WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground utility vaults

  1. Safety assessment for deep underground disposal vault-pathways analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The concept verification phase of the Canadian programme for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste encompasses a period of about three years before the start of site selection. During this time, the methodology for Environmental and Safety Assessment studies is being developed by focusing on a model site. Pathways analysis is an important component of these studies. It involves the prediction of the rate at which radionuclides might be released from a disposal vault and travel through the geosphere and biosphere to reach man. The pathways analysis studies cover three major topics: geosphere pathways analysis, biosphere pathways analysis and potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis. Geosphere pathways analysis includes a total systems analysis, using the computer program GARD2, vault analysis, which considers container failure and waste leaching, hydrogeological modelling and geochemical modelling. Biosphere pathways analysis incorporates a compartmental modelling approach using the computer program RAMM, and a food chain analysis using the computer program FOOD II. Potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis involves the estimation of the probability and consequences of events such as earthquakes which might reduce the effectiveness of the barriers preventing the release of radionuclides. The current stage of development of the required methodology and data is discussed in each of the three areas and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  2. An approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation. (author). 35 refs., 12 tabs., 49 figs

  3. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.; Brown, Anton.

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m 2 ) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to σ 3 and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because σ 3 is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs

  4. Effect on localized waste-container failure on radionuclide transport from an underground nuclear waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-07-01

    In the geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste, one option is to emplace the waste container in a borehole drilled into the floor of the underground vault. In the borehole, the waste container is surrounded by a compacted soil material known as the buffer. A finite-element simulation has been performed to study the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the steady-state radionuclide transport by diffusion from the container through the buffer to the surrounding rock and/or backfill. In this study, the radionuclide concentration at the buffer-backfill interface is assumed to be zero. Two cases are considered at the interface between the buffer and the rock. In case 1, a no-flux boundary condition is used to simulate intact rock. In case 2, a constant radionuclide concentration condition is used to simulate fractured rock with groundwater flow. The results show that the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the total flux is dependent on the boundary condition at the buffer-rock interface. For the intact rock condition, the total flux is mainly dependent on the location of the failure. The total flux increases as the location changes from the bottom to the top of the emplaced waste container. For a given localized failure of the waste container, the total flux remains unaffected by the area of failed surface below the top of the failure. For fractured rock, the total flux is directly proportional to the failed surface area of the waste container regardless of the failure location

  5. Approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite; Methode de caracterisation souterraine d`une enceinte de stockage dans la roche granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation.

  6. Underground Parking structure built with deep foundations and vault precast elements in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ordóñez, D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many cases the only places available for the construction of a new car park are the existing streets or roads. These streets may also have important or historic buildings very close to the structure, which means that they cannot be disturbed in any way during the construction of the parking structure. In this particular case, the novelty is that the top deck is solved with a unique structure: a vault that interacts with the pile wall not only for vertical but also for horizontal loads due to the arch mechanism. The construction of the vault is solved as a large precast element of one piece of more than 16 in length and 2.40m in width, which is built in the factory, transported with the help of trucks and erected on site with large cranes.

    En muchos casos las únicas localizaciones para construir aparcamientos son las calles o carreteras. Estas calles también suelen tener alrededor importantes edificios históricos muy cercanos a la propia estructura. En este caso particular la novedad reside en que el forjado superior está resuelto con una estructura especial: una bóveda que interacciona con la pantalla de pilotes no solo en el sentido vertical sino también en el horizontal formando un verdadero mecanismo de arco. La construcción de la bóveda se ha resuelto con grandes elementos prefabricados de una pieza de más de 16m de longitud y de 2,40m de ancho. Se han fabricado en una factoría, transportados y montados en obra con grandes grúas.

  7. Diffusional mass transport phenomena in the buffer material and damaged zone of a borehole wall in an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux

  8. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  9. Filigree Vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2017-01-01

    Filigree Vaults takes its point of departure in the use of ceramics in architecture.Today ceramic is in buildings mostly used as uniform modular elements for surface application - bricks and tiles. This project discusses and exemplifies new possibilities for ceramics in architecture, which emerge...

  10. Utilization of Thermal Energy of Mine Waters from Flooded Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnošt Grmela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dozens of ore, uranium and coal underground mines have been closed in the Czech Republic recently as a result of ending or considerable cutting down the mining of raw materials. After the completion of all necessary works associated with the decommissioning of underground mine workings, the mines were mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. The volumes of mine waters in the underground reach up to millions of cubic metres. Taking into account the huge volumes and temperature of waters, which is in range of 10 to 290C at the site of draining from the underground, mine waters represent a considerable and stable source of thermal energy, the utilization of which is still wholly neglected. The authors inform about the principles of the use of mine waters for this purpose and about two projects that are in a different stage of realization.

  11. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  12. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  13. Precise Detection of Buried Underground Utilities by Non-destructive Electromagnetic Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Ho Woong; Lee, Seung Hee; Lee, Kang Won

    2002-01-01

    To detect the position and depth of buried underground utilities, method of Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) survey is the most commonly used. However, the skin-depth of GPR is very shallow, and in the places where subsurface materials are not homogeneous and are compose of clays and/or salts and gravels, GPR method has limitations in application and interpretation. The aim of this study is to overcome these limitations of GPR survey. For this purpose the site where the GPR survey is unsuccessful to detect the underground big pipes is selected, and soil tests were conducted to confirm the reason why GPR method was not applicable. Non-destructive high-frequency electromagnetic (HFEM) survey was newly developed and was applied in the study area to prove the effectiveness of this new technique. The frequency ranges 2kHz∼4MHz and the skin depth is about 30m. The HFEM measures the electric field and magnetic field perpendicular to each other to get the impedance from which vertical electric resistivity distribution at the measured point can be deduced. By adopting the capacitive coupled electrodes, it can make the measuring time shorter, and can be applied to the places covered by asphalt an and/or concrete. In addition to the above mentioned advantages, noise due to high-voltage power line is much reduced by stacking the signals. As a result, the HFEM was successful in detecting the buried underground objects. Therefore this method is a promising new technique that can be applied in the lots of fields, such as geotechnical and archaeological surveys

  14. Inferring the most probable maps of underground utilities using Bayesian mapping model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Wasiq; Muggleton, Jennifer; Rustighi, Emiliano; Jenks, Hugo; Pennock, Steve R.; Atkins, Phil R.; Cohn, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    Mapping the Underworld (MTU), a major initiative in the UK, is focused on addressing social, environmental and economic consequences raised from the inability to locate buried underground utilities (such as pipes and cables) by developing a multi-sensor mobile device. The aim of MTU device is to locate different types of buried assets in real time with the use of automated data processing techniques and statutory records. The statutory records, even though typically being inaccurate and incomplete, provide useful prior information on what is buried under the ground and where. However, the integration of information from multiple sensors (raw data) with these qualitative maps and their visualization is challenging and requires the implementation of robust machine learning/data fusion approaches. An approach for automated creation of revised maps was developed as a Bayesian Mapping model in this paper by integrating the knowledge extracted from sensors raw data and available statutory records. The combination of statutory records with the hypotheses from sensors was for initial estimation of what might be found underground and roughly where. The maps were (re)constructed using automated image segmentation techniques for hypotheses extraction and Bayesian classification techniques for segment-manhole connections. The model consisting of image segmentation algorithm and various Bayesian classification techniques (segment recognition and expectation maximization (EM) algorithm) provided robust performance on various simulated as well as real sites in terms of predicting linear/non-linear segments and constructing refined 2D/3D maps.

  15. Underground utilization at great depth and its subjects for a future study. Daishindo chika kukan no riyo to sono gijutsuteki kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Tetsuro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-12-25

    This paper outlined the overall underground utilization such as features of underground and progress of its utilization, then discussed the underground utilization of great depth in any large city sphere especially paid attention recently and reviewed the present situation from the environmental and ground engineering standpoints. Further, technological problems were described to realize these subjects. The underground has topological features by which three dimensional space can be generated in the broad ground ranging to the 1,000m or deeper space from the surface. But following conditions are essential to utilize the underground in the future: high density space is ensured to eliminate the overpopulation in the capital surface region.; environmental conditions such as ground and underground water are not disturbed or comfortable environment is created; the safety to prevent diseraters is ensured by generating the space where flowing similar to the surface is possible. 25 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. PATTERNS UTILIZED IN THE SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER FLOW AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAHLUI DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. – Patterns utilized in the simulation of underground water flow and the transportation of pollutants in the Bahlui drainage basin. In the actual context of accelerate economic development, the excessive exploatation of water resources from the underground and the contamination of these with different water pollutants has become a major problem which has enetered the attention of many researchers. For the evaluation of an underground water flow and pollutants transport sistem we have chosen the package of programs MODFLOW which includes a whole series of applications,such as MOC3D, MT3D, MT3DMS, PEST, UCODE, PMPATH, which allow simulations and multiple recalibrations of the capacity of recharging of the aquifers, the flowing of the water towards wells and drillings the transport of a pollutant agent in the underground or the evaluation of the exchange of water between the hidrographic network and aquifers. The sistem targets both the evaluation of the modelation of the underground flowing and the simulation of a punctual polluation of the canvas of groundwater scenery, in the meadow of the river Bahlui, west from Letcani village.

  17. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940's through the early 1960's. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted

  18. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Thalles Vitelli; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  19. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  20. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  1. The potential for vault-induced seismicity in nuclear fuel waste disposal: experience from Canadian mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    A seismic event which causes damage to an underground opening is called a rockburst. Practical experience indicates that these damaging seismic events are associated with deep mines where extraction ratios are greater than 0.6. For the arrangement being considered by AECL for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, extraction ratios, for the room and pillar design, will be less than 0.3. At this extraction ratio the stress magnitudes will not be sufficient to induce seismic events that can damage the underground openings. Documented world-wide experience shows that unless the underground opening is very close to the source of a naturally occurring seismic event, such as an earthquake, the opening will also not experience any significant damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will improve its resistance to earthquake damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will also reduce the total convergence of the openings caused by thermal loads and hence minimize the potential for thermally-induced seismic events. (author)

  2. Shooting on shift: Conventional mining utilizing permissible explosives underground in southeastern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooton, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Presently, 98 percent of all underground coal mined in Illinois is produced by either continuous or longwall miner. Conventional mining had declined due to various factors. Conventional producing sections require one-third more personnel than continuous miner sections. Two additional pieces of equipment are required on a conventional section. More importantly, the limitations of using compressed air as a means of breaking down cut coal in Illinois left the industry behind the other states who use permissible explosives. The use of high pressure air unnecessarily exposed miners to the hazards of ruptured air lines and excessive exposure to a half-shot coal face, unsupported roof, and dusty conditions. For conventional mining to be considered safe and feasible, shooting-on-shift with permissible explosives is necessary

  3. A decision support system framework to improve design-construction integration and project performance on public sector underground utility projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Gary Bruce

    One of the noted difficulties with the traditional public works project development process is the lack of integration and sharing of information between engineering and construction entities that results in a decrease in project performance. To improve project performance on public sector underground utility projects, the research develops a decision support system framework that enhances the exchange and integration of relevant information and knowledge between entities on such projects by incorporating a lessons-learned database to document, organize and disseminate lessons-learned on a project. To identify the critical activities within the project development process that could be linked to the decision support system, the Integration Definition for Functioning Modeling (IDEFO) technique was used to create a representative model of the public works project development process. The resultant model demonstrated the repeatable nature of the process both across project phases and from project-to-project and identified the decision-making activities of generating and evaluating alternatives as key opportunities for construction-related input that could be linked to a decision support system. An inspection of current industry practices was conducted through interviews with knowledgeable industry sources to determine the scope of the decision support system framework. Results revealed the type of critical decisions on underground utility projects that could benefit from construction-related input and identified the documentation of lessons-learned as a major industry weakness. A prototype decision support system incorporating a lessons-learned database was developed and the framework integrated into common project management reporting mechanisms found in the industry. The actual decision-maker can retrieve lessons-learned according to predetermined categories of critical decisions, compare and evaluated retrieved alternatives, and document the rationale behind the

  4. Utility of Characterizing and Monitoring Suspected Underground Nuclear Sites with VideoSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, S. M.; Yocky, D. A.; Riley, R.; Calloway, T. M.; Wahl, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories proposed using airborne synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) collected in VideoSAR mode to characterize the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signature Experiment (UNESE) test bed site at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL SAR collected airborne, Ku-band (16.8 GHz center frequency), 0.2032 meter ground resolution over NNSS in August 2014 and X-band (9.6 GHz), 0.1016 meter ground resolution fully-polarimetric SAR in April 2015. This paper reports the findings of processing and exploiting VideoSAR for creating digital elevation maps, detecting cultural artifacts and exploiting full-circle polarimetric signatures. VideoSAR collects a continuous circle of phase history data, therefore, imagery can be formed over the 360-degrees of the site. Since the Ku-band VideoSAR had two antennas suitable for interferometric digital elevation mapping (DEM), DEMs could be generated over numerous aspect angles, filling in holes created by targets with height by imaging from all sides. Also, since the X-band VideoSAR was fully-polarimetric, scattering signatures could be gleaned from all angles also. Both of these collections can be used to find man-made objects and changes in elevation that might indicate testing activities. VideoSAR provides a unique, coherent measure of ground objects allowing one to create accurate DEMS, locate man-made objects, and identify scattering signatures via polarimetric exploitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors would like to thank the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, for sponsoring this work. We would also like to thank the Underground Nuclear Explosion Signatures Experiment team, a multi

  5. Radiological dose assessment for vault storage concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-02-25

    This radiological dose assessment presents neutron and photon dose rates in support of project W-460. Dose rates are provided for a single 3013 container, the ``infloor`` storage vault concept, and the ``cubicle`` storage vault concept.

  6. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each vault...

  7. Renovating a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal to renovate a Fusee Ceramique Barrel Vault with steel diagonals In 1956 two workshops, varying in height and span, were built in Wormerveer, The Netherlands. Both workshops were roofed with a concrete barrel vault with a thickness of 110 mm. The cylindrical vaults

  8. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  9. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  10. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 2 - GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Derobert, Xavier; Fontul, Simona; Govedarica, Miro; Gregoire, Colette; Loizos, Andreas; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Plati, Christina; Ristic, Aleksandar; Tosti, Fabio; Van Geem, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 2 "GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The principal goal of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG2 include: 1. The state of the art on the use of GPR in civil engineering was composed and open issues were identified. The few existing international/national guidelines/protocols for GPR inspection in civil engineering were reviewed and discussed. Academic end-users, private companies and stakeholders presented their point of view and needs. 2. Guidelines for investigating flexible pavement by using GPR were prepared, with particular regard to layer-thickness assessment, moisture-content sensing, pavement-damage detection and classification, and other main GPR-based investigations in pavement engineering. 3. Guidelines for GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids were prepared, with a main focus on urban areas. 4. Guidelines for GPR assessment of concrete structures, with particular regard to inspections in bridges and tunnels, were prepared. 5. A report was composed, including a series of practical suggestions and very useful information to guide GPR users during building inspection. 6. WG2 Members carried out a plethora of case studies where GPR was used to survey roads, highways, airport runways, car

  11. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, C. Cipres 10, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez, R. [CIEMAT, Ave. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Iniguez, M.P. [Universidad de Valladolid, Po Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear de la Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during {sup 18} F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  12. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  13. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM METHANE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT U.S. UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of EPA research into the emission processes and control strategies associated with underground coal mines in the U.S. (NOTE: Methane is a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere which ranks behind carbon dioxide as the second largest contributor to global warmin...

  14. Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zon, Arend van; Mossink, Marieke H.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Wiemer, Erik A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Vaults are ribonucleoproteins that may function in intracellular transport processes. We investigated the intracellular distribution and dynamics of vaults in non-small cell lung cancer cells in which vaults are labeled with the green fluorescent protein. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that vaults are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm; a small fraction is found in close proximity to microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments corroborated these results showing co-precipitation of MVP and β-tubulin. Using quantitative fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrated that vault mobility over longer distances in part depends on intact microtubules; vaults moving slower when microtubules are depolymerized by nocodazole. Biochemical fractionation indicated a small fraction of MVP associated with the nucleus, however, no GFP-tagged vaults could be observed inside the nucleus. We observed an accumulation of vaults at the nuclear envelope upon treatment of cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport using a fluorescent substrate containing a classical NLS and NES expressed in MVP +/+ and MVP -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated no differences in nuclear import/export kinetics, suggesting no role for vaults in these processes. We hypothesize that a subset of vaults moves directionally via microtubules, possibly towards the nucleus

  15. Novel Technique for the UX15 Cavern Vault Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    2000-01-01

    The overall LHC project schedule requires the civil engineering work to begin before the final LEP shutdown. The new caverns for the ATLAS experiment will be built in and around the existing underground structures at point 1. In order to make the best possible use of the time available for the LHC civil engineering before the shutdown of LEP, a particular arrangement for the construction of the UX15 cavern vault has been developed. The basic concept of this arrangement consists of the excavation of the cavern top heading and the installation of the concrete vault immediately afterwards, prior to the subsequent bench excavation after LEP shutdown. A temporary support of the dead weight of the concrete roof will be achieved by the suspension of the roof by 38 no. pre-stressed ground anchors of 225 tons capacity each. This support system will work up to the construction of the cavern base slab and walls and the completion of the permanent concrete lining.

  16. Introduction of microbial nutrients in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault as a result of excavation and operation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Gascoyne, M.; Onagi, D.; Thomas, D.A.; Hamon, C.J.; Watson, R.; Porth, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    A nuclear fuel waste disposal vault would not likely be a sterile environment. Bacterial activity would be expected in those areas of the vault conducive to bacterial life, i.e., where effects of heat, moisture content, radiation and compaction would not prevent or severely restrict bacterial life and where suitable and sufficient nutrients would be present. An inventory of bacterial nutrients that would be emplaced 'intentionally' with vault materials (fuel waste, waste containers, buffer and backfill materials) has been made previously. This report assesses bacterial nutrients that would be added 'inadvertently' to a vault in the form of residues of materials used to excavate and operate a vault. Measurements of blasting material residues in the various water supplies, excavated broken rock (muck) and in cores drilled in old and new tunnel walls were made at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory. Results show that the largest potential nutrient addition (both carbon and nitrogen) to a vault would result from using untreated excavated broken rock as part of the backfill. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Tile vaulting in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. López López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New interactive equilibrium methods for the design and analysis of masonry structures have facilitated the construction of masonry structures with a formal language well beyond what is typically associated with compression-only architecture. These developments have also rekindled interest in tile vaulting, and led to a rediscovery of this traditional building technique. To ensure that tile vaults with new, complex shapes can still be built economically, the construction processes involved in the realisation of these structures have adapted. For example, cheaper and simpler falsework systems have been introduced. In addition, a wide variety of materials have been experimented with to be able to build more sustainable vaulted structures with local resources. This paper presents a review of the latest innovations in tile vaulting, based on the most representative works of the past few years with respect to shape, construction method and the use of materials.

  18. Backfill formulations for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, R.N.; Boonsinsuk, P.; Wong, G.; Ming, X.D.; Caporuscio, F.; Lytle, P.

    1987-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro are studying the concept of disposing of nuclear fuel wastes in a vault within the Canadian Shield. After nuclear waste containers have been emplaced in a vault, the vault will have to be backfilled permanently. A suitable backfill material should have low hydraulic conductivity and high radionuclide sorption capacity. The research was done with a goal of recommending a specification for formulating this backfill material. This report suggests that such a backfill material should be a mixture of coarse aggregates and swelling clay. Actual trial mixtures were prepared using crushed granite and natural Lake Agassiz clay. Various trial mixtures were subjected to constant-head permeability tests. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of the aggregate-clay mixtures could be close to those of the clay (by itself) when the clay content was in the range of 25% or more. The resulting hydraulic conductivity of about 10 -10 m/s is considered to be low, especially since the maximum grain size is 19.1 mm. Selected mixtures were evaluated for free swell and swelling pressure, both of which increased with increasing clay content. When the clay content was 25%, the free swell was about 4%, compared with 6% for the 100% clay. The corresponding swelling pressure was about 16 kPa - in comparison to 48 kPa for the 100% clay. These results indicate that the proposed backfill material should contain about 25% clay, with a maximum grain size of 19.1 mm. The selected mixture was also tested to evaluate the effects of mixing methods, load-carrying capacity and compaction techniques suitable for the underground vault conditions. The proposed backfill material appeared to perform satisfactorily according to the criteria demanded. The backfill material proposed was further tested for its behaviour during water intake. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was found to be approximately 10 -10 m/s and the swelling pressure was

  19. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  20. Solar performance of hemispherical vault roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Munoz, V.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas; Porta-Gandara, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste S.C., Baja California Sur (Mexico); Heard, C. [Instituto Mexinano de Petroleo (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    In hot climates, the improvement of comfort by passive solar techniques is a very important issue. In many parts of the world such as the Middle East, vault roofs are widely used in construction. The solar and energy performance of a hemispherical vault roof is studied, including the auto-shading instant effect during several days for different latitudes and throughout the year also. The results are compared with the standard horizontal flat roofing used in the typical modern low-cost housing in Mexico. The hemispherical vault receives around 35% less energy than the flat roof between the equinoxes, besides having other advantages such as a greater ceiling height, natural ventilation and illumination possibilities, and structural stability. (author)

  1. Designing and building the cork vault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; de Azambuja Varela, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-five students took part in a two-week workshop intended to provide a hands on experience with digital tools for the design and fabrication of a 1:1 scale vault. The two instructors focused on theoretical concepts in arches, vaults, stereotomy, and led exercises of physical construction...... shape with parts that were cut using a 5-axis waterjet cutter. We conducted interviews with the students and report on the resulting themes including reflections on the digital tools, stereotomy and related architectural theory. We recount positive as well as negative outcomes and provide suggestions...

  2. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  3. A preliminary assessment of temperature distributions associated with a radioactive waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1978-09-01

    The temperature distributions of models which simulated radioactive waste vaults were determined, using a finite difference computer code to solve the transient heat conduction equation. Input parameters to the code included thermal properties for granitic rock and heat generation decay data for wastes that would be separated from CANDU fuel if it were recycled. Due to the preliminary nature of the study, only simple models were analysed. A disc source was utilized to approximate a one-level repository. Various parameters were investigated such as depth of disc, thermal properties of rock, and long-term effects. It was shown that, for a vault at 500 m depth with an initial areal heat flux of 31 W/m 2 , a maximum temperature increase of about 80 deg C occurs at the vault level about 30 years after waste emplacement; maximum increases near the earth's surface occur after about 1000 years and are less than 1 deg C. Modelling the vault by a number of vertical waste boreholes on one horizontal level, instead of by a disc, with the gross areal heat flux again 31 W/m 2 , did not cause serious local temperature increases as long as the initial heat generation rate of each container was less than about 750 W. It was also shown that, by using the vertical dimension available in granitic plutons and constructing either multiple-level vaults or very deep boreholes, initial areal heat fluxes greater than 31 W/m 2 can be utilized without exceeding the 80 deg C maximum temperature increase anywhere in the vault. (author)

  4. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  5. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper

  6. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  7. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  8. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  9. Kinematic variables of table vault on artistic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Maria Boldrini FERNANDES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The table vault is an event of male and female Artistics Gymnastics. Although it can be performed in a variety of rotations and body positions in different phases, it can be separated in three groups: handspring, Yurchenko and Tsukahara. It is believed that kinematic variables of vault may vary according to group of vault or gymnast body position, but few studies compares the real differences among the three groups of vaults, comparing and describing the variables in different phases. Vault kinematic variables could be diversifying according to the approach or position of the vaulting, but little has been studied about the biomechanical differences, comparing and describing behaviours at different stages. The aim of this study was to organize critical, objective and to systematize the most relevant kinematic variables to performance on vaulting. A Meta analysis over the basis Pubmed, Sport Discus and Web of Science were performed about this issue. From the selected references, we described and analyzed the kinematics of the table vault. Vault can be characterized in seven phases of analysis. Most of the studies are descriptive, and some do not descript all phases. Differences among vault variables according to group vaults, technical level and gender were analysed only in recent studies. There still gaps of knowledge about kinematic variables of table vault, in order to provide comprehensive information about all possibilities of vaults in this gymnastic event. It is concluded that kinematic variables of table vault depends upon vault group and may be considered to the improvement of technical performance. More researches are needed to approach the coaching interface with biomechanics applicable knowledge.

  10. Removal of CO2 by storage in the deep underground, chemical utilization and biofixation. Options for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over, J.A.; De Vries, J.E.; Stork, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Utrecht University in Utrecht, Netherlands, initially put the subject of CO2-storage on the agenda as a possible necessary policy element. During 1990/1991 a number of research institutes and engineering consultants carried out several studies. Also in 1991 the lEA Greenhouse Gas Group (IEA GHG) was initiated, including participation from The Netherlands. The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs both attended the meetings of the Executive Committee (ExCo) from the start. This Group started paying attention to the subject of CO2-capturing at large point sources (electricity stations). They then went subsequently from capturing from other (smaller and/or more diffuse) sources, ranking relative to other large scale options to combat or reduce CO2-emissions (i.e. vast areas of forest) to influence and controlling other 'greenhouse gases' such as methane. During 1992/1993 Novem prepared - on request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs - research proposals for investigations and demonstration projects, having a 10 to 15 year horizon, with regard to CO2-capturing technologies. In the beginning of 1994, the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) put more emphasis on demonstration of the feasibility of CO2-storage. When the first 'Kok-government' (the so-called 'Purple Cabinet') came into being, attention shifted to studies on CO2-storage; the central question being whether there would be sufficient potential capacity if the necessity to store CO2 would ever occur. Within this framework Novem was authorized by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to carry out an investigation program on possibilities of CO2-storage. The present publication deals with the results of these studies. The main subject of investigation were: Storage in underground formations (depleted gas fields and aquifers) and the conditions under which this is feasible; Possibilities for enhanced gas recovery by carbon dioxide injection and its

  11. A WEBGIS TO SUPPORT GPR 3D DATA ACQUISITION: A FIRST STEP FOR THE INTEGRATION OF UNDERGROUND UTILITY NETWORKS IN 3D CITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tabarro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the planning and sustainable development of large cities, it is critical to accurately locate and map, in 3D, existing underground utility networks (UUN such as pipelines, cables, ducts, and channels. An emerging non-invasive instrument for collecting underground data such as UUN is the ground-penetrating radar (GPR. Although its capabilities, handling GPR and extracting relevant information from its data are not trivial tasks. For instance, both GPR and its complimentary software stack provide very few capabilities to co-visualize GPR collected data and other sources of spatial data such as orthophotography, DEM or road maps. Furthermore, the GPR interface lacks functionalities for adding annotation, editing geometric objects or querying attributes. A new approach to support GPR survey is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on the integration of multiple sources of geospatial datasets and the use of a Web-GIS system and relevant functionalities adapted to interoperable GPR data acquisition. The Web-GIS is developed as an improved module in an existing platform called GVX. The GVX-GPR module provides an interactive visualization of multiple layers of structured spatial data, including GPR profiles. This module offers new features when compared to traditional GPR surveys such as geo-annotated points of interest for identifying spatial clues in the GPR profiles, integration of city contextual data, high definition drone and satellite pictures, as-built, and more. The paper explains the engineering approach used to design and develop the Web GIS and tests for this survey approach, mapping and recording UUN as part of 3D city model.

  12. a Webgis to Support Gpr 3d Data Acquisition: a First Step for the Integration of Underground Utility Networks in 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarro, P. G.; Pouliot, J.; Fortier, R.; Losier, L.-M.

    2017-10-01

    For the planning and sustainable development of large cities, it is critical to accurately locate and map, in 3D, existing underground utility networks (UUN) such as pipelines, cables, ducts, and channels. An emerging non-invasive instrument for collecting underground data such as UUN is the ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Although its capabilities, handling GPR and extracting relevant information from its data are not trivial tasks. For instance, both GPR and its complimentary software stack provide very few capabilities to co-visualize GPR collected data and other sources of spatial data such as orthophotography, DEM or road maps. Furthermore, the GPR interface lacks functionalities for adding annotation, editing geometric objects or querying attributes. A new approach to support GPR survey is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on the integration of multiple sources of geospatial datasets and the use of a Web-GIS system and relevant functionalities adapted to interoperable GPR data acquisition. The Web-GIS is developed as an improved module in an existing platform called GVX. The GVX-GPR module provides an interactive visualization of multiple layers of structured spatial data, including GPR profiles. This module offers new features when compared to traditional GPR surveys such as geo-annotated points of interest for identifying spatial clues in the GPR profiles, integration of city contextual data, high definition drone and satellite pictures, as-built, and more. The paper explains the engineering approach used to design and develop the Web GIS and tests for this survey approach, mapping and recording UUN as part of 3D city model.

  13. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  14. Geometric principles in additive systems for construction of vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vaults and shell constructions are among the most fascinating elements in architecture. Covering large spaces has always been a challenge in architecture and engineering and the vault with curved and double curved form has a special significance. Throughout the history of Christianity...... della Fiore. The Barouque style followed with the domes of Borromini; Bernini and Guarini. The Period of Enlightenment had iconic tunnel- and dome vault projects by Etienne l. Boulée. All these stone vaults were made by additive systems in bricks and mortar. In the 20.th century concrete was introduced....... We wanted to examine vault systems which make use of repetitions of units. The objective was to describe the additive system and isolate the components. The research project started to investigate the vaulting systems of some famous/well known vaults and domes from the history of architecture...

  15. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  16. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I and A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I and

  17. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  18. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  19. Controlled drill ampersand blast excavation at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Thompson, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A controlled drill and blast method has been developed and used to excavate the Underground Research Laboratory, a geotechnical facility constructed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in crystalline rock. It has been demonstrated that the method can effectively reduce the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and is suitable for the construction of a used fuel disposal vault in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield

  20. Central vault in dry eye patients successfully wearing scleral lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsino, Jeffrey; Mathe, Dora Sztipanovits

    2013-09-01

    Scleral contact lenses are used to treat symptoms of severe dry eyes. Procedures for fitting scleral lenses have been vague because of lack of standardized guidelines. This retrospective case series sought to establish average vault over central cornea in successful scleral lens wearers with dry eyes. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was used to measure the distance between the posterior lens surface and cornea in 20 eyes of 12 consecutive patients successfully fit in the Vanderbilt Scleral Lens Clinic. Mean vault was 380 ± 110 μm. There was no correlation between vault and corneal curvature or vault and visual acuity. With a large SD in average vault, precision in central vault does not seem to be important in scleral contact lenses for successful fit for dry eyes.

  1. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  2. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-03-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.

  3. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  4. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  5. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal

  6. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  7. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  8. CLEARANCE OF ARCHIVE TAPE VAULT (BUILDING 186)

    CERN Multimedia

    EP Division

    1999-01-01

    The archive tape vault is being cleared to make way for the LHC experiments silicon facility.Experiments were contacted in February to arrange for the extended storage or destruction of archived volumes. Any who have not yet done so are asked to contactR. Minchin/IT immediately.This is also an opportunity to clear unused tapes or cartridges from around the site and have them destroyed ecologically. Please contact ep.smi.helpdesk@cern.ch to arrange for collection.A.E. Ball/EP-SMI

  9. Vault sealing research and development for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.S.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-08-01

    The major research and development activities in the disposal vault sealing program are buffer development, backfill development, grouting, tunnel and shaft sealing development, and borehole sealing development. The buffer is likely to be a mixture of clay and sand surrounding the waste package and is intended, primarily, to minimize near-field mass transport. The backfill would fill the remainder of the underground workings and most of the volume of the access shafts. Its major component would be crushed rock or sand, or both, with sufficient clay added to achieve the required permeability specification. Boreholes would be sealed throughout their length with low-permeability materials. These may be cements or clays. Shaft seals would be emplaced at specific locations and, probably, would be composed of a low-permeability clay or concrete plug, together with grouting of the rock surrounding the plug. Progress to date and planned future activities for each major part of the program are described. The principal foci of the program are the research and development activities required to assess the concept of underground disposal in plutonic rock and the design and implementation of vault sealing experiments in the Underground Research Laboratory. Program plans are presented that describe the logical progression of each major component of the program, and that indicate the timing of major events that contribute to the final objective of the program, which is to develop engineering specifications for the buffer, backfill and seals, and to justify these specifications in terms of the performance of the waste disposal system. 131 refs

  10. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load

  11. Structural aspects of vaults constructed with infill elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes for the Fusée Ceramique vaults the effect of the time dependent deformations concerning the load transfer. Especially the creep and shrinkage of concrete will change the distribution of the loads acting on a Fusée Ceramique vault considerately. Recommendations for infill

  12. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    Arch vaults are known as optimal and impressive structures, but due to their curved shapes they are extremely costly to produce in countries, where the cost of labor is high. By means of super-light pearl-chain technology arch vaults can be constructed from equal plane prefabricated elements, whi...

  13. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  14. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  15. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  16. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    , but unfortunately it is limited to mountainous regions and therefore difficult to expand. Emerging technologies like adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) or storage using conventional power-to-gas (P2G) technology combined with underground gas storage can be more widely deployed, but unfortunately...

  17. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisch, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  19. Shielding design of the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale cyclotron vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riper Kenneth A. Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (Scottsdale, Arizona is building a cyclotron vault containing a cyclotron with adjacent targets and a beam line leading to an external target. The targets are irradiated by high energy (15 to 16.5 MeV protons for the production of radioisotopes. We performed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to calculate the radiation dose outside of the vault during irradiation of the cyclotron and external targets. We present the Monte Carlo model including the geometry, sources, and variance reduction methods. Mesh tallies surrounding the vault show the external dose rate is within acceptable limits.

  20. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  1. Final characterization report for the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of the characterization data collected from the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Trillium Laboratory. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status and identify any hazardous materials. The data contained in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. This information is intended to be utilized in support of future building decontamination and demolition, to allow for proper disposal of the demolition debris as required by the Washington Administrative Code, WAC 173-303, the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, WHC-EP-0063, and the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria, BHI-00139. Based on the historical information and facility inspections, the only hazardous materials sampling and analysis activities necessary were to identify lead paint and asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the 104-B-1 Tritium Vault and the 104-B-2 Tritium Laboratory. Asbestos samples were obtained from the outer boundary of the roof areas to confirm the presence and type of asbestos containing fibers. Lead paint samples were obtained to confirm the presence and quantity of lead paint on the roof trim, doors and vents

  2. Fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault: quantitative analysis based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, E.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Paredes, R.; Molla, E.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the utility of statistical analysis and neural networks in the quantitative analysis of fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault. Ten patients with fibrous dysplasia (six women and four men with a mean age of 23.60±17.85 years) were selected from a series of 167 patients with lesions of the cranial vault evaluated by plain radiography and computed tomography (CT). Nineteen variables were taken from their medical records and radiological study. Their characterization was based on statistical analysis and neural network, and was validated by means of the leave-one-out method. The performance of the neural network was estimated by means of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, using as a parameter the area under the curve A z . Bivariate analysis identified age, duration of symptoms, lytic and sclerotic patterns, sclerotic margin, ovoid shape, soft-tissue mas and periosteal reaction as significant variables. The area under the neural network curve was 0.9601±0.0435. The network selected the matrix and soft-tissue mass a variables that were indispensable for diagnosis. The neural network presents a high performance in the characterization of fibrous dysplasia of the cranial vault, disclosing occult interactions among the variables. (Author) 24 refs

  3. Seismic review of vault for MFTF upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    This letter report was prepared in accordance with the scope of work for the preconceptual seismic evaluation of the (α + T) Tandem Mirror Fusion Machine concrete vault. The scope of the work was developed with the assistance of the Bechtel site representative Dr. Sunil Ghose. The report contains comments and preconceptual recommendations on wall upgrading for an 150-ton crane installation, concrete vault seismic capability for (α + T) conditions, and recommendations for future work

  4. Dynamic research of masonry vault in a technical scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiewski, Michal; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Kujawa, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of dynamic tests of the masonry barrel vault in a technical scale. Experimental studies are intended to identify material properties of homogenized masonry vaults under dynamic loads. The aim of the work is to create numerical models to analyse vault's dynamic response to dynamic loads in a simplest and accurate way. The process of building the vault in a technical scale is presented in the paper. Furthermore a excitation of vibrations with an electrodynamic modal exciter placed on the vault, controlled by an arbitrary waveform function generator, is discussed. Finally paper presents trends in the research for homogenization algorithm enabling dynamic analysis of masonry vaults. Experimental results were compared with outcomes of so-called macromodels (macromodel of a brick masonry is a model in which masonry, i.e. a medium consisting of two different fractions - bricks and mortar, is represented by a homogenized, uniformed, material). Homogenization entail significant simplifications, nevertheless according to the authors, can be a useful approach in a static and dynamic analysis of masonry structures.

  5. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  6. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penitente Gabriella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz and two portable force platforms (500 Hz were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg. Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force 0.8 × body weight. These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001 differences were observed in peak force (t(24 = 4.75, ES = 3.37 and time to peak force (t(24 = 2.07, ES = 1.56. Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.

  7. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers. For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  8. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-11-27

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L'Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults.

  9. Searchable Data Vault: Encrypted Queries in Secure Distributed Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geong Sen Poh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage services allow users to efficiently outsource their documents anytime and anywhere. Such convenience, however, leads to privacy concerns. While storage providers may not read users’ documents, attackers may possibly gain access by exploiting vulnerabilities in the storage system. Documents may also be leaked by curious administrators. A simple solution is for the user to encrypt all documents before submitting them. This method, however, makes it impossible to efficiently search for documents as they are all encrypted. To resolve this problem, we propose a multi-server searchable symmetric encryption (SSE scheme and construct a system called the searchable data vault (SDV. A unique feature of the scheme is that it allows an encrypted document to be divided into blocks and distributed to different storage servers so that no single storage provider has a complete document. By incorporating the scheme, the SDV protects the privacy of documents while allowing for efficient private queries. It utilizes a web interface and a controller that manages user credentials, query indexes and submission of encrypted documents to cloud storage services. It is also the first system that enables a user to simultaneously outsource and privately query documents from a few cloud storage services. Our preliminary performance evaluation shows that this feature introduces acceptable computation overheads when compared to submitting documents directly to a cloud storage service.

  10. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  11. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  12. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  13. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  14. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM(reg s ign) code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  15. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  16. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  17. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% 240 Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  20. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  1. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  4. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  5. Design analysis report for the 244-AR vault Interim Stabilization interior transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to verify that the 244-AR Vault Interior Transfer System piping installed in the vault meets ASME B31.3 code requirements. This calculation also evaluates the pipe support loads

  6. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed

  7. Seismic analysis of the mirror fusion test facility shielding vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tsai, K.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a seismic analysis of the vault in Building 431 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which houses the mirror Fusion Test Facility. The shielding vault structure is approximately 120 ft long by 80 ft wide and is constructed of concrete blocks approximately 7 x 7 x 7 ft. The north and south walls are approximately 53 ft high and the east wall is approximately 29 ft high. These walls are supported on a monolithic concrete foundation that surrounds a 21-ft deep open pit. Since the 53-ft walls appeared to present the greatest seismic problem they were the first investigated

  8. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  9. The performance assessment and the design of an intermediate level tritium disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    The topic of this report is the assessment of the performance and design of the tritium disposal vault for the Westinghouse River Company at the Savannah River Laboratory. This paper describes how the groundwater modeling has affected the design of a tritium disposal vault at the Savannah River Site and this new vault will meet the regulatory performance requirements. (MB)

  10. Correlation of Palatal Rugoscopy with Gender, Palatal Vault Height ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Palatal rugae (PR) are asymmetrical irregular elevations, recorded during maxillary cast fabrication , that can be used for identification purpose if previous comparative sources are available. Aim: This study investigated uniqueness of PR patterns in relation to gender, palatal vault forms, and ABO blood groups ...

  11. SPECIAL ANALYSIS: REVISION OF INTERMEDIATE LEVEL VAULT DISPOSAL LIMITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLACH, GREGORY

    2004-07-20

    New disposal limits have been computed for the IL vaults based on several revisions to the performance assessment. The most important changes are implementation of a 1,000 year time for compliance, rather than 10,000 years, and consideration of additional radon precursors. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of two intermediate level (IL) vaults, a new Pu chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, and implementation of a timed sum-of-fractions approach to setting limits. A significant decrease in the groundwater pathway limits for I-129 was speculated in the FY2003 interim measures assessment, in response to refinement of the aquifer mesh and source node definition. In fact, the new limits for these nuclides are only slightly lower. Based on the IL vault inventory as of 7/2/04 and disposal limits developed herein, the largest inventory fractions are 30 per cent for Ra-226 and the radon analysis, 11 per cent for I-129 (generic) and the groundwater pathway, and 9 percent for C-14 and the air pathway. For comparison the volume-filled fraction is at about 36 percent. Continued operation of the IL vault should not challenge performance objectives, assuming future disposal patterns are similar to historic use of the facility.

  12. Vault prolapse treated by sacrocolpopexy | Cronjé | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the success rate of sacrocolpopexy in 153 patients with stage 3 and 4 vault prolapse. Methods. A retrospective review was done on 153 patient records from a database in a urogynaecological unit. For the sacrocolpopexy procedure, semi-absorbable mesh was placed along the anterior and posterior vaginal ...

  13. 244-AR vault cooling water stream-specific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The proposed wastestream designation for the 244-AR Vault cooling water wastestream is that this stream is not a dangerous waste, pursuant to the Washington (State) Administration Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations. A combination of process knowledge and sampling data was used to make this determination. 21 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  14. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before removing the cover; (2) If the vault or pit is vented, there must be a means of preventing external sources... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough to...

  15. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  16. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  17. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  18. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  19. Electrochemical desalination of the ionic mixture measured in the vault of Rørby Church - Laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Bøllingtoft, P.

    2011-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of the vault in Rørby Church has resulted in extensive deterioration of the vault itself and of the murals on the lower surface of the vault. The upper surface of the vault has previously been covered with cement mortar. After removing this cement mortar some of the bri...

  20. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  1. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  2. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  4. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  5. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step

  6. Phase II Vault Testing of the Argonne RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  7. Seismic analysis of the ICPP high level liquid waste tanks and vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Malik, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two buried, closely spaced, reinforced concrete vaults founded on base rock were evaluated for gravity and safe shutdown earthquake loads. These vaults enclose steel tanks used to store high level radioactive liquid waste. Detailed 3-dimensional finite element models were used for state-of-the-art structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) analyses. Three soil dynamic property profiles were used to address soil variability. Vault accelerations are not significantly affected by the variability of soil dynamic properties. Lower bound soil properties yield maximum member forces and moments. Demands on the side closer to the other vault due to horizontal motions are lower due to SSSI effects. Combined gravity and seismic demand on the vault force resisting system was calculated. The vaults were qualified, using member capacities based on current design codes

  8. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  9. Microbial analysis of the buffer/container experiment at AECL's underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Buffer/Container Experiment (BCE) was carried out at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for 2.5 years to examine the in situ performance of compacted buffer material in a single emplacement borehole under vault-relevant conditions. During decommissioning of this experiment, numerous samples were taken for microbial analysis to determine if the naturally present microbial population in buffer material survived the conditions (i.e., compaction, heat and desiccation) in the BCE and to determine which group(s) of microorganisms would be dominant in such a simulated vault environment. Such knowledge will be very useful in assessing the potential effects of microbial activity on the concept for deep disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, proposed by AECL. 46 refs., 31 tabs., 35 figs

  10. Vault submodel for the second interim assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeNeveu, D.M.

    1986-02-01

    The consequences to man and the environment of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste are being studied within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The concept being assessed is that of a sealed disposal vault at a depth of 1000 m in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. To determine the consequences, the vault and its environment are simulated using a SYstem Variability Analysis Code (SYVAC), a stochastic model of the disposal system. SYVAC contains three submodels that represent the three major parts of the disposal system: the vault, the geosphere and the biosphere. This report documents the conceptual and mathematical framework of the vault submodel

  11. An automated magnetic tape vault at CERN computer center

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing data processing landscape the underlying long-term storage technology remains the tried and tested magnetic tape. This robust and mature technology is used to store the complete LHC data set, from which a fraction of the data is copied to overlying disk caches for fast and widespread access. The handling of the magnetic tape cartridges is now fully automated, as they are racked in vaults where they are moved between the storage shelves and the tape drives by robotic arms.

  12. Super-light pearl-chain arch vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Halding, Philip Skov

    2014-01-01

    are assembled on the erection site by means of post-tensioning and lifted in place in buildings and bridges. The super-light SL-deck element is developed by the company Abeo Ltd and The Technical University of Denmark for plane floor structures in buildings. However, this deck element is designed in such a way...... that it is also applicable as basic elements for super-light pearl-chain vaults. Machines and software have been developed for automatic mass production of the elements, and the first factory has started production in Denmark in 2014 delivering SL-deck elements for a variety of building projects. This means...

  13. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  14. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  16. Fusée ceramic vaults and domes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the fusée Ceramique vaults and domes constructed in The Netherlands just after World War II and describes the technique of construction as well as the advantages and disadvantages. Using only a minimum of concrete and steel, the environmental load of the vaults is

  17. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  19. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  20. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Farana; Jaroslav Uchytil; David Zahradník; Daniel Jandačka

    2015-01-01

    Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level m...

  1. D Surveying and Geometric Assessment of a Gothic Nave Vaulting from Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Jover, A.; Ginovart, J. Lluis i.; Coll-Pla, S.; López Piquer, M.; Samper-Sosa, A.; Moreno García, D.; Solís Lorenzo, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The development of massive data captures techniques (MDC) in recent years, such as the Terrestrial laser Scanner (TLS), raises the possibility of developing new assessment procedures for architectural heritage. The 3D models that it is able to obtain is a great potential tool, both for conservation purposes and for historical and architectural studies. The paper proposes a simple, non-invasive methodology for the assessment of masonry vaults from point clouds which makes it possible to obtain relevant data about the formal anomalies. The methodology is tested in Tortosa's Gothic Cathedral's vaults, where the geometrical differences between vaults, a priori equal, are identified and related with the partially known construction phases. The procedure can be easily used on any other vaulted construction of any kind, but is especially useful to deal with the complex geometry of Gothic masonry vaults.

  2. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  3. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  4. Field tracer transport experiments at the site of Canada's underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.H.; Davison, C.C.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Scheier, N.W.; Kozak, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the processes affecting solute transport in fractured crystalline rock, groundwater tracer experiments are being performed within natural fracture domains and excavation damage zones at various scales at the site of AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The main objective of these experiments is to develop and demonstrate methods for characterizing the solute transport properties within fractured crystalline rock. Estimates of these properties are in turn being used in AECL's conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow and solute transport through the geosphere surrounding a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. (author)

  5. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  6. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  7. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  8. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  9. The Acoustics of the Double Elliptical Vault of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Berardi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the acoustic characteristics of the double elliptical vault, which overlooks the Grand Staircase of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Italy. The Royal Palace was built by the architect Luigi Vanvitelli in the Seventeenth Century and it is the largest royal building in Italy. The double elliptical vault presents a great scenography effect. Inside the vault, on the planking level, musicians used to play for the king and his guests when the royal procession, going up the grand staircase, entered the royal apartments, creating astonishment among the guests who heard the music without understanding from where it was coming. Since the musicians were inside the vault, the long reverberation made the listeners perceive the vault to be enveloped by the music. To investigate this effect, the acoustic characteristics of the double vault were measured, putting the sound source on the planking level of the vault, while the microphones were put along the staircase and in the vestibule towards the royal apartments. Finally, the spatial distribution of several acoustic parameters is evaluated also using architectural acoustic simulations.

  10. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  11. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  12. Seismic scoping evaluation of high level liquid waste tank vaults at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Uldrich, E.D.; McGee, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic scoping evaluation of buried vaults enclosing high level liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been performed. The objective of this evaluation was to scope out which of the vaults could be demonstrated to be seismically adequate against the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Using approximate analytical methods, earthquake experience data, and engineering judgement, this study determined that one vault configuration would be expected to meet ICPP seismic design criteria, one would not be considered seismically adequate against the SSE, and one could be shown to be seismically adequate against the SSE using nonlinear analysis

  13. Small vault manufactured with lightweight concrete with construction and demolition waste incorporated in their mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sutelman, S; Tosi, L.A.; Marín, H

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, small vaults were introduced by the Italians immigrants during the 19th Century to be used in roofs and floors for housing and public buildings. These vaults were built with bricks put on edge or in sharp ends, giving them the shape of small vaults which rested on iron rafters to cover the expanse of the room. At present, in Argentina´s market we can find a variety of products, such as roof bricks made of different materials like ceramic, concrete and EPS7. These bricks are s...

  14. ROLE OF MESH REPAIR IN PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO VAULT PROLAPSE & NULLIPAROUS PROLAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Vandana Reddi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pelvic organ prolapse is a common complaint in gynaecological practice. Nulliparous prolapse is seen in 2% of female population and vault prolapse in 0.5% following hysterectomy. Various surgical procedures have been described for the repair of vault prolapse e.g. transvaginal sacrospinous colpopexy, transabdominal sacral colpopexy, Le Forte's operation, colpoclesis, posterior intravaginal sling plasty etc. The introduction of synthetic mesh like Prolene, Mersilene for the repair of vault prolapse have the advantage of tensile strength. In nulliparous prolapse and uterovaginal prolapse also, the supports of uterus are weakened, so there seems to be a definite advantage of mesh repair over sling surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study done in 50 patients with vault prolapse, Nulliparous prolapse and patients with UV prolapse who want to retain their menstrual and reproductive function were identified and repair of defects were done. 2 cases who underwent both hysterectomy and sacral colpopexy in two sittings were included in the study. They were followed up for a period of 6 weeks - 29 months. RESULTS In the present study, the mean age for vault prolapse was 52.14 years, mean parity was 3.36. Vault prolapses were found to be more common after abdominal hysterectomy 60.97% compared to vaginal 39.02%. Common indication for hysterectomy is pelvic organ prolapse followed by DUB in this study. The mean time between the hysterectomy and vault prolapse in this study was 5.46 years. Importance should be given to proper enterocoele repair and vault suspense time of primary surgery. In this study incidence of smoking in vault prolapse cases was 34.14% significant. In cases of sacral colpopexy for vault prolapse in this study there were no major mesh related complications and the cure rate was 97.5%. So, sacral colpopexy with prolene mesh i.e. abdominal mesh repair can be employed as the primary surgery for vault prolapse. The safety

  15. Experimental modelling of core debris dispersion from the vault under a PWR pressure vessel: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.; Trenberth, R.

    1987-12-01

    Modelling experiments have been done on a 1/25 scale model in Perspex of the vault under a PWR pressure vessel. Various liquids have been used to simulate molten core debris assumed to have fallen on to the vault floor from a breach at the bottom of the pressure vessel. High pressure air and helium have been used to simulate the discharge of steam and gas from the breach. The dispersion of liquid via the vault access shafts has been measured. Photographs have been taken of fluid flow patterns and velocity profiles have been obtained. The requirements for further experiments are indicated. (author)

  16. Research on Construction Optimization of Three-Connected-Arch Hydraulic Underground Cavities Considering Creep Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the creep of surrounding rock in long-term construction, with consideration of different construction methods and other factors during the construction of large-scale underground cavity, three different construction schemes are designed for specific projects and a nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep model which can describe rock accelerated creeping is introduced and applied to construction optimization calculation of the large-scale three-connected-arch hydraulic underground cavity through secondary development of FLAC3D. The results show that the adoption of middle cavity construction method, the second construction method, enables the maximum vault displacement of 16.04 mm. This method results in less stress redistribution and plastic zone expansion to the cavity’s surrounding rock than the other two schemes, which is the safest construction scheme. The conclusion can provide essential reference and guidance to similar engineering for construction optimization.

  17. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  18. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  19. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  20. Survey and assessment of radioactive waste management facilities in the United States. Section 2.5. Air-cooled vault storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    There are two basic types of air-cooled vaults for the storage of spent nuclear fuel or vitrified HLRW. The two types, differentiated by the method of air cooling used, are the open-vault concept and the closed-vault concept. The following aspects of these air-cooled vault storage facility concepts are discussed: description and operation of facilities; strucutral design considerations and analysis; nuclear design considerations and analyses; vault environmental design considerations; unique design features; and accident analysis

  1. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  2. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Larsen, Poul Klenz; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    There are 1700 medieval churches in Denmark, and many of these have brick vaults. The thickness is only 12 – 15 cm, and the heat loss through this building component is large. Thermal insulation has not been permitted until now in respect for the antiquarian values and doubts about the effect...... on water vapour transport through the vault, and the risk of condensation inside the insulation. A new mortar was developed for thermal insulation of bricks vaults, consisting mainly of expanded perlite, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar...... joints. The insulation mortar is applied to the top side of the vault in a thickness of 10 cm, and covered by 10 mm lime plaster, reinforced with cattle hair. This assembly is resistant to the weight of a person, working with maintenance of the roof. The thermal conductivity of the insulation mortar...

  3. Health physics challenges involved with opening a "seventeen-inch" concrete waste vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick T; Pizzulli, Michelle

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the various activities involved with opening a sealed legacy "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault and the health physics challenges and solutions employed. As part of a legacy waste stream that was removed from the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the "Seventeen-inch" concrete vault labeled 1-95 was moved to the new Waste Management Facility for ultimate disposal. Because the vault contained 239Pu foils with a total activity in excess of the transuranic waste limits, the foils needed to be removed and repackaged for disposal. Conventional diamond wire saws could not be used because of facility constraints, so this project relied mainly on manual techniques. The planning and engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to open the vault and remove the waste while keeping dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  4. GOTHIC analysis of post-accident hydrogen mixing behaviour in CANDU fuelling machine vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, K.; Wong, R.C.; Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The GOTHIC code was used to assess the post-accident hydrogen gas mixing patterns in a CANDU reactor containment and demonstrate the acceptability of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's hydrogen mitigation methods. The fuelling machine vault, being a small volume room containing major reactor piping, is the room of most concern with respect to hydrogen concentrations. Detailed three dimensional modelling of the gas mixing patterns in the fuelling machine vault was completed. Results showed that, even without forced air circulation, there is enough dispersion of hydrogen to other parts of containment to preclude the build-up of sensitive mixtures in the vault. For a brief time during the peak period of hydrogen release, hydrogen concentrations rise to close to the lower ignition limit in a small portion of the vault, but these hydrogen-steam-air mixtures are considered acceptable. Natural mixing alone is sufficient to preclude damaging hydrogen burns. (author)

  5. Vaginal vault drainage after complicated single-port access laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Lee

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Vaginal vault drainage could be a safe alternative that allows for the management of postoperative morbidity and retains the advantages of minimally invasive surgery after complicated SPA-LAVH.

  6. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  7. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  8. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  9. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  10. Technical Challenges in the Construction of Gothic Vaults: The Gothic Theory of Structural Design

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Fernández, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The construction of a Gothic vault implied the solution of several technical challenges. The literature on Gothic vault construction is quite large and its growth continues steadily. The main challenge of any structure is that, during and after construction, it must be "safe", that is, it must not collapse. Indeed, it must be amply safe, able to support different loads for long periods of time. Masonry architecture has shown its structural safety for centuries or millennia. The Pantheon of Ro...

  11. The Application of Carbon Composites in the Rehabilitation of Historic Baroque Vaults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization and reinforcement of damaged barrel vaults with lunettes over an arcaded walk, applying composite strips based on high-strength carbon fibers and epoxy resin, was performed during the restoration of a historic monastery. The application of reinforcing composite strips in the soffit of damaged barrel vaults was preceded by relatively extensive experimental research and theoretical analyses. This method significantly reduces the interventions into and the degradation of the original historic structure (surface application and is reversible.

  12. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User's Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered

  13. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report

  14. A COMPARISON OF UPPER-EXTREMITY REACTION FORCES BETWEEN THE YURCHENKO VAULT AND FLOOR EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kirk Seeley

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities of high-level gymnasts during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare reaction forces during the Yurchenko vault to reaction forces observed in a tumbling pass during the floor exercise. Ten high-level, female gymnasts volunteered to participate. Conditions of the independent variable were the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise; dependent variables were peak vertical and peak anterior-posterior reaction forces. Each participant performed three trials of both conditions with the trail hand contacting a force platform. Vertical and anterior-posterior reaction forces, normalized to body weight, were greater (p < 0.05 during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault (2.38 than during the floor exercise round-off (2.15. Vertical reaction forces during the round-off phase of the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise round-off are similar to reaction forces transmitted to upper extremities during other gymnastic skills and ground reaction forces transmitted to lower extremities while running and walking at various speeds. Results of this study reveal a need for further research considering methods aimed at reducing reaction forces transmitted to the upper extremities during the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise.

  15. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  16. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  17. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  18. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  19. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  20. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  2. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type

  3. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  4. Architecture - re-Construction - Geometry: a knowledge path applied to the study of Plantery's vaults in Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spallone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantery's vaults, by the name of the architect working in Turin since first years of '700, are composed by a main vault intersected by some axial and angular secondary vaults. Plantery's vaults allow to roof over unitary spaces obtaining effects of lightness also by small rises. Their diffusion, up to the '80s of the century, in boardrooms as palaces halls, and the richness of variations on the theme, justifies a research, that makes use of survey and digital modeling. This research is focused on the relationships between geometric models and built architecture, connected by use of materials, construction techniques and decorative styles.

  5. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  6. Analysis of Hydrogen Generation and Accumulation in U-233 Tube Vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, M.R.; Willis, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the 233 U Safe Storage Program is to enhance the safe storage of 233 U-bearing materials. This report describes the work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radiochemical Development Facility (RDF) to address questions related to possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in 233 U tube vaults. The objective of this effort was to verify assumptions in the mathematical model used to estimate the hydrogen content of the gaseous atmosphere that possibly could occur inside the tube vaults in Building 3019 and to evaluate proposed measures for mitigating any hydrogen concerns. A mathematical model was developed using conservative assumptions to evaluate possible hydrogen generation and accumulation in the tube vaults. The model concluded that an equilibrium concentration would be established below the lower flammability limit (LFL) of 4.1% hydrogen. The major assumptions used in the model that were validated are as follows: (1) The shield plug does not form a seal with the tube vault wall, thus allowing the hydrogen gas to diffuse past the shield plug to the upper section of the tube vault. (2) The tube vault end-cap leaks sufficiently to allow air to be drawn into the tube vault by the off-gas system, thereby purging hydrogen from the upper section of the tube vault. (3) Any hydrogen gas generated completely mixes with the other gases present in the lower section of the tube vault and does not stratify beneath the shield plug. (4) The diffusion coefficient determined from the literature for constant diffusion of hydrogen in air is valid. The coefficient is corrected for temperatures from 0 to 25 C. Another assumption used in the model, that hydrogen generated by radiolytic decomposition of hydrogen-bearing materials (e.g., moisture and plastic) leaks from the cans under steady-state condition, as opposed to a sudden release resulting from rupture of the can(s), was beyond the scope of this investigation. Several parameters from the original

  7. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  8. Estimation of radon daughter levels in the ventilation planning of an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, T.H.; Wise, K.N.; Leach, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion parameters determined by laboratory measurements can be utilized for predictions of radon daughter exposures in underground mining environments, as well as providing data for ventilation planning purposes. Wherever possible field measured data for the various diffusion parameters should be used. Underground mining methods, the tunnel model and diffusion theory are considered

  9. Resection of the vaginal vault for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akiko; Matoda, Maki; Okamoto, Sanshiro; Kondo, Eiji; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Omatsu, Kohei; Umayahara, Kenji; Utsugi, Kuniko; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2015-04-02

    We describe our experiences with vaginal vault resection for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. After operative treatment, the rate of vaginal vault recurrence of uterine cervical cancer is reported to be about 5%. There is no consensus regarding the treatment for these cases. Between 2004 and 2012, eight patients with vaginal vault recurrence underwent removal of the vaginal wall via laparotomy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The median patient age was 45 years (range 35 to 70 years). The median operation time was 244.5 min (range 172 to 590 min), the median estimated blood loss was 362.5 mL (range 49 to 1,890 mL), and the median duration of hospitalization was 24.5 days (range 11 to 50 days). Two patients had intraoperative complications: a grade 1 bowel injury and a grade 1 bladder injury. The following postoperative complications were observed: one patient had vaginal vault bleeding, three patients developed vesicovaginal fistulae, and one patient had repeated ileus. Two patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Local control was achieved in five of the eight cases. Vaginal vault resection is an effective treatment for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. However, complications of this procedure can be expected to reduce quality of life. Therefore, this operation should be selected with great care.

  10. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  11. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  12. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  13. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  14. Survey on depth distribution of underground structures for consideration of human intrusion into TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Senoo, Muneaki; Sugimoto, Junichiro; Ohishi, Kiyotaka; Okishio, Masanori; Shimizu, Haruo.

    1996-01-01

    Depth distributions of some kinds of underground structure in Japan have been investigated to get an information about suitable depth of underground repository for TRU waste that is arising from reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication plants. The underground structures investigated in this work were foundation pile of multistoried building, that of elevated expressway, that of JR shinkansen railway, tunnel of subway and wells. The major depth distribution of the underground structures except for the wells was in range from 30 to 50m, and their maximum depth was less than 100m. On the other hand, the 99% of wells was less than 300m in depth. Maximum depth of the other underground structures has been also investigated for a survey of the utilization of underground by artificial structures in Japan. (author)

  15. Design and construction of the tensioned ties for UX15 cavern vault

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, R J H

    2002-01-01

    Due to the programme constraints for the UX15 cavern set by CERN, it has been necessary to complete the concrete lining of the vault prior to the excavation of the bench. The vault lining is therefore being temporarily suspended from a number of pre-tensioned high capacity multi-strand tensioned ties. During excavation of the bench, additional loads will be imposed onto the vault lining due to ground displacements. In order to minimise the number of ties, the previously completed linings of the PX14 and PX16 access shafts will be used to support some of the load. Three-dimensional modelling has been undertaken to design the structures and determine the expected behaviour of this complex support system. Geotechnical instrumentation has been installed in the concrete linings and the ground to monitor loads and displacements during construction. After the cavern walls have been completed, the ties will be released.

  16. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  18. GOTHIC CHURCHES IN PARIS ST GERVAIS ET ST PROTAIS IMAGE MATCHING 3D RECONSTRUCTION TO UNDERSTAND THE VAULTS SYSTEM GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capone

    2015-02-01

    benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  19. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  20. On the analysis of the stellar vault of Santa Maria del Monte in Cagliari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillanda, Nicola; Manconi, Fabio; Stochino, Flavio; Cazzani, Antonio; Bondi, Francesco; Chiozzi, Andrea; Tralli, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the statics of the stellar (i.e. star-shaped) vault of the church of Santa Maria del Monte in Cagliari. This church, which was built during the second half of the 16th century, is a beautiful example of Gothic-Catalan style and the ribbed stellar vault is one of the most representative of this type in the town of Cagliari. A comparison between a static finite element non-linear analysis carried out with the commercial code Diana and a limit analysis performed with a method recently developed by the research team of the University of Ferrara is presented.

  1. Dispersion, mixing and intentional ignition of hydrogen in the Darlington reactor vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R.

    1989-03-01

    The present report reviews the Darlington Safety Report (DSR) which has been used as basis for decisions regarding intentional ignition in the Darlington reactor vault. The validity of the assumptions in the DSR regarding mixing of contents is assessed and possible hydrogen release scenarios, specific to the Darlington reactor vault, are examined. The combustion analysis in the DSR vent code calculations are reviewed in the light of existing state of the art information on high speed turbulent flames and transition to detonation. Limitations of the vent code, in this context, are identified and improvements recommended

  2. From the semicircular vault to the flattened vault in masonry bridges. The influence of rise/span ratio and the resistant backfill in the breaking load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Urruchi-Rojo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the vaults in masonry bridges has evolved during the history, so that we can find bibliography where, besides recommending one way of build instead of others depending on the period, is also prescribed the way to carry out the backfill of the extrados. All of this emerged initially as a result of the experiences acquired during the construction and the observation of bridges. Hence, during the 18th century new formulations started to arise, but they led to one result in some cases and to the opposite in others. This article tries to make a comparison between some of these formulations, as well as carrying out an analysis of the influence of both, the lowering rise/span ratio of the vaults and the presence of a resistant backfill in its extrados, on the variation of the breaking load.

  3. Research for Forming up the Controlling Diagram Utilizing the Connection of a LV Resistor on Voltage Transformer’s Open-Triagle Coil to Reduce over Voltage Caused by Earth Fault in 6 kV Grid of QuangNinh Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Bun Ho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single phase earth-fault in MV grids usually causes overvoltage that harm to human being and electric equipment. If the magnitude of over voltage is so great, many grids’ eco-technical parameters will be affected. The paper analyzes all possible consequences of over voltage occurred in 6 kV grid of QuangNinh underground mines. Base on the analysis, a controlling diagram utilizing the connection of a LV resistor on voltage transformer’s open-triangle coil to reduce over voltage is recommended. The simulation results of the diagram are used to prove the effectiveness of solution: the over voltage magnitude is only in the range of (2,1–2,4.Uf. Other advantage that solution brings to relay system will be pointed out.

  4. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  5. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.

    1979-12-01

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  6. Long-term quality-of-life outcome after mesh sacrocolpopexy for vaginal vault prolapse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Arun Z

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of mesh sacrocolpopexy (MSC, which aims to restore normal pelvic floor anatomy to alleviate prolapse related symptoms) and its effect on patient\\'s quality of life, as women with vaginal vault prolapse commonly have various pelvic floor symptoms that can affect urinary, rectal and sexual function.

  7. Trillium Horizon, A Small Portable Observatory Grade Seismometer For Direct Bury And Vault Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, A.; Parker, T.; Bainbridge, G.

    2017-12-01

    As of August 2017 almost 5 years of data have been collected from broadband seismic sensors designed for direct burial applications. These first posthole instruments have been deployed in a wide range of extremely challenging environments such as dynamic ice and snow environments, extreme wet and dry conditions in soils of high clay content, and steep creeping terrain. In all use cases the direct burial approach has consistently provided high quality data when compared to shallow vault installations. In this presentation we extract and analyze operational performance data, including tilt information from mass position time series recorded at direct burial installations and at temporary shallow vault deployments. This data shows that while higher tilt tolerance is required for data quality outcome certainty in some installations, the majority of installations can be addressed by a smaller instrument with a narrower tilt range hence reducing size and cost. The lessons learned from this real world field data have guided the development of a new smaller, less expensive instrument, Trillium Horizon.Based on this analysis and and user feedback from many direct burial deployments, the Trillium Horizon seismometer has been developed as a simple versatile instrument to span the majority of deployment scenarios and specific use cases including shallow direct bury deployments, traditional piers, and problematic wet vault installs. With its small size, robust waterproof case and connector, +/-1.5° tilt range, dual-purpose cable, and accessories for both posthole and vault installation, Trillium Horizon is optimized for usability as well as performance.

  8. Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ''Saltstone.'' The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ''tracer'' contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault

  9. Skull morphometry and vault sutures of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M. de S. Hossotani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the relationship between skull size and the level of cranial vault suture closure. A total of 50 Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and 178 Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 skulls were analyzed in relation to 18 skull dimensions. The skulls were grouped into three levels of suture closure: no sutures closed (level 0, one or all the fallowing sutures closed: interfrontalis, sagitalis and coronalis (level 1 and all sutures closed (level 2. The results indicated that among the 18 variables measured, 17 showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.01 between level 0 and level 1 skulls of T. tetradactyla; as well as between level 0 and level 1, and level 0 and level 2 skulls of M. tridactyla. M. tridactyla level 1 and level 2 had no significant difference among any of the 18 dimensions. The foramen magnum height in both species showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 among any suture categories. In principle, suture closure level and cranial dimensions are related. The specimens with larger cranial dimensions showed greater number of cranial vault sutures closed for both species of anteaters. Tamandua tetradactyla and M. tridactyla specimens with none of the cranial vault suture closed have a foramen magnum height similar to those with cranial vault suture closed.

  10. Follow-up after repair of vaginal vault prolapse with abdominal colposacropexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilsgaard, K; Mouritsen, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy is a rare complication, with a prevalence of less than 1/2%. The vaginal depth an axis can be restored by colposacropexy with preservation of coital function. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess the results of colposacropexy with spe...

  11. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled

  12. The influence of the vaulting table on the handspring front somersault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2009-06-01

    The traditional "horse" was replaced by a new vaulting "table" in artistic gymnastics competitions in 2001. The aim of this study was to determine whether the table led to a change in vaulting technique. This was achieved by comparing three-dimensional video-based analyses (50Hz) of selected biomechanical discrete and continuous variables across four elite male gymnasts performing a series of handspring front somersault vaults on the traditional horse and the new table. Individual joint and inter-segment coupling (continuous relative phase) were used to quantify techniques used on the two apparatuses. Differences were attributed in part to the design and construction of the new table. No differences were observed for the approach and take-off from the board. Significant differences in hip flexion at board take-off and strike angle on the table were observed. One of the effects of the latter was an increase in vertical take-off velocity compared with the horse. Individual strategies were observed in hip and shoulder coordination patterns that were obscured when group data were considered. Close monitoring of the evolution of skill on this new apparatus is paramount for gymnastics coaching, and further studies of current elite competitive vaulting techniques are required.

  13. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault

  14. The TROVE module: A common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Alex

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. Results The TROVE module – Telomerase, Ro and Vault module – is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. Conclusions This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  15. The TROVE module: a common element in Telomerase, Ro and Vault ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Alex; Kickhoefer, Valerie

    2003-10-16

    Ribonucleoproteins carry out a variety of important tasks in the cell. In this study we show that a number of these contain a novel module, that we speculate mediates RNA-binding. The TROVE module--Telomerase, Ro and Vault module--is found in TEP1 and Ro60 the protein components of three ribonucleoprotein particles. This novel module, consisting of one or more domains, may be involved in binding the RNA components of the three RNPs, which are telomerase RNA, Y RNA and vault RNA. A second conserved region in these proteins is shown to be a member of the vWA domain family. The vWA domain in TEP1 is closely related to the previously recognised vWA domain in VPARP a second component of the vault particle. This vWA domain may mediate interactions between these vault components or bind as yet unidentified components of the RNPs. This work suggests that a number of ribonucleoprotein components use a common RNA-binding module. The TROVE module is also found in bacterial ribonucleoproteins suggesting an ancient origin for these ribonucleoproteins.

  16. The Construction of Knowledge: A Reply to Nock and to Strong and DeVault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, Kathy Shepherd; Hall, Elaine J.

    1994-01-01

    Authors of original article on presentation of adoption and abortion in undergraduate marriage and family textbooks respond to commentaries on that article by Nock and by Strong and DeVault (all this issue). Respond by addressing aspects of authors' research regarding social construction approach in general and specific meaning of abortion and…

  17. Siim Nestor soovitab : Stereo ÖÖ. Mutant Disco. Beats from the Vault. Turbodisko / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Oma debüütalbumit "Migration" tutvustav ameerika diskor Alex Attias üritustel "Stereo ÖÖ" 19. mail Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Üritustest "Mutant Disco" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Privé ja Tartus 20. mail klubis Illusion, "Beats from the Vault" 19. mail Tallinnas klubis Võit ja "Turbodisko" 20. mail Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  18. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, N.

    1985-08-01

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  19. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: the vault model for postclosure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; LeNeveu, D.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Oscarson, D.W.; Gray, M.N.; Lemire, R.J.; Garisto, N.C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of thc Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including corrosion-resistant containers and clay- and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, is being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. The present report is one of nine EIS primary references. The report describes the vault model, which is used to calculate the time-dependent release of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants from the engineered barrier system (vault) into the surrounding rock (geosphere). The model calculations presented are for a specific reference vault design that comprises used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in Grade-2 titanium containers, which would be emplaced in boreholes in the floor of a mined excavation located at a depth of 500 m in plutonic rock. The containers would be surrounded by a compacted buffer material that is a mixture of 50 wt. % sand and 50 wt. % bentonite. Disposal rooms and tunnels would be sealed with a layer of backfill mixture composed of 25 % glacial lake clay and 75% crushed granite and an overlying layer of buffer material. The vault model is a computer code that calculates the failure times of titanium containers, the rate of release of radionuclides from used-fuel bundles into the groundwater that would flow into the failed containers, and the rate of transport of radionuclides from the fuel through the groundwater-saturated buffer and backfill materials and into the surrounding rock. The vault model uses distributed or probabilistic

  20. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  1. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  2. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  3. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  4. Evaluating adjacent organ radiation doses from postoperative intracavitary vaginal vault brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Julianna; Holloway, Caroline; Dubash, Rustom; Yuen, Conrad; Aquino-Parsons, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To document doses received by critical organs during adjuvant high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal vault brachytherapy. Patients treated with HDR vaginal vault radiation between January 1, 2009, and January 31, 2012, who had a CT simulation with the treatment cylinder in situ were included. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed and the rectum, sigmoid, small bowel, and bladder were contoured. Standardized plans treating the upper 4 cm of the vaginal vault were used to deliver a total of 21 Gy (Gy) at 0.5 cm from the apex of the vaginal vault in three fractions. There were 41 patients. Median age was 62 years. The median vaginal cylinder diameter was 3 cm. The mean 2cc dose to the rectum, sigmoid, small bowel, and bladder were 5.7, 4.7, 4.0, and 5.6 Gy, respectively. Bladder volume ranged from 67-797cc. Assuming minimal interfraction organ variation, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy/fraction was extrapolated from data and may be near or beyond organ tolerance for rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel in some cases. Spearman correlation found that increased bladder volume was not associated with adjacent organs at risk dose but may be associated with a trend (p=0.06) toward increased bladder dose (R=0.30). This study describes the dose received by adjacent critical structures during vaginal vault HDR brachytherapy. This is important information for documentation in the rare setting of treatment-related toxicity or recurrence. Bladder volume was not associated with dose to adjacent organs. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vault nanocapsules as adjuvants favor cell-mediated over antibody-mediated immune responses following immunization of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra K Kar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modifications of adjuvants that induce cell-mediated over antibody-mediated immunity is desired for development of vaccines. Nanocapsules have been found to be viable adjuvants and are amenable to engineering for desired immune responses. We previously showed that natural nanocapsules called vaults can be genetically engineered to elicit Th1 immunity and protection from a mucosal bacterial infection. The purpose of our study was to characterize immunity produced in response to OVA within vault nanoparticles and compare it to another nanocarrier. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized immunity resulting from immunization with the model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA encased in vault nanocapsules and liposomes. We measured OVA responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ memory T cell responses, cytokine production and antibody titers in vitro and in vivo. We found that immunization with OVA contain in vaults induced a greater number of anti-OVA CD8(+ memory T cells and production of IFNγ plus CD4(+ memory T cells. Also, modification of the vault body could change the immune response compared to OVA encased in liposomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments show that vault nanocapsules induced strong anti-OVA CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell memory responses and modest antibody production, which markedly differed from the immune response induced by liposomes. We also found that the vault nanocapsule could be modified to change antibody isotypes in vivo. Thus it is possible to create a vault nanocapsule vaccine that can result in the unique combination of immunogen-responsive CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cell immunity coupled with an IgG1 response for future development of vault nanocapsule-based vaccines against antigens for human pathogens and cancer.

  6. Feedback regulation on PTEN/AKT pathway by the ER stress kinase PERK mediated by interaction with the Vault complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Neo, Suat Peng; Gunaratne, Jayantha

    2015-01-01

    inhibition of PERK has been reported to limit tumor growth in xenograft models. Here we provide evidence that inactive PERK interacts with the nuclear pore-associated Vault complex protein and that this compromises Vault-mediated nuclear transport of PTEN. Pharmacological inhibition of PERK under ER stress...... results is abnormal sequestration of the Vault complex, leading to increased cytoplasmic PTEN activity and lower AKT activation. As the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway is crucial for many aspects of cell growth and survival, this unexpected effect of PERK inhibitors on AKT activity may have implications...

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  8. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  9. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and..., floor or walls in any underground work area for more than a 24-hour period; or (ii) The history of the... inches (304.8 mm) ±0.25 inch (6.35 mm) from the roof, face, floor or walls in any underground work area...

  10. Association of lens vault with narrow angles among different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2012-06-01

    To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open

  11. SIIOS in Alaska - Testing an `In-Vault' Option for a Europa Lander Seismometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, V. J.; Weber, R. C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Bailey, H.; Schmerr, N. C.; Pettit, E. C.; Dahl, P.; Albert, D.; Avenson, B.; Byrne, S.; Siegler, M.; Bland, M. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Selznick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface environment of Europa within the radiation-heavy jovian system, poses extreme technical challenges for potential landed missions. The need for radiation shielding and protection from the cold requires instruments to be housed within a thermally insulated and radiation protected `vault'. Unfortunately, this is non-ideal for seismometers as instrument-to-surface coupling is an important factor in the quality of returned data. Delivering a seismic package to an icy world would therefore benefit from the development of a cold-tolerant, radiation-hardened sensor that can survive outside of a protective vault. If such an instrument package were not technologically mature enough, or if lander safety considerations prevent deployment on lander legs, an in-vault location is still a viable option. For such a case, a better understanding of the transmission of seismic signals received through the lander legs is necessary for interpretation of the received signals. The performance, mass, and volume of the `Seismometer to investigate ice and ocean structure' (SIIOS) already meet or exceed flight requirements identified in lander studies for the icy moon Europa. We are testing this flight-candidate in several configurations around and within a lander mock-up, assuming a 1x1 meter vault with extended legs. We compare the received signals from a SIIOS device on the ice with those received by an identical sensor directly above it in the `vault'. We also compare the data from these single-point receivers to that received by two short base-line arrays - A 4-point "in-vault" array and another 4-point array arranged at the ice surface at the base of the lander legs. Our field-testing is performed at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska. The summer melt season provides kilometer-scale regions of coexisting ice, water, and silicate material, thereby providing seismic contrasts analogous to the ice-water layers and possible sub-surface lakes expected at Europa. We demonstrate the

  12. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  13. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the Marsala area (western Sicily) linked to underground quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamini, M.; Di Maggio, C.; Lollino, P.; Madonia, G.; Parise, M.; Vattano, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marsala territory (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. At some locations the Marsala Calcarenite is covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. Since the Roman period, due to the great abundance of calcarenite rocks, and to the facility of extraction, the Marsala area has been characterized by a high number of quarries for the extraction of this building materials. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth varying from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass, the interaction with the groundwater, the high costs of extraction, and the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries have been affected by instability processes, visible through collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which affect and severely damage the built-up area. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries will be analyzed in this paper. The aim is to provide a description of the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes based on field surveys, as well as to understand the generation mechanisms of these anthropogenic sinkholes by means of numerical modeling, based on rock laboratory testing data, that represents in these

  14. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  15. Radiological Assessment for the Vance Road Facility Source Vault, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratories had been used for a broad range of nuclear medicine research involving numerous radionuclides. These radionuclides were stored in the a source vault located on the first floor of the facility. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault after it had been remediated and in preparation for converting the area to office space

  16. Vaginal Vault Suspension at Hysterectomy for Prolapse - Myths and Facts, Anatomical Requirements, Fixation Techniques, Documentation and Cost Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, F; Marschke, J; Dimpfl, T; Tunn, R

    2012-12-01

    Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for prolapse is both a therapy for apical insufficiency and helps prevent recurrence. Numerous techniques exist, with different anatomical results and differing complications. The description of the different approaches together with a description of the vaginal vault suspension technique used at the Department for Urogynaecology at St. Hedwig Hospital could serve as a basis for reassessment and for recommendations by scientific associations regarding general standards.

  17. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...... to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...... it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although...

  18. Giant osteoma of the skull vault: A rare case of mixed variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha P.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoma is the most common primary bone tumor in the craniofacial skeleton. However, most of these are small, asymptomatic and arise from the facial bones or in relation to the paranasal sinuses. Cranial vault osteomas, that too giant and symptomatic are much rarer. We report a case of sixty year-old gentleman presented with a very slowly increasing, painless, hard swelling on the left side of his head. Computerized tomography scan showed the left parietal calvarial tumor to be having large exostotic and enostotic components. He underwent an en-bloc excision of the tumor and cranioplasty. Giant, symptomatic cranial vault osteoma with concurrent exostotic and enostotic components is extremely rare. These lesions can be safely and completely excised with careful planning and attention to detail.

  19. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of surfaces on building constructions and especially historical constructions caused by presence of salts is a well known problem in Europe and on other continents as well, however there is still a lack of an efficient desalination method. Salt induced deterioration is especially...... problematic in relation to church vault constructions with murals as the surface deterioration can result in loss of valuable cultural heritage. An electrochemical method has been investigated with focus on possible use for desalination of salt loaded vault constructions with murals in laboratory scale....... In the present paper all necessary considerations were made and described prior to electrochemical in-situ desalination. Experiences in getting started with experiments on cultural heritage has been obtained, it needs some extra time and should therefore be considered as an extra step during the preparation...

  20. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amioy Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  1. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  2. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  3. Is Postoperative Intensive Care Unit Care Necessary following Cranial Vault Remodeling for Sagittal Synostosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Howell, Lori K; Fahradyan, Artur; Azadgoli, Beina; McComb, J Gordon; Urata, Mark M

    2017-12-01

    Of U.S. craniofacial and neurosurgeons, 94 percent routinely admit patients to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for correction of sagittal synostosis. This study aims to examine the outcomes and cost of direct ward admission following primary cranial vault remodeling for sagittal synostosis. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was undertaken of the records of all patients who underwent primary cranial vault remodeling for isolated sagittal craniosynostosis from 2009 to 2015 at a single pediatric hospital. Patient demographics, perioperative course, and outcomes were recorded. One hundred ten patients met inclusion criteria with absence of other major medical problems. Average age at operation was 6.7 months, with a mean follow-up of 19.8 months. Ninety-eight patients (89 percent) were admitted to a general ward for postoperative care, whereas the remaining 12 (11 percent) were admitted to the intensive care unit for preoperative or perioperative concerns. Among ward-admitted patients, there were four (3.6 percent) minor complications; however, there were no major adverse events, with none necessitating intensive care unit transfers from the ward and no mortalities. Average hospital stay was 3.7 days. The institution's financial difference in cost of intensive care unit stay versus ward bed was $5520 on average per bed per day. Omitting just one intensive care unit postoperative day stay for this patient cohort would reduce projected health care costs by a total of $540,960 for the study period. Despite the common practice of postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following cranial vault remodeling for sagittal craniosynostosis, the authors suggest that postoperative care be considered on an individual basis, with only a small percentage requiring a higher level of care. Therapeutic, III.

  4. Study on protective layer for severe accident conditions for EC6 reactor vault structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrishami, H.H.; Ricciuti, R.; Khan, A.; Singh, R. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) is designed both for the prevention and mitigation of Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) as well as Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs). The foremost objective, in accordance with the safety goals specified in the CNSC Regulatory Document (RD-337), is to prevent the occurrence of any accident that could jeopardize nuclear safety, and, if an accident should occur, to limit the radiological releases resulting from the accident and minimize the impact on nearby communities. During a postulated severe core accident, Molten Core-Concrete Interaction (MCCI) may occur when molten core debris breaches the calandria vessel and contacts concrete surfaces, whereby the thermal and chemical properties of the melt contribute to the potential degradation of the concrete. The earliest phase of MCCI is characterized by very-high-temperature molten metal and oxide pouring from the calandria vessel and settling as a pool on the concrete surfaces of the vault floor. The molten material can result in spalling or fragmentation of the concrete near where the corium first contacts the concrete. As the corium settles on the concrete surface, the melt begins to react chemically with the concrete through the penetrating cracks and fragments produced on the initial contact, generating various gases including carbon monoxide and combustible hydrogen. In order to control and mitigate MCCI, a protective layer (refractory material) with suitable material properties and sufficient thickness was proposed to protect the reactor vault concrete floor. To further enhance vault floor protection and mitigate the conditions under severe accidents a special concrete composition in the upper layer of the vault floor concrete is to be provided in case the refractory material is breached. This special concrete should minimize the generation of various gases including combustible hydrogen and carbon monoxide during MCCI. As a part of research and development program an experimental

  5. Study on protective layer for severe accident conditions for EC6 reactor vault structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrishami, H.H.; Ricciuti, R.; Khan, A.; Singh, R., E-mail: homayoun.abrishami@candu.com [Caandu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) is designed both for the prevention and mitigation of Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) as well as Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs). The foremost objective, in accordance with the safety goals specified in the CNSC Regulatory Document (RD-337), is to prevent the occurrence of any accident that could jeopardize nuclear safety, and, if an accident should occur, to limit the radiological releases resulting from the accident and minimize the impact on nearby communities. During a postulated severe core accident, Molten Core-Concrete Interaction (MCCI) may occur when molten core debris breaches the calandria vessel and contacts concrete surfaces, whereby the thermal and chemical properties of the melt contribute to the potential degradation of the concrete. The earliest phase of MCCI is characterized by very-high-temperature molten metal and oxide pouring from the calandria vessel and settling as a pool on the concrete surfaces of the vault floor. The molten material can result in spalling or fragmentation of the concrete near where the corium first contacts the concrete. As the corium settles on the concrete surface, the melt begins to react chemically with the concrete through the penetrating cracks and fragments produced on the initial contact, generating various gases including carbon monoxide and combustible hydrogen. In order to control and mitigate MCCI, a protective layer (refractory material) with suitable material properties and sufficient thickness was proposed to protect the reactor vault concrete floor. To further enhance vault floor protection and mitigate the conditions under severe accidents a special concrete composition in the upper layer of the vault floor concrete is to be provided in case the refractory material is breached. This special concrete should minimize the generation of various gases including combustible hydrogen and carbon monoxide during MCCI. As a part of research and development program an experimental

  6. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file

  7. From laboratory experiments to a geological disposal vault: calculation of used nuclear fuel dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Kolar, M.; Leneveu, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Calculation of used nuclear fuel dissolution rates in a geological disposal vault requires a knowledge of the redox conditions in the vault. For redox conditions less oxidizing than those causing UO 2 oxidation to the U 3 O 7 , stage, a thermodynamically-based model is appropriate. For more oxidizing redox conditions a kinetic or an electrochemical model is needed to calculate these rates. The redox conditions in a disposal vault will be affected by the radiolysis of groundwater by the ionizing radiation associated with the fuel. Therefore, we have calculated the alpha-, beta- and gamma-dose rates in water in contact with the reference used fuel in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) as a function of cooling time. Also, we have determined dissolution rates of UO 2 fuel as a function of alpha and gamma dose rates from our electrochemical measurements. These room-temperature rates are used to calculate the dissolution rates of used fuel at 100 o C, the highest temperature expected in a container in the CNFWMP, as a function of time since emplacement. It is shown that beta radiolysis of water will be the main cause of oxidation of used CANDU fuel in a failed container. The use of a kinetic or an electrochemical corrosion model, to calculate fuel dissolution rates, is required for a period of ∼1000 a following emplacement of copper containers in the geologic disposal vault envisaged in the CNFWMP. Beyond this time period a thermodynamically-based model adequately predicts the fuel dissolution rates. The results presented in this paper can be adopted to calculate used fuel dissolution rates for other used UO 2 fuels in other waste management programs. (author)

  8. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  9. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hall

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT on handspring vault (HV performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05 were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  10. Archaeological finds from the vaulted building at Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The completely preserved building with barrel vault was discovered in 2008 in the course of investigation of the remains of an urban settlement dating from the 4th /3rd centuries BC at the site Kale in the village Krševica (southeast Serbia. We are presenting in this work the archaeological finds discovered in this structure. They included pottery, worked stone and many skeletons of horses and dogs that are assumed to be the ritual sacrifice.

  11. Treatment of an underground formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, P.E.; Braden, W.B. Jr.

    1974-03-12

    A method is described for treating underground formations, especially those containing clays or clay-like materials which are sensitive to fresh water. The treatment densensitizes the clays so they will not swell or disperse on contact with fresh water. The procedure consists of contacting the clay-containing formation with solutions which accomplish the electroless deposition of metal on the clay particles. Optionally, the formation can be resin coated prior to electroless plating. (9 claims)

  12. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  13. Acquiring underground infrastructure's as-built information for cities' sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaw, S W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid progress of urbanization around the world has lead to an issue of urban land shortage. As such, the urban infrastructure, especially the utilities infrastructure, were buried underground for space saving and better design of urban landscape. However, this has created difficulties in locating these infrastructures from ground surface since they are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, this paper offers a method to secure as-built information of the underground utility feature without excavation. This is done by utilizing digital image processing, a series of experiments conducted on preferred test site and real model simulation. By securing these underground utilities as-built information, it can contribute to the sustainability of cities through better urban planning. Moreover, the significant findings achieved in this study also eligible to pinpoint that ground penetrating radar (GPR) backscatter with appropritate treatment can yield unique backscatter signature which functional for identification of the types of underground utility without proving excavation. Thereby, good agreement between the backscatter reflections of GPR with respective underground utility not only serves as input which can channelled into a city's planning, but also uncovers the immense potential of GPR backscatter in reporting the ''feature information'' of the objects

  14. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  15. The evolution of cerebellar tonsillar herniation after cranial vault remodeling surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikola, J; Hukki, A; Karppinen, A; Valanne, L; Koljonen, V

    2012-10-01

    We sought to examine the pre- and postoperative changes of cerebellar tonsillar herniation by MR imaging in asymptomatic pediatric patients with nonsyndromic, single-suture craniosynostosis (N-SSSC), who underwent cranial vault remodeling surgery without suboccipital decompression. We required cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramen magnum ≥3 mm for Chiari type I malformation (CMI). We hypothesized that the increase of intracranial volume by cranial vault remodeling would correct the asymptomatic CMI. We identified 9 patients among 121 N-SSSC children undergoing craniofacial surgery from January 2004 to October 2010 with CMI. However, two of them were excluded from the study due to missing postoperative MR images. In the final study population, six were males, five were scaphocephalic, while two were diagnosed with coronal synostosis. In four of the cases, the CMI was decreased in postoperative MR imaging varying from 6 to 12 mm. In three cases, the herniation remained stable. The median change of cerebellar tonsillar herniation was -6.5 mm. We conclude that asymptomatic patients with existing CMI may benefit from cranial vault remodeling surgery alone increasing the intracranial volume.

  16. Power-Assisted Particulate Bone Grafting Effectively Prevents Osseous Defects After Cranial Vault Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Brad M; Hirji, Sameer A; Sobol, Danielle L; Allori, Alexander C; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2018-02-12

    Cranial vault reconstruction (CVR) is the gold standard in the operative treatment of craniosynostosis. Full thickness osseous defects (FTOD) of the calvaria have been observed in 5% to 15% patients after CVR, with higher rates cited in the fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) subset. Particulate bone graft (PBG) harvested manually has been shown to decrease FTOD after FOA from 24% to 5.5%. The authors used a modified technique using a powered craniotome, with the hypothesis that the technique would also improve outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent CVR for craniosynostosis between 2004 and 2014. Patient demographics, diagnosis, age, operative details, and postoperative care were reviewed in detail. Categorical, nonparametric variables were compared by Fisher exact tests. A total of 135 patients met inclusion criteria. The most common diagnoses were metopic (n = 41), sagittal (n = 33), and unilateral coronal craniosynostosis (n = 31); 65% (n = 88) underwent FOA, 29% (n = 39) underwent single-stage total vault reconstruction, and 6% (n = 8) had a posterior vault reconstruction. CVR was performed without PBG in 95 patients and with PBG in 40 patients. Without PBG, FTOD were discovered on clinical examination in 18% of patients (n=17): 11 presented with subcentimeter defects, while 6 had larger defects requiring revision cranioplasty (6% operative revision rate). Among those receiving PBG, 1 patient presented a subcentimeter FTOD (2.5% FTOD incidence and 0% operative revision rate). Particulate bone graft harvested with a powered device decreases the rate of FTOD and reoperation rate after CVR for craniosynostosis.

  17. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs

  18. New chaff point based fuzzy vault for multimodal biometric cryptosystem using particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimathi Amirthalingam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An effective fusion method for combining information from single modality system requires Multimodal biometric crypto system. Fuzzy vault has been widely used for providing security, but the disadvantage is that the biometric data are easily visible and chaff points generated randomly can be easily found, so that there is a chance for the data to be hacked by the attackers. In order to improve the security by hiding the secret key within the biometric data, a new chaff point based fuzzy vault is proposed. For the generation of the secret key in the fuzzy vault, grouped feature vectors are generated by combining the extracted shape and texture feature vectors with the new chaff point feature vectors. With the help of the locations of the extracted feature vector points, x and y co-ordinate chaff matrixes are generated. New chaff points can be made, by picking best locations from the feature vectors. The optimal locations are found out by using particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. In PSO, extracted feature locations are considered particles and from these locations, best location for generating the chaff feature point is selected based on the fitness value. The experimentation of the proposed work is done on Yale face and IIT Delhi ear databases and its performance are evaluated using the measures such as Jaccard coefficient (JC, Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR, False Matching Rate (FMR, Dice Coefficient (DC and False Non Matching Rate (FNMR. The results of the implementation give better recognition of person by facilitating 90% recognition result.

  19. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (pmuscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Arva, Esteban A; Giordano, Celia M.; Lafont, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author) [es

  1. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  2. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  3. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  4. EFFECTS OF RUN-UP VELOCITY ON PERFORMANCE, KINEMATICS, AND ENERGY EXCHANGES IN THE POLE VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps. A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased

  5. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for Detection of Underground Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsuddin; Wan Zainal Abidin; Awang Sarfarudin Awang Putra

    2011-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) utilizes an electromagnetic microwave that is transmitted into the matter under investigation. Any objects with different dielectric properties from the medium of the matter under investigation will reflect the waves and will be picked up by the receivers embedded in the antenna. We have applied GPR in various application such as concrete inspection, underground utility detection, grave detection, archaeology, oil contamination of soil, soil layer thickness measurement and etc. This paper will give general findings of the application of GPR to provide solutions to the industry and public. The results of the GPR surveys will be discussed. (author)

  6. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, R.K.; Gilbert, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  7. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  9. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. Vault-Scale Modelling of pH Buffering Capacity in Crushed Granite Backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Savage, David; Robinson, Peter; Watson, Sarah

    2004-04-01

    consist of grains of quartz of uniform size of either 4 or 32 mm diameter. The cement pore fluid diffusing from the waste package was assumed to be pure water saturated with portlandite [Ca(OH) 2 ] at 25 deg C. The pore fluid saturating the backfill was assumed to be pure water equilibrated with quartz at 25 deg C. A number of different simulations were carried out for both 4 and 32 mm diameter gravel backfill grains: 1. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault length with a transmissive feature in the host rock parallel to the vault length, but positioned roughly two vault widths from the vault. 2. As (1) above, but considering a 2D vertical slice through the vault. 3. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault width with a transmissive feature in the host rock normal to the vault length. 4. A 2D horizontal slice through the vault length with a transmissive feature in the host rock intersecting the vault at 45 deg to the vault. An additional simulation was also carried out for the geometry considered in model variant (4) above where reaction of quartz was excluded so that only the reaction of Ca(OH) 2 -saturated fluid with ambient groundwater was simulated. The results of the model variants incorporating reaction of quartz were broadly similar, with few differences apparent for the different orientations of the transmissive feature in the host rock. Most simulations showed that the gravel backfill was capable of maintaining pH 4 moles after 10,000 years in a representative 1 m thick slice through the backfill) were dissolved in the gravel adjacent to the waste package to achieve pH buffering. All of the dissolved quartz was converted to CSH solids (tobermorite and gyrolite). Reactions in simulations with the 4 mm diameter backfill grains were slightly faster, but the results were otherwise identical to those for the 32 mm diameter grains. The model variant with no chemical reaction of the backfill particles was considerably different from the other simulations with pH > 11

  11. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  12. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  13. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  14. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  15. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  16. A prediction of an optimal performance of the handspring 1 1/2 front salto longhorse vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, P

    1994-01-01

    The handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault in the tucked position is deemed to be an important high-level vault. It was the compulsory vault of the 1988 Olympics and is a building block for more advanced skills in the handspring family. The purpose of this study was to predict an individual's optimal performance of a handspring 1 1/2 front salto vault. An assessment of the athlete's present performance ability was determined using cinematographical analysis of three trials. These trials were judged as being typical high-level performances of the vault. Secondly, an objective function was identified based on the performance result of points awarded. The objective function was composed of those performance variables that, if maximized, would result in minimal deductions. Postflight height and distance were identified as those variables. Angular momentum was included in a penalty function form to ensure that sufficient angular momentum was present for successful completion of the skill. A Lagrangian approach was used to derive the equations of motion and a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure, using fifth-degree polynomials, was used to represent and discretize the state variables. The predicted optimal performance of the skill displayed greater virtuosity in postflight height, distance and angular momentum when compared to the individual's best trial performance. The results of this study generally fall within the limits observed for elite vaulters.

  17. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. Materials and methods A pilot project was conducted in 2008–2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. Results The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n=60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n=55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Discussion Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Conclusion Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability. PMID:21292705

  18. Key technical issues relating to safety of spent fuel dry storage in vaults: CASCAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, F.

    1994-01-01

    The operating CASCAD Facility at the Cadarashe site (FR) was commissioned in May 1990. Fuel is received in tight canisters which are transferred to storage pits in the vault and scheduled to be stored for up to 50 years. Canistering operations are performed in a cell of the reactor building.The paper describes the main functions of the facility as: cask receipt and shipping; fuel unloading; fuel conditioning; canisters emplacements in storage location; fuel storage; fuel retrieving and shipping at the end of the storage period; operation system and operation organization. Safety characteristics of the facility discussed are: fuel decay heat removal; subcriticality control and radiological protection. The fuel decay heat removal has two main purposes: 1) maintaining rod cladding temperature below a set limit in order to keep the fuel in its as received condition; 2) maintaining structures and equipment performing a safety function below the design temperature. The features of the sub-criticality control in the storage vault are such that sub-criticality in normal and accidental conditions is provided by the arrangement of pits in the vault. Radiological protection is based on limiting collective and individual annual dose equivalent to ALARA levels ensuring that they remain in any case below the set limits. Radiological protection system described consists in: confinement of radioactive materials for protection against its dissemination; radiation shielding for protection against irradiation. It is pointed out that all technical solutions presented are based on or adapted from proven technologies used in operating facilities in France or in other countries. The solution not only benefits from the experience of SGN in the design, construction and start-up of facilities for fuel or high level waste handling and storage, but also from the experience of the CEA and COGEMA groups in operating such facilities. 2 figs., 1 ref

  19. COMPUTATIONAL VISION IN UV-MAPPING OF TEXTURED MESHES COMING FROM PHOTOGRAMMETRIC RECOVERY: UNWRAPPING FRESCOED VAULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Robleda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it is difficult to represent “on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a “special planar format” for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using “low-cost” recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation “on paper”: ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a “planar format” representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  20. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L. [and others

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first revision to ''Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0

  2. The long and short of dry vault storage [for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; O'Tallamhain, C.; Grine, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The case has been made for purchasing Magnox reactors outside the UK without any prior commitment to reprocessing, the fuel being stored for an interim period. Two alternative storage concepts using natural draught air-cooled vaults have been presented, one based upon experience of 'buffer' storage at gas-cooled reactors in Britain, and te second based on the long term 'interim' storage developed to a detailed design stage for British AGRs. Although storage scenarios for new Magnox stations are discussed, they may also be of interest in relation to other types of reactor. (U.K.)

  3. Structural consolidation in restoration. The vaults of Palladio’s villa Poiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Doglioni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural consolidation work on Villa Poiana, a unique work by Palladio designed and built using solely vaults without resorting to lineal structures, has given rise to an extraordinary interpretation of the evolution of the structural decay of the building over time. It is also a model intervention given its ability to adapt to this progressive history of lesions and deformation, designing added reinforcement based on the historic structure and its progressive reinforcements. The analysis of the damage that can be caused by interventions with reinforced concrete on historic structures is equally interesting due, among other reasons, to the great weight added to the structure.

  4. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  5. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    2016-01-01

    A new mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults was tested in a full scale experiment in Annisse Church, DK. The mortar consists of perlite, a highly porous aggregate, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar joints. The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity f...

  6. Restoration of the vault of the open chapel at teposcolula in Oaxaca; Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Ibarra Sevilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary vault of this open chapel, one of the most unique examples of 16th century Latin-American architecture, has been subjected to a philological reconstruction as a result of its local and historiographic importance. The text describes, in the first place, the historical and architectural context of this building and goes on to describe its reconstruction, based on the remains conserved and historical and photographic data about its structure and increasing deterioration, the rules of stereotomy and the building methods used in its original construction.

  7. Inspectable vault system for the disposal of radioactive waste having a liquid collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Hamilton, W.H.; Severson, W.J.; Wright, J.B.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an inspectable vault cell for the disposal of hazardous waste having a liquid collection and monitoring system. It comprises: a liquid impermeable floor slab having a drainage channel along one of its edges and being sloped so that liquid on the floor slab flow toward the drainage channel; a wall assembly disposed around the periphery of the floor slab, and a monitoring and inspection aisleway defined between the wall assembly and hazardous waste deposited on the floor slab for providing both an unobstructed view and convenient access to the drainage channel

  8. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is ab...

  9. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  10. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  11. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  12. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  13. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  14. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, Genoa (Italy); Milani, Gabriele [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Milan Polytechnic University, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milan (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  15. Influence of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot on physical preparedness of children of midchildhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkevich A.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to probe influence of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot on physical preparedness of children of midchildhood. 40 children which studied in a tourist class took part in experiment. All of children on the state a health were attributed to the basic group. In the process of testing determined the indexes of speed (run 30 meters, flexibility (forerake from position «sitting», adroitness (shuttle run 4x9 meters, speed-power qualities (broad jump from a place, force (undercutting on a low cross-beam and endurance (run, meters. The substantive provisions of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot are reflected for children. Certain and analysed dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of schoolboys on completion of the program of prophylaxis of violations of vaults of foot in educational process.

  16. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  17. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  18. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  19. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  20. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  2. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  3. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  4. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  5. CSER 94-014: Storage of metal-fuel loaded EBR-II casks in concrete vault on PFP grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is presented to permit EBR-2 spent fuel casks loaded with metallic fuel rods to be stored in an 8-ft diameter, cylindrical concrete vault inside the PFP security perimeter. The specific transfer of three casks with Pu alloy fuel from the Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment from the burial grounds to the vault is thus covered. Up to seven casks may be emplaced in the casing with 30 inches center to center spacing. Criticality safety is assured by definitive packaging rules which keep the fissile medium dry and at a low effective volumetric density

  6. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  7. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  8. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyoung eLee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for the cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules which are associated with cell differentiation can be modeled using Turing’s reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor. In this study we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in both of normal and defect conditions. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones.

  9. Grout for closure of waste-disposal vaults at the US DOE Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; McDaniel, E.W.; Voogd, J.

    1991-01-01

    For permanent disposal of radioactive wastes from reprocessing, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen to grout wastes in concrete vaults within a subsurface multiple-barrier system. The subject of this research is the non-radioactive, or ''cold cap'' grout, which fills the upper 120 cm of these vaults, and provides support for overlying barriers. Because of the heat evolved by the wasteform, this void-filling grout must perform at temperatures higher than those of usual large-volume grouting operations. It must have: low potential for thermal expansion and heat retention; a low modulus to withstand thermal and mechanical stresses without cracking; strength adequate to support overlying barrier-system components; and minimal potential for shrinkage. In addition, it must be pumpable, self-leveling, and non-segregating. Materials for formulation included a large percentage of Class F fly ash, and coarsely ground oil-well cement. Grout development included chemical and physical characterization, and physical and thermal modeling

  10. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  11. Slight conductive hearing loss in children with narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.

  12. 3D-Conformal Versus Intensity-Modulated Postoperative Radiotherapy of Vaginal Vault: A Dosimetric Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilla, Savino; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Romanella, Michele; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Padula, Gilbert; Picardi, Vincenzo; Scambia, Giovanni; Piermattei, Angelo; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a step-and-shoot IMRT plan in the postoperative irradiation of the vaginal vault compared with equispaced beam arrangements (3-5) 3D-radiotherapy (RT) optimized plans. Twelve patients were included in this analysis. Four plans for each patient were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, homogeneity index (HI), and conformity index (CI): (1) 3 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (2) 4 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (3) 5 equispaced beam arrangement 3D-RT; (4) step-and-shoot IMRT technique. CI showed a good discrimination between the four plans. The mean scores of CI were 0.58 (range: 0.38-0.67) for the 3F-CRT plan, 0.58 (range: 0.41-0.66) for 4F-CRT, 0.62 (range: 0.43-0.68) for 5F-CRT and 0.69 (range: 0.58-0.78) for the IMRT plan. A significant improvement of the conformity was reached by the IMRT plan (p mean , V90%, V95%, V100% was recorded for rectal and bladder irradiation with the IMRT plan. Surprisingly, IMRT supplied a significant dose reduction also for rectum and bladder V30% and V50%. A significant dosimetric advantage of IMRT over 3D-RT in the adjuvant treatment of vaginal vault alone in terms of treatment conformity and rectum and bladder sparing is shown.

  13. Detection of underground structures using UAV and field spectroscopy for defence and security in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillos, George; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Prodromou, Maria; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and field spectroscopy campaigns for detecting underground structures. Underground structures can affect their surrounding landscapes in different ways, such as soil moisture content, soil composition and vegetation vigor. The last is often observed on the ground as a crop mark; a phenomenon which can be used as a proxy to denote the presence of underground non-visible structures. A number of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were utilized for the development of a vegetation index-based procedure aiming at the detection of underground military structures by using existing vegetation indices or other in-band algorithms. The measurements were taken at the following test areas such as: (a) vegetation area covered with the vegetation (barley), in the presence of an underground military structure (b) vegetation area covered with the vegetation (barley), in the absence of an underground military structure.

  14. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS). Midyear program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Tam, S.W.

    1979-04-01

    The midyear program report on underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) delineates program management and support elements through milestones, work proposal and authorization chart tasks, and activities for FY79 and 80. The section on subcontractors and their assigned tasks details the operating characteristcs of single- and double-stage, reversible, Franccis-type pump turbines. System studies are discussed in terms of machinery costs, plant sizes, and pump-turbine efficiencies, and results and conclusions are presented. In general, the utilization of advanced turbomachinery seems to be justified for UPHS plants.

  15. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  16. Review of technical features in underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Deep underground laboratories are multidisciplinary research infrastructures. The main feature of these laboratories is the reduced cosmic ray muons flux. This characteristic allows searching for rare events such as proton decay, dark matter particles or neutrino interactions. However, biology in extreme environments and geophysics are also studied underground. A number of ancillary facilities are critical to properly operate low background experiments in these laboratories. In this work we review the main characteristics of deep underground laboratories and discuss a few of the low background facilities.

  17. Parameter-sensitivity analysis of near-field radionuclide transport in buffer material and rock for an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-08-01

    An analytical model has been developed for radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel waste container emplaced in a borehole. The model considers diffusion in the buffer surrounding the waste container, and both diffusion and groundwater convection in the rock around the borehole. A parameter-sensitivity analysis has been done to study the effects on radionuclide flux of (a) Darcian velocity of groundwater in the rock, (b) effective porosity of the buffer, (c) porosity of the rock, (d) radial buffer thickness, and (e) radius and length of the container. It is found that the radionuclide flux, Fsub(R), and the total integrated flux, Fsub(T), are greater for horizontal flow than for vertical flow; Fsub(R) decreases with increasing radial buffer thickness for all Darcian velocities, whereas Fsub(T) decreases at high velocities but increases at low velocities. The rate of change of Fsub(R) and of Fsub(T) decreases with decreasing flow velocity and increasing buffer thickness; Fsub(R) is greater for higher effective porosity of buffer or rock; and Fsub(R) increases and Fsub(T) decreases with decreasing container radius or length

  18. Long-term Self-noise Estimates of Seismic Sensors From a High-noise Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S. P.; Goessen, S.; Hill, P.; Rietbrock, A.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the detection capabilities of seismic stations and for reducing biases in ambient noise imaging, it is vital to assess the contribution of instrument self-noise to overall site noise. Self-noise estimates typically come from vault installations in continental interiors with very low ambient noise levels. However, this approach restricts the independent assessment of self-noise by individual end-users to assess any variations in their own instrument pools from nominal specifications given by manufacturers and from estimations given in comparative test papers. However, the calculation method should be adapted to variable installation conditions. One problem is that microseism noise can contaminate self-noise results caused by instrument misalignment errors or manufacturing limits; this effect becomes stronger where ambient noise is higher. Moreover, due to expected stochastic and time-varying sensor noise, estimates based on hand-picking small numbers of data segments may not accurately reflect true self-noise. We report on results from a self-noise test experiment of Güralp seismic instruments (3T, 3ESPC broadband seismometers, Fortis strong motion accelerometer) that were installed in the sub-surface vault of the Eskdalemuir Seismic Observatory in Scotland, UK over the period October 2016-August 2017. Due to vault's proximity to the ocean, secondary microseism noise is strong, so we efficiently compute the angle of misalignment that maximises waveform coherence with a reference sensor. Self-noise was calculated using the 3-sensor correlation technique and we compute probability density functions of self-noise to assess its spread over time. We find that not correcting for misalignments as low as 0.1° can cause self-noise to be artificially higher by up to 15 dB at frequencies of 0.1-1 Hz. Our method thus efficiently removes the effect of microseism contamination on self-noise; for example, it restores the minimum noise floor for a 360s - 50 Hz 3T to

  19. Experimental research into dynamic properties of masonry barrel vaults non-reinforced and reinforced with carbon composite strips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zigler, R.; Witzany, J.; Makovička, D.; Urushadze, Shota; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Kubát, J.; Kroftová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 3 (2016) ISSN 1805-2576 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : rehabilitation * strengthening * masonry vaults * FRP fabrics * dynamic load * static load Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://doaj.org/article/a4197d0d1b974dbeadf9188398d45fc8

  20. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  1. Mattia Preti’s vault in St John’s, Valletta: New light on a complex iconography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The article aims at casting new light on Mattia Preti’s well-known decoration of the vault of the conventual church of the Knight Hospitallers, now the Co-cathedral of Valletta. To a modern viewer the iconography of the decoration is all but simple. The iconographic scheme, I argue, seeks to clai...

  2. Trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh repair of post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to report 1 year anatomical and functional outcomes of trocar-guided total tension-free vaginal mesh (Prolift) repair for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse with one continuous piece of polypropylene mesh. METHODS: We conducted a

  3. The anatomical limits of the posterior vaginal vault toward its use as route for intra-abdominal procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Harlaar (Joris Jan); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Stark; A.J. Schneider

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The use of natural openings for abdominal surgery started at the beginning of the 21th century. A trans-Douglas endoscopic device has been designed to perform most of the intra-abdominal operations in women through the pouch of Douglas. The posterior vaginal vault is limited

  4. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  5. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  6. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  7. EXPERIENCE IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Kaufman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives examples of underground construction of hydropower station inNepaland sewer tunnel in the USA. These projects pay attention to influence of geotechnical risks and their consequences.

  8. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  9. Kinematic analysis of "Lou Yun" vaults performed by top level male gymnasts: Relationship between kinematic variables and judges' score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In gymnastics judging, evaluation of routines in their execution is based on form and technique displayed during the performance. A vaulting performance takes a short time and is affected by the quantity of biomechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vault score and specific aspects of the gymnast’s vault should motivate coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of Lou Yun vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. METHODS: Ten top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D kinematic analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data was digitized by Simi Motion software. The Hay and Reid method (1988 was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear motions of the Lou Yun vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges’ scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p RESULTS: Six out of 24 examined variables showed significant correlations with the scores. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body centre of mass in the second flight phase (r = .68, in the height of centre of mass at mat touchdown (r = .75, in the relative height from table take-off to mat touchdown (r = –.85, in the duration of the table contact phase (r = –.71, in the duration of the second flight phase (r = .62 and in the vertical velocity of body centre of mass at table take-off (r = .70. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Lou Yun vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to minimize duration of table support phase; to maximize the vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to

  10. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  11. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  12. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  13. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  14. Distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete walls of a compact medical cyclotron vault room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Baba, Shingo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Komiya, Isao; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Compact medical cyclotrons have been set up to generate the nuclides necessary for positron emission tomography. In accelerator facilities, neutrons activate the concrete used to construct the vault room; this activation increases with the use of an accelerator. The activation causes a substantial radioactive waste management problem when facilities are decommissioned. In the present study, several concrete cores from the walls, ceiling and floor of a compact medical cyclotron vault room were samples 2 years after the termination of operations, and the radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides were estimated. Cylindrical concrete cores 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length were bored from the concrete wall, ceiling and floor. Core boring was performed at 18 points. The gamma-ray spectrum of each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The degree of activation of the concrete in the cyclotron vault room was analyzed, and the range and tendency toward activation in the vault room were examined. (60)Co and (152)Eu were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. (152)Eu and (60)Co are produced principally from the stable isotopes of europium and cobalt by neutron capture reactions. The radioactivity concentration did not vary much between the surface of the concrete and at a depth of 10 cm. Although the radioactivity concentration near the target was higher than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean radioactivity concentration in the walls and floor was lower than the clearance level. The radioactivity concentration of the inner concrete wall of the medical cyclotron vault room was not uniform. The areas exceeding the clearance level were in the vicinity of the target, but most of the building did not exceed the clearance levels.

  15. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  16. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  17. Evaluation of remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU storage vault -- First thoughts and final application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, K.B.; Whitaker, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Remote monitoring provides a more timely and comprehensive way to meet national and international requirements for monitoring nuclear material inventories. Unattended monitoring technologies could be used to meet national needs for nuclear material safety, protection, control and accountability. Unattended systems possessing a remote data transmission capability could be used to meet international requirements for nuclear material safeguards and transparency. Even though more enhancements are required to improve system reliability, remote monitoring''s future potential seems great. The key questions are: (1) how will remote monitoring systems be used (configuration and operation); (2) how effective will the system be (vs. current activities); and (3) how much will it cost. This paper provides preliminary answers to these questions based on the experience gained from a joint IAEA-United States Support Program (USSP) task to evaluate remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU Storage vault. This paper also draws on experience gained from US involvement in other remote monitoring projects

  18. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Paint Can at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-03

    In Building 2 A-wing vault MET-5 has some drums and other packages they wanted NEN-1 help identifying nondestructively. Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high-purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a paint can container labeled DU-2A to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The HPGe detector measures the gamma rays emitted by radioactive material and displays it as a spectrum. The spectrum is used to identify this radioactive material by using appropriate analysis software and identifying the gamma ray peaks. A paint can container, DU-2A, was analyzed with PeakEasy 4.84 and FRAM 5.2. The FRAM report is shown. The enrichment is 0.091% U235 and 99.907% U238. This material is depleted uranium. The measurement was performed in the near field, and to extract a mass a far field measurement will need to be taken.

  19. Corrosion of copper containers prior to saturation of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Kolar, M.

    1997-12-01

    The buffer material surrounding the containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault will partially desiccate as a result of the elevated temperature at the container surface. This will lead to a period of corrosion in a moist air atmosphere. Corrosion will either take the form of slow oxidation if the container surface remains dry or aqueous electrochemical corrosion if the surface is wetted by a thin liquid film. The relevant literature is reviewed, from which it is concluded that corrosion should be uniform in nature, except if the surface is wetted, in which case localized corrosion is a possibility. A quantitative analysis of the extent and rate of uniform corrosion during the unsaturated period is presented. Two bounding cases are considered: first, the case of slow oxidation in moist air following either logarithmic or parabolic oxide-growth kinetics and, second, the case of electrochemically based corrosion occurring in a thin liquid film uninhibited by the growth of corrosion products. (author)

  20. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Niespodziúski, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Bielec, Grzegorz; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland's Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points). However, the highest significant (p < 0.001) correlation with the judges' score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64°) and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s), where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score.

  1. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  2. Pole-vaulting program of the energy sector: the Philippines: an energy exporter: a program for pole-vaulting into the 21-st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balce, Guillermo R.

    1997-01-01

    Focus on ocean, solar and wind energy resources is emphasized in the proposed program as the means to achieve the goal of converting the Philippines into an energy exporter in the future. A nationwide assessment of the availability of these renewable resources for large-scale energy generation is first in the series of activities proposed. Establishment of a renewable energy resource administration system expected to open up wide opportunities for private sector participation. A center for renewable energy development and application is envisioned to provide leadership and technical guidance. Short-term targets include: a) establishment of solar manufacturing plants in the country; b) extensive application of solar energy systems such as solar water heaters, solar pumps and solar refrigerators; c) piloting of one megawatt tidal current plant in an appropriate site such as in San Bernardino Strait, Hinatuan Passage and Basiao Channel; and d) design and packaging of power plants for specific areas identified through accurate resource assessment. Long-term targets include: a) establishment of an Asian power grid; b) establishment of an Asian power market centered in the Philippines; c) construction of large-scale ocean, solar and wind power plants; and d) establishment of manufacturing industries for various facets of ocean, solar and wind power systems. Development of ocean, solar and wind energy systems would provide the Philippines the technological and economic advantage to approach the goal of becoming an energy exporter in the future. If the pole-vaulting program is seriously pursued from now, the Philippines would have the superiority in energy technology and resource availability twenty years hence when neighboring countries would start feeling the problem of dwindling fossil fuels that they have in abundance at present. (author)

  3. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  4. Radiological Assessment Survey of the Vance road Facility Source Vault Building Materials, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratory was the site of extensive nuclear medical research and involved the used of numerous radionuclides. These nuclides were stored in a source vault stored on the first floor of the facility. Nuclear medical research is no longer conducted in this facility, and the source vault was remediated in preparation for converting the area to office space and general use. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault and its associated miscellaneous building materials and laboratory equipment in preparation for the conversion to general use space

  5. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  6. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  7. Detection and delineation of underground septic tanks in sandy terrain using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolaiye, Gabriel Efomeh; Ayolabi, Elijah A.

    2010-09-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted on the Lekki Peninsula, Lagos State, Nigeria. The primary target of the survey was the delineation of underground septic tanks (ST). A total of four GPR profiles were acquired on the survey site using Ramac X3M GPR equipment with a 250MHz antenna, chosen based on the depth of interest and resolution. An interpretable depth of penetration of 4.5m below the surface was achieved after processing. The method accurately delineated five underground ST. The tops of the ST were easily identified on the radargram based on the strong-amplitude anomalies, the length and the depths to the base of the ST were estimated with 99 and 73 percent confidence respectively. The continuous vertical profiles provide uninterrupted subsurface data along the lines of traverse, while the non-intrusive nature makes it an ideal tool for the accurate mapping and delineation of underground utilities.

  8. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  9. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  11. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  12. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  13. Comparative analyis of kinematic characteristics of motor actions of highly skilled and skilled female gymnasts during execution of «front handspring» type vault

    OpenAIRE

    Гамалій, Володимир; Хмельницька, Ірина; Крупеня, Світлана

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the kinematic characteristics of motor actions of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts in the “front handspring” type vault on the table, based on the results of biomechanical analysis. The features of motor actions technique under a modified design of the apparatus have been studied. Statistically significant differences in the technique of kinematic characteristics of skilled and highly skilled female gymnasts during performance of vaults have been ...

  14. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    OpenAIRE

    T. Heinen; D. Jeraj; M. Thoeren; P.M. Vinken

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics...

  15. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  16. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  17. Continental glaciation and its potential impact on a used-fuel disposal vault in the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.; Bruneau, D.; Ridgway, W.R.

    1997-09-01

    AECL has been assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault excavated at a depth ranging between 500 m and 1000 m in a plutonic rock mass of the Canadian Shield. Glaciation is a natural process that has occurred in the past, and is likely to occur in the future, thus causing changes in the loading conditions on the rock mass hosting the disposal vault. Because the rock mass is a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides, it is important to evaluate its integrity under load changes caused by the glaciation process. Assuming that the magnitude and extent of the future glaciation will be similar to those of the past, we have reviewed published data pertaining to the last continental ice sheet that covered a large area of North America. Estimates have been made for the magnitude of stresses due to ice sheet loading for a vault located at depths of 500 to 1000 m. These analyses have shown that the uniform loading of a continental ice sheet would reduce the deviatoric stresses in the Canadian Shield, creating more favourable conditions than those existing at the present time, namely, high horizontal stresses. The effects of surface erosion and increase in the in-situ shear stresses have also been examined. Based on the existing data and structural modelling studies, there would be no significant structural effect on a disposal vault located at 1000-m depth in a plutonic rock. At its maximum size, an ice sheet comparable to the Laurentide ice sheet could reactivate the faults and fracture zones along the perimeter areas. Our analyses have been based on fully drained conditions only. At a potential disposal site, it would be important also to consider the potential for excess pore pressure in the analyses. (author)

  18. Criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, A.N.; Mitalev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the criteria for identification of carbonate reservoirs according to well logging data (carboniferous deposits of Astrakhan' vault taken as an example). According to gamma logging and cavitymetry data clay areas (decreased readings of neutron-gamma logging opposite dense rocks) are distinguished in a well log. ''Reservoir-nonreserVoir'' boundary is relatively drawn on the basis of the relation between neutron-gamma logaing indications and average general porosity of carbonate rocks determined by accoustic and neutron gamma logging

  19. Continental glaciation and its potential impact on a used-fuel disposal vault in the Canadian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Y.; Bruneau, D.; Ridgway, W.R

    1997-09-01

    AECL has been assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a vault excavated at a depth ranging between 500 m and 1000 m in a plutonic rock mass of the Canadian Shield. Glaciation is a natural process that has occurred in the past, and is likely to occur in the future, thus causing changes in the loading conditions on the rock mass hosting the disposal vault. Because the rock mass is a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides, it is important to evaluate its integrity under load changes caused by the glaciation process. Assuming that the magnitude and extent of the future glaciation will be similar to those of the past, we have reviewed published data pertaining to the last continental ice sheet that covered a large area of North America. Estimates have been madefor the magnitude of stresses due to ice sheet loading for a vault located at depths of 500 to 1000 m. These analyses have shown that the uniform loading of a continental ice sheet would reduce the deviatoric stresses in the Canadian Shield, creating more favourable conditions than those existing at the present time, namely, high horizontal stresses. The effects of surface erosion and increase in the in-situ shear stresses have also been examined. Based on the existing data and structural modelling studies, there would be no significant structural effect on a disposal vault located at 1000-m depth in a plutonic rock. At its maximum size, an ice sheet comparable to the Laurentide ice sheet could reactivate the faults and fracture zones along the perimeter areas. Our analyses have been based on fully drained conditions only. At a potential disposal site, it would be important also to consider the potential for excess pore pressure in the analyses. (author)

  20. Two Dimensional Near-field Calculations of Radionuclide Releases from the Vaults of the SFR 1 Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    Radionuclide releases from the near-field for the vaults of the SFR 1 repository are examined in this report. To model those releases we have developed four models, one for each of the vaults; 2BTF, 1BTF, BMA and BLA. The respective codes are based on the finite element method and are called FEMBTF2, FEMBTF1, FEMBMA and FEMBLA, respectively. These codes are two-dimensional representations of the cross sections of the vaults. The different barriers of the vaults have been modelled individually using the physical dimensions of the cross sections. The same conceptual model has been used to estimate the releases from the near-field. This conceptual model is implemented by four different FEM codes that solve the two-dimensional transport equation, e.g. the advective-diffusive-reactive equation that also includes radioactive decay. An interesting property of the codes is that they allow the use of time-dependent properties to represent for instance the evolution of water flow, porosities, distribution coefficients etc. This capability of the code has been used only in some cases because the FEM codes put heavy requirements on the computer's CPU. The nuclides studied here were chosen from a set representing the highest release rates from the near-field obtained by SKB during their project SAFE. Some of the results reported here are somewhat lower than SKBs, other higher. Uncertainties in the conceptual models and differences in the input data are the reasons for the numerical differences. For most cases, the differences between our results and those of SKB should be considered relatively small within present context of near-field calculations

  1. Decontamination of the activation product based on a legal revision of the cyclotron vault room on the non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Isao; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The non-self-shield compact medical cyclotron and the cyclotron vault room were in operation for 27 years. They have now been decommissioned. We efficiently implemented a technique to identify an activation product in the cyclotron vault room. Firstly, the distribution of radioactive concentrations in the concrete of the cyclotron vault room was estimated by calculation from the record of the cyclotron operation. Secondly, the comparison of calculated results with an actual measurement was performed using a NaI scintillation survey meter and a high-purity germanium detector. The calculated values were overestimated as compared to the values measured using the Nal scintillation survey meter and the high-purity germanium detector. However, it could limit the decontamination area. By simulating the activation range, we were able to minimize the concrete core sampling. Finally, the appropriate range of radioactivated area in the cyclotron vault room was decontaminated based on the results of the calculation. After decontamination, the radioactive concentration was below the detection limit value in all areas inside the cyclotron vault room. By these procedures, the decommissioning process of the cyclotron vault room was more efficiently performed. (author)

  2. TARGET-DIRECTED RUNNING IN GYMNASTICS: THE ROLE OF THE SPRINGBOARD POSITION AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE TO REGULATE HANDSPRINGS ON VAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence highlights the role of visual information to control gymnastics vaulting and thus neglects a stereotyped approach run. However, there is no evidence on which informational source this regulation is based on. The aim of this study was to examine the position of the springboard as an informational source in the regulation of the handspring on vault. The hypothesis tested was that the action of running towards the springboard brings about changes in the approach run kinematics and handspring kinematics that relate directly to the position of the springboard. Therefore, kinematics of N = 14 female expert gymnasts’ handsprings on vault and their approach runs were examined while manipulating the position of the springboard. The results revealed that expert gymnasts placed their feet on average in the same position on the springboard and adapted to the springboard position during the last three steps of the approach run. A smaller springboard distance to the front edge of the vaulting table resulted in a different hand placement on the vaulting table, a shorter first flight phase, a take-off angle closer to 90° and a longer second flight phase. Findings suggest that the position of the springboard is a relevant informational source in gymnastics vaulting. We state that knowledge about relationships between informational sources in the environment and the resulting regulatory processes in athletes may help coaches to develop specific training programmes in order to optimize performance in complex skills.

  3. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  4. NSun2-Mediated Cytosine-5 Methylation of Vault Noncoding RNA Determines Its Processing into Regulatory Small RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobbir Hussain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal-recessive loss of the NSUN2 gene has been identified as a causative link to intellectual disability disorders in humans. NSun2 is an RNA methyltransferase modifying cytosine-5 in transfer RNAs (tRNAs, yet the identification of cytosine methylation in other RNA species has been hampered by the lack of sensitive and reliable molecular techniques. Here, we describe miCLIP as an additional approach for identifying RNA methylation sites in transcriptomes. miCLIP is a customized version of the individual-nucleotide-resolution crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP method. We confirm site-specific methylation in tRNAs and additional messenger and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. Among these, vault ncRNAs contained six NSun2-methylated cytosines, three of which were confirmed by RNA bisulfite sequencing. Using patient cells lacking the NSun2 protein, we further show that loss of cytosine-5 methylation in vault RNAs causes aberrant processing into Argonaute-associated small RNA fragments that can function as microRNAs. Thus, impaired processing of vault ncRNA may contribute to the etiology of NSun2-deficiency human disorders.

  5. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  6. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  7. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  8. Underground engineering at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A special task group was organized by the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council to address issues relating to the geotechnical site characterization program for an underground facility to house high-level radioactive waste of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Intended to provide an overview of the geotechnical program, the study was carried out by a task group consisting of ten members with expertise in the many disciplines required to successfully complete such a project. The task group recognized from the outset that the short time frame of this study would limit its ability to address all geotechnical issues in detail. Geotechnical issues were considered to range from specific technical aspects such as in-situ testing for rock mass permeability; rock hardness testing in the laboratory; or geologic characterizations and quantification of joints, to broader aspects of design philosophy, data collection, and treatment of uncertainty. The task group chose to focus on the broader aspects of underground design and construction, recognizing that the BWIP program utilizes a peer review group on a regular basis which reviews the specific technical questions related to geotechnical engineering. In this way, it was hoped that the review provided by the task group would complement those prepared by the BWIP peer review group

  9. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  10. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) : design and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The safety case for the IRUS low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is based on the fact that IRUS will contain three specific types of wastes only. The types of these wastes are baled wastes, bituminized incinerator ash, and bituminized reverse osmosis concentrate. IRUS will be a below-ground vault consisting of an open bottom reinforced-concrete structure (approximate dimensions 30m x 20m x 8m) with a reinforced-concrete roof. This paper covers the vault design and construction and operational features. 2 tabs

  11. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) : design and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The safety case for the IRUS low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is based on the fact that IRUS will contain three specific types of wastes only. The types of these wastes are baled wastes, bituminized incinerator ash, and bituminized reverse osmosis concentrate. IRUS will be a below-ground vault consisting of an open bottom reinforced-concrete structure (approximate dimensions 30m x 20m x 8m) with a reinforced-concrete roof. This paper covers the vault design and construction and operational features. 2 tabs.

  12. Successful treatment of groin pain syndrome in a pole-vault athlete with core stability exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Maffulli, Nicola; Laver, Lior; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present a case of groin pain in a pole vault athlete describing the biomechanical features of the injury`s mechanism, acute medical management, and its successful rehabilitation. A 22-year-old professional pole-vaulter sustained an injury during a regular training session. The athlete reported significant left lower abdominal and left proximal adductor discomfort in all activities, including basic trunk motion when moving in bed, sit to stand, and walking, and was unable to return to the regular training. Clinical evaluation and imaging studies addressed the injury to a case of adductor-related groin pain associated with pubic symphysis degeneration. Treatment consisted of an exercise-based therapeutic protocol based on trunk and core muscle strengthening and stability program, with progressive motor and functional demands. Significant improvements in the overall clinical findings and functional outcomes were reported after 52 days of intervention when the athletes returned to his full athletic activity. These results suggest that an appropriate rehabilitation program, focused on trunk and core musculature stability exercise addressing to sport-related specific demands, should be considered as an optimal conservative method in the multidisciplinary approach for treatment of groin pain and prior to any surgical intervention.

  13. Generation of normative pediatric skull models for use in cranial vault remodeling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nikoo R; Phillips, John; Looi, Thomas; Usmani, Zoha; Burge, Jonathan; Drake, James; Kim, Peter C W

    2012-03-01

    While the goal of craniofacial reconstruction surgery is to restore the cranial head shape as much towards normal as possible, for the individual patient, there is, in fact, no normal three-dimensional (3D) model to act as a guide. In this project, we generated a library of normative pediatric skulls from which a guiding template could be fabricated for a more standardized, objective and precise correction of craniosynostosis. Computed tomography data from 103 normal subjects aged 8-12 months were compiled and a 3D computational model of the skull was generated for each subject. The models were mathematically registered to a baseline model for each month of age within this range and then averaged, resulting in a single 3D point cloud. An external cranial surface was subsequently passed through the point cloud and its shape and size customized to fit the head circumference of individual patients. The resultant fabricated skull models provide a novel and applicable tool for a detailed, quantitative comparison between the normative and patient skulls for preoperative planning and practice for a variety of craniofacial procedures including vault remodeling. Additionally, it was possible to extract the suprafrontal orbit anatomy from the normative model and fabricate a bandeau template to guide intraoperative reshaping. Normative head shapes for pediatric patients have wide application for craniofacial surgery including planning, practice, standarized operative repair, and standardized measurement and reporting of outcomes.

  14. Very broadband seismic background noise analysis of permanent good vaulted seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary study conducted to analyze seismic background noise at sites of recently deployed very broadband stations of the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN). The main purpose of the study is to assess the effects of permanent seismic vault construction and also to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. Another goal of this study is to determine the time needed for noise at those sites to stabilize. The power spectral densities of background noise at short period band (SP), very broadband (VBB), and ultra long period band (ULP) for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites are calculated. A MATLAB code has been developed that manages data processing and data analysis and compares the results with the high-noise model (NHNM) and low-noise model (NLNM) of Peterson (1993). Based on the obtained analysis, the noise stability and the efficiency of each station to record regional and teleseismic events are measured. The results of this study could be used in the future to evaluate station quality, to improve those processes that require background noise values, such as automatic association, and to improve the estimation of station and network detection and location thresholds.

  15. Residual long-lived radioactivity distribution in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Kinno, M; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    1994-12-01

    We measured the depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault by assaying concrete cores and we estimated the neutron flux distribution in the inner concrete wall by means of activation detectors. Nine long-lived radioactive nuclides (46Sc, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 22Na, and 54Mn) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, gamma) reaction are dominant, and that the induced activity by thermal neutrons is greatest at a depth of 5 to 10 cm rather than at the surface of the concrete and decreases exponentially beyond a depth of about 20 cm. By comparing the radioactivity and neutron flux distributions, we can estimate the induced long-lived radioactivity in concrete after a long period of operation from the short-term activation measurement.

  16. Materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spanish Senate Buiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante, R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The constituent materials used to build the wooden vault over the Plenary Hall in the Spain’s Senate Building (ca 1814-1820 are analyzed in this paper. Characteristics of gypsum mortar applied on pine beams, boards and blockboard, have been determined. The esparto (=needlegrass fibre provides a framework for the gypsum mortar to ensure adhesion and forming the surface of the dome. Physical-mechanical properties of the burnt clay-lightened gypsum mortars were determined with laboratory tests, while the composition of these materials was found with XRD,SEM and IR.

    En este artículo se analizan los materiales de la bóveda encamonada que cubre el Salón de Plenos del Senado de España (hacia 1814-1820. Se han determinado en particular las características físico-mecánicas del mortero de yeso aplicado sobre vigas, tablas y enlistonados de madera de pino, entomizados con fibra de esparto para asegurar la adherencia y conformar la superficie de la bóveda. Con los análisis de DRX, SEM e IR, se ha completado la caracterización del mortero que presenta adiciones de cerámica cocida.

  17. Konsolidierte Datenmodellierung von Versorgungsdaten mit dem Entity-Attribute-Value-Modell und Data Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauch, Jens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Distributed and heterogeneous data must be integrated for health services research in a way, which is open to new requirements and easily expandable for new data sources. For data integration in the health services research domain, mainly data warehouses have been used that model data either as a dimensional or an entity-attribute-value (EAV model. However, these data models are either not flexible enough or lack data management capabilities, which makes longitudinal data analyses more difficult. We have extended the EAV approach with data vault modelling and hereby modelled the data structures of the hospital quality reports by the Gemeinsamer Bundesauschuss (G-BA and integrated data from the years 2011 to 2015 accordingly. This makes it possible to historicise metadata of features, in particular those of quality indicators, and establishes a high degree of extensibility towards new heterogeneous data sources. The proposed approach allows a free selection of the abstraction level for the entities to be modelled, so that a completely generic EAV model with historicised metadata can be created.

  18. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  19. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  20. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  1. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  2. Zen Communist: Breyten Breytenbach's view from underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an interview after his release from prison, Breyten Breytenbach describes himself, at the time he became involved in underground politics, as a Zen Communist. He returns occasionally to this interaction of Marxist ideas of social revolution and Buddhist ideas of non-attachment, but never attempts to explain the resulting ...

  3. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  4. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  5. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Underground application of magnetic resonance soundings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available that characterize the orientation of the mine wall. There is a geometric enhancement of the MRS signal under typical mining conditions for the locations studied. However, the loop size is severely restricted in underground conditions, limiting the feasible target...

  7. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ) is the project lead unit and is developing the sensors needed for underground data acquisition related to the safety application. The body of the robot is being developed by the Mechatronics and Micro-Manufacturing (MMM) group. The software component is being...

  8. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  9. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  10. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  11. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  12. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  13. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  14. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  16. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  17. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  18. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57...

  19. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  20. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  1. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  2. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  3. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochanowicz Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland’s Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p < 0.05 of lower limbs’ maximal power (1400 ± 502 W with the judges’ score for the front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points. However, the highest significant (p < 0.001 correlation with the judges’ score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64° and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s, where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score.

  4. Dry vault for spent fuel depository. Basic outsets, operating results and safety of the ''CASCAD'' plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reprocessing and recycling of fissile materials is the preferred approach to spent fuel management in France. However, a number of spent fuel elements from prototype and experimental nuclear reactors cannot be reprocessed in the existing industrial facilities, either because such facilities are booked to full capacity, or due to technical factors such as non standard nature of fuel or limited series of fuel. The CEA therefore built a facility in which spent fuel can be stored for a few decades (50 years), until favourable conditions prevail for its disposal. The main features of this project consist in a dry depositary, which presents a low cost of working, against a wet one which is more expensive due to the circulation and the continuous controls of the water. Therefore, this is a fair solution because the experimental fuels will present a rather low residual heat power after decay in the nuclear reactor. At this stage, it becomes possible to cool the fuel elements by a fully passive air circulation. This process allows a good efficiency without mechanical equipment and works all the better as the amount of heat to exhaust is great, in the limits of the design. However, we will see that this concept may be extended to a depository of standard spent fuel elements. This facility, known as ''CASCAD'' (shortening for CASemate (=vault) CADarache) started up in 1990, and received its first canister of fuel on May 29 th 1990. This paper reviews the basic design data of the facility, outlines the main techniques used for its construction, draws the safety concepts and presents the first results determined by a looking-back over 4 years of working. (author)

  5. Software Verification and Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YEH, T.

    2002-01-01

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent

  6. A pilot study of robotic uterine and vaginal vault manipulation: the ViKY Uterine Positioner™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrivos, Nikolaos; Barton-Smith, Peter

    2013-12-01

    A pilot study of uterine and vaginal vault manipulation using a new surgical robot-The ViKY Uterine Positioner™--enrolled 36 cases comprising 31 hysterectomies, two myomectomies, two sacrocolpopexies and one excision of severe endometriosis performed between July 2010 and February 2012 in a tertiary referral District General Hospital in the UK. Mean age was 48 years, body mass index 25.7 kg/m(2) and uterine weight 231 g. Nine cases were foot-controlled and 27 by Bluetooth voice control. ViKY UP™ docking time once V-Care™ was inserted was 4.3 min. The device caused no peri-operative complications. Adequate mobilization, visualization and range of movement was possible in 81, 78 and 61 % of cases, respectively, with most of the problems arising in cases with uterine weight >350 g. ViKY UP™ was detached and an assistant was required in three cases, whilst V-Care™ came out of the uterus in one case. The learning curve led to various adjustments including optimizing patient position, increasing the device range of movement and adjusting device sensitivity. As a result, problems were minimized in our last nine cases. Adding robotic uterine manipulation is the obvious next step to give the gynecologist the ultimate control and stability of the uterus during robotic-assisted surgery without having to lift their head from the viewfinder or rely on a remotely situated perineal assistant. ViKY UP™ is the first device to deliver this. Pilot study results did not demonstrate compromised safety, and the device appears to be effective and easy to learn.

  7. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  10. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  11. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  12. Underground Engineering: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzalai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    UNDERGROUND ENGINEERING: Opportunities, Challenges and Innovation. Complexity, sustainability, safety, security, versatility, creativity, and innovation are essential themes driving engineering science today. The world is changing rapidly and although the content and methods of engineering are evolving with it, an engineer's professional mission remains the same: to solve problems and make decisions. The application of new software such as BIM, Digital Project and Advanced TBM is shaping the...

  13. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available their locations. The paper will build on previous work done by Forster[8] and Vorst et al.[9] by implementing the proposed hybrid SLAM method on the mining safety platform, which will eventually be used in an underground environment. II. NAVIGATION... AND LOCALISATION SCHEME A. Exploration and clustering The algorithm used for exploring the RFID environment is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Algorithm used for exploring RFID environment Given sufficient (more than 500 steps per 25 square metres) simulation...

  14. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  15. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  16. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  17. Prediction of neutron induced radioactivity in the concrete walls of a PET cyclotron vault room with MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, J Javier; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The authors want to assess the relevance of the neutron activation of the concrete vault of the PET cyclotron at CIMES (Universidad de Malaga) by predicting specific activities of the main activation products in the vault and their variation profiles as a function of penetration depth into concrete at present and after 10 yr of cyclotron operation. The dual proton cyclotron is used for PET isotopes production, mainly 18F. During the years 2006 and 2008, the using rate has been 1 h/day at single beam (40 microA). From January 2008, using rate is 4 h/day at dual beam (80 microA). The energy of the cyclotron proton beam is 18 MeV. Four point locations were chosen on the walls of the cyclotron room to assess neutron induced activity concentrations. In each wall point location, neutron induced radionuclide specific activity was assessed from the wall surface to a depth of 120 cm within concrete. Simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo based radiation transport code MCNPX (v2.6.0). According to MCNPX calculations, activity depth profiles of activation products studied, except 54Mn, have a maximum at variable depths from the wall surface never beyond 12 cm. 54Mn activity decreases exponentially in all the studied depth ranges within wall concrete. The activity of 152Eu, 154Eu, 60CO, 134Cs, 46Sc, and 65Zn decreases exponentially beyond a 30 cm depth into concrete. 54Mn activity presents the faster decrease within a concrete vault with an attenuation length of 21 cm. According to MCNPX estimations, present activity in the cyclotron vault is mostly due to 46Sc and 60Co, with highest specific activity near the vault surface of 146 +/- 16 and 50 +/- 4.6 Bq/kg, respectively. 46Sc and 60Co activity measurements near the surface wall present an acceptable match with the estimation within the uncertainties, but measured activities of the other radionuclides are quite over the MCNPX estimations. The calculations after 10 yr of cyclotron operation predict a slight increase

  18. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  19. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  20. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  1. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  2. Monitoring underground water leakage pattern by ground penetrating radar (GPR) using 800 MHz antenna frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, T. S. T.; Ismail, M. P.; Ahmad, M. R.; Amin, M. S. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sani, S.; Masenwat, N. A.; Basri, N. S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Water is the most treasure natural resources, however, a huge amount of water are lost during its distribution that leads to water leakage problem. The leaks meant the waste of money and created more economic loss to treat and fix the damaged pipe. Researchers and engineers have put tremendous attempts and effort, to solve the water leakage problem especially in water leakage of buried pipeline. An advanced technology of ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been established as one of the non-destructive testing (NDT) method to detect the underground water pipe leaking. This paper focuses on the ability of GPR in water utility field especially on detection of water leaks in the underground pipeline distribution. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out using 800-MHz antenna, where the performance of GPR on detecting underground pipeline and locating water leakage was investigated and validated. A prototype to recreate water-leaking system was constructed using a 4-inch PVC pipe. Different diameter of holes, i.e. ¼ inch, ½ inch, and ¾ inch, were drilled into the pipe to simulate the water leaking. The PVC pipe was buried at the depth of 60 cm into the test bed that was filled with dry sand. 15 litres of water was injected into the PVC pipe. The water leakage patterns in term of radargram data were gathered. The effectiveness of the GPR in locating the underground water leakage was ascertained, after the results were collected and verified.

  3. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyichev, Vyacheslav; Nikiforova, Nadezhda; Konnov, Artem

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by "Moscow method" is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts) and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method) are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  4. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  5. Research plan on Horonobe Underground Research Program. Result report on survey research in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Center planned to construct at Horonobe-town in Hokkaido by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), is one of research facilities on deep underground shown in item on processing and disposal of the radioactive wastes in the 'long-term program on research, development and application on nuclear energy', and is planned to carry out a study on deep underground at an object of the sedimentary rocks. This report is summary of results on survey research carried out at 2000 fiscal year. Here was described on a summary of results on survey research carried out in 2000 fiscal year according to the 'Survey Research Plan in Fiscal Year 2000 of the Underground Research Laboratory (temporary name) Project'. As the Horonobe deep stratum research plan is established to carry out under three steps of 'survey research from earth surface', 'survey research under excavation of a tunnel', and 'survey research under application of the tunnel'. In fiscal year 2000, the first step of the survey research from earth surface' was begun from March, 2001. And, on study on geological science and R and D on stratum disposal, together with intending of concrete execution of survey research contents, a part of literature survey was begun. On a survey actually performed at site, in the environmental survey, the hearing investigation on inhabiting situation of rare flora and fauna, and situation of utilization of the groundwater of Horonobe town were carried out. (G.K.)

  6. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyichev Vyacheslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by “Moscow method” is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  7. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in NHS utilisation of vault smear tests in women post-hysterectomy: A study, using routinely collected datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sue

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 20% of women living in the UK have a hysterectomy during their lifetime, levels are higher in the USA, making it one of the most commonly performed major surgical procedures. Understanding of the indications for hysterectomy and of the rationale for follow-up of women post hysterectomy is currently limited. Guidelines concerning follow-up by means of vaginal vault cytology tests exist but these are not based on 'gold standard' evidence. Furthermore, the extent to which current practice reflects these guidelines is unclear. This study aims to determine the factors associated with variability in hysterectomy rates and subsequent follow-up after surgery by use of the vaginal vault smear cytology test. Methods/Design All women resident in the West Midlands region, of the United Kingdom, who had a hysterectomy operation between 1st April 2002 and 30th March 2003 will be identified from the Hospital Episodes Statistics database which also contains proxy data on deprivation status, derived from postcode and self declared ethnicity. These data will be linked to regional cervical screening records for each woman and histopathology laboratory records from the relevant hospitals. Study objectives are to describe: Indications for the hysterectomy operation, histology at hysterectomy, subsequent follow-up by use or non-use of vaginal vault cytology tests and variation between histological groups. Additionally the data will be categorised according to a woman's cytology screening history prior to surgery (i.e. always normal, borderline, resolved abnormalities, CIN etc and these different groups compared. Variations in these outcomes according to age, deprivation and ethnic group will also be examined. Analysis will be undertaken using SPSS. Discussion This study will clarify patterns of current practice in one large English region and determine whether this practice reflects existing guidelines. The study will also strengthen the evidence

  9. Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Pratima Datta; Chuan, Han How

    2016-03-01

    There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

  10. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  11. Specialized video systems for use in underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendom, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site and the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) program within DOE. Figure 1 shows the remote video/photography systems in a typical underground storage tank environment. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and from the tank, and all viewing functions are remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Overview video systems, both monaural and stereo versions, include a camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, vertical deployment system, and positional feedback. Each independent video package can be inserted through a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter opening. A special attribute of these packages is their design to never get larger than the entry hole during operation and to be fully retrievable. The End Effector systems will be deployed on the large robotic Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) being developed by other portions of the OTD-DOE programs. The systems implement a multi-functional ''over the coax'' design that uses a single coaxial cable for all data and control signals over the more than 900 foot cable (or fiber optic) link

  12. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  13. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  14. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  15. The potential for stress corrosion cracking of copper containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault has been assessed through a review of the literature and comparison of those environmental factors that cause SCC with the expected disposal environment. Stress-corrosion cracking appears to be an unlikely failure mode for Cu containers in a Canadian disposal vault because of a combination of environmental factors. Most importantly, there is only a relatively short period during which the containers will be undergoing strain when cracking should be possible at all, and then cracking is not expected because of the absence of known SCC agents, such as NH 3 , NO 2 - or organic acids. In addition, other environmental factors will mitigate SCC, namely, the presence of C1 - and its effect on film properties and the limited supply of oxidants. These arguments, to greater or lesser extent, apply to the three major mechanisms proposed for SCC of Cu alloys in aqueous solutions: film-rupture/anodic dissolution, tarnish rupture and film-induced cleavage. Detailed reviews of the SCC literature are presented as Appendices. The literature on the SCC of Cu (>99 wt.% Cu) is reviewed, including studies carried out in a number of countries under nuclear waste disposal conditions. Because of similarities with the behaviour of Cu, the more extensive literature on the SCC of α-brass in ammonia solutions is also reviewed. (author). 140 refs., 3 tabs., 25 figs

  16. A Comparison of Complications between Open Abdominal Sacrocolpopexy and Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for the Treatment of Vault Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lotte W. M. Coolen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sacrocolpopexy is a generally applied treatment for vault prolapse which can be performed laparoscopically or by open laparotomy. Methods. Between October 2007 and December 2012, we performed a multicenter prospective cohort study in 2 university and 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. We included patients with symptomatic posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse requiring surgical treatment, who either had abdominal or laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. We studied surgery related morbidity, which was divided in pre-, peri-, and postoperative characteristics. Results. We studied 85 patients, of whom 42 had open abdominal and 43 laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. In the laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy group, estimated blood loss was significantly less compared to the abdominal group: 192 mL (±126 versus 77 mL (±182, respectively (P≤.001. Furthermore, hospital stay was significantly shorter in the laparoscopic group (4.2 days as compared to the abdominal group (2.4 days (P≤.001. The overall complication rate was not significantly different (P=.121. However there was a significant difference in favor of the laparoscopic group in peri- and postoperative complications requiring complementary (conservative treatment and/or extended admittance (RR 0.24 (95%-CI 0.07–0.80, P=.009. Conclusion. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy reduces blood loss and hospital stay as compared to abdominal sacrocolpopexy and generates less procedure related morbidity.

  17. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.

  18. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Hitz

    Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.

  19. An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fayaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Available space in congested cities is getting scarce due to growing urbanization in the recent past. The utilization of underground space is considered as a solution to the limited space in smart cities. The numbers of underground facilities are growing day by day in the developing world. Typical underground facilities include the transit subway, parking lots, electric lines, water supply and sewer lines. The likelihood of the occurrence of accidents due to underground facilities is a random phenomenon. To avoid any accidental loss, a risk assessment method is required to conduct the continuous risk assessment and report any abnormality before it happens. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical fuzzy inference based model for under-ground risk assessment. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy inference architecture reduces the total number of rules from the rule base. Rule reduction is important because the curse of dimensionality damages the transparency and interpretation as it is very tough to understand and justify hundreds or thousands of fuzzy rules. The computation time also increases as rules increase. The proposed model takes 175 rules having eight input parameters to compute the risk index, and the conventional fuzzy logic requires 390,625 rules, having the same number of input parameters to compute risk index. Hence, the proposed model significantly reduces the curse of dimensionality. Rule design for fuzzy logic is also a tedious task. In this paper, we have also introduced new rule schemes, namely maximum rule-based and average rule-based; both schemes can be used interchangeably according to the logic needed for rule design. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a virtuous choice for risk index calculation where the numbers of variables are greater.

  20. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain 238 U and 232 Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; 226 Ra ( 214 Bi), 232 Th e 40 K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m -3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m -3 . The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a -1 (mean 10 mSv.a -1 ). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  1. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  2. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  3. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; CHENG Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  4. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  5. The Underground "Fortress" of Bang Tsho Ruler

    OpenAIRE

    Pelgen, Ugyen; Gyeltshen, Tshering

    2004-01-01

    The Bang Tsho village was part of the Kurtoed Province in North Eastern Bhutan. The authors deals with the underground architecture of this village. The article is based on a field visit carried out in November 2002. While the main focus of field work was on discerning the migration routes of the sKur smad speaking population of Lhun rtse rDzong khag to other rDzong khags in particular bKra shsi gang and bKra shis yang rtse the authors visited also the Bang tsho village and examined the ruins...

  6. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  7. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  8. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  10. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  11. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  12. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  13. How air quality can be monitored in an underground uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Gangal, M.; Knight, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mining of uranium ores in underground uranium mines releases and produces a great variety of substances which readily become airborne, posing a potential health hazard to occupational workers. The substances are either released, or their 'normal' rate of release when no mining activity is present is increased as a consequence of certain mining operations, including blasting, drilling, and mucking. They may also be produced as a result of the use of tools, artifacts, and machinery utilized in mining operations. This paper reports on parallel measurements of radiation, dust and meteorological variables during several mining operations in a Canadian underground mine. Measurements were conducted at three uranium mines for a combined period of several weeks

  14. A method of modeling time-dependent rock damage surrounding underground excavations in multiphase groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian-Frear, T.; Freeze, G.

    1997-01-01

    Underground excavations produce damaged zones surrounding the excavations which have disturbed hydrologic and geomechanical properties. Prediction of fluid flow in these zones must consider both the mechanical and fluid flow processes. Presented here is a methodology which utilizes a mechanical model to predict damage and disturbed rock zone (DRZ) development around the excavation and then uses the predictions to develop time-dependent DRZ porosity relationships. These relationships are then used to adjust the porosity of the DRZ in the fluid flow model based upon the time and distance from the edge of the excavation. The application of this methodology is presented using a site-specific example from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a US Department of Energy facility in bedded salts being evaluated for demonstration of the safe underground disposal of transuranic waste from US defense-related activities

  15. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  16. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  17. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  18. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  20. Pipe locator for imaging underground pipelines (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Wasa, Y.; Mori, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, it becomes more important to locate the complex piping patterns such as tee, bend, riser, and the others with high accuracy for maintenance and protection of city gas pipelines. Hence, we have developed a new pipe locator system for imaging the complex underground pipelines using magnetic remote sensing techniques. The main framework of this development is the application of the pattern recognition of the magnetic field distribution to the location of buried pipelines in urban areas. The first step for imaging the complex pipelines is to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high accuracy which is generated by the passage of the alternating signal current through buried pipeline. For this purpose a portable trolley unit which is capable of scanning the ground to collect data, the 10 three-axes coil sensors with a sensitivity of 1 μG which are aligned in the unit, and a filter system using a FFT signal processor which eliminates urban magnetic noise as high as 10 mG in some cases, were developed. The second step is to process the magnetic field distribution data, to extract the feature of the underground pipeline using the contour diagram and the three-dimensional drawing of the magnetic field, and to identify the complex piping patterns. Further, we recognized that a nonlinear least-square method algorithm for calculation of the pipeline's position was useful to improve the location accuracy.

  1. Shielding evaluation of a medical linear accelerator vault in preparation for installing a high-dose rate 252Cf remote after-loader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, C. S.; Rivard, M. J.; KurKomelis, J.; Liddle, C. B.; Masse, F. X.

    2005-01-01

    In support of the effort to begin high-dose rate 252 Cf brachytherapy treatments at Tufts-New England Medical Center, the shielding capabilities of a clinical accelerator vault against the neutron and photon emissions from a 1.124 mg 252 Cf source were examined. Outside the clinical accelerator vault, the fast neutron dose equivalent rate was below the lower limit of detection of a CR-39 etched track detector and below 0.14 ± 0.02 μSv h -1 with a proportional counter, which is consistent, within the uncertainties, with natural background. The photon dose equivalent rate was also measured to be below background levels (0.1 μSv h -1 ) using an ionisation chamber and an optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport through the accelerator vault was performed to validate measured values and determine the thermal-energy to low-energy neutron component. Monte Carlo results showed that the dose equivalent rate from fast neutrons was reduced by a factor of 100,000 after attenuation through the vault wall, and the thermal-energy neutron dose equivalent rate would be an additional factor of 1000 below that of the fast neutrons. Based on these findings, the shielding installed in this facility is sufficient for the use of at least 5.0 mg of 252 Cf. (authors)

  2. Bridging the Gap: Capturing the Lyα Counterpart of a Type-II Spicule and its Heating Evolution with VAULT2.0 and IRIS Campaign Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Mendes Domingos Pereira, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Tun Beltran, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the analysis of data from the observing campaign in support to the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on September 30, 2014. VAULT2.0 is a Lyα (1216 Å) spectroheliograph capable of providing fast cadence spectroheliograms of high-spectral purity. High resolution Lyα observations are highly complementary with the IRIS observations of the upper chromosphere and the low transition region but have previously been unavailable. The VAULT2.0 data provide critical, new upper-chromospheric constraints for numerical models. The observing campaign was closely coordinated with the IRIS mission. Taking advantage of this simultaneous multi-wavelength coverage of target AR 12172 and by using state-of-the-art radiative-MHD simulations of spicules, we are able to perform a detailed investigation of a type-II spicule associated with a fast apparent network jet recorded in the campaign observations during the VAULT2.0 flight. Our unique analysis suggests that spicular material exists suspended in lower temperatures until it rapidly gets heated and becomes visible in transition-region temperatures as an apparent network jet.

  3. Study on heat removal capability of calandria vault water from molten corium in calandria vessel during severe accident of a PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Sumit Vishnu, E-mail: svprasad@barc.gov.in; Nayak, Arun Kumar; Kulkarni, Primal Pramod; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan; Vaze, Keshav K.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Scaled test set up simulating the calandria vessel and calandria vault water of PHWR. • Experiments conducted with simulant material at 1100 °C. • Investigation of heat transfer from the melt pool to the outside vault water through calandria vessel. • Numerical analysis to study the capability of calandria vault to remove decay heat from molten pool in calandria vessel. - Abstract: Recent Fukushima nuclear accident has triggered further awareness amongst reactor designers regarding enhancing the safety measures in a nuclear reactor. It has become important to analyse the capability of decay heat removal in a reactor to avoid radioactivity releases to the environment. Such a study has been carried out for an Indian PHWR. In a hypothetical severe core damage accident in PHWR, multiple failure of the core cooling system may lead to collapse of pressure tubes and calandria tubes, which may ultimately relocate inside the calandria vessel forming a debris bed. Due to decay heat generation, the debris ultimately melts down forming a molten pool inside calandria vessel. Calandria vessel is surrounded by calandria vault water that acts as heat sink. In order to study the extent of heat transfer from molten pool to surrounding water under severe accident condition, an experiment was carried out wherein a simulant material was poured inside a simulated calandria vessel immersed in the simulated calandria vault water. The amount of melt and water present in calandria vault scaled proportionately with regard to an Indian 700 MWe PHWR. Results show that as soon as the melt was poured in the vessel, a thick crust was formed on the inner calandria vessel, which reduced the heat transfer from the melt pool to vault water resulting high temperature gradient in melt. Even though the cylindrical vessel inner temperature was found to be very high, the water outside the vessel never boiled. When the cylindrical vessel was opened after the experiment, there was no

  4. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  5. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  6. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  7. ORGANIZE AN INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERGROUND SPACE OF MEGAPOLISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Pustovoytenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forecasting the trends of urbanization, the main factors influencing the modern methods of organization of development of the underground construction of mega-cities, during the substantiation of field of integrated use and composition of organizational-and-technological schemes of development of underground space, is considered.

  8. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  9. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  10. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  11. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.

    1985-01-01

    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  12. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Environment and the Department of Petroleum Resources control underground disposal of wastes in Nigeria with three principal regulations: Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground Injection and the ...

  13. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground...) Ventilated with intake air that is monitored for carbon monoxide or smoke by an AMS installed and operated...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Involve activation of the fire alarm system; and (3) Include evacuation of all persons from their work... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At...

  15. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  16. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  17. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  18. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  19. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  1. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  2. Does Receiving a Blood Transfusion Predict for Length of Stay in Children Undergoing Cranial Vault Remodeling for Craniosynostosis? Outcomes Using the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michael R; Alden, Tord; Momin, Mohmed Vasim; Olsson, Alexis B; Jurado, Ray J; Abdullah, Fizan; Miloro, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset. The primary predictor variable was whether patients received a blood transfusion during cranial vault remodeling. The primary outcome variable was length of hospital stay after the operation. The association between the receipt of blood transfusions and length of stay was assessed using the Student t test. The association between other covariates and the outcome variable was assessed using linear regression, analysis of variance, and the Tukey test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The sample was composed of 756 patients who underwent cranial vault remodeling: 503 who received blood transfusions and 253 who did not. The primary predictor variable of blood transfusion was associated with an increased length of stay (4.1 days vs 3.0 days, P = .03). Other covariates associated with an increased length of stay included race, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premature birth, presence of a congenital malformation, and number of sutures involved in craniosynostosis. The receipt of a blood transfusion in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling was associated with an increased length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  4. Saltstone Vault Classification Samples Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit/Actinide Removal Process Waste Stream April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B and W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B and W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B and W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most

  5. Near-field transport of 129I from a point source in an in-room disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.; Leneveu, D.M.; Johnson, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    A very small number of disposal containers of heat generating nuclear waste may have initial manufacturing defects that would lead to pin-hole type failures at the time of or shortly after emplacement. For sufficiently long-lived containers, only the initial defects need to be considered in modeling of release rates from the disposal vault. Two approaches to modeling of near-field mass transport from a single point source within a disposal room have been compared: the finite-element code MOTIF (A Model Of Transport In Fractured/porous media) and a boundary integral method (BIM). These two approaches were found to give identical results for a simplified model of the disposal room without groundwater flow. MOTIF has then been used to study the effects of groundwater flow on the mass transport out of the emplacement room

  6. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  7. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  8. Underground openings for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

    1982-01-01

    In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

  9. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  10. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  11. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  12. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  13. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  14. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  15. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  16. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  18. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  19. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extrapolation of creep behavior of high-density polyethylene liner in the Catch Basin of grout vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176 degrees F to 212 degrees F (80 degrees C to 100 degrees C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194 degrees F (90 degrees C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194 degrees F (90 degrees C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report