study of water balance of Lake Massoko, Tanzania: Investigation of the exchange between lake and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzini, L.; Gibert, E.; Winckel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The stable oxygen and deuterium isotope compositions of a lake depend upon its water balance. Therefore the balance equations of stable isotopes, which imply calculation of the composition of evaporating moisture α E , provide information for assessing the water balance. In most cases, this approach is used to investigate the relationships between lakes and groundwater. Lake Massoko (8 deg. 20'S, 33 deg. 45'E, 870 m.a.s.l.) is a freshwater maar-lake without surface outlet. The lake surface and its runoff area cover 0.38 and 0.55 km 2 respectively. In contrast with the mean annual rainfall in the other parts of south Tanzania (1000-1200 mm y -1 ), the presence of Lake Malawi to the South, and the high ranges to the North (Mounts Poroto, Rungwe and Livingstone) imply local climatic features. Air masses overloaded with humidity bypassing Lake Malawi are submitted, especially in April, to ascending currents, producing rainfalls up to 2450 mm y -1 over Massoko area. Because of the evaporation rate from the lake's surface (around 2100 mm y -1 ) and without taking into account the runoff from the drainage basin, hydrological balance is positive and imply underground lost. One of most difficult points in the establishment of the isotope balances is the calculation of the composition of the evaporated water (δ E ), which requires an estimation of the isotopic composition of the water vapour in the atmosphere over the lake (δ Atm ). Without direct measurements, two ways can be used for the determination of the vapour composition (i) equilibrium with precipitation and reconstitution from them, or (ii) calculation from the balances of a terminal lake of the region. Both approaches are presented and compared, but only the second one allows physical solutions. δ Atm determined from Lake Rukwa hydrological and isotope balances has been used to calculate values for δ E over Lake Massoko. The estimation of δ Atm obtained from Lake Rukwa budgets presents a deuterium

  16. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  17. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  18. Impact of climate change on the stability of underground cavities. Status of knowledge. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, C.; Al Heib, M.; Gombert, P.; Charmoille, A.; Watelet, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    After having described the impact of global warming on climate parameters (possible climate evolution, impact on temperatures and precipitations in France) and presented underground cavities in France (nature and localisation, expected instability), this report discusses the impact of climate change on underground waters: impact on water cycle, on underground water level variation, and on the power of dissolution by underground waters. Then, it more particularly addresses the impact of water on underground cavity stability: impact of water on the behaviour of underground works, examples (iron mines, water sheet rising, quarry collapsing, and so on, in France, Belgium and USA), development of natural cavities. It finally outlines the perspectives, knowledge gaps, and required researches

  19. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  20. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  1. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  2. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  3. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  4. CT cisternography of the basal cisterns. A radiological-anatomical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Dickob, M.; Wittkowski, W.

    1986-08-01

    Air cisternograms at post mortem and positive contrast cisternograms on patients were performed in order to study intracisternal structures, particularly cranial nerves, as seen on CT. Air and contrast CT cisternograms showed excellent demonstration of the second, third, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cranial nerves. The ninth and tenth cranial nerves could not always be separated from each other and demonstration of the first, fourth, eleventh and twelfth cranial nerves was often not possible or was unsatisfactory. With a knowledge of the normal anatomy and of important surrounding structures, the individual cranial nerves are easily identified. The anthropologic baseline appears highly suitable for CT examination of the basal cisterns. The complementary coronal projection is also very valuable.

  5. Aquaponics Cultivation of Ipome Aquatica and the Peasant Financial Income of Cirata Cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gandhy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The research paper analyzes the financial income of a poor community living around the Cirata cistern, in West Java, Indonesia, before and after the community employed the aquaponics strategy of planting ipomoea aquatica. Data are gathered from observation, interviews and statistical analysis of the incomes of community members. In addition, analysis of the data applies Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP. The findings clearly demonstrate an increased annual income of more than 1.117.296 rupiah among those community members using the aquaponics strategy. Once the community has adjusted to professionally implementing this aquaponics strategy, it would be practically useful to invite investors to invest their capital to develop this area.   Keywords: aquaponics, financial income, West Java, internal rate of return, payback period

  6. Underground water chemistry and the multi varied statistics as a tool for validation of radionuclides origin in underground waters; Quimica de aguas subterraneas e estatistica multivariada como ferramentas para validar a origem de radionuclideos em aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Rodrigo M.R. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2005-03-15

    Vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination from anthropogenic sources has become an important element for sensible resource management and land use planning. This paper address a groundwater survey in an area where intensive agricultural activity takes place with the aim of evaluating factors affecting groundwater quality. For this study, 25 samples of ground water were collected from dug wells and major ion concentrations, radioactive isotopes and physic-chemical parameters were determined. As a result of the analysis around 73% of the samples had levels of contaminants, as NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe and radioactivity that exceed the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The ground water clustering based on water chemistry pointed out the land fertilization as one of the factors that could be responsible for the water contamination. (author)

  7. Establishing the base of underground sources of drinking water (10,000ppm) using geophysical logs and chemical reports in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, David; Gillespie, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Recent concerns about well stimulation and oilfield disposal practices has resulted in the desire to learn more about the distribution of usable groundwater that might be impacted by these practices. Waters that require protection are classified by the US EPA as USDW's (Underground Sources of Drinking Water). These waters have a concentration of 10,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and are not within an exempt aquifer. Direct sampling and chemical analyses of the water from oil and gas producing formations provide the most accurate values for the formation water salinities, but the data is scarce. The method in this analysis uses open-hole geophysical logs and Archie's equation to calculate the salinity. The two methods used in the analysis are the spontaneous potential method that uses the spontaneous potential log and the mud and formation resistivity values to calculate a salinity, and the resistivity-porosity method that uses the resistivity and porosity logs. Sonic, density, and neutron logs are available in the southern San Joaquin as well as porosity values from cores. Results shows that the resistivity porosity method has a smaller error than the spontaneous potential method, therefore, the resistivity-porosity method is chosen for the analysis of the 10,000 parts per million boundary. Due to the lack of porosity logs in wells with chemical analyses, porosity values recorded in DOGGR reports are used in the Humble equation to link the formation water resistivity to salinity. In this way, we can back calculate the deep resistivity vales that should correspond to the 10,000 salinity boundary to determine the depth at which the base of the USDW is found.

  8. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  9. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  10. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  11. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  12. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  13. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  14. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D.; Beckenbach, E.; Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R.; Dooher, B.

    1996-11-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites

  15. Evolution of udder morphology, alveolar and cisternal milk compartment during lactation and their relationship with milk yield in Najdi sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Ayadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 multiparous Najdi ewes were used to study the evolution of udder morphology traits and milk fractions in the udder during suckling (3rd, 6th, 9thwk and milking (10th, 11th, 12thwk periods. During suckling period, daily milk yield was estimated by using the double oxytocin injections method 4-h after milking. During milking period, ewes were hand-milked once daily. Udder and teat morphology traits for all ewes were measured 4-h after milking. Udder compartments were evaluated 8-h after milking by using atosiban and oxytocin; milk samples of each fraction were collected. Najdi ewes had a medium and healthy udders (CMT<1, with medium sized teats (length, 3.2±0.1 cm and width, 1.7±0.1 cm attached at 35.7 ± 11º angle. Milk yield averaged 1.88±0.18 and 0.44±0.12 L d-1 during suckling and milking periods, respectively. A drop in milk yield (-75%, p<0.01 was found in the transition from suckling to milking. Udder traits, teats angle and width, and distance between teats declined (p<0.05 throughout lactation, whereas teat lengths did not show any change. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.47-0.49, width (r=0.31-0.39 and distance between teats (r=0.26-0.39. The cisternal milk volumes decreased (p<0.05 after weaning, whilst the corresponding percentages increased (p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 55% and 67% of the total udder milk during suckling and milking periods, respectively. Cisternal milk was positively correlated (r=0.93, p<0.05 with total milk yield. The percentages of protein and total solids in alveolar and cisternal milk increased significantly (p<0.05 after weaning, whilst fat percentages in cisternal milk did not change. In conclusion, the evaluated Najdi ewes showed medium sized cisterns and teats, which considered adequate for machine milking. Udder morphology traits had positive correlations with milk yield and hence, can be utilized in breeding programs.

  16. Factors affecting the release of radioactivity to the biosphere during deep geologic disposal of radioactive solids through underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomah, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical alteration formed by ground water on the solidified radioactive waste during deep geologic disposal represents the most likely mechanism by which dangerous radioactive species could be reintroduced into the biosphere. Knowing the geologic history of the repository, the chemistry of the ground water and the mechanisms involved in the corrosion of the radioactive solids can provide help to predict the long-term stability of these materials. The factors that must be considered in order to assess the safety and the risk associated with such a disposal strategy are presented. The leaching behavior of a solidified radioactive waste form called SYNROC-B (SYNthetic ROCks) is discussed. Different simulated ground water brines similar to those of the repository sites were prepared and used as the leaching media in leaching experiments

  17. Adapted hydropower-driven water supply system: assessment of an underground application in an Indonesian karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Nestmann, F.

    2016-09-01

    Populated karst landscapes can be found all over the world, although their natural boundary conditions mostly lead to distinct challenges regarding a sustainable water supply. Especially in developing and emerging countries, this situation aggravates since appropriate technologies and water management concepts are rarely available. Against this background, the interdisciplinary, German-Indonesian joint project " Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focused on the development and exemplary implementation of adapted techniques to remedy the partly severe water scarcity in the region Gunung Sewu. This karst area, widely known as " Java's poorhouse", is located on the southern coast of Java Island and distinctly suffers from the mentioned constraints. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), the conceptual and technical achievements of the "IWRM Indonesia" joint research project are characterized by a high potential for multiplication not only for karst areas but also for non-karst regions. One of the project's major accomplishments is the erection of an innovative hydropower-driven water supply facility located in a karst cave 100 m below ground and continuously supplying tens of thousands of people with fresh water. Referring to the plant's innovative character and the demanding conditions on-site, the implementation was a highly iterative process leading to today's autonomous operation by an Indonesian public authority. Based on the experiences gained during design, construction, operation and monitoring phase, this paper introduces an implementation approach for adapted technologies as well as a comprising technical and economical assessment of the plant's operation.

  18. Analysis of the dynamic of underground water in Agua Verde, Quebrada de Taltal, region of Antofagasta, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Luis; Lillo, Adrian; Salazar, Carlos; Aguirre, Evelyn

    2003-01-01

    The extreme aridity and geological situation in northern. Chile requires an exhaustive investigation on water resources for supporting rational usage. The Direccion General de Aguas and Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear have performed studies in arid zones in northern Chile using isotopic and hydrochemical tools. In Quebrada de Taltal's basin, located in one of the must arid arid zones of Chile (Segunda Region de Antofagasta), was studies groundwater dynamics and recharge process from a geochemical approach in terms of water quality, temperature and isotopic composition ( 2 H, 18 O, 3 H, 14 C). The recharge generated above 3000 m a.s.t has a slow dynamics and involve little flow (author)

  19. Comparison of metrizamide and iohexol for cisternal myelographic examination of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, T.A.; Green, R.W.; Hall, C.L.; Read, W.K.; Green, R.A.; Tangner, C.H.; Mann, F.A.; Hobson, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double-blind study, using metrizamide, iohexol, or Ringer's solution (control) as cisternal myelographic agents, was performed on 25 dogs. Before myelographic examination was done, each dog was subjected to physical, clinical pathologic, and neurologic examinations, as well as examinations by electroencephalography and computerized tomography. These were repeated 24 hours after completion of the myelographic examination. The group of dogs given metrizamide (group II) had a significantly greater occurrence of seizure activity (6 of 10) than did the control dogs (group I; 0 of 5) or dogs given iohexol (group III; 0 of 10; P less than 0.003). In group II, the CSF microprotein concentration was significantly greater 24 hours after myelography was done than were the values in groups I and III (P less than 0.003). Myelograms of the group II dogs (metrizamide) and group III dogs (iohexol) had similar diagnostic qualities. At 24 hours after myelographic examination was done, computerized tomography scan revealed that each dog given metrizamide and iohexol had myelographic contrast material in the brain and cervical spinal cord parenchyma. Seemingly, iohexol has good diagnostic quality, but is less epileptogenic than metrizamide when used in cervical myelographic examinations of dogs

  20. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part E - Equilibrium controls on chemistry of pore water from the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J.; Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Equilibrium models of water-rock reactions in clay rocks are reviewed. → Analyses of pore waters of the Opalinus Clay from boreholes in the Mont Terri URL, Switzerland, are tabulated. → Results of modelling with various mineral controls are compared with the analyses. → Best agreement results with calcite, dolomite and siderite or daphnite saturation, Na-K-Ca-Mg exchange and/or kaolinite, illite, quartz and celestite saturation. → This approach allows calculation of the chemistry of pore water in clays too impermeable to yield water samples. - Abstract: The chemistry of pore water (particularly pH and ionic strength) is an important property of clay rocks being considered as host rocks for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Pore waters in clay-rich rocks generally cannot be sampled directly. Instead, their chemistry must be found using laboratory-measured properties of core samples and geochemical modelling. Many such measurements have been made on samples from the Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Several boreholes in that URL yielded water samples against which pore water models have been calibrated. Following a first synthesis report published in 2003, this paper presents the evolution of the modelling approaches developed within Mont Terri URL scientific programs through the last decade (1997-2009). Models are compared to the composition of waters sampled during dedicated borehole experiments. Reanalysis of the models, parameters and database enabled the principal shortcomings of the previous modelling efforts to be overcome. The inability to model the K concentrations correctly with the measured cation exchange properties was found to be due to the use of an inappropriate selectivity coefficient for Na-K exchange; the inability to reproduce the measured carbonate chemistry and pH of the pore waters using mineral-water reactions alone was corrected by considering clay mineral equilibria. Re

  1. Less is more: Parahippocampal resection or endoscopic assistance in ambient cistern surgery? Qualitative and quantitative assessment of subtemporal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Leonardo C; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Nakaji, Peter; Welling, Mariana S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-20

    The ambient cistern is an arachnoid complex that extends from the crural cistern to lateral border of cerebral colliculi. The subtemporal approach has been recognized as the best access to reach pathologies in the ambient cistern, however many disadvantages exist. The present work aims to analyze quantitatively the area of exposure provided by the subtemporal access. The objective is to evaluate if there are advantages of using the neuroendoscope in conventional subtemporal access when compared to the subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus. A subtemporal approach was performed in six brain hemispheres. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made. The linear exposition of the vascular structures and the surgical exposure area were evaluated. The linear exposure to the posterior cerebral artery was 5.95 for subtemporal access (ST) and 13.6 for subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus (STh) (p = 0.019). The total exposure area was 104.8 mm 2 for ST and 210.5 for STh (p = 0.0001). Regarding endoscope assistance the medial area, ST was 81.0 mm 2 , and STend was 176.2 mm 2 (p = 0.038). For the total area of exposure, we obtained a value of 210.5 mm 2 for ST and a value of 391.3 mm 2 for STend (p = 0.041). In conventional subtemporal access, the use of the neuroendoscopes avoids the need for resection of the parahippocampal gyrus for better visualization of the ambient cistern structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CT and MR Studies of Giant Dermoid Cyst Associated to Fat Dissemination at the Cortical and Cisternal Cerebral Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D'Amore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on CT and MR studies of adult patient with giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa associated with micro- and macroaccumulations with density and signal like “fat” at the level of the cortical and cisternal cerebral spaces. This condition is compatible with previous asymptomatic ruptured dermoid cyst. Histological findings confirm the hypothesis formulated using the imaging. We also integrate elements of differential diagnosis by another giant lesion of the posterior cranial fossa.

  3. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  4. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  5. Underground water quality and contamination risk. The case of the basin of Chéria (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage has become a key problem for all countries and particularly for those in development. In fact, the increase of the populations and the development of urbanism, industries and cultivated land lead to a degradation of the quality of the groundwater and a very significant reduction of the reserves that constitute at times the only source of water for human consumption. After the analisis of the situation of the land, the present work comes in an important moment to establish the characteristics of the complex aquifer of the plateau of Chéria in Algeria and the risks of contamination of the groundwater. This study, which relies in the recent causes of contamination takes into account several factors. We can mention the contamination by blackwaters (waste, the impact of livestock and the climatic conditions. The exploitation of the groundwater from carbonated aquifers, is today the only source that responds to the needs of water for the industrial, human, and agricultural comsumption in the region. In recent years there has been an increase in agricultural and agricultural-related activity. The first results show the existence of a lowering of the piezometric level, as well as important concentrations in nitrates due to anthropic activity which are leading to a deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Chéria.La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema crucial para toda la Sociedad y en particular para los paises en vias de desarrollo. En efecto, el crecimiento de la población y el urbanístico, de la industria y de los cultivos pueden conducir a una degradación de la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y una significativa reducción de las reservas que, a menudo, constituyen la única fuente de agua de consumo humano. En este trabajo se evalúan las características del complejo acuífero de la cuenca de Chéria (Argelia basado en un inventario de las fuentes de contaminación teniendo en cuenta diversos factores

  6. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  7. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  8. Identification and in silico characterization of two novel genes encoding peptidases S8 found by functional screening in a metagenomic library of Yucatán underground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Hernández, Max M; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Canto-Canché, Blondy B; De Los Santos-Briones, César; O'Connor-Sánchez, Aileen

    2016-11-15

    Metagenomics is a culture-independent technology that allows access to novel and potentially useful genetic resources from a wide range of unknown microorganisms. In this study, a fosmid metagenomic library of tropical underground water was constructed, and clones were functionally screened for extracellular proteolytic activity. One of the positive clones, containing a 41,614-bp insert, had two genes with 60% and 68% identity respectively with a peptidase S8 of Chitinimonas koreensis. When these genes were individually sub-cloned, in both cases their sub-clones showed proteolytic phenotype, confirming that they both encode functional proteases. These genes -named PrAY5 and PrAY6- are next to each other. They are similar in size (1845bp and 1824bp respectively) and share 66.5% identity. An extensive in silico characterization showed that their ORFs encode complex zymogens having a signal peptide at their 5' end, followed by a pro-peptide, a catalytic region, and a PPC domain at their 3' end. Their translated sequences were classified as peptidases S8A by sequence comparisons against the non-redundant database and corroborated by Pfam and MEROPS. Phylogenetic analysis of the catalytic region showed that they encode novel proteases that clustered with the sub-family S8_13, which according to the CDD database at NCBI, is an uncharacterized subfamily. They clustered in a clade different from the other three proteases S8 found so far by functional metagenomics, and also different from proteases S8 found in sequenced environmental samples, thereby expanding the range of potentially useful proteases that have been identified by metagenomics. I-TASSER modeling corroborated that they may be subtilases, thus possibly they participate in the hydrolysis of proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and have a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  10. Sampling method of water sources at study site Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Penang for research on pollutant movement in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa

    2005-01-01

    This paperwork explain the method of water sampling being used to take the water samples from the study sites in Taiping, Perak and Pulau Burung, Pulau Pinang. The sampling involve collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond, and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemical used. The main purpose of this sampling are to obtain the important water quality parameters such as pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), heavy metals, anions, cations, and environmental isotopes delta values (d) for 18O, Deuterium dan Tritium. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise results. With this, the data from the laboratory tests result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement. (Author)

  11. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  12. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  13. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  14. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  15. Right Gaze Palsy and Hoarseness: A Rare Presentation of Mediastinal Tuberculosis with an Isolated Prepontine Cistern Tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Charles Agu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a previously healthy young man who presented with headaches, diplopia with right lateral gaze palsy, dysphagia, and hoarseness over a 2-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a small enhancing mass at the prepontine cistern and chest CT showed a left mediastinal mass. Mediastinoscopy and lymph node biopsy were performed. DNA probe and culture of the biopsy specimen were confirmed to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Resolution of neurologic symptoms was noted after 6 weeks, in addition to regression of brain stem and mediastinal lesions after 12 weeks of antituberculous therapy.

  16. MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: Neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhu; Du Yinglin; Xu Jinfa; Wu Lebin; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Haiyan; Yu Fuhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the detailed anatomic features, neurovascular relationships of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves (PGCN: IX, X, XI, XII); to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in demonstrating the PGCN with disorders caused by abnormal compression related to artery or tumor. Methods: A total of 59 volunteers, 12 patients with abnormal symptom in the PGCN underwent three-dimensional (3D) Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging, and 22 of these volunteers and 12 patients also underwent MR angiography in which a time-of-flight (TOF) sequence was used to further distinguish the PGCN from the adjacent blood vessels. Anatomical features, neurovascular relationships of the PGCN in 59 volunteers and abnormal changes in 12 patients caused by neurovascular compression or tumor were observed from multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver were used to testify the PGCN displayed in 59 volunteers. Results: 3D-CISS MR imaging depicted the proximal cisternal segment of the cranial nerves complex (CN IX, X, XI) at the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 100% (118/118), 99% (117/118) of 118 sides; CNXII in the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 90% (106/118), 91% (107/118) of 118 sides. At the sagittal planes, the CN IX, X, XI were found parallel to each other in the cisternal segment in 45.2% (53/117) of 117 sides, gathering into a bundle of nerves complex before entering the jugular foramen (JF) in 54.7% (64/117) of 117sides. VAs were blood vessels more often identified, they were found to be in contact with the PGCN in 28.0% (33/118) of 118 sides, and not in contact in 72.0% (85/118) of 118 sides. 3D-CISS MR imaging of volunteers revealed the similar result corresponding to cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver. Twelve patients with abnormal changes in the PGCN were all displayed well, among them 8 were

  17. MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: Neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Changhu, E-mail: tigerlch@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Du Yinglin, E-mail: duyinglinzhuo@sohu.co [Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Institute, 72, Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Jinfa, E-mail: xuke5598@icom.c [Liao Cheng City People' s Hospital, Dongchang Road, Liaocheng, Shandong (China); Wu Lebin, E-mail: Lebinwu518@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Cheng, E-mail: cacab2a@126.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang Ximing, E-mail: wxming369@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang Haiyan, E-mail: whyott@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Yu Fuhua, E-mail: changhu1970@163.co [Weifang Medical College, 7166, West Road Baotong Weifang, Shandong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate the detailed anatomic features, neurovascular relationships of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves (PGCN: IX, X, XI, XII); to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in demonstrating the PGCN with disorders caused by abnormal compression related to artery or tumor. Methods: A total of 59 volunteers, 12 patients with abnormal symptom in the PGCN underwent three-dimensional (3D) Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging, and 22 of these volunteers and 12 patients also underwent MR angiography in which a time-of-flight (TOF) sequence was used to further distinguish the PGCN from the adjacent blood vessels. Anatomical features, neurovascular relationships of the PGCN in 59 volunteers and abnormal changes in 12 patients caused by neurovascular compression or tumor were observed from multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver were used to testify the PGCN displayed in 59 volunteers. Results: 3D-CISS MR imaging depicted the proximal cisternal segment of the cranial nerves complex (CN IX, X, XI) at the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 100% (118/118), 99% (117/118) of 118 sides; CNXII in the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 90% (106/118), 91% (107/118) of 118 sides. At the sagittal planes, the CN IX, X, XI were found parallel to each other in the cisternal segment in 45.2% (53/117) of 117 sides, gathering into a bundle of nerves complex before entering the jugular foramen (JF) in 54.7% (64/117) of 117sides. VAs were blood vessels more often identified, they were found to be in contact with the PGCN in 28.0% (33/118) of 118 sides, and not in contact in 72.0% (85/118) of 118 sides. 3D-CISS MR imaging of volunteers revealed the similar result corresponding to cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver. Twelve patients with abnormal changes in the PGCN were all displayed well, among them 8 were

  18. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  19. Water treatment strategy for underground and surface waters in order to reduce the hydro-network contamination due to close out of a uranium mining area in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.; Radulescu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, in correlation with the national nuclear program and strategy, it is foreseen to stop the exploitation activities in two important uranium mining areas from Romania. This close-out action is involving a number of technical decisions for environmental restoration. Reduction of waters radioactive contamination in these zones, both during the operating period and after the closeout period, is one of the main components of the environment rehabilitation strategy. In this paper there are presented the today situation and the program foreseen for ground and surface water treatment at an uranium mining unit situated in the SW side of Romania, program based on the results of our own research carried out to decrease the content of pollutant radioactive elements. (author)

  20. Radiological exposure assessment from soil, underground and surface water in communities along the coast of a shallow water offshore oilfield in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpeglo, D O; Mantero, J; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Akaho, E H K; Faanu, A; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2015-02-01

    Radiometric determinations have been carried out to assess public exposure to radioactivity for communities along the coast of a shallow water offshore oilfield in Ghana (which started their operations recently) in order to establish baseline data using alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation and non-destructive gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (230)Th and (232)Th by alpha-particle spectrometry and of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (40)K, (210)Pb, (234)Th and (137)Cs by gamma-ray spectrometry were determined in the soil samples. The activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (230)Th and (232)Th were determined in the water samples by alpha-particle spectrometry and of (226)Ra by liquid scintillation counting. The total annual effective dose to the public was estimated from the measured activity concentrations and this was clearly below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference level of 1 mSv y(-1) for public exposure control. In addition, the estimated values of Raeq, Hex and Hin were all lower than the recommended acceptable values and the mean values of gross alpha and gross beta determinations performed for all the water samples give values that were all below the Ghana Standards Authority and World Health Organization recommended guideline values for drinking water quality. The results obtained show insignificant public exposure to radioactivity. However, this study provides important information for future studies on subsequent evaluations of the possible future environmental contamination due to activities of the oil industry in Ghana. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  2. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  3. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  4. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  5. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  6. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  7. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties. ... than a mean value of 5.17 ± 0.09 obtained for Umuahia. Underground waters of high population density areas had mean pH value of 4.29 ± 0.16 which differed significantly from 4.88 ± 0.13

  8. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  9. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  10. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  11. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  12. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  13. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  14. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  15. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  16. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  17. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  19. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  1. 77 FR 32665 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Hollister Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... exploration. The proposed project would augment the existing mine water management facilities that currently include water treatment facilities and rapid infiltration basins by adding underground dewatering wells... for the Hollister Underground Mine Project, Elko County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...

  2. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water underground, treatment of water if released to surface streams, and the effect on the hydrologic... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... of the mine void to be filled, method of constructing underground retaining walls, influence of the...

  3. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  5. Radioenzymatic paper-chromatographic assay for dopamine and norepinephrine in cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate of cat following administration of cocaine or d-amphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiueh, C.C.; Kopin, I.J.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive radioenzymatic paper chromatographic method was used to measure the endogenous dopamine and norepinephrine content of cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate from cats to provide direct evidence for the catecholamine releasing action of cocaine from brain in vivo. Although relatively less potent than d-emphetamine, cocaine was shown to release endogenous catechloramines, mainly dopamine from the brain. This similarity may be the neurochemical basis for their similar behavioral effects. (U.K.)

  6. Gas and water flow in an excavation-induced fracture network around an underground drift: A case study for a radioactive waste repository in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Vaissière, Rémi; Armand, Gilles; Talandier, Jean

    2015-02-01

    The Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) surrounding a drift, and in particular its evolution, is being studied for the performance assessment of a radioactive waste underground repository. A specific experiment (called CDZ) was designed and implemented in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in France to investigate the EDZ. This experiment is dedicated to study the evolution of the EDZ hydrogeological properties (conductivity and specific storage) of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone under mechanical compression and artificial hydration. Firstly, a loading cycle applied on a drift wall was performed to simulate the compression effect from bentonite swelling in a repository drift (bentonite is a clay material to be used to seal drifts and shafts for repository closure purpose). Gas tests (permeability tests with nitrogen and tracer tests with helium) were conducted during the first phase of the experiment. The results showed that the fracture network within the EDZ was initially interconnected and opened for gas flow (particularly along the drift) and then progressively closed with the increasing mechanical stress applied on the drift wall. Moreover, the evolution of the EDZ after unloading indicated a self-sealing process. Secondly, the remaining fracture network was resaturated to demonstrate the ability to self-seal of the COx claystone without mechanical loading by conducting from 11 to 15 repetitive hydraulic tests with monitoring of the hydraulic parameters. During this hydration process, the EDZ effective transmissivity dropped due to the swelling of the clay materials near the fracture network. The hydraulic conductivity evolution was relatively fast during the first few days. Low conductivities ranging at 10-10 m/s were observed after four months. Conversely, the specific storage showed an erratic evolution during the first phase of hydration (up to 60 days). Some uncertainty remains on this parameter due to volumetric strain during the

  7. Ministerial Order of 31 December 1982 made in implementation of Section 8(1) of the Royal Order of 5 November 1982 on the training certificate for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in cisterns or vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Ministerial Order fixes the conditions for obtaining the ADR training certificate for driving transport vehicles which contain radioactive materials in cisterns and vessels. It is the third of four Orders made under the 1982 Royal Order. (NEA) [fr

  8. Formulation of a Three-Tier Cisternal Grade as a Predictor of In-Hospital Outcome from a Prospective Study of Patients with Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanali, Raghunath; Bhadran, Biju; Panchal, Sunil; Kumar, P Krishna; Vijayan, Abhisek; Aneeze, M Musthafa; Harison, G

    2017-08-01

    Outcome prediction is of paramount importance in traumatic brain injury. Our objective of conducting this prospective study was to identify the predictors needed to formulate a prognostic score. Clinical and radiologic characteristics of 100 patients with traumatic intracranial hematoma were analyzed. Key measurements were taken in the midbrain and pontine regions and the status of each of the 9 basal cisterns was noted, by giving a score of 1 if they were visible and 0 if not. All the predictors were analyzed for outcome. Total cisternal score was found to be an independent predictor of outcome. A grade was formulated by dividing the score into 3 levels. The model based on cisternal status described in the study is technically simple and conveys the information regarding the outcome to the treating neurosurgeon. Because the score obtained seems to have low interobserver variation, we believe that it can be a useful tool not only in recording data in case files and interphysician communication but also in research into traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  10. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... pumped out 'raw' and sold to the public without any form of treatment and is used for drinking and ... underground water was pumped out and allowed to run for some- time (15 – 20 min) prior to collection of ..... Technique and uses in soil, plant and water analysis: In Walsh LM. (ed) Instrumental methods for ...

  11. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  12. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  13. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  14. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  15. Development and application of anti-washout special material for long distance. Remediation work of contaminated water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant underground structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsu, Hitoshi; Nishikori, Kazumasa; Sato, Keita; Hibi, Yasuki; Yanai, Shuji; Deguchi, Amane

    2017-01-01

    The seawater piping trench of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station connects the screen pump room and turbine building. High concentration contaminated water stagnated in the trench due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, which caused a leakage accident. In order to solve the future leakage risk, a replacement work the liquid with cement was performed to remove contaminated water inside the trench. This paper explains the development of cement filler applied to the trench and the outline of its application work. Long-distance underwater fluid filler that can flow in the water throughout the longest 85 m long shafts was developed and its fluidity was confirmed in a laboratory and mockup device. In the field application, a cement manufacturing plant was set up in the power plant premises, and it took about a year to pour the cement into the trenches of No 2, 3, and 4 Units. To prevent the leakage of contaminated water in the trench, the cement pouring was performed while controlling the water level. Due to the high concentration of contaminated water, workers' radiation exposure management was conducted on a daily and monthly basis, and cumulative radiation exposure was strictly controlled. For radiation shielding, laying crushed stone and iron plate, installation of concrete protection wall and lead wool mat, and use of tungsten vest during work were practiced. Thanks to these measures, it was possible to reduce the exposure dose to about 27% of the originally predicted level. (A.O.)

  16. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in superficial and underground drinking water, from the Caetite region, BA; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em aguas potaveis, de superficie e subterraneas da regiao de Caetite, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luciana Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has the seventh greatest geological uranium reserve in the world with approximately 310 thousand tons. The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, situated in South Center Bahia, is considered the most important monomineralic province in Brazil. Urban population who lives in the uranium district in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento de Nossa Senhora uses drinking water originated from public supply. In the rural area, characterized by frequent draughts, residents receive water from digged and drilled wells and from small dams and reservoirs, as well, which are supplied by the rains. This work determined the levels of total alpha and beta radioactivity and the uranium concentrations in several kinds of water consumed by urban and rural population from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. Total {alpha} and {beta} activities were determined with a low-level gas flow proportional detector. The uranium concentrations were determined with an inductive coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained were confronted with the latest World Health Organization's recommendations from 2011, the ordinance number 2914 of December 12 2011 from the Health Ministry and CONAMA's resolutions. Natural radiation levels varied from 0,0041 {+-} 0,0004 Bq.L{sup -1} to 0,80 {+-} 0,04 Bq.L{sup -1} for total alpha activity and from 0,045 {+-} 0,003 to 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1} for total beta activity. Having the WHO and the HM as parameter, just two underground water samples, one located in the city of Lagoa Real and the other in the city of Caetite presented total alpha concentration above the value of 0,5 Bq.L{sup -1} described in its recommendations, 0,80 {+-} 0,040 Bq.L{sup -1} and 0,57 {+-} 0,03 Bq.L{sup -1} respectively. For total beta three samples presented radioactivity levels above the 1 Bq.L{sup -1} limit recommended by the WHO and established by the Health Ministry; 3,00 {+-} 0,2 Bq.L{sup -1}; 1,63 {+-} 0

  17. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  18. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F.; Barbecot, F.; Dever, L.

    2001-01-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  19. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  20. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  1. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at the mining complex facility in Los Gigantes - Cordoba : Monitoring plan of surface and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande Cobian, Juan D.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Cicerone, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission declares under its Environmental policy the commitment to restore those sites where activities concerning Uranium mining were developed. It makes it beyond the scope of the Project of Environmental Restitution of the Uranium Mining (PRAMU from its Spanish abbreviation). The Chemistry of Water and Soil Division at the Environmental Chemistry and Energy Generation Department belonging to the Chemistry Management Office assist the PRAMU on the installation of an hydroxyapatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) inside the Mining Complex facility placed at Los Gigantes in the Argentine province of Cordoba (in advance named the site). Among the preliminary assessment activities that are being carried out before the installation of the PRB, it has been prepared a monitoring program of surface water and groundwater useful to develop an environmental baseline suitable for the efficiency assessment of the corrective action to be applied. An exploratory campaign was conducted in the site with the aim of establishing a monitoring net of meteorological and hydrological, as well as physical, chemical and biological parameters in matrixes of sediments, water and suspended particulate matter collected on a regular time basis from its surface water and groundwater bodies. The processed results turn into useful environmental information to: a) determine the status of the environmental baseline of the site, b) establish a water quality index (WQI) to manage the natural resource quality according to a rational basis, c) plan experiments related to the design process of a biogenic hydroxyapatite PRB and d) apply chemometric and mechanistic models to forecast the contaminants mobilization through different scenarios and improve the engineering design of the PRB. Once achieved the hydrogeological characterisation of the site and taking into account the originality of the system the following results have been reached: 1) The boundaries of

  2. Study of the total uranium in underground water in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua; Estudio del uranio total en agua subterranea en la Ciudad de Jimenez, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M. [Centro de Investigacion de Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: marusia.renteria@cimav.edu.mx

    2004-07-01

    Samples of water of wells in the city of Jimenez, Chihuahua were analyzed, and its were determined the content of total uranium. It was used the technique of extraction of uranium from water adding Bis ( 2- ethylexyl) phosphate and scintillating Beta plate Hi safe, and the measures of the activities were carried out in the portable scintillation detector Thiathler- O Y HIDEX. The obtained interval of concentrations was 0.12 to 0.26 Bq/l that it is finds below the maximum permissible limits that it manages the Mexican regulation. It was found a significant correlation among the concentration of uranium and those total solid dissolved present in the samples. (Author)

  3. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water; Comportamiento de radon, compuestos quimicos y elementos estables en agua subterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [ISTEEM, M.S.E. Montpellier (France)

    2001-07-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The {sup 222} Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  4. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  5. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  6. Effects on ambient air caused by emissions from the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility in Mercier : evaluation by atmospheric dispersion modeling; Effets sur l'air ambiant des emissions de l'incinerateur Clean Harbors et de l'Unite de traitement des eaux souterraines (UTES) a Mercier : evaluation par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, G.; Walsh, P.; Brault, M.P.; Couture, Y.; Briere, J.F. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction du suivi de l' etat de l' environnement; Guay, F.; Longpre, L. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Direction regionale de l' analyse et de l' expertise de l' Estrie de la Monteregie; Lemire, R.; Busque, D. [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de l' information sur le milieu atmospherique

    2010-09-15

    Clean Harbors is a leading provider of high-tech, high-temperature destruction of hazardous and industrial waste. The Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks created an atmospheric dispersion model to determine the impact of the Clean Harbors incinerator and underground water treatment facility on air quality in Mercier, Quebec. This document described the dispersion model and its inputs, including emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulates, mercury, lead and arsenic. The effects of these emissions on air quality were evaluated by considering meteorological data, source characteristics, topography and land use zoning. The modeling study showed that emissions from the incinerator were well below criteria levels and do not cause significant deterioration in air quality. However, higher than allowable limits of polyvinyl chloride and benzene emissions were found 700 m from the underground water treatment facility. Nearby residential areas were not affected. 21 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  10. Heavy metal transport by humic acid in underground water - investigations on europium; Untersuchungen zum huminstoffgetragenen Schwermetall-Transport im unterirdischen Wasser - durchgefuehrt am Beispiel des Europiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. (ed.)

    2001-12-01

    Colloids, i.e. particulates of 1 nm to 1 {mu}m suspended in water, are found in all types of groundwater, either as organic colloids, inorganic colloids, or mixtures of both. Their concentration, chemical composition, structure and particle size varies with the geochemistry of the sediment-water system. Inorganic colloids are Al-Fe-Mn mixed oxides, clays and other complex minerals. Organic colloids consist of humic and fulvic acids which are the main constituent of the dissolved organic carbon. Humic acids are capable of forming metal humate complexes with metal ions via proton-exchanging groups. Radionuclides, too, are transported with humic acid, especially trivalent and multivalent metal ions of the lanthanides and actinides as well as radio-iodine. [German] In allen Grundwaessern werden Kolloide, d.h. im Wasser suspendierte Teilchen mit Durchmessern im Bereich 1 nm bis 1 {mu}m gefunden. Die Zusammensetzung der Kolloide kann sowohl organischer als auch anorganischer Natur sein, wobei in vielen Grundwaessern eine Mischung beider Kolloidarten auftritt. Die Konzentration, die chemische Zusammensetzung, die Struktur und die Teilchengroesse natuerlicher Kolloide variieren stark, sie sind abhaengig von der Geochemie des Sediment-Wasser-Systems. Anorganische Kolloide sind Al-Fe-Mn-Mischoxide, Tone and andere komplexe Mineralien. Organische Kolloide bestehen aus Humin- und Fulvinsaeuren; diese Huminstoffe bilden den Hauptbestandteil des geloesten organischen Kohlenstoffs. Eine wichtige Eigenschaft der Huminstoffe ist ihre Faehigkeit, mit Metallionen ueber protonenaustauschende Gruppen Komplexe - sog. Metall-Humate - zu bilden. Auch Radionuklide, insbesondere drei- und mehrwertige Metallionen der Lanthaniden und Actiniden sowie Radio-Iod werden an Huminstoffe gebunden. Damit koennen Radionuklide nicht nur in Form einfacher Spezies, sondern auch huminstoffgebunden transportiert werden. (orig.)

  11. Adaptation of magnesian cements to underground storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournet, F.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the experimental study of magnesium oxychloride cements as filling materials for underground granitic cavities containing high level radioactive wastes. After a bibliographic study, mechanical properties are examined before and after setting, in function of the ratio MgO/MgCl 2 . Then behavior with water is investigated: swelling, cracking and leaching [fr

  12. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    all aspects of the regulations including environmental impact assessments and environmental management plan monitoring. The regulations also ... acceptance and applicability in Nigeria's emerging waste management industry. It is recommended that the ... role in ground water quality protection from underground waste ...

  13. water quality determination of rainwater harvesting birkas in harshin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... In an effort to address the problems of recurrent drought, famine and food insecurity, attempts were made to harvest run-off water in cisterns ... In Ethiopia, safe water coverage for urban areas in 2000 was estimated to be 72% ..... kitchen utensils and adverse health effects are not expected (WHO, 2009).

  14. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain 238 U and 232 Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; 226 Ra ( 214 Bi), 232 Th e 40 K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m -3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a -1 (mean 10 mSv.a -1 ). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  15. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  16. ANALISIS KETERSEDIAAN AIR SUNGAI BAWAH TANAH DAN PEMANFAATAN BERKELANJUTAN DI KAWASAN KARST MAROS SULAWESI SELATAN (Analysis of Underground River Water Availability and Its Sustainable uses at Karst Maros Area in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsyad

    2014-05-01

    ,479,052,214 then indirect use value was Rp 13,251,588,000 and the non-use value was Rp20,016,148,000, so the total economic value, TEV, of each year was Rp418,746,788,214. For sustainable use of river water underground of Karst Maros that acquired the entire agricultural irrigation water needed in Maros regency was 5,32 m3/s and the PDAM amounted 2,037,943 m3 then available water in Karst Maros was 220.8 milyar m3 per year, so there was still the water surplus of 15,10 milyar m3 for each year

  17. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  1. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  2. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  3. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area...

  4. Underground storage of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.

    1976-01-01

    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  5. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta,, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  6. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  7. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  8. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  9. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  10. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  11. Underground openings for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

    1982-01-01

    In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

  12. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    facilities needed for next generation of underground assessments and experiments. There are growing interests in developing multi-disciplinary programs in DULs and some URLs have rooms set aside for physics experiments. Examples of DULs and URLs with interactions between earth sciences and physics include Gran Sasso in Italy, Kaimioka in Japan, Canfranc in Spain, LSBB in France, WIPP in New Mexico, DUSEL in South Dakota, and Jing Ping deep tunnel underground laboratory proposal in China. Instruments of common interests include interferometers, laser strain meters, seismic networks, tiltmeters, gravimeters, magnetometers, and other sensors to detect signals over different frequencies and water chemical analyses, including radon concentrations. Radon emissions are of concern for physics experiments and are studied as possible precursors of earthquakes. Measuring geoneutrino flux and energy spectrum in different locations is of interests to both physics and earth sciences. The contributions of U and Th in the crust and the mantle to the energy production in the Earth can be studied. One final note is that our ongoing reviews are aimed to contribute to technological innovations anticipated through inter-disciplinary interactions.

  13. Irrigation Alternatives to Meet Army Net Zero Water Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    stone Cobblestone runnel d iverts stormwater from patio to cistern rf.iiirnl ~® BUILDING STRONG® Water-wise Landscaping  Group plants...BUILDING STRONG® Mulches  Organic ►Compost ►Shredded barks and other landscape wastes  Inorganic ►Gravel ►Rock ►Crumb rubber ►Fabrics and

  14. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.K.; Gilbert, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  15. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS

  16. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  18. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  19. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  20. Evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands in 1975: dose assessment based on initial sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islands) and the cistern water on Bikini Island. Based on analyses of these samples, we found that the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U.S. Public Health Service. However, on both islands the quality of the groundwater varied from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both are unacceptable according to U.S. Public Health Standards. The doses we predict from consumption of both cistern and groundwater are acceptable under federal guidelines. However, doses predicted from consumption of groundwater are high enough to warrant careful evaluation of other potential exposure pathways

  1. Drilling in Underground Coal Gasification with Coiled Tubing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Blišťanová; Lucia Sciranková

    2006-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is the potential to provide a clean, efficient and convenient source of energy from coal seams where traditional mining methods are either impossible or uneconomical. The latest drilling technology – drilling directional injection well with down well assembly. The is used world- wide from 1990 injection well is transmitting the coal seam along its location. The coil – tubing equipment transport the gasification agents (oxygen and water) into the coal cavity, wher...

  2. Drilling in Underground Coal Gasification with Coiled Tubing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blišťanová

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification is the potential to provide a clean, efficient and convenient source of energy from coal seams where traditional mining methods are either impossible or uneconomical. The latest drilling technology – drilling directional injection well with down well assembly. The is used world- wide from 1990 injection well is transmitting the coal seam along its location. The coil – tubing equipment transport the gasification agents (oxygen and water into the coal cavity, where give out gasification.

  3. Monitoring geomagnetic signals of groundwater movement using multiple underground SQUID magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater can influence the geomagnetic field measured underground in at least two key ways. The water levels in rock will determine its electrical conductivity, and thus change the magnitude of the telluric currents induced in the rock by changing magnetic fields generated in the ionosphere. This can be studied by using multiple magnetometers at different underground locations. Secondly the flow of water through rock will generate a small magnetic signal, of unknown magnitude, through the electrokinetic effect. SQUID magnetometry has the potential to allow passive studies of groundwater changes in complex systems such as karst. We have monitored geomagnetic signals using two SQUID magnetometers at the LSBB underground laboratory, and set an initial limit on the magnitude of the electrokinetic signal. We now plan to carry out a longer term measurement using three SQUID systems as well as fluxgate sensors to track changes in the gradient of the magnetic field across the underground complex.

  4. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    relative to the maximum horizontal stress. The estimated amount of support is on average very low because of the very good quality rock mass anticipated. This conclusion is also supported by the underground experience at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The layout of the repository area has the deposition tunnels aligned < 30 deg relative to the maximum horizontal stress. With this orientation spalling is not anticipated in the deposition tunnels or deposition holes. The excavations for the Repository Access (shafts and ramps) will encounter the greatest frequency of open water-bearing fractures located between 0 and 150 m depth. These access excavations may result in a groundwater drawdown that will need to be minimised. The rock mass at the repository horizon is expected to encounter water-bearing fractures approximately 1 every 10 m, and in some areas even more frequently. Groundwater inflows are expected to be significant at repository level requiring extensive grouting. Results from grouting analyses indicate that conventional grouting measures may not be sufficient to meet the inflow criterion. In some areas of the repository, e.g. hydraulic domain HRD-EW007, sealing may not be practical with cement-based grouts and other sealing technologies, such as silica sol technology, may be required. The design and layout presented in this report is based on information compiled at the end of the complete site investigation phase and contained in the report SDM Site TR-09-01. As with all site investigations, at the scale of the repository, there are uncertainties associated with the interpretation of geological information based on borehole investigations. These uncertainties were identified and the impact of these on the current design was evaluated using risk assessment methodologies. The conclusion from the risk assessment is that the available gross capacity of about 8,000 deposition positions is unlikely to be sufficient to host a repository with 6,000 deposited canisters

  5. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  6. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  8. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  9. Localização da lesão e achados do líquido cefalorraqueano na meningite tuberculosa: diferenças nos compartimentos lombar, cisternal e ventricular Location of the lesion and the cerebrospinal fluid findings in tuberculous meningitis: differences in the lumbar, cisternal and ventricular compartiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael R. Heringer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A tuberculose permanece como uma das doenças infecciosas mais freqüentes no mundo. No presente estudo, relatamos um caso de meningite tuberculosa, que evoluiu com bloqueio do fluxo do líquido cefalorraqueano (LCR, causando dificuldade diagnóstica. Discute-se a importância da localização da lesão e sua influência no exame do LCR como apoio ao diagnóstico da meningite tuberculosa. No caso relatado, a pesquisa do bacilo álcool-ácido resistente foi positiva no LCR cisternal e negativa no LCR lombar e ventricular, demonstrando que a maior acurácia do teste esteve relacionada a maior proximidade da lesão inflamatória.Tuberculosis remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. In the present study, we describe a case of tuberculous meningitis that caused cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow block, leading to difficulties in the diagnosis. The importance of the lesion site and its influence on CSF analysis as a support for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis is discussed. In this case, the search for acid-fast bacilii was positive in the cisternal CSF, but not in the ventricular and lumbar CSF, demonstrating the relationship between the accuracy of the test and the location of the inflamatory lesion disease.

  10. Hydrogeologic study and underground drainage test; Estudio hidrogeologico y ensayo de drenaje de labores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Pauline mine belongs to the company Minero Siderurgica de Ponferrada, S. A., and is an underground mountain mine located in west area of Villablino colliery, in the north of Spain. Water invasion caused serious troubles in faces when the working level went deeper, in the new mining areas. Water invasion caused serious troubles in faces the working level went deeper, in the new mining areas. In order to get control on this problems, the present Hydrogeologic Study and Underground Drainage Test was carry out, with the double aim of quantifying the amount of water to be pumped in future and of minimizing the undesirable effects of water invasions in underground mining. The development of the hydrogeologic study states some alternative solutions for draining, focussing on a reliable forecasting of the quantity of water to be exhausted and the means to be undertaken in order to minimize pump costs. These options were technically and economically evaluated and the more feasible recommended. (Author)

  11. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is ab...

  12. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  13. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  14. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  15. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  16. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  17. Evaluation of underground water contamination of tubular wells, by fuels oil in Santo Andre City, Sao Paulo state: a contribution to the environmental management; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua subterranea de pocos tubulares, por combustiveis fosseis, no municipio de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo: uma contribuicao a gestao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindrisz, Ana Copat

    2006-07-01

    The contamination of underground waters by hydrocarbons originated from gas stations has been object of increasing preoccupation in environmental organization all over the world. The organic compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX), present in these fuels, are extremely toxic to human health and could make impracticable the exploration of these contaminated waters by these kinds of pollutants and consequently the gasoline wells used for this purpose. In this work, it was carried out a diagnosis of the water quality with information and analyses, with the goals to snap shot the situation of the wells destined to domestic and commercial supply of water in the urban area of Santo Andre city, Sao Paulo state. There have been evaluated the presence of micron pollutants BTEX, after contamination due to leaks in fuel storage tanks close to the wells, in different places of the city. The physical chemistry parameters like color, turbidity and residual chlorine were also evaluated as well as trace elements, metals, anions like fluorine, sulphates, chlorine, nitrates and phosphates and bacteriological (total coliforms, thermo stable coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria). On definition of the sampling area, it was sought, at first, the evaluation of environmental contaminations historical series by gas stations, evaluating the set of information available at government environmental organizations and spatial representatively of the problem. For administration of the underground water quality it was adopted the methodology used by Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), being accomplished a previous identification of contaminated potential areas and organizing a data base on landfills disposal and neglected places; registration of gas station services and, wells used by the population, industrial inventory with active and neglected maps taking into consideration the size and residues generation (such as SEMASA), prioritizing in this way the

  18. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  19. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  20. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  2. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  3. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  5. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  6. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  7. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  8. The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project. A program on survey and research in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Tentative name) Project under planning at Horonobe-machi by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is a research facility on deep underground shown in the Long-term program on research, development and application of nuclear energy (June, 1994)' (LPNE), where some researches on the deep underground targeted at sedimentary rocks are carried out. The plan on The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory performed at Horonobe-machi' is an about 20 years plan ranging from beginning to finishing of its survey and research, which is carried out by three steps such as 'Survey and research performed from earth surface', 'Survey and research performed under excavation of road', and Survey and research performed by using the road'. The survey and research performed from earth surface is begun in fiscal year 2000, and contains physical investigation, trial drilling survey and so on from air and on-earth, by which data on distribution of stratums and dislocations, flowing method and water quality of underground water, strength of stratum and so on were collected, and some forecasting of change on flowing method, water pressure, water quality and so on by construction of underground facility on a base of the obtained data. And, in 2000 fiscal year, as on-site survey, some hearing surveys on using condition of underground water, will also be carried out, under consideration of meteorological condition and so on. (G.K.)

  9. Hydrogeologic study and underground drainage test; Estudio Hidrogeologico y Ensayo de Drenaje de Labores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Pauline mine belongs to the company Minero Siderurgica de Ponferrada, S. A., and is an underground mountain mine located in west area of Villablino colliery, in the north of Spain. Water invasion caused serious troubles in faces when the working level went deeper, in the new mining areas. In order to get control on this problems, the present HYDROGEOLOGIC STUDY AND UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE TEST was carry out, with the double aim of quantifying the amount of water to be pumped in future and of minimizing the undesirable effects of water invasions in underground mining. The development of the hydrogeologic study states some alternative solutions for draining, focusing on a reliable forecasting of the quantity of water to be exhausted and the means to be undertaken in order to minimize pump costs. These options were technically and economically evaluated and the more feasible recommended.

  10. Response Characteristics and Experimental Study of Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding Using a Small-Coil Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwu; Ma, Zhongjun; Jiang, Chuandong; Lin, Jun; Xue, Yiguo; Shang, Xinlei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-15

    Due to its unique sensitivity to hydrogen protons, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is the only geophysical method that directly detects water and can provide nondestructive information on subsurface aquifer properties. The relationship between the surface MRS signal and the location and characteristics of aquifers using large-coil (typically 50-150 m) sensors has been discussed based on forward modelling and experiments. However, few researchers have studied underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. In this paper, a parametric study and a large-scale physical model test were conducted to shed light on the critical response characteristics of underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. The effects of the size and number of turns of the transmitter coil and receiver coil, the geomagnetic declination, the geomagnetic inclination, and the position, thickness, and water content of a water-bearing structure on the performance of the underground MRS were studied based on numerical simulations. Furthermore, we derived the kernel function and underground MRS signal curves for a water-bearing structure model based on the simulations. Finally, a large-scale physical model test on underground MRS using a small-coil sensor was performed using a physical test system for geological prediction of tunnels at Shandong University. The results show that the inversion results of the physical model test were in good agreement with the physical prototype results. Using both numerical modeling and physical model tests, this study showed that underground MRS using a small-coil sensor can be used to predict water-bearing structures in underground engineering.

  11. Possibilities of using energy recovery in underground mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obracaj, Dariusz; Sas, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    In underground mines, there are many sources of energy that are often irrecoverably lost and which could be used in the energy structure of a mine. Methane contained in the ventilation air, the water from the dewatering of the mines and the exhaust air from the mine shafts are the most important sources of energy available to a mine. Among other sources of energy available in a mine, you can also distinguish waste energy from the process of the desalination of water or energy from the waste. The report reviewed the sources of energy available in a mine, assessed the amount of recoverable energy and indicated the potential for its use.

  12. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  13. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  14. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  15. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  16. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.A.; Everitt, R.A.; Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1988-12-01

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in conjunction with excavation of a tunnel (Room 209) through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Encountering a fracture with such desirable characteristics provided a unique opportunity during construction of the URL to try out instrumentation and analytical methods for use in the Excavation Response Experiment (ERE), one of the major URL experiments. This is the first of four reports that cover the excavation response test. This report contains the information provided to the numerical modelling groups before the start of excavation. It includes survey information of the excavations within 30 m of the instrument array; the layout of the instrument array; details of the geology, rock properties, joint characteristics, in situ stresses, and in situ rock temperature distribution; the results of hydrogeological testing and monitoring; the planned excavation sequence; and the format for the modellers to present their results to facilitate easy comparison with the measured responses. Includes 13 excavation charts in back pocket

  17. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  18. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  19. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  20. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  1. AECL's underground research laboratory: technical achievements and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.M.; Chandler, N.A.

    1997-03-01

    During the development of the research program for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in the 1970's, the need for an underground facility was recognized. AECL constructed an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for large-scale testing and in situ engineering and performance-assessment-related experiments on key aspects of deep geological disposal in a representative geological environment. Ale URL is a unique geotechnical research and development facility because it was constructed in a previously undisturbed portion of a granitic pluton that was well characterized before construction began, and because most of the shaft and experimental areas are below the water table. The specific areas of research, development and demonstration include surface and underground characterization; groundwater and solute transport; in situ rock stress conditions; temperature and time-dependent deformation and failure characteristics of rock; excavation techniques to minimize damage to surrounding rock and to ensure safe working conditions; and the performance of seals and backfills. This report traces the evolution of the URL and summarizes the technical achievements and lessons learned during its siting, design and construction, and operating phases over the last 18 years. (author)

  2. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  4. EXPERIENCE IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Kaufman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives examples of underground construction of hydropower station inNepaland sewer tunnel in the USA. These projects pay attention to influence of geotechnical risks and their consequences.

  5. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  6. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  7. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  8. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  9. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  10. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  11. Uranium concentrations in the water consumed by the resident population in the vicinity of the Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luciana S.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Sarkis, Jorge; Nisti, Marcelo B.

    2011-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province, situated in South Central Bahia in the region of Caetite and Lagoa Real, is considered the most important monomineralic province of Brazil. The urban population who lives in the proximities of this uranium province in the cities of Caetite, Lagoa Real and Livramento uses public supply water, while the inhabitants of the rural area due to long terms of dry weather use water from wells, cisterns, small dams, reservoirs and dikes which are supplied with the rains. In this work it was determined the concentration of uranium in the water consumed by the rural and urban population living in the proximities of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province. The study comprehends 32 sampling spots spread throughout the region of interest. Samples were collected in January and July 2010, covering superficial, underground and public supply water from the region. The uranium concentrations were determined by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Preliminary results showed that the uranium concentrations in the water from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province varied from 0.064 ± 0.005 μg.L -1 to 90 ± 1,5 ±g.L -1 . It was observed that only two of them obtained values higher than the World Health Organization's recommended limit (2011) of 30 μg.L -1 for maximum uranium concentration in the water for human consumption. For a conclusive evaluation, the uranium concentrations results will be analyzed together with total alpha and beta concentrations determined elsewhere for the same samples. (author)

  12. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  13. Consideration on analysis of behavior of radioactive nuclides in underground infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Yoshitsugu; Otsu, Masayasu; Nakamura, Toyohiko; Nakamura, Masahiko.

    1981-01-01

    It is considered to be the important tasks for the underground location of nuclear power stations to establish the dynamic safety in excavating and constructing large scale underground caverns and the method for evaluating safety against radioactive nuclides in a hypothetic accident around the caverns. In this report, it was tried to analyze the behavior of nuclides in infiltration around underground caverns in a hypothetic accident. The report first describes the underground infiltration paths of nuclides and the method of their analysis about the paths of movement and their ruling equations, the analysis of transport equations using weighted residual method, the analysis of diffusion equations by linking the finite element region to the integral equation region, and the analysis of Klute's diffusion equation for unsaturated infiltration flow. Then, since long time is required from the outbreak of an accident to giving influence on living bodies on the ground, the analyses were conducted for the underground infiltration phenomena of 85 Kr and for the phenomena of 131 I moving to underground water surface because these nuclides have long half lives. The authors have been able to establish the procedures for analyzing by the finite element method through applying the weighted residual method to the problem difficult to formulate in calculus of variations such as transport and diffusion equations which are the objects of analyses, and able to investigate the method of solution of nuclide behavior in the loss of coolant accident, important in safety evaluation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. A Simple and Robust Method for Simultaneous Consideration of Overland and Underground Space in Urban Flood Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Long Son

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed two methods, boundary-type and pond-type, to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling. The boundary-type treats the exit of underground space as an interface for inflow of floodwater by imposing open boundary condition and pond-type considers underground space as an underground pond by configuring pond terrain. The effect of underground space in urban flood inundation was examined by coupling one-dimensional (1D stormwater management model (SWMM and two-dimensional (2D overland flood model. The models were applied to the Hyoja drainage basin, Seoul, Korea where urban flood occurred due to heavy rainfall in 21 September 2010. The conduit roughness coefficient of SWMM was calibrated to minimize the difference between observed and predicted water depth of pipe. In addition, the surface roughness coefficient of 2D model was calibrated by comparing observed and predicted flood extent. Then, urban flood analysis was performed on three different scenarios involving a case not considering underground (Case 1 and cases considering underground, boundary-type (Case 2 and pond-type (Case 3. The simulation results have shown that the boundary-type is simple but robust method with high computational efficiency to link overland and underground space in urban flood modeling.

  15. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  16. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  17. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, A.F.

    1993-10-01

    Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company's testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system

  18. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  19. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  20. Underground utilization at great depth and its subjects for a future study. Daishindo chika kukan no riyo to sono gijutsuteki kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Tetsuro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-12-25

    This paper outlined the overall underground utilization such as features of underground and progress of its utilization, then discussed the underground utilization of great depth in any large city sphere especially paid attention recently and reviewed the present situation from the environmental and ground engineering standpoints. Further, technological problems were described to realize these subjects. The underground has topological features by which three dimensional space can be generated in the broad ground ranging to the 1,000m or deeper space from the surface. But following conditions are essential to utilize the underground in the future: high density space is ensured to eliminate the overpopulation in the capital surface region.; environmental conditions such as ground and underground water are not disturbed or comfortable environment is created; the safety to prevent diseraters is ensured by generating the space where flowing similar to the surface is possible. 25 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  2. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  3. [Formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions: an examule for underground river at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Kang; Liang, Zuo-Bing; Yu, Zheng-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Li

    2014-10-01

    Through the monitoring of geochemical indexes in underground river of Xueyu Cave in Chongqing under rainfall conditions, we found that all indexes responded quickly to rainfall, and there was a correlation among them. Each index was analyzed with the principal component analysis, three main components were extracted which can represent 82.761% of the information to reflect the formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions. The results showed that the contribution rates of soil leaching represented as increased concentration of total Fe, total Mn, and Al3+, and dilution effect represented as reduced concentration of K+, Na+ and Sr2+ to the change of geochemical characteristics were 41.718%, which should be paid more attentions for its great damage to karst soil and safety of drinking water. Karst water dissolution of dolomite and recharge area of agricultural activities, caverns were 29.958%, as for karst water on limestone dissolution represented, as increased concentration of Ca2+ the contribution rate was 11.084%.

  4. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  5. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  6. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  7. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  8. Geological-Technical and Geo-engineering Aspects of Dimensional Stone Underground Quarrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Mauro; Lovera, Enrico

    Underground exploitation of dimensional stones is not a novelty, being long since practised, as proved by a number of historical documents and by a certain number of ancient quarrying voids throughout the world. Anyway, so far, open cast quarrying has been the most adopted practice for the excavation of dimensional stones. One primary reason that led to this situation is of course connected to the lower production costs of an open cast exploitation compared to an underground one. This cheapness has been supported by geological and technical motives: on the one hand, the relative availability of surface deposits and, on the other, the development of technologies, which often can be used only outdoor. But, nowadays, general costs of quarrying activities should be re-evaluated because new, and often proper, restrictions have been strongly rising during recent years. As a consequence of both environmental and technical restrictions, pressure will more and more arise to reduce open cast quarrying and to promote underground exploitations. The trend is already well marked for weak rocks - for instance in the extractive basin of Carrara, where about one hundred quarries are active, 30 per cent is working underground, but also in Spain, Portugal and Greece the number of underground marble quarries is increasing - but not yet for hard rock quarrying, where only few quarries are working underground all around the world. One reason has to be found in cutting technologies traditionally used. In weak rocks, diamond wire saw and chain cutter are usable, with few adaptations, in underground spaces, while drilling and blasting, the traditional exploitation method for hard stone, is not easily usable in a confined space, where often only one free face is available. Many technicians and researchers agree that two technologies will probably open the door to underground quarrying in hard rocks: diamond wire and water jet. The first one is already available; the second should still be

  9. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  10. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  11. An innovative approach to investigate the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid in the prepontine cistern: A feasibility study using spatial saturation-prepared cine PC-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rüegger, Christoph M.; Makki, Malek I.; Capel, Cyrille; Gondry-Jouet, Catherine; Baledent, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    •An innovative sat-pulse based cine PC-MRI to investigate complex CSF dynamic.•Compared to conventional sequence and validated in the PPC of hydrocephalus patients.•No compromise neither on temporal nor on spatial resolution.•Compared to conventional exam: the PPC has same area but lower flow stroke volume.•It contributes to a better follow-up of patients with altered CSF circulation. An innovative sat-pulse based cine PC-MRI to investigate complex CSF dynamic. Compared to conventional sequence and validated in the PPC of hydrocephalus patients. No compromise neither on temporal nor on spatial resolution. Compared to conventional exam: the PPC has same area but lower flow stroke volume. It contributes to a better follow-up of patients with altered CSF circulation. Accurate measurements of the cerebrospinal fluid that flows through the prepontine cistern (PPC) are challenging due to artefacts originating from basilar artery blood flow. We aim to accurately quantify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and stroke volume in the PPC, which is essential before endoscopic third ventriculostomy. We developed a new PC-MRI sequence prepared with Hadamard saturation bands to accurately quantify CSF flow in the PPC by suppressing the blood signal in the surrounding vessels. In total, 28 adult hydrocephalic patients (age 59 ± 20 years) were scanned using conventional PC-MRI and our developed sequence. CSF was separately extracted from the PPC and the foramen of Magendie, and flow (min and max) and stroke volume were quantified. Our modifications result in a complete deletion of signal from flowing blood, resulting in significantly reduced CSF stroke volume (Conv = 446 ± 113 mm 3 , Dev = 390 ± 119 mm 3 , p = 0.006) and flow, both minimum (Conv = −1630 ± 486 mm 3 /s, Dev = −1430 ± 406 mm 3 /s, p = 0.005) and maximum (Conv = 2384 ± 657 mm 3 /s, Dev = 1971 ± 62 mm 3 /s, p = 0.002) compared with the conventional sequence, whereas no change in the area of interest was

  12. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  13. China’s water situation; the supply of water and the pattern of its usage

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Bilaliib Udimal; Zhuang Jincai; Emmanuel Caesar Ayamba; Samuel Mensah Owusu

    2017-01-01

    This study specifically looked at total water supply in China, water withdrawal from various sources and various usage of water. From the analysis, it was realized that water supply from the underground source contributes greatly to the total water supply in China, a cubic unit withdrawal in underground water results in about 45% increase in the total water supply. Water from other sources also contributes to the total water supply in China. Water from other sources includes supplies from was...

  14. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-01

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project's demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ''ground truth'' resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the radiological quality of the water on Bikini and Eneu Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Brown, G.

    1975-01-01

    In June of 1975 a survey was conducted to determine the residual radioactivity in the terrestrial environment on the two main islands (Eneu and Bikini) of Bikini Atoll. The objective was to evaluate the potential radiation doses that could be received by the Bikinians scheduled to return to their atoll. This report describes the radiological quality of the groundwater during June 1975 (from data obtained from water samples collected at old and new well sites on both islets) and the cistern water on Bikini island. Based on the analyses of these samples, the cistern water from Bikini Island is both chemically and radiologically acceptable as drinking water in accordance with standard limits established by the U. S. Public Health Service. On both islands the quality of the ground water varies from one site to another. At some wells both chemical and radiological quality are acceptable; at others one or both is unacceptable according to U. S. Public Health Standards

  16. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  17. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  18. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  19. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  20. Zen Communist: Breyten Breytenbach's view from underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an interview after his release from prison, Breyten Breytenbach describes himself, at the time he became involved in underground politics, as a Zen Communist. He returns occasionally to this interaction of Marxist ideas of social revolution and Buddhist ideas of non-attachment, but never attempts to explain the resulting ...

  1. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  2. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  3. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Underground application of magnetic resonance soundings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available that characterize the orientation of the mine wall. There is a geometric enhancement of the MRS signal under typical mining conditions for the locations studied. However, the loop size is severely restricted in underground conditions, limiting the feasible target...

  5. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ) is the project lead unit and is developing the sensors needed for underground data acquisition related to the safety application. The body of the robot is being developed by the Mechatronics and Micro-Manufacturing (MMM) group. The software component is being...

  6. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  7. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  8. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  9. The Cigeo project: an industrial storage site for radioactive wastes in deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieguer, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, France has decided to store its high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, mostly issued from the nuclear industry, in a deep geological underground disposal site. This document presents the Cigeo project, a deep underground disposal site (located in the East of France) for such radioactive wastes, which construction is to be started in 2021 (subject to authorization in 2018). After a brief historical review of the project, started 20 years ago, the document presents the radioactive waste disposal context, the ethical choice of underground storage (in France and elsewhere) for these types of radioactive wastes, the disposal site safety and financing aspects, the progressive development of the underground facilities and, of most importance, its reversibility. In a second part, the various works around the site are presented (transport, buildings, water and power supply, etc.) together with a description of the various radioactive wastes (high and intermediate level and long-lived wastes and their packaging) that will be disposed in the site. The different steps of the project are then reviewed (the initial design and initial construction phases, the pilot industrial phase (expected in 2030), the operating phase, and the ultimate phases that will consist in the definitive closure of the site and its monitoring), followed by an extensive description of the various installations of surface and underground facilities, their architecture and their equipment

  10. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  11. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  12. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  13. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  14. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  15. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  16. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  17. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  18. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  19. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  20. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  2. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  3. UNDERGROUND AIR DUCT TO CONTROL RISING MOISTURE IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: IMPROVED DESIGN AND ITS DRYING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pazderka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground air ducts along peripheral walls of a building are a remediation method, which principle is to enable an air flow along the moist building structure’s surface to allow a sufficient evaporation of moisture from the structure. This measure reduces the water transport (rising moisture into the higher parts of the wall where the high water content in masonry is undesirable. Presently, underground air ducts are designed as masonry structures, which durability in contact with ground moisture is limited. The article describes a new design of an underground air duct, which is based on specially shaped concrete blocks (without wet processes, because the blocks are completely precast. The air duct from concrete blocks is situated completely below the ground surface (exterior or below the floor (interior. Thanks to this, the system is invisible and does not disturb the authentic look of rehabilitated historic buildings. The efficiency of the air duct technical solution was verified by the results of tests (based on the measured moisture values conducted on a laboratory model. The experimental study showed that the moisture in the masonry equipped with the presented underground air duct had decreased considerably compared to the reference sample, namely by 43 % on average. The experimental study was numerically validated through numerical simulations performed with the program WUFI 2D.

  4. Underground Engineering: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzalai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation. Complexity, sustainability, safety, security, versatility, creativity, and innovation are essential themes driving engineering science today. The world is changing rapidly and although the content and methods of engineering are evolving with it, an engineer's professional mission remains the same: to solve problems and make decisions. The application of new software such as BIM, Digital Project and Advanced TBM is shaping the...

  5. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  6. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available their locations. The paper will build on previous work done by Forster[8] and Vorst et al.[9] by implementing the proposed hybrid SLAM method on the mining safety platform, which will eventually be used in an underground environment. II. NAVIGATION... AND LOCALISATION SCHEME A. Exploration and clustering The algorithm used for exploring the RFID environment is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Algorithm used for exploring RFID environment Given sufficient (more than 500 steps per 25 square metres) simulation...

  7. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  8. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  9. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  10. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  11. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  12. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  13. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  14. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  15. Study of gases and volatiles in samples of underground water bodies in the State of Mexico; Estudio de gases y volatiles en muestras de cuerpos de agua subterranea en el Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Cisniega, G.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    It was realized a preliminary study of radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC ) in spring water of the State of Mexico. The radon was determined by the liquid scintillation method and the VOC by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The radon concentration range was between 0.50 - 4.42 KBq/m{sup 3}. Its were found some VOC of probably anthropogenic origin. (Author)

  16. Incorporating civil-defense shelter space in new underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    At the present time, the population of the US is approximately ten times more vulnerable to nuclear weapons than the Soviet population. This vulnerability can be reduced rapidly by urban evacuation in a crisis. However, the need to keep the essential economy running in a crisis, as well as coping with attacks on short warning, makes the construction of shelter space where people live very desirable. This can be done most economically by slightly modifying underground construction intended for peacetime use. The designer must consider all elements of the emergency environment when designing the space. Provisions must be made for emergency egress, light and ventilation (without elecric power), blast closures, water, sanitation, and food. The option of upgrading the space in a crisis should be considered. An example is given

  17. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  18. Ventilation experiment in the Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, M. [Dm-Iberia, Consultores en ciencias de la tierra, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The required ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operational phases of a radioactive waste repository could give rise to a process of desaturation of the rock around the drifts, changing its hydraulic and thermal properties. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), and has been co-financed by the EC under contract FIKW-CT-2001-00126. Its main objective was to evaluate in-situ and better understand the desaturation process of a consolidated clay formation, when subjected to a flow of dry air during several months. This VE test has been performed under practically isothermal conditions (T {approx_equal} 15-16 C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal micro-tunnel (diameter = 1,3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. In the summer of year 2002 (3,4 years after the micro-tunnel excavation), the test section was sealed off by means of two double doors, and monitored with a total of 96 sensors (rock water potential, water content, temperature and displacements, and conditions of the air in the test section). Specifically, in a rock thickness of approximately two meters, 24 piezometers, 32 hygrometers, 10 TDR, 8 extensometers and 5 electrodes chains (geo-electrical survey) were installed. Hydraulic, geochemical and geo-electrical laboratory tests have been also performed to characterize the Opalinus clay properties. Besides, the in-situ VE test has been interpreted and modelled, using the obtained experimental data for calibration of several codes, such as the Code-Bright, Code-Aster, Tough 2 and Mherlin. (authors)

  19. Influence of Radon Radionuclide for the Development of an Ultra-Low Background Gamma Spectrometer in an Underground Research Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wanno; Choi, Sangdo; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kang, Munja; Choi, Geunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Installation in an underground level is very good to reduce the background induced by cosmic rays. A system in a surface laboratory is difficult to achieve enough reduction of the background, and an underground system has one main disadvantage in that researchers or workers are inconvenienced in accessing from office to laboratory, even though the background reduction is enough. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has performed ultra low-level background spectrometry using an active and passive shield at a surface laboratory. Based on our research experience of ultra-low level background system at a surface laboratory for many years, an underground gamma-ray spectrometry system is more effective for background reduction, but convenient access to an underground laboratory should be considered. The KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) is an infrastructure for a validation of the high-level waste disposal technology, which is located at a small mountain of KAERI. The geology of this mountain is composed primarily of granite. The ultra-low background system with passive and active shielding at KURT is developed, which is located underground with 156 m of water-equivalent below a surface level. Here, the influence of radon radionuclide is studied to test the performance of the developed system. Firstly, the background increase by radon radionuclide is examined, and secondly, a radiological dose assessment via radon radionuclides is evaluated. Underground radon concentration of day time with ventilation is similar with that of a ground laboratory. Therefore the background increase by radon will be solved using ventilation. Extra dose exposure by radon can be negligible in the day but time without ventilation has some problems. So the ventilation system for the experiment period in underground laboratory should be operated in order to protect extra dose exposure.

  20. Influence of Radon Radionuclide for the Development of an Ultra-Low Background Gamma Spectrometer in an Underground Research Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wanno; Choi, Sangdo; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kang, Munja; Choi, Geunsik

    2013-01-01

    Installation in an underground level is very good to reduce the background induced by cosmic rays. A system in a surface laboratory is difficult to achieve enough reduction of the background, and an underground system has one main disadvantage in that researchers or workers are inconvenienced in accessing from office to laboratory, even though the background reduction is enough. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has performed ultra low-level background spectrometry using an active and passive shield at a surface laboratory. Based on our research experience of ultra-low level background system at a surface laboratory for many years, an underground gamma-ray spectrometry system is more effective for background reduction, but convenient access to an underground laboratory should be considered. The KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) is an infrastructure for a validation of the high-level waste disposal technology, which is located at a small mountain of KAERI. The geology of this mountain is composed primarily of granite. The ultra-low background system with passive and active shielding at KURT is developed, which is located underground with 156 m of water-equivalent below a surface level. Here, the influence of radon radionuclide is studied to test the performance of the developed system. Firstly, the background increase by radon radionuclide is examined, and secondly, a radiological dose assessment via radon radionuclides is evaluated. Underground radon concentration of day time with ventilation is similar with that of a ground laboratory. Therefore the background increase by radon will be solved using ventilation. Extra dose exposure by radon can be negligible in the day but time without ventilation has some problems. So the ventilation system for the experiment period in underground laboratory should be operated in order to protect extra dose exposure

  1. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  2. Regulatory analysis for the use of underground barriers at the Hanford Site tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampsten, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-seven of the single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, are assumed to have leaked in the past. Some of the waste retrieval options being considered, such as past-practice sluicing (a process that uses hot water to dislodge waste for subsequent removal by pumping), have the potential for increasing releases of dangerous waste from these tanks. Underground barrier systems are being evaluated as a method to mitigate releases of tank waste to the soil and groundwater that may occur during retrieval activities. The following underground barrier system options are among those being evaluated to determine whether their construction at the Single-Shell Tank Farms is viable. (1) A desiccant barrier would be created by circulating air through the subsurface soil to lower and then maintain the water saturation below the levels required for liquids to flow. (2) An injected materials barrier would be created by injecting materials such as grout or silica into the subsurface soils to form a barrier around and under a given tank or tank farm. (3) A cryogenic barrier would be created by freezing subsurface soils in the vicinity of a tank or tank farm. An analysis is provided of the major regulatory requirements that may impact full scale construction and operation of an underground barrier system and a discussion of factors that should be considered throughout the barrier selection process, irrespective of the type of underground barrier system being considered. However, specific barrier systems will be identified when a given regulation will have significant impact on a particular type of barrier technology. Appendix A provides a matrix of requirements applicable to construction and operation of an underground barrier system

  3. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; CHENG Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  4. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  5. The Underground "Fortress" of Bang Tsho Ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgen, Ugyen; Gyeltshen, Tshering

    2004-01-01

    The Bang Tsho village was part of the Kurtoed Province in North Eastern Bhutan. The authors deals with the underground architecture of this village. The article is based on a field visit carried out in November 2002. While the main focus of field work was on discerning the migration routes of the sKur smad speaking population of Lhun rtse rDzong khag to other rDzong khags in particular bKra shsi gang and bKra shis yang rtse the authors visited also the Bang tsho village and examined the ruins...

  6. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  7. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  8. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  10. Simultaneous observation of extensive air showers and underground muons at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present new combined data from the MACRO underground detector located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory and the EAS-TOP surface array located on top of the mountain above MACRO at a zenith angle of 27.5 degree and separated by 3100 meters water equivalent (mwe) of rock. Discussed are the method of the event correlation and the characteristics of the reconstructed events. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. The LLNL Nevada Test Side underground radionuclide source-term inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, J.F.; Goishi, W.; Meadows, J.W. [and others

    1995-03-01

    The potential for the contamination of ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by nuclear testing has long been recognized. The United States has conducted underground nuclear weapons testing at NTS since 1957, and a considerable amount of radioactive material has been deposited in the subsurface by this work. As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office`s Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA OP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has compiled an inventory of radionuclides produced by underground LLNL weapons tests from 1957 through 1992. It is well known that some groundwater at NTS has been contaminated by radionuclides from weapons testing. Nearly one-third of the nuclear tests were conducted near or beneath the pre-test static water level (SWL). An important responsibility of the UGTA OP is to assess the migration potential of contaminants beneath the NTS and surrounding lands. Except for tritium ({sup 3}H), which is capable of migration with water as molecular HTO, the ability of radionuclides to migrate significant distances from their source is presently thought to be very low. However, before this potential for migration can be fully assessed, the quantity of existing contaminants must be carefully estimated. The inventory of the radionuclide source term provides an upper limit on the availability of radionuclides for migration. However, an accurate assessment of risk to the public depends on more than an inventory of radionuclides remaining from underground testing. An estimate of the hydrologic source term consisting of radionuclides dissolved in or transported by ground water must compliment the radionuclide source term.

  12. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  13. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  14. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  15. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  17. Pipe locator for imaging underground pipelines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.; Mori, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, it becomes more important to locate the complex piping patterns such as tee, bend, riser, and the others with high accuracy for maintenance and protection of city gas pipelines. Hence, we have developed a new pipe locator system for imaging the complex underground pipelines using magnetic remote sensing techniques. The main framework of this development is the application of the pattern recognition of the magnetic field distribution to the location of buried pipelines in urban areas. The first step for imaging the complex pipelines is to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high accuracy which is generated by the passage of the alternating signal current through buried pipeline. For this purpose a portable trolley unit which is capable of scanning the ground to collect data, the 10 three-axes coil sensors with a sensitivity of 1 μG which are aligned in the unit, and a filter system using a FFT signal processor which eliminates urban magnetic noise as high as 10 mG in some cases, were developed. The second step is to process the magnetic field distribution data, to extract the feature of the underground pipeline using the contour diagram and the three-dimensional drawing of the magnetic field, and to identify the complex piping patterns. Further, we recognized that a nonlinear least-square method algorithm for calculation of the pipeline's position was useful to improve the location accuracy.

  18. A research on the excavation and maintenance of underground energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Chung, So-Keul; Ryu, Chang-Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, Gen-nan in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels 550m deep from the surface through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. And finally the following research items could be proposed for future researches. (1) Establishment of criteria for selection of optimal tunnel type. (2) Evaluation of water tightening ability. (3) Investigation of Lining type. (4) Development of techniques for site investigation in deep underground project. (5) Evaluation of construction techniques for underground space and shaft. (6) Investigation of long-term maintenance for pressured tunnel. (author). 14 refs.

  19. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lanhe; Liang Jie; Yu Li

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m 3 /h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m 3 , while the output of water gas is 2000 m 3 /h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m 3 , of which H 2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  20. An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fayaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Available space in congested cities is getting scarce due to growing urbanization in the recent past. The utilization of underground space is considered as a solution to the limited space in smart cities. The numbers of underground facilities are growing day by day in the developing world. Typical underground facilities include the transit subway, parking lots, electric lines, water supply and sewer lines. The likelihood of the occurrence of accidents due to underground facilities is a random phenomenon. To avoid any accidental loss, a risk assessment method is required to conduct the continuous risk assessment and report any abnormality before it happens. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical fuzzy inference based model for under-ground risk assessment. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy inference architecture reduces the total number of rules from the rule base. Rule reduction is important because the curse of dimensionality damages the transparency and interpretation as it is very tough to understand and justify hundreds or thousands of fuzzy rules. The computation time also increases as rules increase. The proposed model takes 175 rules having eight input parameters to compute the risk index, and the conventional fuzzy logic requires 390,625 rules, having the same number of input parameters to compute risk index. Hence, the proposed model significantly reduces the curse of dimensionality. Rule design for fuzzy logic is also a tedious task. In this paper, we have also introduced new rule schemes, namely maximum rule-based and average rule-based; both schemes can be used interchangeably according to the logic needed for rule design. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a virtuous choice for risk index calculation where the numbers of variables are greater.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  2. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  3. Analysis of sulphur compounds in underground reservoirs of natural gas and town gas by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triska, J.; Kuras, M.; Zachar, P.; Vodicka, L. (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Lab. of Synthetic Fuels)

    1990-09-01

    This paper deals with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography of the sulphur compounds in waste waters from the natural gas underground reservoirs, in extracts of activated charcoal used for purification of town gas, and in the oils from compressors of natural gas. (orig.).

  4. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  5. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  6. ORGANIZE AN INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MEGAPOLISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Pustovoytenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forecasting the trends of urbanization, the main factors influencing the modern methods of organization of development of the underground construction of mega-cities, during the substantiation of field of integrated use and composition of organizational-and-technological schemes of development of underground space, is considered.

  7. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  8. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  9. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  10. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  11. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Involve activation of the fire alarm system; and (3) Include evacuation of all persons from their work... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At...

  13. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  14. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  15. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  16. The possibility of using underground chloride sodium brines in the territory of the Central Federal District to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power equipment of TPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A. Y.; Burakov, I. A.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Nikitina, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term use of ground sodium chloride brine at power plants of “Mosenergo” for the purposes of regeneration Na-cation unit of water treatment plants chemical plants provides the preconditions for operation of underground brines and other power systems of our country. Underground sodium chloride brines used in “Mosenergo” since 1979, when the first wells for the extraction of brines in the territory of TPP-22 was drilled. Currently production brines are well in 13 TPP of PJSC “Mosenergo”. Underground sodium chloride brines can be used to regenerate the sodium cation filters under the following conditions: salinity brines should be not less than 100 g/dm3; the ratio of sodium ion content (in mg-Eq/dm3) to the total rigidity brine (in mg-Eq/dm3) should not be less than 3.5. Performed zoning district on the possibility of using underground brine for regeneration of the sodium-cation filters On the basis of these requirements. The analysis of the possibility of using underground brine directly to the location of CHP stations in the northern part of the Central Federal District on the basis of geological and hydrogeological data. Particular attention is drawn to the area of large cities, where the use of underground brines most effectively. The conclusion about the possibility of using sodium chloride brines underground in most parts of the Central Federal District for energy purposes.

  17. Ground penetrating radar for underground sensing in agriculture: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Dong, Xuejun; Leskovar, Daniel I.

    2016-10-01

    Belowground properties strongly affect agricultural productivity. Traditional methods for quantifying belowground properties are destructive, labor-intensive and pointbased. Ground penetrating radar can provide non-invasive, areal, and repeatable underground measurements. This article reviews the application of ground penetrating radar for soil and root measurements and discusses potential approaches to overcome challenges facing ground penetrating radar-based sensing in agriculture, especially for soil physical characteristics and crop root measurements. Though advanced data-analysis has been developed for ground penetrating radar-based sensing of soil moisture and soil clay content in civil engineering and geosciences, it has not been used widely in agricultural research. Also, past studies using ground penetrating radar in root research have been focused mainly on coarse root measurement. Currently, it is difficult to measure individual crop roots directly using ground penetrating radar, but it is possible to sense root cohorts within a soil volume grid as a functional constituent modifying bulk soil dielectric permittivity. Alternatively, ground penetrating radarbased sensing of soil water content, soil nutrition and texture can be utilized to inversely estimate root development by coupling soil water flow modeling with the seasonality of plant root growth patterns. Further benefits of ground penetrating radar applications in agriculture rely on the knowledge, discovery, and integration among differing disciplines adapted to research in agricultural management.

  18. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  19. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  20. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  1. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  2. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  3. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  4. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  5. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  6. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  7. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  8. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  10. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  11. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  13. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  15. Underground openings in clay formations - Technical requirements on drifting technology and support systems for underground openings and their impact on retreat systems for the installation of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischo, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several countries are currently investigating the possibility of long-term storage of nuclear waste in clay formations, with a special focus on mud-stone formations. During the last decades extensive research has been conducted on the suitability of mud-stone as repository and the related special requirements of the clay matrix - with significant success. The knowledge base on the behaviour of the host formations during the mining phase of the excavations on the other hand is relatively limited compared to that of other investigated host rock formations, e.g. salt. With the low value of mud-stone and its relatively limited industrial application range, there have not been any large scale commercial underground mining activities in recent years to provide a significant and independent database on the behaviour of the selected mud-stone formations or their geological analogue during mining activities. Most information currently used for the assessment of this type of sediment and the planning of the mining activities has been gathered either during the execution of logistics and tunneling projects or during the excavation of today's underground laboratories. There is, however, a database on a vast variety of clay deposit types and morphologies available from commercial underground clay mining activities worldwide. The data available on commercial clay mining shows significant differences for each and every technological stage of clay mining as compared to the stages of any other mining operation. This is, amongst other things, due to the high and partly extreme ductility and creeping properties of typical clay formations, especially when considering their sensitiveness to a changing water content. In general the technical and technological differences include the applicable mining technology for the excavation of underground openings, the need for an advancement of any available technology to waterless variants as

  16. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  17. Risk-based optimization of pipe inspections in large underground networks with imprecise information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, A.; Compare, M.; Salo, A.; Zio, E.; Laakso, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel risk-based methodology for optimizing the inspections of large underground infrastructure networks in the presence of incomplete information about the network features and parameters. The methodology employs Multi Attribute Value Theory to assess the risk of each pipe in the network, whereafter the optimal inspection campaign is built with Portfolio Decision Analysis (PDA). Specifically, Robust Portfolio Modeling (RPM) is employed to identify Pareto-optimal portfolios of pipe inspections. The proposed methodology is illustrated by reporting a real case study on the large-scale maintenance optimization of the sewerage network in Espoo, Finland. - Highlights: • Risk-based approach to optimize pipe inspections on large underground networks. • Reasonable computational effort to select efficient inspection portfolios. • Possibility to accommodate imprecise expert information. • Feasibility of the approach shown by Espoo water system case study.

  18. Evaluation of land disposal and underground injection of shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Campbell, A.C.; Wakamiya, W.

    1979-05-01

    Results indicate that the salinity of retort water, the principal wastewater generated by shale oil recovery operations, will be too high in most cases for irrigation of cover crops needed for effective stabilization by land disposal. Furthermore, large storage lagoons would be required to hold the retort water during the long winters encountered in the oil shale regions of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Land disposal cannot be carried out during prolonged periods of freezing weather. Additional problems which may arise with land disposal include air pollution from volatile constituents and groundwater pollution from refractory organics and dissolved salts in the retort water. Pretreatment requirements include the removal of ammonia which is present at toxic concentrations in retort water. Underground injection of retort water may be permitted in regions possessing favorable geological characteristics. It is anticipated that this method would be used as a last resort where effective or resonably priced treatment technology is not available. Regulatory restraints are expected to limit the use of underground injection for disposal of highly polluted shale oil wastewaters. Proving the confinement of injected wastes, a frequently difficult and expensive task, will be required to assure protection of drinking water resources.

  19. Monitoring programme of water reservoir Grliste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovic, M; Milenkovic, P.; Lukic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of surface waters is a very important problem incorporated in the environment protection, especially in water resources. The Timok border-land hasn't got sufficient underground and surface waters. This is certificated by the International Association for Water Resource. That was reason for building the water reservoir 'Grliste'. Drinking water from water reservoir 'Grliste' supplies Zajecar and the surroundings. (author)

  20. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  1. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  2. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  3. Earthquake resistance of cavern for underground nuclear power plants, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Hiroya

    1983-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plants have been studied as one of new siting forms of the nuclear power plants. This form is that some or all of nuclear power plants would be contained in the caverns within the rock mass. Large underground caverns such as the reactor vessel cavern should be excavated at the construction. Therefore, the study on the stability of such large underground caverns containing big important structure will be very important in case of the design of the underground power plants. However the stability analysis of underground caverns during earthquake has almost never been studied. Consequently the analytical methods have not been established. For the purpose of foreseeing the stability analysis of the large underground caverns during earthquake the dynamic analysis of the underground caverns were studied. The characteristics of the rock mass situated in the coastal hillside suitable to the siting conditions of the underground nuclear power plants in Japan were estimated. The stability during earthquake of the reactor vessel caverns of the tunnel type with the width of 32 m, the height of 46 m and the length of 70 m above which the thickness of earth covering is 100 m were analysed. The dynamic stresses at the surrounding rock mass of the caverns under the horizontal earthquake with 407 gal and the vertical earthquake with 204 gal were calculated. It was obtained from the results that the relaxed zone during earthquake was yielded just at the abutment of the underground in case of both the horizontal earthquake and the vertical earthquake, and the depth of the relaxed zone was 10 m at almost from the arch concrete. It is seemed that such relaxed zone can be treated with rock anchors and arch concretes considering the current reinforcement technique. (author)

  4. Selecting Formation-Accumulator for Industrial Waste Disposal of Arbuzovsky Underground Gas Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Garayshin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In domestic and foreign practice of constructing underground gas storage facilities, industrial sewage, as a rule, is pumped back into the reservoirs-gas storage facilities. Underground disposal of liquid waste is the most rational way to maintain and improve the ecological environment. When selecting the horizon for disposal of industrial waste, the authors considered the lower part of the sedimentary cover and, in the first place, the Bobrikovian horizon, as well as carbonates of the Turnaisian stage. In the sedimentary cover of the Middle-Upper Carboniferous complex studied by drilling, there are twelve major water-bearing horizons and complexes, separated by regional and local confining strata. Regional water confining bodies in this sedimentary stratum are gypsum-anhydrite layers of the Upper and Lower Permian and mature packs of mudstones, argillaceous limestones and dense dolomites in carboniferous sediments. According to the degree of hydrodynamic activity, zones of active (free, hampered and very difficult (stagnant regimes are distinguished in the section of the sedimentary cover. There are aquifers of Quaternary and Upper Permian sediments in the zone of active water exchange. The lower boundary of the active water exchange zone passes along the roof of the gypsum-anhydrite stratum of the Kazanian stage of the Upper Permian. As an object for industrial waste disposal in the operation of underground gas storage, the Bobrikovian is the most promising reservoir. It has the best reservoir properties and is reliably isolated from overlying deposits. Due to high mineralization, waters of the Bobrikovian horizon of the Librovichian superhorizon of the lower Visean stage are unsuitable for domestic, potable, production, technical and balneological purposes.

  5. First underground light versus heat discrimination for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Marcillac, P. de; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Leblanc, J.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A

    2003-06-19

    We report on the results of the first underground dark matter search with light versus heat discrimination. It has been performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in the frame of the Rare Objects SEarch with Bolometers UndergrounD (ROSEBUD) Collaboration with a double bolometer consisting of a 54 g scintillating CaWO{sub 4} and a thin Ge (0.26 g) for light detection. Its capability to distinguish nuclear against electron recoils has been proved and applied to derive limits for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates.

  6. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  7. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  8. Lunar Underground Mining and Construction : A Terrestrial Vision enabling Space Exploration and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Greg; Grenier, Louis; Blair, Brad

    As the Space Shuttle, Candarm and Space Station near their useful extended lives before the end of this decade, the question "What will be the next frontier for humans and robots to explore and how will we get there?" needs to be considered. Several countries are planning their next take on the exploration of the solar system. The moon is still a viable destination for several countries for two main reasons: the recent discovery of water improves the prospects of a basic infrastructure capability that would enable future commercial interests to drive the impetus to deploy profitable operations in the near future. The commercial appeal to establish a permanent lunar base should rise in this decade with the prospect of using natural resources available, in particular recently found water. The ability to break water into hydrogen and oxygen for providing the main necessities of life, rocket fuel and air to breathe make this permanent base feasible. Furthermore, several significant environmental issues will force this permanent base underground. These issues include lunar radiation, solar flares, temperature extremes and micro-meteorites. Lunar radiation alone will force this move to rock shielding protection of astronauts as at least 10 metres of rock cover will be required to protect human, animals and plants. As early as 1959 the placecountry-regionUS army considered a permanent underground base on the moon. While the original underground idea has merit space pioneers have strayed from this sensible safe concept. Furthermore, advances in proven telerobotic min-ing technology for terrestrial purposes can provide the opportunity for the commercial interests and perhaps government space programs to consider the concept, design, build and implement an underground lunar habitat and a mining and processing operation from basic infrastructure to commercial deployment of profitable operations. This paper discusses a Canadian concept behind a permanent manned outpost on the

  9. Detecting Underground Mine Voids Using Complex Geophysical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, V. F.; Harbert, W. P.; Hammack, R. W.; Ackman, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    In July 2006, the National Energy Technology Laboratory in collaboration with Department of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh conducted complex ground geophysical surveys of an area known to be underlain by shallow coal mines. Geophysical methods including electromagnetic induction, DC resistivity and seismic reflection were conducted. The purpose of these surveys was to: 1) verify underground mine voids based on a century-old mine map that showed subsurface mine workings georeferenced to match with present location of geophysical test-site located on the territory of Bruceton research center in Pittsburgh, PA, 2) deliniate mine workings that may be potentially filled with electrically conductive water filtrate emerging from adjacent groundwater collectors and 3) establish an equipment calibration site for geophysical instruments. Data from electromagnetic and resistivity surveys were further processed and inverted using EM1DFM, EMIGMA or Earthimager 2D capablilities in order to generate conductivity/depth images. Anomaly maps were generated, that revealed the locations of potential mine openings.

  10. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  11. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  12. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  13. Permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, D.M.; Haynes, C.D.; Whittle, G.P.

    1973-09-01

    The aim of the research performed was to explore methods of permeability restoration in underground disposal reservoirs that may improve the receptive capacity of a well to a level that will allow continued use of the disposal zone without resorting to elevated injection pressures. The laboratory investigation employed a simulated open-hole completion in a disposal well wherein the entire formation face is exposed to the well bore. Cylindrical core samples from representative reservoir rocks through which a central vertical opening or borehole had been drilled were injected with a liquid waste obtained from a chemical manufacturing plant. This particular waste material was found to have a moderate plugging effect when injected into samples of reservoir rocks in a prior study. A review was made of the chemical considerations that might account for the reduction of permeability in waste injection. Purpose of this study was to ascertain the conditions under which the precipitation of certain compounds might occur in the injection of the particular waste liquid employed. A summary of chemical calculations is contained in Appendix B. The data may be useful in the treatment of wastes prior to injection and in the design of restoration procedures where analyses of waste liquids and interstitial materials are available. The results of permeability restoration tests were analyzed mathematically by curve-fitting techniques performed by a digital computer. A summary of the analyses is set forth in the discussion of test results and examples of computer printouts are included in Appendix A

  14. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  15. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  16. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  17. Engineered barrier experiment Mont Terri underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E. [Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (UPC-CIMNE), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Engineered Barrier (EB) experiment is being carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland). The aim of the EB experiment is the demonstration of a new concept for the buffer construction of HLW repositories in horizontal drifts, in competent clay formations. The principle of this new buffer construction method is based on the combined use of a lower bed made of compacted bentonite blocks, and an upper backfill made with a bentonite pellets based material. The emplacement layout proposed in this project represents an important innovation for repositories in horizontal drifts. The fact of filling the upper part of the gap between the canister and the rock with a pellets-based type of material makes the emplacement operation much simpler, eliminating some of the most critical aspects of such operation. The experiment is carried out in a gallery excavated in the shaly facies of the Opalinus clay of Mont Terri. The geometry of the test site is a horseshoe section, 2,55 m high, 3 m wide and 15 m long. A dummy canister of the same dimensions and weight than the reference one was installed on the top of a compacted bentonite blocks bed, and the gap canister-rock was backfilled with compacted bentonite pellets. The experimental area was isolated by a concrete plug. An artificial hydration system was installed to accelerate the hydration process. In order to monitor the evolution of the system and record the values of different parameters, a data acquisition system was installed. (authors)

  18. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  19. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  20. Mizunami Underground Research Project. Annual report in the 2003 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakama, Shigeo; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji

    2004-12-01

    The current geoscientific research of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project have been carried out since the 1996 fiscal year at the Shobasama Site in Akeyo-cho, Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture. The main goals of MIU Project are to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigation and assessing a deep subsurface, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application in granite. The surface-based investigations at city-owned land (MIU Construction Site) have started since the 2001 fiscal year. In 2003 fiscal year, deep borehole investigations were continued in the MIU Construction Site. To understand the state of the deep geological environment before shaft sinking based on these investigations and research, a geological environmental model in/around the MIU Construction Site was constructed. In addition to there groundwater monitoring was carried out using shallow boreholes. As a research on the engineering technology, the review of the design and construction plan of the shafts and galleries and the outbreak event measures and security measures were provided. In Shobasama site, the analysis of an uncertain factor was executed based on the results of the underground water flow analysis. The hydraulic pressure monitoring and surface hydraulic observation were continued. (author)

  1. Feasibility of underground storage/disposal of noble gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winar, R.M.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-08-01

    The quantities of 85 Kr that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the 85 Kr released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of 85 Kr by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of 85 Kr as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of 85 Kr injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces. 9 figures, 5 tables

  2. Acidity decay of above-drainage underground mines in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, B; McDonald, L M; Skousen, J

    2010-01-01

    Acidity of water from abandoned underground mines decreases over time, and the rate of decrease can help formulate remediation approaches and treatment system designs. The objective of this study was to determine an overall acidity decay rate for above-drainage underground mines in northern West Virginia from a large data set of mines that were closed 50 to 70 yr ago. Water quality data were obtained from 30 Upper Freeport and 7 Pittsburgh coal seam mines in 1968, 1980, 2000, and 2006, and acidity decay curves were calculated. The mean decay constant, k, for Upper Freeport mines was 2.73 x 10(-2) yr(-1), with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.0052, whereas the k value for Pittsburgh mines was not significantly different at 4.26 x 10(-2) yr(-1) +/- 0.017. Acidity from the T&T mine, which was closed 12 yr ago, showed a k value of 11.25 x 10(-2) yr(-1). This higher decay rate was likely due to initial flushing of accumulated metal salts on reaction surfaces in the mine, rapid changes in mine hydrology after closure, and treatment. Although each site showed a specific decay rate (varying from 0.04 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 13.1 x 10(-2) yr(-1)), the decay constants of 2.7 x 10(-2) yr(-1) to 4.3 x 10(-2) yr(-1) are useful for predicting water quality trends and overall improvements across a wide spectrum of abandoned underground mines. We found first-order decay models improve long-term prediction of acidity declines from above-drainage mines compared with linear or percent annual decrease models. These predictions can help to select water treatment plans and evaluate costs for these treatments over time.

  3. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  4. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  5. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  6. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Bauluz, B [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa, E [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); MartInez, M [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Solorzano, A Ortiz de [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and ({alpha}, n) reactions are given.

  7. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  8. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  9. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  10. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic el...

  11. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  12. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  13. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  14. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  15. Protection of ecological receptors exposed to tritium from the Nevada Test Site underground test area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Bowen, D.G.; Mayasich, S.A.; Bangerter, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Strategy includes an evaluation of risks to the environment that may be associated with underground nuclear test activities that occurred in the past. Phase 1 of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project focuses on tritium. Tritium in deep subsurface soil was modeled from soil to groundwater, and from groundwater to surface water discharge points using a hydrogeological model developed specifically for UGTA. Ecological pathways of concern are those related to the exposure of biota to contaminated surface water and groundwater. Surface water receptors selected were based on those key to the habitats of greatest concern at Ash meadows, nevada, an off-site discharge location. These receptors were algae, pupfish, and great blue heron. Groundwater receptors were microorganisms known to exist in water beneath Rainier Mesa. Acceptable tritium concentrations in surface and groundwater were estimated using models created by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and radiation effects data from the literature. Based on this analysis, concentrations of tritium less than 9.3 x 10 7 pCi/L were predicted to be protective of aquatic and semi-aquatic populations, and of the endangered desert pupfish

  16. FY 1999 research and development results. Preparatory study for the underground thermal energy storage system; 1999 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The study is conducted for the underground thermal energy storage system which utilizes heat capacity of the underground, e.g., aquifer, to exchange heat with the underground, and the FY 1999 results are described. For establishment of the concept of the underground heat storage systems, 2 sites are selected for each of Tokyo, Osaka and Sapporo for the study as the geological ground models, for their weather characteristics. Two cases are considered for the site where underground heat exchangers are installed, open space and immediately below a building. The heat-storage system comprises a high-efficiency heat pump, water heat-storage tank and cooling tower. The evaluation results indicate that energy saving rate of 37% or more and CO2 reduction rate of 9.5% or more are achievable in all areas except Sapporo, i.e., Tokyo and Osaka. The economic evaluation results indicate that the simple pay-out period is around 100 years for Tokyo and Osaka, and 80 years for Sapporo. The underground heat storage system is approximately 10% lower in life-cycle cost than the conventional system, 3 versus 3.3 billion yen for the period of 60 years. (NEDO)

  17. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  18. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  19. To the issue about negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions in the salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. From 1970 to 1984, 26 underground explosions were conducted at Azgir test site salt domes and Karachaganak gas-condensate deposit (KGKD) of Kazakhstan. Consequence, 9 and 6, relatively, underground cavities were created. At Azgir test site 5 cavities were filled by water and brines. Some of them were destroyed with surface spotting formation. It is noticed the spreading of radionuclides out of cavities bounds. At the KGKD gas-condensate is loaded into 4 cavities, another 2 cavities are in the accident condition, the last one (5TK) was filled by brine. There are characters of radioecological situation degradation above the last cavity. Radioactive logging in the cavity shown that the γ-activity of rock was increased more then 8 times in the distance of depths 0-64 m for 3 years. Apparently, outbreak of radioactive brines takes place along the zones of fissuring on the bound of casing tubes into the 5TK borehole and along enclosing rocks with sorption of radioactive isotopes in clay rocks. 2. There are examples of negative evolution of events at the Astrakhan gas-condensate deposit, where 15 nuclear cavities were created from 1980 to 1984 years. In 1986 year, 13 of them stopped to exist because of tectonic shearing, triggering by underground nuclear explosion in the salt dome. Many of them are flooded and they throw out the radioactive brines, reaching the surface. 3. Negative development of radioecological situation is occurred because of depressurization of cavities, their flooding, displacement of radionuclides with salt into the brines, destroying of cavities, extrusion of radioactive brines along the permeable zones, more often along the militant and observation boreholes. It is possible to spread of radioactive contamination along horizontal at the distance for l,5-3 km. In 2 years after the underground nuclear explosion at the Grachev oil deposit of Bashkiria radioactive tritium was detected in underground water and in the ground more then 3 km far from

  20. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations