WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground pumped storage

  1. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  2. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    EW-201135) Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage March 2017 This document has been cleared for...09/2011-03/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a...v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGWT American Ground Water Trust AHU Air Handling Unit ATES Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage BTES Borehole

  3. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground cav...

  4. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS). Midyear program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Tam, S.W.

    1979-04-01

    The midyear program report on underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) delineates program management and support elements through milestones, work proposal and authorization chart tasks, and activities for FY79 and 80. The section on subcontractors and their assigned tasks details the operating characteristcs of single- and double-stage, reversible, Franccis-type pump turbines. System studies are discussed in terms of machinery costs, plant sizes, and pump-turbine efficiencies, and results and conclusions are presented. In general, the utilization of advanced turbomachinery seems to be justified for UPHS plants.

  5. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) With Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (USTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    TECHNICAL GUIDANCE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) With Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (USTES) ESTCP Project EW-201135 MARCH...Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Geothermal Heat Pumps, thermal , energy storage Page Intentionally Left Blank i TECHNICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL

  6. Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (EW-201135)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    FINAL REPORT Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage ESTCP Project EW-201135 MARCH 2017...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 2.1. Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES) Overview ............................................................ 8

  7. Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (UPHS). Program report, April 1-September 30, 1979. ANL Activity No. 49964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Tam, S.W.; Clinch, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Storage activities for the second half of FY 1979 are described. Activities include program management and support, subcontract work, and systems studies. Information is given on the preliminary design, hydraulic performance, and cost of high-head, 350-MW capacity, single- and two-stage reversible, Francis-type pump turbines. Similar information is also presented on 350- and 500-MW capacity, multistage, unregulated, reversible, pump turbines. An assessment of the application potential of controlled-flow rate pumps and pump turbines is included. The effects of the charge/discharge ratio of a pumped stoage plant is also discussed.

  8. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  9. Feasibility studies for pump and treat technology at leaking underground storage tank sites in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Pekas, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Releases from underground storage tanks have resulted in impacts to groundwater at thousands of sites across the US. Investigations of these sites were initiated on a national basis with the implementation of federal laws that became effective December 22, 1989 (40 CFR 280). Completion of these investigations has led to a wave of design and installation of pump and treat aquifer restoration systems where impacts to groundwater have been confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to provide managers with a demonstration of some of the techniques that can be used by the consulting industry in evaluating the feasibility of pump and treat systems. With knowledge of these tools, managers can better evaluate proposals for system design and their cost effectiveness. To evaluate the effectiveness of typical pump and treat systems for leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites in Michigan, ten sites where remedial design had been completed were randomly chosen for review. From these ten, two sites were selected that represented the greatest contrast in the types of site conditions encountered. A release of gasoline at Site 1 resulted in contamination of groundwater and soil with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

  10. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall be...

  11. Study of certain economic aspects of turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, S.W.; Clinch, J.M.

    1979-12-01

    The economics of underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) were analyzed in two ways. First, the cost effects of a variety of machinery-related factors on a UPHS plant were estimated. Second, four actual turbomachinery options were evaluated in terms of those factors. Preliminary conclusions about UPHS costs are as follows: the use of advanced turbomachinery is more economical than the use of state-of-art turbomachinery; plant-construction cost and the cost of the turbomachinery itself decrease as the operating head increases (The lowest costs now occur at a head range of 1200 to 1500 m for a UPHS plant designed on the single-drop principle. A machine's high charge/discharge ratio also lowers construction cost.); and pump/turbine efficiencies and charge/discharge ratios represent very important design parameters for UPHS applications. One of the advanced options considered, a two-stage reversible pump/turbine engineered for Argonne by the Allis-Chalmers Hydro-Turbine Division, appears to have the most cost-effective design for high-head applications (1000 to 2000 m). Further development of the two-stage concept promises future heads greater than 1500 m.

  12. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  13. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    research project, funded by Mercator Research Center Ruhr has been performed to investigate the field of application of coal mines for underground pumped storage plants (UPP). In further research, in co-operation with the Ruhrkohle AG coal mines in the Ruhr Area will be investigated (Niemann, 2011). The coal mine "Prosper-Haniel" is located in the northern part of the Ruhr Area and shafts have a maximum depth of 1,159 m. It will be closed in 2018. In principal two different designs had been investigated (Luick 2011). The first is a closed system in which water circulates isolated from surrounding groundwater in drifts and shafts supported by casings. The second one is an open system, with a varying groundwater table at a defined depth. Problems resulting from this are the stability of the surrounding rock, its porosity and fissurization, composition of mine waters, the necessity of new drifts and shafts or the upgrading of old ones. In addition, the configuration and arrangement of turbines, pumps and ventilation shafts play an important role. The presentation gives an outline towards problems and challenges which have to be solved in order to establish an innovative contribution for future energy storage.

  14. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  15. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  16. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  17. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  18. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  19. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  20. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  1. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  2. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  4. International Conference on Underground Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Energy Storage, San Francisco, CA, September 20-22, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Topics discussed include an assessment of the market potential of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, turbocompressor considerations in CAES plants, subsurface geological considerations in siting an underground pumped hydro (UPH) project, and the preliminary assessment of waste heat recovery system for CAES plants. Also considered are CAES caverns design for leakage, simulation of the champagne effect in CAES plants, design of wells and piping for an aquifer CAES plant, various aspects of the Huntor CAES facility, low-pressure CAES, subsurface instrumentation plan for the Pittsfield CAES field test facility, and the feasibility of UPH storage in the Netherlands.

  5. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  6. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  7. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches - UPH. Appendix B: Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    An assessment of shaft requirements for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility is documented. Shaft requirements for both the construction and the permanent operation phases of the facility are outlined. Possible shaft arrangements are developed and the design of shaft linings is discussed. Methods of shaft sinking are reviewed. Alternative schedules for the sinking of the shafts are described and a preferred schedule selected. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft. Studies subsequently carried out, including power plant design, head optimization analyses for the overall UPH surface and underground configuration, and further refinement of selected designs, have modified some of the material given.

  10. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  11. Underground storage of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.; Nougarede, F.

    1976-01-01

    The interest laying in heat storage is envisaged taking account of the new energy context, with a view to optimizing the use of production means of heat sources hardly modulated according to the demand. In such a way, a natural medium, without any constructions cost but only an access cost is to be used. So, porous and permeable rocky strata allowing the use of a pressurized water flow as a transfer fluid are well convenient. With such a choice high temperatures (200 deg C) may be obtained, that are suitable for long transmissions. A mathematical model intended for solving the conservation equations in the case of heat storage inside a confined water layer is discussed. An approach of the operating conditions of storage may involve either a line-up arrangement (with the hot drilling at the center, the cold drillings being aligned on both sides) or a radial arrangement (with cold drillings at the peripheral edge encircling the hot drilling at the center of the layer). The three principal problems encountered are: starting drilling, and the circuit insulation and control [fr

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  13. Preliminary design studies of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 10: Environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Results of preliminary environmental assessments for a proposed UPH or CAES demonstration facility are presented. Included are characterizations of the existing environment of the sunshine site in Montgomery County, Maryland, and assessments of environmental impacts and public safety concerns. Elements of the existing environment which are considered sensitive are described. Environmental impacts are identified, rated, and described for both alternative demonstration facilities. Public safety concerns for both alternative demonstration facilities are also identified and discussed. These include, for both UPH and CAES, underground cavern collapse and surface subsidence, explosives, site security, icing, upper reservoir failure, and mechanical failure of plant equipment. In addition, fuel handling and the champagne effect are addressed for CAES.

  14. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  15. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 2. Two-stage regulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    This UPHS report applies to Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines regulated with gating systems. The first report, however, covered single-stage regulations; this report covers two-stage regulations. Development of a two-stage regulated pump/turbine appears to be attractive because the proposed single-drop UPHS concept requires turbomachinery with a head range of 1000 to 2000 m. With turbomachinery of this range available, the single-drop scheme offers a simple and economic UPHS option. Six different two-stage, top-gated pump/turbines have been analyzed: three that generate 500 MW and three that generate 350 MW. In each capacity, one machine has an operating head of 1000 m, another has a head of 1250 m, and the third has a head of 1500 m. The rated efficiencies of the machines vary from about 90% (1000-m head) to about 88% (1500-m head). Costs in 1978 $/kW for the three 500-MW units are: 20.5 (1000 m), 16.5 (1250 m), and 13.5 (1500 m). Corresponding costs for the three 350-MW units are 23, 18, and 14 $/kW. No major turbomachinery obstacles are foreseen that could hamper development of these pump/turbines. Further model testing and development are needed before building them.

  17. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  18. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  19. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  20. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  1. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district; Zur Machbarkeit untertaegiger Pumpspeicherwerke in den aktiven Steinkohlebergwerken des Ruhrreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Andre; Wortberg, Timo [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft; Eilert, Walter [RAG AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Standort- und Geodienste

    2013-08-15

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem. [German] Mit dem Auslaufen des Steinkohlenbaus im Jahre 2018 hinterlaesst der Bergbau eine umfangreiche Infrastruktur. Schachttiefen von bis zu 1200 m, zahlreiche Ausbauten in der Tiefe und eine grossraeumige Wasserhaltung eroeffnen gegebenfalls Perspektiven fuer eine Folgenutzung als untertaegiges Pumpspeicherwerk. Damit koennte an den heutigen Bergbauorten ein Beitrag zur Energiespeicherproblematik verfolgt werden.

  2. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  3. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  4. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Planning an underground pumped hydro project for the Commonwealth Edison Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. H.; Berman, I. A.

    The conceptual project design for a one-drop 3 GW underground pumped hydro energy storage in Illinois is presented. A one-drop two stage design was chosen over a one-drop one stage and one and two stage two-drop designs for reasons of cost and flexibility. Water is to be pumped into a bisected upper reservoir set in preCambrian granite, which is sufficiently impermeable to water; the 10.4 million cu m reservoir can then be used as a load leveler as it drains through a pump/turbine into a 9.5 million cu m lower reservoir. Initial studies indicate that pumped hydro storage exceeds the efficiencies of both oil and peaking plant generation. Due to a decrease in the projected rate of increase of electrical demand, the project has been deferred, allowing time for work on ultrahigh-head pump turbines.

  7. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, G.N.

    1975-07-01

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  8. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  9. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  10. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  11. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches, CAES. Appendix D: Mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The development of the design approach taken for the mechanical systems included in a compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility were documented. Design approaches developed the fuel oil system, water supply system, waste treatment system, fire protection and safety system, and miscellaneous plant services are based on similar designs for conventional utility plants because the operating characteristics, design parameters, and equipment capabilities for CAES plant mechanical systems are similar to standard utility systems. The design approach for each of these systems develops several alternatives for achieving the CAES plant requirements in each area. The preferred alternative is then expanded into a preliminary system description.

  13. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH. Appendix A: Upper reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Overriding considerations including operating range, volume and lining of reservoir, embankment design, intake/outlet arrangements and filling and make up water provisions were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to the selection of a reservoir formed by embankment of compacted rockfill together with an intake/outlet structure located in the embankment. The reservoir floor and upstream slopes of the embankment will have an asphalt lining to prevent leakage. The material and cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  14. Pumped storage - necessary and sensible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive article takes a look at the long-established technique of using pumped storage schemes to temporarily store electricity. Here, excess power is used to pump water back into high-level reservoirs during low-load periods so that it can be used to generate electricity during peak periods. Ecological and energy-loss aspects are discussed as are the objections raised by environmental agencies. An overview of the present situation and the operation of such installations in Switzerland is provided. Future developments in this area and the role played in the European power system are discussed. Comparisons are made between hydro-electric peak power production and that using gas turbines and other systems. In particular, the efficiencies and the carbon dioxide loading involved are looked at. Also, the situation with power generation using new renewables is examined and the economic prerequisites for the operation of such schemes are looked at

  15. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  16. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH. Appendix E: Lower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Operational, construction, and geotechnical requirements were examined. Overriding considerations including operating range, volume, construction methods, cavern cross section and reservoir layout were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to a preliminary arrangement of fourteen parallel caverns, each 60 ft wide by 85 ft high in cross section and 3610 ft in length. The requirements for and preliminary design of the intermediate reservoir in the case of a two step UPH facility is also described. The design and the cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage at a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  17. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  18. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage... underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... as defined in § 280.210; and (b) Does not engage in petroleum production, refining, and marketing as...

  19. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  20. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  1. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  2. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  3. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland

  4. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  5. The underground storages of carbon dioxide. Juridical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersani, F.

    2006-04-01

    In the framework of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the air, the underground storage of the CO 2 is studied. Some experimentation are already realized in the world and envisaged in France. This document aims to study the juridical aspects of these first works in France. After a presentation of the realization conditions and some recalls on the carbon dioxide its capture and storage, the natural CO 2 underground storages and the first artificial storages are discussed. The CO 2 waste qualification, in the framework of the environmental legislation is then detailed with a special task on the Lacq region. The problem of the sea underground storages is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  6. EPRI's pumped storage planning and evaluation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    EPRI's Hydropower Pumped Storage Planning and Evaluation Guide was published in 1990. The Guide provides step-by-step procedures to: evaluate pumped-storage operation in a utility system, establish site development concept, estimate capital cost, and conduct economic analysis. The Guide provides a floppy diskette containing a production costing model simulating the chronologic operation of pumped storage in a generating system. It provides a series of estimating curves for the preparation of capital cost estimates. The paper presents how the Guide was organized and prepared, and highlights its contents

  7. Aims, organization and activities of the consortium for underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, G.

    1977-01-01

    The consortium of Swiss authorities interested in underground storage (the petroleum oil and gas industries, for fuel storage; the nuclear industry for radioactive waste disposal), was initiated in 1972. The author outlines the motives behind the formation of the consortium and outlines its structure and objectives. The envisaged projects are outlined. (F.Q.)

  8. Prospects for Pump Storage HPP in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Andonov-Chento, Ilija; Nikolov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of the development of new pump storage HPP in the Republic of Macedonia, mostly in the context of the liberalization of the energy market, was considered as a priority in the country’s energy policy due to the following reasons: (1) Macedonia has favorable topography and geology for construction of pump storage HPP, (2)Favorable geographical position and sufficient regional electricity interconnections, especially with countries with dominant thermal power generation, and (3)Lar...

  9. Electricity storage by gas pumping. An introduction to thermodynamic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To date, Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) is practically the only technology used to store large quantities of electricity. There are however other ways to achieve the same goal. There are not yet well known, because the interest for large scale storage is quite new A complete family of storage technologies can be defined as 'Thermodynamic Storage Systems'. Their only common factor is that a gas is pumped and expanded in the process. If the gas is air taken from the atmosphere and discharged to it, the system is said 'an open system'. This is already developed in the form of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Different embodiments are possible, following the way the heat gene - rated during the compression stage is conserved. The compressed air is generally stored in underground caverns created in deep salt formations. 2 installations are presently operating and many projects are envisaged. if the gas circulates in closed loop within the plant, the system is said 'a closed system' In this case, the energy is stored as heat and/or cold at different temperature levels. A great variety of technologies can be imagined and are under development, using different gases (e.g. argon, CO 2 ) and different temperature ranges. PHS and CAES require specific sites for water reservoirs or underground caverns. The dosed systems can be installed basically anywhere. (author)

  10. Small and low head pumped storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarechian, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus attention on small and low head pumped storage projects. These projects may be defined as having a capacity of less than 200-300 MW and down to about 20 MW, with heads of 1200 ft to about 300 ft or less. Many advantages of these smaller pumped storage projects include more flexibility in siting of a project, considerably shorter licensing and construction period, adaptability to closed system design concept to reduce adverse environmental impacts, considerably reduced risks of delays and substantial cost over-runs, better suited to meeting peaking capacity requirements for individual utilities, and much less transmission inter-connection requirements. An overall licensing and construction schedule of about 3 to 3 1/2 years is realistic for many smaller pumped storage projects, and competitive costs in terms of dollars per kW installed can be achieved

  11. Underground gas storage in the World - Cedigaz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benquey, R.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' provides an update to the previous survey released by CEDIGAZ in 2006. At that time, 610 underground gas storage (UGS) facilities were in operation worldwide, with a working capacity of 319 billion cubic metres (bcm). As of 1 January 2010, this number had reached 642 facilities with a working gas capacity of 333 bcm, or 10.8% of world gas consumption. By 2020, the global UGS demand is expected to grow at a pace of 3.3% per year, and according to the projects identified, more than 760 UGS sites could be active in the world with a total working capacity of approximately 465 bcm. In this survey, CEDIGAZ analyses the following trends which characterise the rapid development of underground gas storage in the world: - the strong dynamics of the European storage market, where 127 projects could add 75 bcm of working capacity by 2020, - the continued development of the UGS market in the United States (49 projects), encouraged by market-based rates allowed by the FERC, and rapid permitting processes, - the development of facilities in countries with little or no storage capacities at present, in Asia/Oceania, the C.I.S., and Eastern Europe in particular. This survey provides an analysis of the recent evolutions in the technic-economic aspects of the underground gas storage business, as well as an overview of the UGS markets and their developments in the world, country by country. A specific section is dedicated to the analysis of future UGS needs in Europe by 2020: - Technic-economic aspects of UGS: This part of the survey analyses the latest technical improvements and research axes in the field of underground gas storage. As it is more difficult to build greenfield storage facilities, a lot of work has been done to improve the performance and flexibility of existing storage sites. This section also deals with the evolution of investment and operational costs in storage over the last few years. Furthermore, the

  12. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  13. Life cycle analysis of underground thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasetta, Camilla; van Ree, Derk; Griffioen, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems are used to buffer the seasonal difference between heat and cold supply and demand and, therefore, represent an interesting option to conserve energy. Even though UTES are considered environmental friendly solutions they are not completely free of

  14. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  15. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  16. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  17. Silos. Optimisation of underground storages' management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, M.

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Silos in the optimization of storages' management at Snam is presented, together with an assessment of the benefits obtained through closer attention and higher commitment of the staff, as well as better communication between Dispatching and other organizational functions. Silos has proven to be a useful decision-making tool, while applying traditional risk-assessment methods. (au)

  18. Pumped hydro energy storage in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira e Silva, Guilherme de; Hendrick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel analysis of unique building with integrated pumped hydro energy storage system. • Full parameterisation of pumped hydro energy storage in buildings. • Feasibility of pumped hydro energy storage in buildings is studied. • Conditions for a better competitiveness of this technology are discussed. - Abstract: The growing use of variable energy sources is pushing the need for energy storage. With Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) representing most of the world’s energy storage installed capacity and given its maturity and simplicity, the question stands as to whether this technology could be used on a smaller scale, namely in buildings. In this paper, the feasibility of such an installation is analysed by modelling each one of its components and applying it to several installation scenarios. Proposed and existing installations are also reviewed, including a first-time analysis of an installation in France, which is presumably the only existing building with an integrated PHES system. It was found that the economies of scale that render large PHES installations competitive are not present in small installations. This limitation, associated to other important disadvantages, such as the large volume required, seem to point out PHES as an ill-suited solution for energy storage in buildings, an important finding for building design and energy policy. Nevertheless, if synergies with existing reservoirs could be found (for example for a building on a riverside), costs could be significantly lowered. Further research on possible synergies with other building systems as well as a life-cycle assessment analysis are recommended.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of pumped thermal electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alexander; Parks, Geoff; Markides, Christos N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater need for electricity storage. Although there are many existing and emerging storage technologies, most have limitations in terms of geographical constraints, high capital cost or low cycle life, and few are of sufficient scale (in terms of both power and storage capacity) for integration at the transmission and distribution levels. This paper is concerned with a relatively new concept which will be referred to here as Pumped Thermal Electricity Storage (PTES), and which may be able to make a significant contribution towards future storage needs. During charge, PTES makes use of a high temperature ratio heat pump to convert electrical energy into thermal energy which is stored as ‘sensible heat’ in two thermal reservoirs, one hot and one cold. When required, the thermal energy is then converted back to electricity by effectively running the heat pump backwards as a heat engine. The paper focuses on thermodynamic aspects of PTES, including energy and power density, and the various sources of irreversibility and their impact on round-trip efficiency. It is shown that, for given compression and expansion efficiencies, the cycle performance is controlled chiefly by the ratio between the highest and lowest temperatures in each reservoir rather than by the cycle pressure ratio. The sensitivity of round-trip efficiency to various loss parameters has been analysed and indicates particular susceptibility to compression and expansion irreversibility

  20. Storage of high-level wastes, investigations in underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the different collaborations made by ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the fields of underground radioactive waste storage. ANDRA has taken part in various experimental research programs performed in laboratories such as Mol in Belgium, Aspo in Sweden, Pinawa in Canada and Grimsel in Switzerland. This article details the experiments led at Mol since 1984. ANDRA is commissioned by the 30.12.91 decree to study the possibility of storage in deep geological layers. A thorough knowledge of the matter requires the building of underground laboratories in order to test and validate technological choices on a real scale. 6 themes will have to be investigated: 1) the capacity to seal up the storage facility after its use in order to assure the protection of man and environment, 2) the effects of geological perturbations on the confining properties of the site, 3) the confining ability of the Callovian-Oxfordian geological formation, 4) the transfer of radionuclides from the geological formation to the biosphere, 5) the constructing possibility of an underground storage facility, and 6) the possibility of retrieving the stored packages. (A.C.)

  1. From clay bricks to deep underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted

  2. Salt creep design consideration for underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.; Wu, C.L.; Antonas, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the creep consideration in the design of nuclear waste storage facilities in salt, describes the non-linear analysis method for evaluating the design adequacy, and presents computational results for the current storage design. The application of rock mechanics instrumentation to assure the appropriateness of the design is discussed. It also describes the design evolution of such a facility, starting from the conceptual design, through the preliminary design, to the detailed design stage. The empirical design method, laboratory tests and numerical analyses, and the underground in situ tests have been incorporated in the design process to assure the stability of the underground openings, retrievability of waste during the operation phase and encapsulation of waste after decommissioning

  3. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and locational information, status of LUST case, operating status of facility, inspection dates, and links to No Further Action letters for closed LUST cases. This database contains 1230 features, with 289 features having a LUST status of open, closed with no residual contamination, or closed with residual contamination.

  4. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  5. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  6. CO2 underground storage and potential of CDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigetomi, N.; Shibuya, Y.; Nakano, M.; Akai, M.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) underground storage technologies are being used as a means to mitigate the increase in CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. Indonesia is an oil producing and exporting country. Its reserve-production ratio which is estimated based on the current production volume is approximately 19 years. Energy demand in the future is expected to be on the rise in Indonesia. In addition, in light of the interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), CO 2 underground storage is also being explored. Activities to initiate the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is one of the Kyoto Mechanisms, have also been actively promoted in developing countries. This paper examined an EOR operation which used CO 2 separated and recovered from waste gas at coal-fired power plants which have the highest CO 2 emission rates among human-induced CO 2 emission sources in Indonesia. The paper discussed EOR, its characteristics and features as well as case studies with specific sites in order to clarify issues and conditions for promoting CO 2 underground storage technologies into CDM. It was concluded that it is necessary to conduct additional studies on the profitability of the operation while conducting verification at the CO 2 separation and recovery site and the CO 2 storage site and consulting with relevant stakeholders of EOR operation. In addition, it was suggested that procedures should be put in place to promote the EOR operation into a CDM project by coordinating with the host country and offering it incentives. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  8. Application of terrestrial laser scanning in documenting an underground coal mine pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošer, Janez

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a new underground pumping station was constructed 41.5 m below sea level and equipped, which has now become the main underground pumping station of the Velenje Coal Mine (VCM). In this study, use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to acquire the 3D data of the engine room of the underground pumping station is presented. TLS is an advanced technique in spatial information data acquisition, which allows the equipment in the underground pumping station to be digitally captured with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Integration with metric imagery allows 3D photorealistic models to be created for interpretation and visualisation. The final result shows the actual 3D image of the object recorded with a relative accuracy of a few millimetres. TLS is ideal for capturing the original state before construction commences and the final state after its completion, as well as for both observation of surface changes and detection of deformations. When we have an accurate 3D model of each component in the engine room of the underground pumping station, any maintenance, future upgrades, or modifications can be made with reference to the original state.

  9. Application of terrestrial laser scanning in documenting an underground coal mine pumping station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rošer Janez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new underground pumping station was constructed 41.5 m below sea level and equipped, which has now become the main underground pumping station of the Velenje Coal Mine (VCM. In this study, use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS to acquire the 3D data of the engine room of the underground pumping station is presented. TLS is an advanced technique in spatial information data acquisition, which allows the equipment in the underground pumping station to be digitally captured with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Integration with metric imagery allows 3D photorealistic models to be created for interpretation and visualisation. The final result shows the actual 3D image of the object recorded with a relative accuracy of a few millimetres. TLS is ideal for capturing the original state before construction commences and the final state after its completion, as well as for both observation of surface changes and detection of deformations. When we have an accurate 3D model of each component in the engine room of the underground pumping station, any maintenance, future upgrades, or modifications can be made with reference to the original state.

  10. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2010-01-01

    A brief examination into the energy storage techniques currently available for the integration of fluctuating renewable energy was carried out. These included Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (PHES), Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage (UPHES), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES...

  11. Underground storage tanks soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, A.F.

    1993-10-01

    Currently 140 million liters (37 million gallons) of waste are stored in the single shell underground storage tanks (SSTs) at Hanford. The wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the Westinghouse Hanford Company's testing program for soft waste dislodging and conveyance technology. This program was initialized to investigate methods of dislodging and conveying soft waste. The main focus was on using air jets, water jets, and/or mechanical blades to dislodge the waste and air conveyance to convey the dislodged waste. These waste dislodging and conveyance technologies would be used in conjunction with a manipulator based retrieval system

  12. Pumped Storage Hydro Power Plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this leaflet the pump-storage power plant Cierny Vah is presented. A Cierny Vah pumped storage power plant (PSP) has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system. (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation by especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control, ...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance. After interconnection of the ES with the UCPTE West European Association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: (1) Dynamic services for ES; (2) Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block; (3) Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed; (4) Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. Technical parameters of the upper and lower reservoir are described. The hydro power plant is a body lower reservoir. In it there are six vertical pumping aggregates in the three machine layout: the motor-generator - the turbine - the pump. Between the turbine and the pump there is a hydraulically controlled claw clutch engaging at rest and disengaging also during the aggregate operation. During pumping air is involved inside the turbine. The Francis turbines have a

  13. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  14. Underground storage development in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponheuer, T.

    1990-01-01

    As the demand for gas in the Federal Republic of Germany is increasingly dependent upon temperature, underground storage is becoming a more and more important tool for the adjustment of supply load factors to the patterns of gas demand. Total working gas capacity is expected to double by the year 2000. Capacity requirements must be planned for a design winter, but allowances must also be made for operational flexibility, but management of incidents and the decrease in deliverability mainly from porous rock storage fields towards the end of the withdrawal season. Storage development potential in the Federal Republic of Germany is adequate for these requirements. However, the substantial uncertainties associated with the various factors determining future storage needs, administrative and licensing procedures, difficulties with regard to storage site acceptance by the general public and the resulting long project lead times confront gas companies from the Federal Republic of Germany with a complex planning problem and a major technical and commercial challenge, considering the estimated capital outlay of 4 to 5 billion DM in 1988 Deutschmarks. To master this challenge and to be able to provide secure and competitive gas supplies, the gas industry must continue to operate in a market economy which remains undistorted by new legislation and regulation. (author). 11 figs

  15. RCRA closure plan for underground storage tank 105-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, W.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A Reactor Department program for repairing heat exchangers created a low level radioactive waste, which was held in underground storage tank (UST) 105-C, hereafter referred to as the tank. According to Procedures used at the facility, the waste's pH was adjusted to the 8.0--12.0 range before shipping it to the SRS Waste Management Department. For this reason, area personnel did not anticipate that the waste which is currently contained in the tank would have corrosive hazardous characteristic. However, recent analysis indicates that waste contained in the tank has a pH of greater than 12.5, thereby constituting a hazardous waste. Because the Department of Energy-Savannah River Office (DOE-SR) could not prove that the hazardous waste had been stored in the tank for less than 90 days, the State of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) alleged that DOE-SR was in violation of the 1976 Code of Laws of South Carolina. As agreed in Settlement Agreement 90-74-SW between the DOE and SCDHEC, this is the required closure plan for Tank 105-C. The purpose of this document is to present SCDHEC with an official plan for closing the underground storage tank. Upon approval by SCDHEC, the schedule for closure will be an enforceable portion of this agreement

  16. Optimal investment timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Emily; Heggedal, Ane Marte; Doorman, Gerard L.; Apt, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Pumped hydropower storage can smooth output from intermittent renewable electricity generators and facilitate their large-scale use in energy systems. Germany has aggressive plans for wind power expansion, and pumped storage ramps quickly enough to smooth wind power and could profit from arbitrage on the short-term price fluctuations wind power strengthens. We consider five capacity alternatives for a pumped storage facility in Norway that practices arbitrage in the German spot market. Price ...

  17. Benefits and applications of modular hydroelectric pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koebbe, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric pumped storage which is the only proven and most efficient technology available for energy storage. It is used by utilities to provide peak and intermediate power and to optimize overall system performance. Because of increased environmental and regulatory constraints, few acceptable sites, long schedules, and huge financial commitments, large conventional pumped storage plants, are now virtually impossible to build. As an alternative, small modular pumped storage, with project sizes ranging from 25 MW to 200 MW, was created to overcome the difficulties of conventional projects. The modular approach involves standardizing the elements of a pumped storage plant by utilizing specialized siting techniques and optimizing design, equipment, and construction. Compared with conventional pumped storage, the modular design can reduce cost and expedite schedule; reduce environmental concerns and permitting obstacles; and expand applications of energy storage on a utility's system

  18. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m 3 ) to 10 6 gallons (3785 m 3 ). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina

  19. Selecting Formation-Accumulator for Industrial Waste Disposal of Arbuzovsky Underground Gas Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Garayshin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In domestic and foreign practice of constructing underground gas storage facilities, industrial sewage, as a rule, is pumped back into the reservoirs-gas storage facilities. Underground disposal of liquid waste is the most rational way to maintain and improve the ecological environment. When selecting the horizon for disposal of industrial waste, the authors considered the lower part of the sedimentary cover and, in the first place, the Bobrikovian horizon, as well as carbonates of the Turnaisian stage. In the sedimentary cover of the Middle-Upper Carboniferous complex studied by drilling, there are twelve major water-bearing horizons and complexes, separated by regional and local confining strata. Regional water confining bodies in this sedimentary stratum are gypsum-anhydrite layers of the Upper and Lower Permian and mature packs of mudstones, argillaceous limestones and dense dolomites in carboniferous sediments. According to the degree of hydrodynamic activity, zones of active (free, hampered and very difficult (stagnant regimes are distinguished in the section of the sedimentary cover. There are aquifers of Quaternary and Upper Permian sediments in the zone of active water exchange. The lower boundary of the active water exchange zone passes along the roof of the gypsum-anhydrite stratum of the Kazanian stage of the Upper Permian. As an object for industrial waste disposal in the operation of underground gas storage, the Bobrikovian is the most promising reservoir. It has the best reservoir properties and is reliably isolated from overlying deposits. Due to high mineralization, waters of the Bobrikovian horizon of the Librovichian superhorizon of the lower Visean stage are unsuitable for domestic, potable, production, technical and balneological purposes.

  20. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  1. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to...) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, combustible liquid storage tanks. (3) Any group of containers used for...

  2. Robotic system for remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). WINCO's mission is to process government owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel and extracting off uranium. The waste from this process is temporarily stored at the ICPP in underground storage tanks. The tanks were put in service between 1953 and 1966 and are operating 10 to 15 years beyond their design life. Five of the tanks will be replaced by 1998. The integrity of the remaining six tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced at a later data. In order to verify the tank integrity, a complete corrosion analysis must be performed. This analysis will require a remote visual inspection of the tank surfaces

  3. Microbial Life in an Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombach, Petra; van Almsick, Tobias; Richnow, Hans H.; Zenner, Matthias; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    While underground gas storage is technically well established for decades, the presence and activity of microorganisms in underground gas reservoirs have still hardly been explored today. Microbial life in underground gas reservoirs is controlled by moderate to high temperatures, elevated pressures, the availability of essential inorganic nutrients, and the availability of appropriate chemical energy sources. Microbial activity may affect the geochemical conditions and the gas composition in an underground reservoir by selective removal of anorganic and organic components from the stored gas and the formation water as well as by generation of metabolic products. From an economic point of view, microbial activities can lead to a loss of stored gas accompanied by a pressure decline in the reservoir, damage of technical equipment by biocorrosion, clogging processes through precipitates and biomass accumulation, and reservoir souring due to a deterioration of the gas quality. We present here results from molecular and cultivation-based methods to characterize microbial communities inhabiting a porous rock gas storage reservoir located in Southern Germany. Four reservoir water samples were obtained from three different geological horizons characterized by an ambient reservoir temperature of about 45 °C and an ambient reservoir pressure of about 92 bar at the time of sampling. A complementary water sample was taken at a water production well completed in a respective horizon but located outside the gas storage reservoir. Microbial community analysis by Illumina Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse microbial communities of high compositional heterogeneity. In three out of four samples originating from the reservoir, the majority of bacterial sequences affiliated with members of the genera Eubacterium, Acetobacterium and Sporobacterium within Clostridiales, known for their fermenting capabilities. In

  4. Specialized video systems for use in underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendom, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site and the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) program within DOE. Figure 1 shows the remote video/photography systems in a typical underground storage tank environment. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and from the tank, and all viewing functions are remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Overview video systems, both monaural and stereo versions, include a camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, vertical deployment system, and positional feedback. Each independent video package can be inserted through a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter opening. A special attribute of these packages is their design to never get larger than the entry hole during operation and to be fully retrievable. The End Effector systems will be deployed on the large robotic Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) being developed by other portions of the OTD-DOE programs. The systems implement a multi-functional ''over the coax'' design that uses a single coaxial cable for all data and control signals over the more than 900 foot cable (or fiber optic) link

  5. A basic study on underground storage of LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kang, Sun-Duck [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    In 1997, import of LNG was 11,378 thousand of about 2.3 billion US dollars. The demand of LNG(Liquefied Natural Gas) in Korea has been increased since 1987 with the rate of 20% annually. It is also estimated that this trend will be continued until 2010. Long-term estimation says that demand will increase with 9.1% and total demand of 2010 will be 23 million ton that is four times larger than that of 1994. Bases of unloading and store of LNG is necessary to complete the network of LNG distribution system to cover all of the country from import to final supply terminal at home. The construction plan of LNG bases with 49 tanks was published and is going on now at three bases, Pyungtaek, Incheon and Tongyoung. The total cost for this construction will be over 5,400 billion Won. All the LNG tanks are planned to build on the surface. The construction of LNG tanks on the surfaces is conventional but it damage the surface green area and is very vulnerable on safety, especially in Korea Peninsula with potentially unstable of military confrontation. And Korea is so small and limited in available land that it is not easy to find proper places for construction of more LNG tanks on surface. Underground LNG stores in rock will be a good alternative for tanks on surface in the view points of environmental and safety. It is also reported that it can be cheaper than that of on surfaces. It is well known that bed rocks in Korea is good to build underground structure like LNG stores. This report is basic research to seek for the possibility of LNG store construction in underground rocks. The important two questions on it is that whether it is possible technically and economically or not. The technical focus in this report is the stability of underground cavern for storage of LNG, energy conservation in operation, tightness against leakage of stored gas to surface and safety. Some statistic on LNG in Korea is given for this study with its future. (author). 25 refs., 36 tabs., 88 figs.

  6. Efficiency and impacts of hythane (CH4+H2) underground storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Grandia, Fidel

    2016-04-01

    The foreseen increase share of renewable energy production requires energy storage to mitigate shortage periods of energy supply. Hydrogen is an efficient energy carrier that can be transported and storage. A very promising way to store large amounts of hydrogen is underground geological reservoirs. Hydrogen can be stored, among other options, as a mixture of natural gas and less than 20% of hydrogen (hythane) to avoid damages on the existing infrastructure for gas transport. This technology is known as power-to-gas and is being considered by a number of European countries (Simon et al., 2015). In this study, the feasibility of a deep aquifer to store CH4-H2 mixtures in the Lower Triassic of the Paris Basin is numerically analyzed. The solubility of gas mixture in the groundwater is extremely low (Panfilov, 2015) and, therefore, gas and water are considered immiscible and non-reactive. An immiscible multiphase flow model is developed using the coefficient-form PDE interface of the finite element method code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The modelled domain is a 2D section of 2500 x 290 m resembling the Lower Triassic aquifer of the Paris basin, consisting of 2 layers of sandstone separated by a layer of conglomerates. The domain dips 0.5% from east to west. The top of the aquifer is 500 m-deep and the lateral boundaries are assumed to be open. This case is considered conservative compared to a dome-like geological trap, which could be more favorable to retain higher gas concentration. A number of cycles of gas production and injection were modelled. An automatic shut-down of the pump is implemented in case pressure on the well exceeds an upper or lower threshold. The influence of the position of the well, the uncertain residual gas saturation and the regional flow are studied. The model shows that both gas and aquifer properties have a significant impact on storage. Due to its low viscosity, the mobility of the hythane is quite high and gas expands significantly, reducing

  7. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  8. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  9. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  10. Using virtual objects to aid underground storage tank teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Davies, B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe an algorithm by which obstructions and surface features in an underground storage tank can be modeled and used to generate virtual barrier function for a real-time telerobotic system, which provides an aid to the operator for both real-time obstacle avoidance and for surface tracking. The algorithm requires that the slave's tool and every object in the waste storage tank be decomposed into convex polyhedral primitives, with the waste surface modeled by triangular prisms. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert's polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results using a PUMA 560 and a simulated waste surface validate the approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate smooth, realistic pseudo forces for the teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware

  11. Pumped storage hydroelectric power plant Cierny Vah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Enterprise Cierny Vah Pumped storage hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Cierny Vah PSHP). Cierny Vah PSHP has been designed and built for providing the reliable and quality electric energy supply and for covering load changes of an electrification system (ES). It is mainly the pumped storage hydro power plants which in our conditions are the sources operatively covering the sudden changes of the ES load from the ecological, economic but mainly from the operational point of view. The electric energy generation volume is not the primary standpoint but especially their control functions in the ES. During the building of the Cierny Vah PSP the peak operation with the daily accumulation, participation in frequency control and output in ES and the compensation function in ES were to be its main tasks. After putting it into operation but especially after its becoming independent of the Slovak ES in 1994 the static functions (energy generation from pumping, balance output reserves, daily control,...) gave way to dynamic functions which gained greater importance (sudden load changes control of ES, immediate meeting of the daily load diagram, frequency control and outputs given in ES, etc.) After interconnection of our ES with the UCPTE West European association in which there are besides other things, the strict criteria for observing balance of outputs, the main functions of PSPs are as follows: 1. Dynamic services for ES 2. Dispatching reserve for the fall out of the greatest ES block 3. Observing the foreign cooperation balance agreed 4. Compensation of peaks and also of sudden daily load diagram reductions. All the work is divided into four parts from the building point of view: The upper reservoir is an artificial one without the natural water inflow, built by excavation and slope on an Unknown elevation more than 1.150 m above sea level. A leading slope with a gradient 1:2 and a bottom of the reservoir

  12. FY 1999 research and development results. Preparatory study for the underground thermal energy storage system; 1999 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The study is conducted for the underground thermal energy storage system which utilizes heat capacity of the underground, e.g., aquifer, to exchange heat with the underground, and the FY 1999 results are described. For establishment of the concept of the underground heat storage systems, 2 sites are selected for each of Tokyo, Osaka and Sapporo for the study as the geological ground models, for their weather characteristics. Two cases are considered for the site where underground heat exchangers are installed, open space and immediately below a building. The heat-storage system comprises a high-efficiency heat pump, water heat-storage tank and cooling tower. The evaluation results indicate that energy saving rate of 37% or more and CO2 reduction rate of 9.5% or more are achievable in all areas except Sapporo, i.e., Tokyo and Osaka. The economic evaluation results indicate that the simple pay-out period is around 100 years for Tokyo and Osaka, and 80 years for Sapporo. The underground heat storage system is approximately 10% lower in life-cycle cost than the conventional system, 3 versus 3.3 billion yen for the period of 60 years. (NEDO)

  13. The underground nuclear wastes storage; Le stockage des dechets nucleaires en site profond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, CNRS/IN2P3, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ouzounian, G. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2002-07-01

    In the radioactive wastes management, the underground storage seems to be the long dated solution and the reference strategy. Then this storage has to be studied in term of accidental diffusion of radionuclides in the geologic site and in the food chain transfer. This document presents analytical models of diffusion which may help physicists to evaluate underground storage sites and the impacts on the environment and the human health. (A.L.B.)

  14. Underground storage tank - Integrated Demonstration Technical Task Plan master schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.M.

    1994-08-01

    This document provides an integrated programmatic schedule (i.e., Master Schedule) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program. It includes top-level schedule and related information for the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50) UST-ID activities. The information is based upon the fiscal year (FY) 1994 technical task plans (TTPS) and has been prepared as a baseline information resource for program participants. The Master Schedule contains Level 0 and Level 1 program schedules for the UST-ID Program. This document is one of a number of programmatic documents developed to support and manage the UST-ID activities. It is composed of the following sections: Program Overview - provides a summary background of the UST-ID Program. This summary addresses the mission, scope, and organizational structure of the program; Activity Description - provides a programmatic description of UST-ID technology development activities and lists the key milestones for the UST-ID systems. Master Schedules - contains the Level 0 and Level 1 programmatic schedules for the UST-ID systems. References - lists the UST-ID programmatic documents used as a basis for preparing the Master Schedule. The appendixes contain additional details related to site-specific technology applications

  15. Levelised cost of storage for pumped heat energy storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Smallbone, A.; Jülch, V.; Wardle, R.; Roskilly, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Future electricity systems which plan to use large proportions of intermittent (e.g. wind, solar or tidal generation) or inflexible (e.g. nuclear, coal, etc.) electricity generation sources require an increasing scale-up of energy storage to match the supply with hourly, daily and seasonal electricity demand profiles. Evaluation of how to meet this scale of energy storage has predominantly been based on the deployment of a handful of technologies including batteries, Pumped Hydroelectricity S...

  16. Plan of deep underground construction for investigations on high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayanovskij, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The program of studies of the Japanese PNC corporation on construction of deep underground storage for high-level radioactive wastes is presented. The program is intended for 20 years. The total construction costs equal about 20 billion yen. The total cost of the project is equal to 60 billion yen. The underground part is planned to reach 1000 m depth

  17. Implementation plan for underground waste storage tank surveillance and stabilization improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukelow, G.T.; Maupin, V.D.; Mihalik, L.A.; Washenfelder, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have addressed the need to upgrade the methods currently used for surveillance of underground waste storage tanks, particularly single-shell tanks (SST), which are susceptible to leaks and intrusions. Fifty tasks were proposed to enhance the existing surveillance program; however, prudent budget management dictates that only the tasks with the highest potential for success be selected and funded. This plan identifies fourteen inexpensive improvements that may be implemented in less than two years. Recent developments stress the need to complete interim stabilization of these tanks more quickly than now budgeted and to identify methods to salvage or eliminate the interstitial liquid left behind after saltwell jet-pumping. The plan calls for the use of available resources to remove saltwell liquid from SSTs as rapidly as possible rather than committing to new surveillance technologies that might not lead to near-term improvements. This plan describes the selection criteria and provides cost estimates and schedules for implementing the recommendations of the task forces. The proposed improvements result in completion of jet-pumping in FY 1994, two years ahead of the current FY 1996 milestone. While the accelerated plan requires more funding in the early years, the total cost will be the same as completing the work in FY 1996.

  18. Combined solar photovoltaic and hydroelectric pumped storage power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzraryan, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    Combined model of solar photovoltaic and pumped storage stations aimed at power supply for 40 rural houses are considered. The electric circuits of station and their acting regularities are developed and submitted. The both generation curve of photovoltaic station and load curve of electrical customer are considered. The power of hydraulic unit, pumping unit and photovoltaic station are calculated

  19. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum l...

  20. EVALUATION OF VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION METHODS USED IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring and summer of 1987, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluated the performance of 25 commercially available volumetric test methods for the detection of small leaks in underground storage tanks containing gasoline. Performance was estimated by...

  1. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Points, Region 9 Indian Country, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  2. Secondary Containment for Underground Storage Tank Systems - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the secondary containment provision in Section 9003(i)(1) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  3. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  4. Integral Safety Assessment of Underground Storage of CO2 in Barendrecht, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijgen, L.; Nitert, M.; Buijtendijk, B.; Van Dalen, A.

    2009-10-01

    The DCMR Environmental Protection Agency Rijnmond in the Netherlands conducted an Integral Safety Assessment of Underground Storage of CO2 in Barendrecht, the Netherlands, in cooperation with the involved safety and supervision authorities. The following aspects of the entire storage project and its safety issues have been examined: the compressor station in Pernis; the underground pipes between the compressor station and the injection locations; and the injection locations Barendrecht-Ziedewij and Barendrecht. [nl

  5. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  6. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  7. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  8. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  9. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  10. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  11. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 x 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical 1/2-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi

  12. High and ultra-high vacuum pumping techniques: applications in accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.

    1988-01-01

    A survey is given on gas transfer pumps, especially Turbomolecular pumps, and entrapment pumps (cryopumps and getter pumps) mainly with regard to their application in evacuating particle accelerators and storage rings. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  15. Prospects for pumped-hydro storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    After a period of hibernation, the development of pumped-hydro storage plants in Germany regains momentum. Motivated by an ever increasing share of intermittent renewable generation, a variety of energy players considers new projects, which could increase the available capacity by up to 60% until the end of the decade. This paper analyzes the current development and evaluates the revenue potential as well as possible barriers. Overall, the prospects for new pumped-hydro storage plants have improved, even though profitability remains a major challenge. - Highlights: ► The development of pumped-hydro storage in Germany regains momentum. ► The installed capacity could increase by more than 60% within 10 years. ► The regulatory framework changed, barriers for storage plants have been removed. ► However, profitability remains a major hurdle for new build projects.

  16. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern

  17. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  18. Adaptation of magnesian cements to underground storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufournet, F.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the experimental study of magnesium oxychloride cements as filling materials for underground granitic cavities containing high level radioactive wastes. After a bibliographic study, mechanical properties are examined before and after setting, in function of the ratio MgO/MgCl 2 . Then behavior with water is investigated: swelling, cracking and leaching [fr

  19. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  20. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  1. Sorption pumps and storage for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Peter; Bethel, Dylan

    2016-08-16

    A method and system for filling gas storage vessels from a source operates by cooling a sorbent, opening a valve to transfer gas by physisorption, regulating the sorbent temperature to achieve the desired degree of filling, closing the valve connecting to the gas source, and warming the tank, sorbent, and gas to provide a predetermined pressure at room temperature.

  2. The underground retrievable storage (URS) high-level waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    This papers presents the concept of long-term underground retrievable storage (URS) of spent reactor fuel in unsaturated rock. Emplacement would be incremental and the system is planned to be experimental and flexible. The rationale for retrievability is examined, and a technical basis for 300-year retrievability is presented. Maximum isolation is the rationale for underground as opposed to surface storage. Although the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain Nevada would be suitable for a URS, alternate sites are discussed. The technical issues involved in licensing a URS for 300 years are simpler than licensing a 10,000 year repository. 16 refs

  3. Pumped Storage Power plants, Challenges and opportunities - Some conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis; Roult, Didier; Mathex, Bruno; Ouaabi, Aziz; Louis, Frederic; Petitjean, Alain; Capuozzo, Vincent; Mazzouji, Farid; Prestat, Bruno; Nekrassov, Andrei; Caignaert, Guy; Vidil, Roland; Guilbaud, Claude; Metais, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly synthesizes a conference which addressed the development of pumped storage power plants in the world, and social, economic, technical and scientific challenges related to this development which is closely related to the development of intermittent renewable energies (wind and solar energy). Current developments in different countries (Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Norway, France and China) are evoked

  4. Rock bed storage with heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmers, H.E.; Mills, G.L.

    1979-05-01

    The study, Rock Bed Storage with Heat Pump, established the feasibility of mating a heat pump to a rock bed storage to effect optimal performance at the lowest cost in single family residences. The operating characteristics of off-the-shelf components of heat pump/rock bed storage systems were studied, and the results were used to formulate configurations of representative systems. These systems were modeled and subsequently analyzed using the TRNSYS computer program and a life cycle cost analysis program called LCCA. A detailed load model of a baseline house was formulated as part of the TRNSYS analysis. Results of the analysis involved the development of a technique to confine the range of heat pump/rock bed storage systems to those systems which are economical for a specific location and set of economic conditions. Additionally, the results included a comparison of the detailed load model with simple UA models such as the ASHRAE bin method. Several modifications and additions were made to the TRNSYS and LCCA computer programs during the course of the study.

  5. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  6. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented...

  7. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  8. Use of carbon dioxide in underground natural gas storage processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Stanislaw

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of carbon dioxide in gas storage processes is presented. The model of mixing process between CO2 and methane in porous media is given. The process of injection of carbon dioxide into a lower part of storage near the water –gas contact is modeled. The example of changes in the mixing zone is presented and discussed.

  9. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  10. Bedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie; Brož, Milan; Záruba, J.; Sosna, K.; Najser, J.; Rukavičková, L.; Franěk, J.; Rudajev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 315-325 ISSN 1672-7975 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/367 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : underground storage * instability * seismicity * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2016

  11. Instability risk analysis and risk assessment system establishment of underground storage caverns in bedded salt rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wenjun; Zhao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Stability is an important part of geotechnical engineering research. The operating experiences of underground storage caverns in salt rock all around the world show that the stability of the caverns is the key problem of safe operation. Currently, the combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are the mainly adopts method of reserve stability analysis. This paper introduces the concept of risk into the stability analysis of underground geotechnical structure, and studies the instability of underground storage cavern in salt rock from the perspective of risk analysis. Firstly, the definition and classification of cavern instability risk is proposed, and the damage mechanism is analyzed from the mechanical angle. Then the main stability evaluating indicators of cavern instability risk are proposed, and an evaluation method of cavern instability risk is put forward. Finally, the established cavern instability risk assessment system is applied to the analysis and prediction of cavern instability risk after 30 years of operation in a proposed storage cavern group in the Huai’an salt mine. This research can provide a useful theoretical base for the safe operation and management of underground storage caverns in salt rock.

  12. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  13. Advancing the US Department of Energy's Technologies through the Underground Storage Tank: Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank -- Integrated Demonstration Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of waste stored in underground storage tanks. The Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program is the most complex of the integrated demonstration programs established under the management of the Office of Technology Development. The Program has the following five participating sites: Oak Ridge, Idaho, Fernald, Savannah River, and Hanford. Activities included within the Underground Storage Tank -- Integrated Demonstration are (1) characterizating radioactive and hazardous waste constituents, (2) determining the need and methodology for improving the stability of the waste form, (3) determining the performance requirements, (4) demonstrating barrier performance by instrumented field tests, natural analog studies, and modeling, (5) determining the need and method for destroying and stabilizing hazardous waste constituents, (6) developing and evaluating methods for retrieving, processing (pretreatment and treatment), and storing the waste on an interim basis, and (7) defining and evaluating waste packages, transportation options, and ultimate closure techniques including site restoration. The eventual objective is the transfer of new technologies as a system to full-scale remediation at the US Department of Energy complexes and sites in the private sector

  14. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-UST-2010-0651; FRL-9447-3] Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a typographical correction to the guidance which was...

  15. RCRA corrective action for underground storage tanks -- Subtitle C for Subtitle I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance to DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning and implementation of corrective measures addressing cleanup of releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances from underground storage tanks regulated under RCRA Subtitle C or Subtitle I

  16. Extensive optimisation analyses of the piping of two large underground gas storage ariel compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Korst, H.J.C.; Ploumen, G.; Heyer, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 compressors of each 7.5 Mw, are used for the underground gas storage (UGS) plant of Essent in Epe, Germany. The compressors can be operated at a wide range of operating conditions, e.g. variable suction and discharge pressures, 2-stage mode during gas

  17. Paradigms of underground gas storage operation; Paradigmas del funcionamiento de un almacenamiento subterraneo de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonoris, Patricia; Vizcarra, Rodolfo; Buciak, Jorge [Companias Asociadas Petroleras S.A. (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine, for the underground storage of gas, the Current Useful Volume and Maximum Useful Current of operation, as well as have an acceptable interpretation that allows calculating the investment needed to reach this Maximum Usable Volume.

  18. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  19. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  20. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  1. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate

  2. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4462 Section 57.4462 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL... containers or storage tanks shall be— (1) Capable of withstanding working pressures and stresses and... withstanding working pressures and stresses; (2) Compatible with the type of liquid stored; and (3) Maintained...

  3. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the storage reservoir boundary, as defined by fluid contacts or natural geological barriers; the... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES... 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7...

  4. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  5. Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S.; Novil, M.; Rockar, E.; Randolph, P.

    1979-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen in underground storage reservoirs is evaluated. The past and present technology of storing gases, primarily natural gas is reviewed. Four types of reservoirs are examined: salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers, and depleted fields. A technical investigation of hydrogen properties reveals that only hydrogen embrittlement places a limit on the underground storage by hydrogen. This constraint will limit reservoir pressures to 1200 psi or less. A model was developed to determine economic feasibility. After making reasonable assumptions that a utility might make in determining whether to proceed with a new storage operation, the model was tested and verified on natural gas storage. A parameteric analysis was made on some of the input parameters of the model to determine the sensitivity of the cost of service to them. Once the model was verified it was used to compute the cost of service of storing hydrogen in the four reservoir types. The costs of service for hydrogen storage ranged from 26 to 150% of the cost of the gas stored. The study concludes that it is now both safe and economic to store hydrogen in underground reservoirs.

  6. Advanced Pumped Storage Hydropower and Ancillary Services Provision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-07-12

    This paper presents a high-level overview of the capability of advanced pumped storage hydropower to provide ancillary services including frequency regulation and oscillation damping. Type 3 and Type 4 generators are discussed. The examples given are for a small power system that uses a diesel generator as the main generator and a very large system that uses a gas turbine as the main generator.

  7. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  8. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 10 11 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m −3 , which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  9. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  11. The Cigeo project: an industrial storage site for radioactive wastes in deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieguer, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, France has decided to store its high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, mostly issued from the nuclear industry, in a deep geological underground disposal site. This document presents the Cigeo project, a deep underground disposal site (located in the East of France) for such radioactive wastes, which construction is to be started in 2021 (subject to authorization in 2018). After a brief historical review of the project, started 20 years ago, the document presents the radioactive waste disposal context, the ethical choice of underground storage (in France and elsewhere) for these types of radioactive wastes, the disposal site safety and financing aspects, the progressive development of the underground facilities and, of most importance, its reversibility. In a second part, the various works around the site are presented (transport, buildings, water and power supply, etc.) together with a description of the various radioactive wastes (high and intermediate level and long-lived wastes and their packaging) that will be disposed in the site. The different steps of the project are then reviewed (the initial design and initial construction phases, the pilot industrial phase (expected in 2030), the operating phase, and the ultimate phases that will consist in the definitive closure of the site and its monitoring), followed by an extensive description of the various installations of surface and underground facilities, their architecture and their equipment

  12. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.L.; Johnson, M.; Mims, C.; Powell, J.; Hoesen, D. van

    1998-05-01

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex

  13. Model based, sensor directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, B.; Drotning, W.; Thunborg, S.

    1991-01-01

    Sensor rich, intelligent robots which function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories is performing experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored tanks. This paper describes the experimental environment employed at Saudi with particular attention to the computing and software control environment. Intelligent system control is achieved though the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor based control. All operator interactions with the system are validate all operator commands before execution to provide a safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor based sensor control during selected operations. The results of a first Critical Feature Test are reported and the potential for applying advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed

  14. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  15. Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Jacobsson, A.; Linder, P.; Holmberg, K.E.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes at different places are reported. Thus a literature study of the different factors affecting the radionuclide migration in the ground is reported as well as experiments, in which the distribution constant for radionuclide migration have been determined. Furthermore measuring methods for the determination of different migration parameters are described. (E.R.)

  16. RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE MONITORING SYSTEM OF UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article in accordance with the "process approach" ISO 9000 is substantiated the necessity of creating underground gas storage system monitoring and control, including objects, parameters, methods, frequency and corrective action, on the basis of which made structural formula monitoring cycle. Qualimetrical approach allows to define complex criteria of an estimation of efficiency of operation, which will help to make timely and effective management decisions, including from the perspective of environmental protection.

  17. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG's Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report's recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  18. Underground storage with floating cover. An overview; Erdbeckenspeicher mit schwimmender Abdeckung. Eine Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.; Maureschat, G.; Duer, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Buildings and Energy

    1998-12-31

    A number of underground stores have been developed in recent years in Denmark. The development has been subsidised with funds of `Development program renewable energy` launched by the Danish Ministry for Environment and Energy. First experience reports on underground storage show that more emphasis must be put on the development of storage sealing and cover construction. Hence research works currently focuses on the investigation of liner material and further development of floating cover constructions. The target is the development of underground storage using solar energy for heating that can compete with conventional heating systems technically and economically. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Daenemark hat man in den letzten Jahren eine Reihe von Erdbeckenspeichern entwickelt. Die Entwicklung wird mit Mitteln aus dem `Entwicklungsprogramm Erneuerbare Energie` vom daenischen Umwelt- und Energieministerium finanziell gefoerdert. Die ersten Erfahrungen mit Erdbeckenspeichern haben gezeigt, dass ein verstaerkter Einsatz bei der Entwicklung von Abdichtungen des Speichers und von Deckelkonstruktionen gefordert ist. Deshalb wird in Daenemark aktuell mit der Untersuchung von Linermaterialien und der Weiterentwicklung von schwimmenden Deckelkonstruktionen gearbeitet. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Erdbeckenspeicher zu entwickeln, die die Ausnutzung von Sonnenenergie zur Waermeversorgung im Vergleich mit herkoemmlicher Waermeversorgung sowohl technisch als auch oekonomisch konkurrenzfaehig macht. (orig.)

  19. A research on the excavation and maintenance of underground energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Chung, So-Keul; Ryu, Chang-Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, Gen-nan in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels 550m deep from the surface through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. And finally the following research items could be proposed for future researches. (1) Establishment of criteria for selection of optimal tunnel type. (2) Evaluation of water tightening ability. (3) Investigation of Lining type. (4) Development of techniques for site investigation in deep underground project. (5) Evaluation of construction techniques for underground space and shaft. (6) Investigation of long-term maintenance for pressured tunnel. (author). 14 refs.

  20. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  1. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    , but unfortunately it is limited to mountainous regions and therefore difficult to expand. Emerging technologies like adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) or storage using conventional power-to-gas (P2G) technology combined with underground gas storage can be more widely deployed, but unfortunately...

  2. Optimal scheduling for distributed hybrid system with pumped hydro storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakana, Kanzumba

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumped hydro storage is proposed for isolated hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel systems. • Optimal control is developed to dispatch power flow economically. • A case study is conducted using the model for an isolated load. • Effects of seasons on the system’s optimal scheduling are examined through simulation. - Abstract: Photovoltaic and wind power generations are currently seen as sustainable options of in rural electrification, particularly in standalone applications. However the variable character of solar and wind resources as well as the variable load demand prevent these generation systems from being totally reliable without suitable energy storage system. Several research works have been conducted on the use of photovoltaic and wind systems in rural electrification; however most of these works have not considered other ways of storing energy except for conventional battery storage systems. In this paper, an energy dispatch model that satisfies the load demand, taking into account the intermittent nature of the solar and wind energy sources and variations in demand, is presented for a hybrid system consisting of a photovoltaic unit, a wind unit, a pumped hydro storage system and a diesel generator. The main purpose of the developed model is to minimize the hybrid system’s operation cost while optimizing the system’s power flow considering the different component’s operational constraints. The simulations have been performed using “fmincon” implemented in Matlab. The model have been applied to two test examples; the simulation results are analyzed and compared to the case where the diesel generator is used alone to supply the given load demand. The results show that using the developed control model for the proposed hybrid system, fuel saving can be achieved compared to the case where the diesel is used alone to supply the same load patters.

  3. Dynamic analysis of a pumped-storage hydropower plant with random power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Diyi; Xu, Beibei; Patelli, Edoardo; Tolo, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a pumped-storage hydropower plant in generating mode. Considering the elastic water column effects in the penstock, a linearized reduced order dynamic model of the pumped-storage hydropower plant is used in this paper. As the power load is always random, a set of random generator electric power output is introduced to research the dynamic behaviors of the pumped-storage hydropower plant. Then, the influences of the PI gains on the dynamic characteristics of the pumped-storage hydropower plant with the random power load are analyzed. In addition, the effects of initial power load and PI parameters on the stability of the pumped-storage hydropower plant are studied in depth. All of the above results will provide theoretical guidance for the study and analysis of the pumped-storage hydropower plant.

  4. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  5. High-temperature acquifer thermal storage and underground heat storage; IEA ECES Annex 12: Hochtemperatur-Erdwaermesonden- und Aquiferwaermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Koch, M.; Adinolfi, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete und Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-12-31

    Heat storage is essential for the reconciliation of heat supply and demand. The earth has already proved to be an excellent medium for storing large amounts of heat over longer periods of time, for instance during the cold and hot season. The efficiency of the storage is the better the lower storage losses are at high temperature levels. Unfortunately this can not be easily achieved. While thermal underground stores, which are widely used for cold storage, have proved to perform quite well at temperatures between 10 C - 40 C, it has been rather difficult to achieve similar results at higher temperatures up to 150 C as test and demonstration plants of the 1980s proved. This issue has again attracted so much interest that the IEA launched a project on high temperature underground storage in December 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waermespeicherung ist von entscheidender Bedeutung, wenn es darum geht, ein Waermeangebot mit einer Waermenachfrage zeitlich zur Deckung zu bringen. Der Untergrund hat sich schon seit vielen Jahren als ein geeignetes Medium erwiesen, groessere Waermepumpen ueber laengere Zeitraeume wie etwa die kalten und warmen Jahreszeiten zu speichern. Die Effizienz eines solchen Speichers steigt mit der Hoehe des erreichten Temperaturniveaus und mit sinkenden Speicherverlusten, was leider eher gegenlaeufige Erscheinungen sind. Waehrend thermische Untergrundspeicher im Temperaturbereich von 10-40 C inzwischen erfolgreich demonstriert wurden und vor allem zur Kaeltespeicherung auch bereits vielfach eingesetzt werden, haben hoehere Temperaturen bis etwa 150 C in den Versuchs- und Demonstrationsanlagen der 80er Jahre vielfaeltige Probleme bereitet. Im Gefolge eines erneuten Interesses an unterirdischer thermischer Energiespeicherung wurde im Dezember 1997 ein Vorhaben des IEA Energiespeicherprogramms zu Untergrund-Waermespeichern hoeherer Temperatur eingerichtet. (orig.)

  6. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  8. Collaborative Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roybal, Adam [Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative, Inc., Hernandez, NM (United States); Bailey, Jr., Richard J. [Northern New Mexico College, Espanola, NM (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In May of 2017, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) through the Applied Engineering Technology Division, Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. (JMEC), and Northern New Mexico College (NNMC) agreed to enter into a small, joint, non-binding Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) design study related to grid level energy storage to begin a process of collaboration. Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission is to solve national security challenges through scientific excellence. The mission of Northern New Mexico College is to ensure student success by providing access to affordable, community-based learning opportunities that meet the educational, cultural, and economic needs of the region. Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. is the largest electric co-op in the State of New Mexico providing affordable and reliable electricity to customers in the five counties of Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, San Juan, McKinley and Sandoval.

  9. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting Postponement On July 17, 2012, the...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. However, the meeting has been postponed...

  10. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation of Teleconference On March 15... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This meeting has been cancelled. We will reschedule this...

  11. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and...

  12. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  13. Challenges to and proposals for underground gas storage (UGS business in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangxiong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground gas storage (UGS is one of the major storage and peak-shaving means in the world among numerous storage ways via gas fields, small-scale LNG, etc. With the rapid development of natural gas industry in China, the seasonal peak-shaving issues are increasingly prominent, so how to achieve sustainable development of UGS business has become a major problem at present. In view of this, we studied the present status and trend of UGS development abroad and analyzed the following challenges encountered by UGS in China. (1 UGS construction falls behind the world and peak-shaving capacity is insufficient. (2 There is lack of quality gas sources for storage and the complicated geological conditions make the cost of UGS construction high. (3 UGS construction is still at the preliminary stage, so experience is not enough in safety and scientific operation and management. (4 UGS construction, management and operation are not unified as a whole, so its maximum efficiency fails to be exerted. (5 The economic benefit of UGS is difficult to be shown without independent cost accounting. Based on the experience of other countries, some proposals were put forward on UGS development under the actual present situation: to strengthen strategic UGS layout, intensify storage site screening in key areas and steadily promote UGS construction; to establish professional UGS technical and management teams and intensify the research of key technologies; and to set up a complete and rationally-distributed UGS construction, operation and management system.

  14. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.D.; Wright, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  15. 3rd Sino-German Conference “Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy”

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Heping; Were, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and sustainability are three of the greatest contemporary global challenges today. This year the Sino-German Cooperation Group “Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy”, is meeting on the 21-23 May 2013 for the second time in Goslar, Germany, to convene its 3rd Sino-German conference on the theme “Clean Energy Systems in the Subsurface: Production, Storage and Conversion”.   This volume is a collection of diverse quality scientific works from different perspectives elucidating on the current developments in CO2 geologic sequestration research to reduce greenhouse emissions including measures to monitor surface leakage, groundwater quality and the integrity of caprock, while ensuring a sufficient supply of clean energy. The contributions herein have been structured into 6 major thematic research themes: Integrated Energy and Environmental Utilization of Geo-reservoirs: Law, Risk Management & Monitoring CO2 for Enhanced Gas and Oil Recovery, Coa...

  16. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals ...pumping of gas species into and out of the nanocapillaries. The MEA also serves as a high pressure seal . A theoretical discussion of the potential

  17. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  18. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  19. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  20. Tools for Inspecting and Sampling Waste in Underground Radioactive Storage Tanks with Small Access Riser Openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nance, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Underground storage tanks with 2 inches to 3 inches diameter access ports at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site have been used to store radioactive solvents and sludge. In order to close these tanks, the contents of the tanks need to first be quantified in terms of volume and chemical and radioactive characteristics. To provide information on the volume of waste contained within the tanks, a small remote inspection system was needed. This inspection system was designed to provide lighting and provide pan and tilt capabilities in an inexpensive package with zoom abilities and color video. This system also needed to be utilized inside of a plastic tent built over the access port to contain any contamination exiting from the port. This system had to be build to travel into the small port opening, through the riser pipe, into the tank evacuated space, and out of the riser pipe and access port with no possibility of being caught and blocking the access riser. Long thin plates were found in many access riser pipes that blocked the inspection system from penetrating into the tank interiors. Retrieval tools to clear the plates from the tanks using developed sampling devices while providing safe containment for the samples. This paper will discuss the inspection systems, tools for clearing access pipes, and solvent sampling tools developed to evaluate the tank contents of the underground solvent storage tanks

  1. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 for renewable energy storage for a test case in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Li, Qi; Nakaten, Natalie, Christine; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Integration and further development of the energy supply system in China is a major challenge for the years to come. Part of the strategy is the implementation of a low carbon energy system based on carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The innovative idea presented here is based on an extension of the power-to-gas-to-power (PGP) technology by establishing a closed carbon dioxide cycle [1]. Thereto, hydrogen generated from excess renewable energy is transformed into methane for combustion in a combined cycle gas power plant. To comply with the fluctuating energy demand, carbon dioxide produced during methane combustion and required for the methanation process as well as excess methane are temporarily stored in two underground reservoirs located close to each other [2]. Consequently, renewable energy generation units can be operated even if energy demand is below consumption, while stored energy can be fed into the grid as energy demand exceeds production [3]. We studied a show case for Xinjiang in China [4] to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain based on numerical computer simulations for the operation of the CO2 and CH4 storage reservoirs, and to ascertain the pressure regimes present in the storage formations during the injection and production phases of the annual cycle. [1] Streibel M., Nakaten N., Kempka T., Kühn M. (2013) Analysis of an integrated carbon cycle for storage of renewables. Energy Procedia 40, 202-211. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.024. [2] Kühn M., Streibel M., Nakaten N.C., Kempka T. (2014) Integrated Underground Gas Storage of CO2 and CH4 to Decarbonise the "Power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" Technology. Energy Procedia 59, 9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.342 [3] Kühn M., Nakaten N.C., Streibel M., Kempka T. (2014) CO2 Geological Storage and Utilization for a Carbon Neutral "Power-to-gas-to-power" Cycle to Even Out Fluctuations of Renewable Energy Provision. Energy Procedia 63, 8044-8049. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014

  2. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erren Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented. This paper discovers how such parameters affect the performance of the whole system. The ideal performance of this novel system has the following advantages: a simple, highly effective and low cost structure, which is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional pumped hydro storage system. Research results show a great solution to the current storage constraints encountered in the development of the wind power industry in China, which have been widely recognised as a bottleneck in the wind energy storage industry.

  3. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  4. Diversity and abundance of bacteria in an underground oil-storage cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Kodama, Yumiko; Kaku, Nobuo

    2002-08-28

    Microorganisms inhabiting subterranean oil fields have recently attracted much attention. Since intact groundwater can easily be obtained from the bottom of underground oil-storage cavities without contamination by surface water, studies on such oil-storage cavities are expected to provide valuable information to understand microbial ecology of subterranean oil fields. DNA was extracted from the groundwater obtained from an oil-storage cavity situated at Kuji in Iwate, Japan, and 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) fragments were amplified by PCR using combinations of universal and Bacteria-specific primers. The sequence analysis of 154 clones produced 31 different bacterial sequence types (a unique clone or group of clones with sequence similarity of > 98). Major sequence types were related to Desulfotomaculum, Acetobacterium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobacula, Zoogloea and Thiomicrospira denitrificans. The abundance in the groundwater of bacterial populations represented by these major sequence types was assessed by quantitative competitive PCR using specific primers, showing that five rDNA types except for that related to Desulfobacula shared significant proportions (more than 1%) of the total bacterial rDNA. Bacteria inhabiting the oil-storage cavity were unexpectedly diverse. A phylogenetic affiliation of cloned 16S rDNA sequences suggests that bacteria exhibiting different types of energy metabolism coexist in the cavity.

  5. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  6. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko Gulch...

  7. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  8. Biodegradation of cis-1,2-Dichloroethene in Simulated Underground Thermal Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhuobiao; van Gaans, Pauline; Smit, Martijn; Rijnaarts, Huub; Grotenhuis, Tim

    2015-11-17

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) use has showed a sharp rise in numbers in the last decades, with aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) and borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) most widely used. In many urban areas with contaminated aquifers, there exists a desire for sustainable heating and cooling with UTES and a need for remediation. We investigated the potential synergy between UTES and bioremediation with batch experiments to simulate the effects of changing temperature and liquid exchange that occur in ATES systems, and of only temperature change occurring in BTES systems on cis-DCE reductive dechlorination. Compared to the natural situation (NS) at a constant temperature of 10 °C, both UTES systems with 25/5 °C for warm and cold well performed significantly better in cis-DCE (cis-1,2-dichloroethene) removal. The overall removal efficiency under mimicked ATES and BTES conditions were respectively 13 and 8.6 times higher than in NS. Inoculation with Dehalococcoides revealed that their initial presence is a determining factor for the dechlorination process. Temperature was the dominating factor when Dehalococcoides abundance was sufficient. Stimulated biodegradation was shown to be most effective in the mimicked ATES warm well because of the combined effect of suitable temperature, sustaining biomass growth, and regular cis-DCE supply.

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the advanced R and D for the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system; 2000 nendo chichu jiban chikunetsu system gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In this study, study was made of the commercialization of the UTES (underground thermal energy storage) system using the underground heat source heat pump system technology as the base, considering that this is a technology suitable for the urban area where the heat demand intensively increases and a lot of exhaust heat and usable heat exist. By the realization of the UTES system technology, it is expected that the system promotes Japan's utilization of the unused energy and contributes to the construction of the CO2 emission control type society for Japan's energy policy and global warming prevention and secondarily to leveling of power loads and elimination of the heat island phenomenon in large cities. As to the UTES system which is aimed at being used for space heating and cooling and hot water supply in buildings, the following two were studied: the indirect system, BTES (borehole thermal energy storage) system, in which heat is collected/radiated from the ground by the heat exchanger installed underground; the direct system, ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system, in which the groundwater stored in aquifer is directly pumped up and used. The study was made in the items written below: 1) establishment of an system image of the UTES system; 2) evaluation study of effects of the introduction, practical applicability, etc. 3) extraction of the subjects for development. As a result, system images of the indirect/direct systems were obtained. (NEDO)

  10. Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tank 2331-U Building 9201-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Progress in support of the Building 9201-1 Site has included monitoring well installation and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the Building 9201-1 site and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes the summary of additional monitoring well installation activities and the results of baseline groundwater sampling. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation

  11. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L.; Zollars, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids

  12. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  13. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  14. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Powers, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  15. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes: A feasibility study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpening, R.; Zhu, Z.; Caravana, C.; Matarese, J.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives for this underground storage tank (UST) imaging investigation are: (1) to assess the feasibility of using acoustic methods in UST wastes, if shown to be feasible, develop and assess imaging strategies; (2) to assess the validity of using chemical simulants for the development of acoustic methods and equipment. This investigation examined the velocity of surrogates, both salt cake and sludge surrogates. In addition collected seismic cross well data in a real tank (114-TX) on the Hanford Reservation. Lastly, drawing on the knowledge of the simulants and the estimates of the velocities of the waste in tank 114-TX the authors generated a hypothetical model of waste in a tank and showed that non-linear travel time tomographic imaging would faithfully image that stratigraphy

  16. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Zollars, R.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  17. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  18. Optimal use of the Gaz de France underground gas storage facilities; Utilisation optimale des stockages souterrains de Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favret, F.; Rouyer, E.; Bayen, D.; Corgier, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the tools developed by Gaz de France to optimize the use of its whole set of underground gas storage facilities. After a short introduction about the context and the purposes, the methodology and the models are detailed. The operational results obtained during the last three years are presented, and some conclusions and perspectives are given. (authors)

  19. Monitoring induced seismicity from underground gas storage: first steps in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Priolo, Enrico

    2013-04-01

    The supply of natural gas and its storage are focal points of the Italian politics of energy production and will have increasing importance in the coming years. About a dozen reservoirs are currently in use and fifteen are in development or awaiting approval. Some of these are found in the vicinity of geological structures that are seismically active. The assessment of seismic hazard (both for natural background and induced seismicity) for a geological gas storage facility has a number of unconventional aspects that must be recognized and traced in a clear, ordered way and using guidelines and rules that leave less room as possible for interpretation by the individual applicant / verification body. Similarly, for control and monitoring there are not clearly defined procedures or standard instrumentation, let alone tools for analysing and processing data. Finally, governmental organizations in charge of permission grants and operative control tend to have appropriate scientific knowledge only in certain areas and not in others (e.g. the seismic one), and the establishment of an independent multidisciplinary inspection body appears desirable. The project StoHaz (https://sites.google.com/site/s2stohaz/home) aims to initiate a series of actions to overcome these deficiencies and allow to define procedures and standards for the seismic hazard assessment and control of the activities of natural gas storage in underground reservoirs. OGS will take advantage of the experience gained with the design, installation and maintenance of the seismic network monitoring the Collalto reservoir, at the moment the only example in Italy of a public research institution monitoring independently the activities of a private gas storage company.

  20. Fiscal 1993 investigational report on heat pump heat storage technology; 1993 nendo heat pump chikunetsu gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is for an investigation into the heat pump (HP) use heat storage technology, with the aim of clarifying the present status of HP heat storage technology, the utilization status, and the developmental trend of technology and of contributing to the spread of heat energy effective use using HP heat storage technology and to the promotion of the technical development. Accordingly, the evaluation of the following was made: sensible heat (SH), latent heat (LH), chemical heat storage technology (CH), and heat storage technology (HS). Investigations were made on the sensible heat use heat storage technology of water, brine, stone, soil, etc. in terms of SH; the phase change sensible heat use heat storage technology of ice, hydrate salt, paraffins, etc. in terms of LH; hydration, hydroxide, 2-propanol pyrolysis, adsorption of silica gel, zeolite and water, and heat storage technology using metal hydride, etc. in terms of CH. In terms of HS, the following were studied and evaluated from the study results of the heat storage system in which HP is applied to the sensible heat and latent heat type heat storage technology: contribution to the power load levelling and the reduction of heat source capacity, heat recovery and the use of unused energy, improvement of the system efficiency by combining HP and heat storage technology. 24 refs., 242 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Characterization of underground storage tank sludge using fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940's and 50's have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST's at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed

  2. Heat storage in underground caverns - measurements and simulations; Speicherung von Waerme in Grubenraeumen - Messung und Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, A.; Krause, H.; Poetke, W. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-01

    Among the different discussed underground concepts for longterm storing of solar or waste heat old waterfilled mines can be an interesting solution. To examine the temperature behaviour of this storage type a testing store is built in a mine belonging to the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology in Saxonia. In a longterm project temperatures are measured inside the water volume and in the adjacent rock. The temperature behaviour depends on the operating conditions. Inside the water volume temperature stratification can be observed. During loading and standstill heat is transported into the rock surrounding. A certain part of this amount of heat can be discharged again. For designing and optimizing this storage type a numerical modell is developed. The modell is validated with experimental data from the testing plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter den verschiedenen, in der Diskussion stehenden Untegrund-Waermespeichern fuer Solarwaerme oder Abwaerme bieten sich auch geflutete Gruben als Waermespeicher an. Zur Untersuchung des Temperaturverhaltens dieses Speichertyps ist im Saechsischen Lehr- und Besucherbergwerk der TU Bergakademie Freiberg ein Versuchsspeicher errichtet worden. In einem Langzeitversuch wird das Temperaturfeld im Wasser und im angrenzenden Gestein aufgezeichnet. Das Temperaturverhalten ist von den Betriebsgroessen abhaengig. Im Grubenwasser stellt sich eine stabile Temperaturschichtung ein. Waehrend der Beladung und der Stillstandszeiten wird Waerme in die Gesteinsumgebung transportiert. Ein Teil dieser Waermemenge kann wider entspeichert werden. Zur Auslegung und Optimierung von Gruben-Waermespeichern ist ein numerisches Modell entwickelt worden. Das Modell ist anhand der Messergebnisse des Versuchsspeichers validiert worden. (orig.)

  3. The swelling of clays and its effects on underground storage works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaombalet, J.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the swelling of clays and more generally the clayey media in relation to storage. Different types of clays, natural or reworked, have been studied in a rheological point of view, with the aim to result in behavior laws allowing to reproduce some identified phenomena. The first part of this work is a presentation of the concept of geological underground storage. The second part deals with clays. They are studied at a microscopic level and their macroscopic behavior are presented too. In the third part, the equations of the couplings: mechanics/transport in the porous media in general and applied to clays are formulated. Three types of clays have particularly been studied: a stiff clay, a plastic clay and a reworked clay. The following part deals with the swelling of clays. The analysis carried out through a bibliographical study has led us to propose a behavior law for the swelling-retirement. This part concerns essentially the mechanics. The behavior model, which integrates the swelling, involves the concentration of the ions present in solution in the interstitial water. Concerning the transport, of water or ions, the research of coherent models have led us to revise some models described in the second part and concerning the transport of solutions in porous media. The last part concerns the computerized simulation. It begins by a brief description of the computer code. We show how the equations described in the work are dealt with in the computer code. At last, some storage applications (computerized simulation) are given. (O.M.)

  4. Storage of oil above ground for underground: Regulations, costs, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Driscoll, W.; Ameer, P.; Watson, S.

    1993-01-01

    Some owners of underground storage tank systems (USTs) appear to be replacing their systems with aboveground storage tank systems (ASTs) without full knowledge of the US Government environmental regulations that apply to facilities with ASTs, and their associated costs. This paper discusses the major federal regulatory requirements for USTs and ASTS, and presents the compliance costs for new tank systems that range in capacity from 1,000 to 10,000 gallons. The costs of two model UST system and two model AST systems are considered for new oil storage capacity, expansion of existing capacity, and replacement of an existing UST or AS T. For new capacity, ASTs are less expensive than USTs, although ASTs do have significant regulatory compliance costs that range from an estimated $8,000 to $14,000 in present value terms, depending on the size and type of system. For expanded or replacement capacity, ASTs are in all but one case less expensive than USTS; the exception is the expansion of capacity at an existing UST facility. In this case, the cost of a protected steel tank UST system is comparable to the cost of an AST system. Considering the present value of all costs over a 30 year useful life, the cost for an AST with a concrete dike is less than the cost of an AST with an earthen dike, for the tank sizes considered. This is because concrete dikes are cost competitive for small tanks, and the costs to clean up a release are higher for earthen dikes, due to the cost of disposal and replacement of oil-contaminated soil. The cost analyses presented here are not comprehensive, and are intended primarily for illustrative purposes. Only the major costs of tank purchase, installation, and regulatory compliance were considered

  5. A unified approach for designing a photovoltaic solar system for the underground water pumping well-34 at Disi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, Munzer S.Y.; Qandil, Hasan; Hammad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system for the underground water pumping wells at Disi aquifer was designed. • Solar irradiation values on horizontal and tilted surfaces were identified. • Method of the worst month MWM and peak sun hours PSH method were applied. • Thirty-eight percentage of the total PV panels would not be used beyond the design conditions (December). • Dust accumulation problem were solved by cleaning or as a 5% power loss factor. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a detailed design of a standalone photovoltaic system used to power continuously a submersible water pump from a selected well (Well-34 of a current static water level, SWL = 147.3 m), out of 55 production wells located at the Disi aquifer, where each of these wells should have a continuously-operating water flow rate of 80 l/s (288 m 3 /h) according to the Disi project specifications. Initially, solar irradiation calculations on horizontal and tilted surfaces were carried out to identify the potential of solar energy available in kW h/m 2 /day in the Disi aquifer. Then, a system design approach based on the worst month of the year (December) was carried out to choose and size the components of photovoltaic system that is required to operate the submersible pump over the 25-year operation period. The system sizing implies defining the number and type of solar panels required to capture the available solar energy, the capacity and number of batteries, inverter rating, cable sizing, charge controller numbers and rating to ensure the maximum reliability of the system. Furthermore, beyond the design conditions of the worst month (December), extra energy can be produced by the PV system during the rest of the year time, which can be used for many purposes. Also, the design process considers the problem of dust accumulation on PV surfaces and this can be dealt with by periodic cleaning

  6. Set-up of a pump as turbine use in micro-pumped hydro energy storage: a case of study in Froyennes Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, A.; Steimes, J.; Bontems, O.; Zohbi, G. Al; Hendrick, P.

    2017-04-01

    Its maturity makes pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) the most used technology in energy storage. Micro-hydro plants (pump as turbine (PaT) coupled with a variable frequency driver (VFD). The methods adopted for the selection of the most suitable pump for pumping and reverse mode are compared and discussed. Controlling and monitoring the PaT performances represent a compulsory design phase in the analysis feasibility of PaT coupled with VFD in micro PHES plant. This study aims at answering technical research aspects of µ-PHES site used with reversible pumps.

  7. Evaluation of risk perception and public acceptance of CO{sub 2} underground storage by factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokushige, K.; Akimoto, K.; Uno, M.; Tomoda, T. [Reseach Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Although the technology of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage is being developed around the world as an option to mitigate greenhouse gases, public acceptance will be needed before widespread adoption of the technology. This study analyzed how the general public perceives the technology, and also evaluated what kinds of information would affect public acceptance. Since discrepancies may exist between the public reaction and the expert judgment, this study will be useful in improving communication among the public, experts and policy-makers. A questionnaire survey was conducted based on the semantic differential method in order to evaluate risk perception by the public. It included a cognitive map of risk perception of 20 risk-associated items, which included not only CO{sub 2} underground storage, but also daily life activities (smoking and bicycling) and other major global warming mitigation options such as nuclear power, wind power, and photovoltaics. The purpose for this was to identify the relative position of its perception among these options and activities. The respondents were 138 university students. The map consisted of two-factor axes, namely dread risk and unknown risk. A third axis of public acceptance was added to reveal how differences in the risk perception affected the public acceptance. Although the initial risk perception was large for CO{sub 2} underground storage, the risk perception decreased by providing known information on the technology. The map revealed that dread risk and unknown risk perceptions of CO{sub 2} underground storage were smaller and larger, respectively, than those of nuclear power generation. It was concluded that public acceptance of CO{sub 2} underground storage must be increased in order to decrease the unknown risk perception. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Wind power integration using individual heat pumps – Analysis of different heat storage options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    reductions in excess electricity production and fuel consumption than heat accumulation tanks. Moreover, passive heat storage is found to be significantly more cost-effective than heat accumulation tanks. In terms of reducing fuel consumption of the energy system, the installation of heat pumps is the most...... important step. Adding heat storages only moderately reduces the fuel consumption. Model development has been made to facilitate a technical optimisation of individual heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system........ Heat accumulation tanks and passive heat storage in the construction are investigated as two alternative storage options in terms of their ability to increase wind power utilisation and to provide cost-effective fuel savings. Results show that passive heat storage can enable equivalent to larger...

  9. Performance analysis of a soil-based thermal energy storage system using solar-driven air-source heat pump for Danish buildings sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, M.; Veje, C.; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    and evaluation of the performance of an underground soil-based thermal energy storage system for solar energy storage, coupled with a combined heat and power generation system. A combined PV-Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP) system is utilized to fulfil heating and electricity needs of a housing project in Odense......Denmark has set an ambitious long-term future energy goal to become independent of fossil fuel by 2050, depending completely on renewable and alternative resources in the energy and transport sectors. Solar energy is one of the most favourable alternative resources in terms of cleanness, safety...... and the economic and environmental aspects. However, the intermittent nature of solar energy and the lack of high solar radiation intensities in various climates favour the use of various energy storage techniques to eliminate the discrepancy between energy supply and demand. The current work presents an analysis...

  10. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance

  11. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-09-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author`s previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B {+-} $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author`s engineering judgment.

  12. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  13. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  14. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale

  15. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  16. Hydrogen underground storage in siliciclastic reservoirs - intention and topics of the H2STORE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudlo, Dieter; Ganzer, Leonhard; Henkel, Steven; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; De Lucia, Marco; Panfilov, Michel; Pilz, Peter; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Würdemann, Hilke; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The transfer of energy supply from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation to renewable energy production sources is strongly reliant to the potential of storing high capacities of energy in a safe and reliable way in time spans of several months. One conceivable option can be the storage of hydrogen and (related) synthetic natural gas (SNG) production in appropriate underground structures, like salt caverns and pore space reservoirs. Successful storage of hydrogen in the form of town gas in salt caverns has been proven in several demonstration projects and can be considered as state of the art technology. However, salt structures have only limited importance for hydrogen storage due to only small cavern volumes and the limited occurrence of salt deposits suitable for flushing of cavern constructions. Thus, regarding potential high-volume storage sites, siliciclastic deposits like saline aquifers and depleted gas reservoirs are of increasing interest. Motivated by a project call and sponsored by the German government the H2STORE ("Hydrogen to Store") collaborative project will investigate the feasibility and the requirements for pore space storage of hydrogen. Thereby depleted gas reservoirs are a major concern of this study. This type of geological structure is chosen because of their well investigated geological settings and proved sealing capacities, which already enable a present (and future) use as natural (and synthetic) reservoir gas storages. Nonetheless hydrogen and hydrocarbon in porous media exhibit major differences in physico-chemical behaviour, essentially due to the high diffusivity and reactivity of hydrogen. The biotic and abiotic reactions of hydrogen with rocks and fluids will be necessary observed in siliciclastic sediments which consist of numerous inorganic and organic compounds and comprise original formation fluids. These features strongly control petrophysical behaviour (e.g. porosity, permeability) and therefore fluid (hydrogen

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for site assessment during the closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitt, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Tank Management Program is responsible for closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed that complies with EPA regulations and with INEL Tank Removal Procedures for sampling activities associated with site assessment during these closure or replacement activities. The SAP will ensure that all data are valid, and it also will function as a Quality Assurance Project Plan. 18 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Underground seasonal storage of industrial waste heat; Saisonale Speicherung industrieller Abwaerme im Untergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuss, M.; Mueller, J. [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik, TU Muenchen-Weihenstephan, Freising (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The thermal efficiency of subject systems, especially at higher temperatures is influenced by heat and humidity transport underground. Thermal conductivity and specific thermal capacity depend on the humidity content of the soil. A simulation model was developed that describes the coupled heat and humidity transport in the temperature range up to 90 C. This model will be validated in laboratory and field tests and then be used for designing and analysing underground stores. Pilot plants for the storage of industrial waste heat were designed and planned on the basis of this simulation. In both cases these are cogeneration plants whose waste heat was to be used for space heating and as process energy. Both plants have a very high demand of electric energy which is mostly supplied by the cogeneration plant. The waste heat is put into the store during the summer. In the winter heat is supplied by both the store and the cogeneration plant. In both cases the store has a volume of approx. 15,000 cubic metres with 140 and 210 pits located in a depth of 30 and 40 metres. The plants are used to carry out extensive measurements for the validation of simulation models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die thermische Leistungsfaehigkeit solcher Systeme wird insbesondere im hoeheren Temperaturbereich durch den Waerme- und Feuchtetransport im Untergrund beeinflusst. Sowohl die Waermeleitfaehigkeit als auch die spezifische Waermekapazitaet sind vom Feuchtegehalt des Bodens abhaengig. Es wurde ein Simulationsmodell entwickelt, das den gekoppelten Waerme- und Feuchtetransport im Temperaturbereich bis 90 C beschreibt. Dieses Modell wird an Labor- und Feldexperimenten validiert und dient dann zur Auslegung und Analyse von Erdwaermesonden-Speichern. Basierend auf diesen theoretischen Grundlagenarbeiten wurden Pilotanlagen zur saisonalen Speicherung industrieller Abwaerme ausgelegt und geplant. In beiden Faellen handelt es sich um Kraft/Waermekopplungsanlagen, deren Abwaerme zur Gebaeudeheizung und

  19. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory environmental restoration program group audit report for underground storage tank removal: Audit ER-92- 04, July 22--August 11, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Audit ER-92-04 was conducted on activities being performed by Waste Management (EM-7), Environmental Protection (EM-8), and Environmental Restoration (EM-13) groups for the LANL's underground storage tank removal program. Scope of the audit was limited to an evaluation of the implementation of the State of New Mexico requirements for underground storage-tank removal. Activities were evaluated using requirements specified in the State of New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board Underground Storage Tank Regulations, EIB/USTR. Two recommendations are made: (1) that a single organization be given the responsibility and authority for the implementation of the program, and (2) that the requirements of the NM State environmental improvement board underground storage tank regulations be reviewed and a Los Alamos procedure written to address requirements and interfaces not contained in SOP-EM7-D ampersand D-001

  1. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 to decarbonize the "power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Streibel, Martin; Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Massive roll-out of renewable energy production units (wind turbines and solar panels) leads to date to excess energy which cannot be consumed at the time of production. So far, long-term storage is proposed via the so called 'power-to-gas' technology. Energy is transferred to methane gas and subsequently combusted for power production - 'power-to-gas-to-power' (PGP) - when needed. PGP profits from the existing infrastructure of the gas market and could be deployed immediately. However, major shortcoming is the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) from renewables and its emission into the atmosphere. We present an innovative idea which is a decarbonised extension of the PGP technology. The concept is based on a closed carbon cycle: (1) Hydrogen (H2) is generated from renewable energy by electrolysis and (2) transformed into methane (CH4) with CO2 taken from an underground geological storage. (3) CH4 produced is stored in a second storage underground until needed and (4) combusted in a combined-cycled power plant on site. (5) CO2 is separated during energy production and re-injected into the storage formation. We studied a show case for the cities Potsdam and Brandenburg/Havel in the Federal State of Brandenburg in Germany to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain and the costs of electricity (COE) using an integrated techno-economic modelling approach (Nakaten et al. 2014). Taking all of the individual process steps into account, the calculation shows an overall efficiency of 27.7 % (Streibel et al. 2013) with total COE of 20.43 euro-cents/kWh (Kühn et al. 2013). Although the level of efficiency is lower than for pump and compressed air storage, the resulting costs are similar in magnitude, and thus competitive on the energy storage market. The great advantage of the concept proposed here is that, in contrast to previous PGP approaches, this process is climate-neutral due to CO2 utilisation. For that purpose, process CO2 is temporally stored in an

  2. The underground heat storage for solar-assisted district heating in Neckarsulm. First measuring results; Der Erdsonden-Waermespeicher fuer die solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung in Neckarsulm. Erste Messergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiwald, H.; Hahne, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-12-31

    A solar-assisted district heating system with seasonal underground heat storage is currently under construction in Neckarsulm (Baden-Wurttemberg). In the new residential area approximately 1,300 flats are going to be built during the next years. The overall energy demand (hot water and space heating) is supposed to be covered by 50% with solar energy. During the first phase the project will be subsidised in the frame of the BMBF programme `Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm III`. A solar plant consisting of 2,700 square metres of collectors, a buffer tank (100 cubic metre) and an underground heat storage with a volume of approx. 20,000 cubic metres will be constructed by the end of 1998. It will be the first plant in Germany where thermal energy generated of solar energy is stored at high temperatures (up to 80 C) directly in the earth and utilised without a heat pump. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Neckarsulm (Baden-Wuerttemberg) befindet sich derzeit eine solar unterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung mit saisonalem Endsonden-Waermespeicher im Aufbau. Im Neubaugebiet Amorbach werden in den naechsten Jahren rund 1300 Wohneinheiten entstehen, deren Gesamtwaermebedarf (Warmwasser und Raumheizung) zu rund 50% mit Sonnenenergie gedeckt werden soll. In der ersten Phase wird das Projekt im Rahmen des BMBF-Programms `Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm III` gefoerdert. Bis Ende 1998 wird eine Solaranlage bestehend aus 2.700 m{sup 2} Kollektoren, einem Pufferspeicher (100 m{sup 3}) und einem Endsonden-Waermespeicher mit einem Volumen von ca. 20.000 m{sup 3} erstellt. Damit wird in Deutschland erstmalig eine Anlage realisiert, bei der solar erzeugte Waerme auf hohem Temperaturniveau (bis zu 80 C) direkt im Erdreich gespeichert und ohne Waermepumpe genutzt werden soll. (orig.)

  3. A real option-based simulation model to evaluate investments in pump storage plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Investments in pump storage plants are expected to grow especially due to their ability to store an excess of supply from wind power plants. In order to evaluate these investments correctly the peculiarities of pump storage plants and the characteristics of liberalized power markets have to be considered. The main characteristics of power markets are the strong power price volatility and the occurrence of prices spikes. In this article a valuation model is developed capturing these aspects using power price simulation, optimization of unit commitment and capital market theory. This valuation model is able to value a future price-based unit commitment planning that corresponds to future scope of actions also called real options. The resulting real option value for the pump storage plant is compared with the traditional net present value approach. Because this approach is not able to evaluate scope of actions correctly it results in strongly smaller investment values and forces wrong investment decisions.

  4. Operation ranges and dynamic capabilities of variable-speed pumped-storage hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Thomas; Olivier, Mathieu; Dejaeger, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The development of renewable and intermittent power generation creates incentives for the development of both energy storage solutions and more flexible power generation assets. Pumped-storage hydropower (PSH) is the most established and mature energy storage technology, but recent developments in power electronics have created a renewed interest by providing PSH units with a variable-speed feature, thereby increasing their flexibility. This paper reviews technical considerations related to variable-speed PSH in link with the provision of primary frequency control, also referred to as frequency containment reserves (FCRs). Based on the detailed characteristics of a scale model pump-turbine, the variable-speed operation ranges in pump and turbine modes are precisely assessed and the implications for the provision of FCRs are highlighted. Modelling and control for power system studies are discussed, both for fixed- and variable-speed machines and simulation results are provided to illustrate the high dynamic capabilities of variable-speed PSH.

  5. A Simple Data Analysis Method for a Pumping Test with Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shyun Chen Chuan-Gui Lan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pumping test conducted in a con fined aquifer in northern Taiwan, drawdown in the observation well was subject to wellbore storage of its own and the combined effect of wellbore storage and skin of the nearby pumping well. For such a complicated pumping test condition, the appropriate well hydraulics solutions are complicated in mathematics and involve five unknown a priori parameters; namely, the aquifer transmissivity, the aquifer storage coefficient, the skin factor of the pumping well, and the wellbore storage co efficients of the pumping and observation wells. The conventional trial-and-er ror procedure for a simul taneous determination of these five parameters is not easy to apply. Here, a simple data analysis method is de veloped, which takes advantage of the late-time characteristics of drawdown data and the late-time asymptotic behavior of the appropriate wellhy draulics solutions. As a re sult, some currently available graphic techniques are proven us ful for the determination of these parameters. Validity of this approach is verified by the excellent agree ment between the calculated drawdown using the appropriate well hydraulics solutions with the parameter estimates obtained from the field drawdown data.

  6. On the Profitability of Variable Speed Pump-Storage-Power in Frequency Restoration Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Jorge; Bessa, Ricardo; Moreira, Carlos; Silva, Bernardo

    2017-04-01

    The increase penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the European power system has introduced a significant amount of variability and uncertainty in the generation profiles raising the needs for ancillary services as well as other tools like demand response, improved generation forecasting techniques and changes to the market design. While RES is able to replace energy produced by the traditional centralized generation, it cannot displace its capacity in terms of ancillary services provided. Therefore, centralized generation capacity must be retained to perform this function leading to over-capacity issues and underutilisation of the assets. Large-scale reversible hydro power plants represent the majority of the storage solution installed in the power system. This technology comes with high investments costs, hence the constant search for methods to increase and diversify the sources of revenue. Traditional fixed speed pump storage units typically operate in the day-ahead market to perform price arbitrage and, in some specific cases, provide downward replacement reserve (RR). Variable speed pump storage can not only participate in RR but also contribute to FRR, given their ability to control its operating point in pumping mode. This work does an extended analysis of a complete bidding strategy for Pumped Storage Power, enhancing the economic advantages of variable speed pump units in comparison with fixed ones.

  7. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dies, J; Miralles, L; Tarrasa, F; Pueyo, J J; de las Cuevas, C

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC 2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in the second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 degrees C and 90 degrees C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h(-1) and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction (80 microm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fraction can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon.

  8. Thermal hardening of saturated clays. Application to underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Jean-Marc

    1994-01-01

    Saturated clays submitted to constant mechanical loading and slow temperature increase frequently undergo irreversible contractions. This phenomena is described here by means of a change of plastic limits induced by temperature only, called thermal hardening. Constitutive laws adapted to this kind of plastic behaviour can be formulated within a general framework that satisfies thermodynamical principles. It shows that this coupling results from the presence of a latent heat during the isothermal hardening of plastic limits. A thermomechanical extension of Cam Clay model is then proposed and used in the analysis of laboratory thermomechanical tests performed on clay materials. Making use of tests already published, we show the adequacy of the concept of thermal hardening for clay behaviour. Some clay from deep geological formation considered for the disposal of radioactive waste exhibit thermal hardening in laboratory tests. The consequences for the underground storage facilities during the thermal loading created by the waste are investigated by means of in situ tests as well as numerical computation. The measurement around a heating probe buried in the clay mass demonstrate the significance of thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings. An accurate understanding of in situ measurements is achieved by means of numerical modeling in which the interaction between the various loading of the tests (excavation, pore pressure seepage, and heating) is carefully taken into account. Thermal hardening of the clay appears to be of little influence in these in situ tests. On the other hand, the magnitude of thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings observed in situ are higher than might have been expected from laboratory tests. A more accurate prediction is obtained if one takes into account the more stiffer behaviour of clays when they are subjected to small deformations. (authors)

  9. Underground storage tank waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure waterjet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD ampersand E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier, Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Simulant materials representative of tank waste have been used to test the performance of the scarifier over a wide range of waste types. This technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste simulants at desired retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of proposed deployment devices. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  10. Identification of Dynamic Simulation Models for Variable Speed Pumped Storage Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, C.; Fulgêncio, N.; Silva, B.; Nicolet, C.; Béguin, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses the identification of reduced order models for variable speed pump-turbine plants, including the representation of the dynamic behaviour of the main components: hydraulic system, turbine governors, electromechanical equipment and power converters. A methodology for the identification of appropriated reduced order models both for turbine and pump operating modes is presented and discussed. The methodological approach consists of three main steps: 1) detailed pumped-storage power plant modelling in SIMSEN; 2) reduced order models identification and 3) specification of test conditions for performance evaluation.

  11. Performance analysis of a soil-based thermal energy storage system using solar-driven air-source heat pump for Danish buildings sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jradi, M.; Veje, C.; Jørgensen, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PV-driven ASHP system with seasonal underground energy storage is presented. • A soil-based seasonal thermal energy storage unit is analyzed and evaluated. • The system provides heating and electricity for a residential project in Denmark. • The transient behaviour and thermal losses of the thermal storage medium are reported. • The overall heating COP of the PV-driven ASHP combined with seasonal storage is 4.76. - Abstract: Denmark has set an ambitious long-term future energy goal to become independent of fossil fuel by 2050, depending completely on renewable and alternative resources in the energy and transport sectors. Solar energy is one of the most favourable alternative resources in terms of cleanness, safety and the economic and environmental aspects. However, the intermittent nature of solar energy and the lack of high solar radiation intensities in various climates favour the use of various energy storage techniques to eliminate the discrepancy between energy supply and demand. The current work presents an analysis and evaluation of the performance of an underground soil-based thermal energy storage system for solar energy storage, coupled with a combined heat and power generation system. A combined PV-Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP) system is utilized to fulfil heating and electricity needs of a housing project in Odense, Denmark, in addition to charging the soil storage medium in summer months when excess electric power is generated. The stored heat is discharged in December and January to provide the space heating and domestic hot water demands of the residential project without the utilization of an external heating source. Employing a PV system of 30 kW capacity, it was found that a storage medium of 900 m 3 of soil is capable of providing the heating needs for a housing project of 1000 m 2 internal floor area. The year round transient behaviour of the thermal energy storage medium is reported in addition to the heat losses and the

  12. Seawater pumping as an electricity storage solution for photovoltaic energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrida, Giampaolo; Secchi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic nature of several renewable energy sources has raised the problem of designing and building storage facilities, which can help the electricity grid to sustain larger and larger contribution of renewable energy. Seawater pumped electricity storage is proposed as a good option for PV (Photovoltaic) or solar thermal power plants, located in suitable places close to the coast line. Solar radiation has a natural daily cycle, and storage reservoirs of limited capacity can substantially reduce the load to the electricity grid. Different modes of pump operation (fixed or variable speed) are considered, the preliminary sizing of the PV field and seawater reservoir is performed, and the results are comparatively assessed over a year-long simulated operation. The results show that PV pumped storage, even if not profitable in the present situation of the renewable energy Italian electricity market, is effective in decreasing the load on the transmission grid, and would possibly be attractive in the future, also in the light of developing off-grid applications. - Highlights: • A grid-connected seawater pumping system using photovoltaic power is proposed and its performance analyzed. • Year-round simulations are run with different sizes of photovoltaic field and reservoir. • An analysis is run about the profitability of the storage system, examining performance indexes and the cost of plant. • The system proposed appears near to attract the interest of the market

  13. Report from SG 1.2: use of 3-D seismic data in exploration, production and underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the experience gained from using 3D and 4D techniques in exploration, production and underground storage. The use of 3D seismic data is increasing and considerable progress in the application of such data has been achieved in recent years. 3D is now in extensive use in exploration, field and storage development planning and reservoir management. By using 4D (or time-lapse) seismic data from a given producing area, it is also possible to monitor gas movement as a function of time in a gas field or storage. This emerging technique is therefore very useful in reservoir management, in order to obtain increased recovery, higher production, and to reduce the risk of infill wells. These techniques can also be used for monitoring underground gas storage. The study gives recommendations on the use of 3D and 4D seismic in the gas industry. For this purpose, three specific questionnaires were proposed: the first one dedicated to exploration, development and production of gas fields (Production questionnaire), the second one dedicated to gas storages (Storage questionnaire) and the third one dedicated to the servicing companies. The main results are: - The benefit from 3D is clear for both producing and storage operators in improving structural shape, fault pattern and reservoir knowledge. The method usually saves wells and improve gas volume management. - 4D seismic is an emerging technique with high potential benefits for producers. Research in 4D must focus on the integration of seismic methodology and interpretation of results with production measurements in reservoir models. (author)

  14. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  15. Pumped hydroelectric storage utilization assessment: Forerunner of renewable energy integration or Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    KOUGIAS IOANNIS; SZABO SANDOR

    2017-01-01

    Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is the main utility-scale storage technology. Although PHS systems generally constitute a fraction of generation, they receive increasing attention due to their potential balancing role towards higher penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES). In the European context it is widely believed that PHS are key elements of the ongoing energy transition. The present analysis examines if this assumption is valid and PHS utilization grows parallel to RES...

  16. Geomechanical problems of an underground storage of spent nuclear fuel and their mathematic modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Byczanski, Petr; Šňupárek, Richard; Hájek, Antonín

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2007), s. 140-146 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : mathematical modelling * thermo-mechanical processes * underground deposition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Using Heat Pump Energy Storages in the Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2011-01-01

    The extensive growth of installed wind energy plants lead to increasing balancing problems in the power grid due to the nature of wind fields and diurnal variations in consumption. One way to overcome these problems is to move consumption to times where wind power otherwise cause overproduction...... and large fluctuations in prices. The paper presents a method which takes advantage of heat capacity in single-family houses using heat pumps which are anticipated to be installed in large numbers in Denmark in next decade. This type of heating gives a large time constant and it is shown possible to move...

  18. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  19. Maximizing Storage Flexibility in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    for storage capability. It is of great importance to move energy consumption in time to balance the grid. In this paper a portfolio of houses are modelled and controlled using an aggregated model and a model free scheduling algorithm. Flexibility and ability to trade on the intra-day regulating market...

  20. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two 15-megawatt...

  1. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ....O. Box OK 74350-0070. 1326, Miami, OK 74355. Charles Atkins, Grand River Dam Jodi Hayes, Shawnee... River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a... consultation with certain parties listed below. Grand River Dam Authority, as licensee for Project No. 2524-018...

  2. A predictive model for smart control of a domestic heat pump and thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Gebhardt, I.; de Wit, J.B.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a predictive model of a thermal storage which is charged by a heat pump and used for domestic hot water supply. The model is used for smart grid control purposes and requires measurement signals of flow and temperature at the inlet and outlet of

  3. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, April 15, 2011 at 9 a.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  4. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, May 6, 2011 at 1 p.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  5. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and interested parties, are hereby...

  6. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal control of hydroelectric facility incorporating pump storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangzhi; Davison, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple model of a pump-assisted hydroelectric facility operating in a market with time-varying but deterministic power prices and constant water inflows. The engineering details of the facility are described by a model containing several parameters. We present an algorithm for optimizing first the energy and then the profit produced by these plants. This algorithm allows us to describe the relationships between control trajectory and time, and between inflow and price. Remarkably, we see that under some reasonable choices of facility parameters and for power prices that are not extremely variable, the optimal profit operation of these facilities is not too different from their optimal energy operation, and the control is less affected by the price as the inflow rate increases. (author)

  8. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at two leaking underground storage tank sites in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovich, M.M.; McConchie, J.A.; Schiess, S.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of natural attenuation (NA) as a remedial approach for managing contaminated groundwater caused by two leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) was evaluated. The primary indicators used related to plume characterisation and migration. Statistical analyses of the plumes, using a Mann-Kendall test, indicated decreasing contaminant concentrations. Secondary indicators included an estimation of NA rates and an evaluation of the changes in groundwater geochemistry as a result of intrinsic bioremediation of the fuel hydrocarbons. Analysis of the data indicates that NA of dissolved hydrocarbons has been occurring and preventing the migration of the dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) plume at both sites

  10. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrman, D.E.; Ingram, E.M.

    1993-09-01

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  11. Surface deformation induced by ground water pumping in Taipei Basin: A case study in rban underground construction of Taipei metro station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chin; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Since 1955, the rapid development of population has requested for large amount of water usage in Taipei city. Thus, the overuse of ground water leads to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. In 1989, the government stated to put restrictions on water pumping. Consequently, ground water recovered and resulted in the a wideapred uplift in Taipei basin. Due to the underground transportation and wiring, ground water were massively pumped for the safety of construction sites. In this study, persistent scatterer interferometry technique is used for processing 37 high resolution X-band radar images to characterize deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. From the ground table records of 30 wells in Taipei basin, the results indicated that the main factor to the surface deformation of Taipei basin is the elevation change of water table. In the case of Wuku groundwater well, the elevation change of the ground water table is about 15 m during September 2011 to April 2015. In the same period of the time, the change of surface deformation within 100 m of Wuku groundwater well is consistent to the elevation change of ground water table, and is more than 5 cm along line of sight. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, in the case of Taipei metro construction, according to the analytical results of radar image and the 380 vertical control points of Taipei, the high water pumping before the underground construction project will inflict surface deformation. It is noticeable that, the Jingmei Formation and the Wuku Formation are composed of the sediments with high porosity. Thus, the actual land subsidence caused by water pumping would be five times than the underground construction areas.

  12. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  13. Simulation model of a variable-speed pumped-storage power plant in unstable operating conditions in pumping mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lucas, G.; Pérez-Díaz, J. I.; Sarasúa, J. I.; Cavazzini, G.; Pavesi, G.; Ardizzon, G.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a laboratory-scale pumped-storage power plant (PSPP) operating in pumping mode with variable speed. The model considers the dynamic behavior of the conduits by means of an elastic water column approach, and synthetically generates both pressure and torque pulsations that reproduce the operation of the hydraulic machine in its instability region. The pressure and torque pulsations are generated each from a different set of sinusoidal functions. These functions were calibrated from the results of a CFD model, which was in turn validated from experimental data. Simulation model results match the numerical results of the CFD model with reasonable accuracy. The pump-turbine model (the functions used to generate pressure and torque pulsations inclusive) was up-scaled by hydraulic similarity according to the design parameters of a real PSPP and included in a dynamic simulation model of the said PSPP. Preliminary conclusions on the impact of unstable operation conditions on the penstock fatigue were obtained by means of a Monte Carlo simulation-based fatigue analysis.

  14. A long-term analysis of pumped hydro storage to firm wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.M.; Leahy, P.G.; Li, K.; McKeogh, E.J.; Morrison, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is a long term generation analysis of a high wind power system. • A high CO 2 and fossil fuel price is closest to Ireland’s EU ETS 2020 target. • New pumped storage to firm wind is limited unless strong market costs exist. • Reserve for wind power show that ancillary services are relevant for balancing. - Abstract: Although pumped hydro storage is seen as a strategic key asset by grid operators, financing it is complicated in new liberalised markets. It could be argued that the optimum generation portfolio is now determined by the economic viability of generators based on a short to medium term return on investment. This has meant that capital intensive projects such as pumped hydro storage are less attractive for wholesale electricity companies because the payback periods are too long. In tandem a significant amount of wind power has entered the generation mix, which has resulted in operating and planning integration issues due to wind’s inherent uncertain, varying spatial and temporal nature. These integration issues can be overcome using fast acting gas peaking plant or energy storage. Most analysis of wind power integration using storage to date has used stochastic optimisation for power system balancing or arbitrage modelling to examine techno-economic viability. In this research a deterministic dynamic programming long term generation expansion model is employed to optimise the generation mix, total system costs and total carbon dioxide emissions, and unlike other studies calculates reserve to firm wind power. The key finding of this study is that the incentive to build capital-intensive pumped hydro storage to firm wind power is limited unless exogenous market costs come very strongly into play. Furthermore it was demonstrated that reserve increases with increasing wind power showing the importance of ancillary services in future power systems

  15. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage...manual is to describe the use of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, particularly through the employment of wintertime cooling...application projects to increase energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, energy efficiency, geothermal heat

  16. Feasibility and economic consequences of retrievable storage of radioactive waste in the deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Heijdra, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economic consequences of retrievable storage have been investigated by comparing two extreme options of retrievable storage. In one option the storage facility is kept in operation, using minimal backfill of the storage galleries. In the other option the storage facility is completely backfilled, sealed and abandoned. In the second option construction of a new mine will be necessary in case of retrieval. The point in time has been determined when the second option will be cheapter than the first. This has been done for clary, granite and rocksalt as host formation, and both for vitrified waste and spent fuel. (orig.)

  17. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  18. The mechanism study between 3D Space-time deformation and injection or extraction of gas pressure change, the Hutubi Underground gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, W.; Li, J.; Daiqing, L.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    The surface deformation of underground gas reservoir with the change of injection pressure is an excellent opportunity to study the load response under the action of tectonic movement and controlled load. This paper mainly focuses on the elastic deformation of underground structure caused by the change of the pressure state of reservoir rock under the condition of the irregular change of pressure in the underground gas storage of Hutubi, the largest underground gas storage in Xinjiang, at the same time, it makes a fine study on the fault activities of reservoir and induced earthquakes along with the equilibrium instability caused by the reservoir. Based on the 34 deformation integrated observation points and 3 GPS continuous observation stations constructed in the underground gas storage area of Hutubi, using modern measurement techniques such as GPS observation, precise leveling survey, flow gravity observation and so on, combined with remote sensing technology such as InSAR, the 3d space-time sequence images of the surface of reservoir area under pressure change were obtained. Combined with gas well pressure, physical parameters and regional seismic geology and geophysical data, the numerical simulation and analysis of internal changes of reservoir were carried out by using elastic and viscoelastic model, the deformation mechanical relationship of reservoir was determined and the storage layer under controlled load was basically determined. This research is financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41474016, 41474051, 41474097)

  19. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  20. Discussion on joint operation of wind farm and pumped-storage hydroplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifang; Wu, Yichun; Liang, Hao; Li, Miao

    2017-12-01

    Due to the random fluctuations in wind power, large amounts of grid integration will have a negative impact on grid operation and the consumers. The joint operation with pumped-storage hydroplant with good peak shaving performance can effectively reduce the negative impact on the safety and economic operation of power grid, and improve the utilization of wind power. In addition, joint operation can achieve the optimization of green power and improve the comprehensive economic benefits. Actually, the rational profit distribution of joint operation is the premise of sustainable and stable cooperation. This paper focuses on the profit distribution of joint operation, and applies improved shapely value method, which taking the investments and the contributions of each participant in the cooperation into account, to determine the profit distribution. Moreover, the distribution scheme can provide an effective reference for the actual joint operation of wind farm and pumped-storage hydroplant.

  1. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitz, D.A. [Independent Consultant, Kirkland, WA (United States); Berry, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  2. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford's underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report

  3. Public consultation. Third party's access to natural gas underground storages and storage obligations - March 2015. Evolution of the ATS and storage obligations - Appendix. Answer of the Commission for energy regulation to the public consultation of the General Directorate of energy and climate related to third party's access to natural gas underground storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe De; Chauvet, Christine; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As a public consultation aims at gathering the opinion of the various actors of the natural gas market about the evolution of legal and regulatory arrangements regarding the third party's access to underground storages (ATS) of gas, and storage obligations of gas providers, this document reports an analysis of the various associated issues by the French General Directorate of Energy and Climate (DGEC). For each issue, a question is asked to the actors after a discussion of associated challenges, stakes and perspectives. These issues notably concern the introduction of a higher storage obligation coupled to a regulation of capacity tariffs in order to ensure a sufficient fill of storages, the introduction of auctions on storage capacities with a compensation mechanism to address an imperfect valorisation of storages. An appendix presents the French storage fleet, outlines that storage valorisation requires different factors to be taken into account, and that storages are in competition with other infrastructures within a context of decrease of gas consumptions at the European level, and shows that the summer-winter spread decrease results in a decrease of capacity subscriptions. A third text proposes the answer made by the Commission for energy regulation on these issues

  4. Feasibility of underground storage/disposal of noble gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winar, R.M.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-08-01

    The quantities of 85 Kr that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the 85 Kr released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of 85 Kr by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of 85 Kr as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of 85 Kr injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces. 9 figures, 5 tables

  5. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  6. Combining Wind and Pumped Hydro Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Generation in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Coburn, Alice; Walsh, Eilín; Solan, Patrick J.; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Ireland has one of the highest wind energy potentials in Europe. The intermittent nature of wind makes this renewable resource impractical as a sole source of energy. Combining wind energy with pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) can overcome this intermittency, consuming energy during low-demand periods and supplying energy for periods of high demand. Currently Ireland has a number of hydroelectric power plants and wind farms of various scales in operation. A feasibility study was conducted t...

  7. Analysis of the Storage Capacity in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages connected to the power grid will be of great importance in the near future. A pilot project has investigated more than 100 single family houses with heat pumps all connected to the internet. The houses have large heat capacities and it is possible to move energy consumption to sui...... (scheduling) algorithm. The properties of this scheduling are investigated in the paper especially the flexibility and ability to trade on the intra-day regulating market is in focus....

  8. Scheduling a Wind Hydro-Pumped-Storage Unit Considering the Economical Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaisi, Milad; Rahmani, Milad; Gharghabi, Pedram; Zoghi, Ali; Hosseinian, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper a new approach has been introduced to find the optimum capacity of a wind farm to cooperate with a hydro-pumped-storage in order to maximize the income and optimize the payback period of their combination. First, Monte Carlo method has been used to generate the annual price and wind speed values. Then, an operating policy has been considered to schedule each unit generating and saving the produced energy by the wind farm. Subsequently, simulations have be...

  9. Systematic procedures for sizing photovoltaic pumping system, using water tank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidat, A.; Benyoucef, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the performances of the photovoltaic pumping destined to supply drinking water in remote and scattered small villages have been studied. The methodology adopted proposes various procedures based on the water consumption profiles, total head, tank capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. A method of the load losses probability (LLP) has been used to optimize sizing of the photovoltaic pumping systems with a similarity between the storage energy in batteries and water in tanks. The results were carried out using measured meteorological data for four localities in Algeria: Algiers and Oran in the north, Bechar and Tamanrasset in the south. The results show that the performance of the photovoltaic pumping system depends deeply on the pumping total head and the peak power of the photovoltaic array. Also, for the southern localities, the LLP method shows that the size of the photovoltaic array varies versus LLP on a small scale. On the other hand, for the northern localities, the sizing of the photovoltaic array is situated on a large scale power. Because of the current high crud-oil price, the photovoltaic pumping still to be the best adopted energy resource to supply drinking water in remote and scattered villages

  10. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  11. Increasing RES Penetration and Security of Energy Supply by Use of Energy Storages and Heat Pumps in Croatian Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajačić, Goran; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven

    2010-01-01

    In this paper integration of wind power generation into the Croatian electricity supply is analysed using available technologies. The starting point is a model of the energy system in Croatia in 2007. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted of a complete system meeting...... electricity, heat and transport demands, and including renewable energy, power plants, and combined heat and power production (CHP) for district heating. Using the 2007 energy system the wind power share is increased by two energy storage options: Pumped hydro and heat pumps in combination with heat storages....... The results show that such options can enable an increased penetration of wind power. Using pumped hydro storage (PHS) may increase wind power penetration from 0.5 TWh, for existing PHS installations and up to 6 TWh for very large installations. Using large heat pumps and heat storages in combination...

  12. Seasonal heat storage in underground caverns. Final report; Saisonale Waermespeicherung in Grubenraeumen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-11-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of buildings can provide an important contribution in order to achieve the targets of minimization of primary energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the problem of the seasonal divergence between the high solar energy supply in the summer and the high demand in the winter consists; therefore seasonal heat storage is indispensable. Here, a considerable fraction of the investments must be addressed to the central reservoir. An approach towards the reduction of the investment costs for the installation of seasonal storages in the use of cavities, which are already available in mines. In the Ruhr-Area a complex net of subterranean cavities is available. For the cost estimation of solar assisted heat supply with integrated storage in mines, the reference suburban colony 'Essen-Stoppenberg' with 42 double family houses is chosen. The specific storage costs are estimated for different technical options (tunnel- or shaft storage, direct or indirect charging system). In most cases these costs are comparable to other seasonal heat storage projects. With advantageous conditions specific capital expenditures can be achieved, which are lower than those of conventional seasonal storage. However, it must be considered, that the operating costs of pit storages are expected to be higher. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  14. Structural analysis of an underground reinforced concrete waste storage tank due to over-pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a structural analysis performed by use of the finite element method in determining the pressure-carrying capacity of an underground tank which contains nuclear wastes. The tank and surrounding soil were modeled and analyzed using the ABAQUS program. Special emphases were given on determining the effects of soil-containment interaction by employing Coulomb friction model. The effect of material properties was investigated by considering two sets of stress-strain data for the steel plates. In addition, a refined mesh was used to evaluate the strain concentration effects at steel liner thickness discontinuities

  15. Economic efficiency of underground natural gas storage: The case of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charette, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the current situation of natural gas storage in Canada and attempts to provide valuable information and analytical tools so that the key players, including government and industry, will be in a better position to make enlightened choices for future investments in natural gas storage. Central to the analysis of the efficiency of storage is the notion of efficient peak-load pricing. It is usually recognized that storage may be efficient or welfare increasing because, with fixed consumption, it may allow the substitution of cheaper off-peak production for more costly production. The theoretical conclusions are used of a number of static peak-load pricing models, as well as investment decision models, to analyze the various costs and benefits of storage. The main conclusion is made that, when storage is possible, the welfare maximizing peak/off-peak price differential can be reduced, and therefore, storage can increase the efficiency of the gas transmission system. 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  16. The evolving policy regime for pumped storage hydroelectricity in China: A key support for low-carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Perera, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highlights the role of pumped storage hydroelectricity in renewable energy integration. • Examines the development of pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Reviews the regulatory policies on pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Analyzes the operation and pricing regime for pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. • Makes policy recommendations for promoting pumped storage hydroelectricity in China. - Abstract: As part of its energy transition strategy, China has set ambitious targets for increasing the contribution of renewable energy and, in particular, of wind power. However, the Chinese power sector has not undergone the necessary reforms to facilitate the integration and absorption of a larger share of variable renewable energy. This is evident from the difficulties in absorbing wind power from already commissioned wind farms and the resultant curtailment of wind power. Pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is a flexible power source that can facilitate higher penetration levels of wind power as well as complement China’s growing nuclear power capacity. However, regulatory policy constraints have restricted the effective utilization of existing PSH capacity and discouraged investment in new PSH capacity. This paper examines these constraints and assesses the likely impact of new policies designed to address them. Finally, policy recommendations and concluding remarks are provided. This paper contributes to the literature on renewable energy integration from a new perspective. The lessons from China are relevant to other countries going through the energy transition

  17. Accessing leaking underground storage tank case studies and publications through the EPA's Computerized On-Line Information System (COLIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillger, R.; Tibay, P.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA's regulations for underground storage tanks (USTs) require corrective action to be taken in response to leaking USTs. Recent developments of UST programs nationwide as well as the introduction of new technologies to clean up UST sites have increased the diversity of experience levels among personnel involved with this type of work. The EPA's Computerized On-Line Information System (COLIS) has been developed to facilitate technology transfer among the personnel involved in UST cleanup. The system allows for the quick and simple retrieval of data relating to UST incidents, as well as other hazardous waste-related information. The system has been used by response personnel at all levels of government, academia, and private industry. Although it has been in existence for many years, users are just now realizing the potential wealth of information stored in this system. COLIS access can be accomplished via telephone lines utilizing a personal computer and a modem

  18. Processing of hazardous material, or damage treatment method for shallow layer underground storage structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Takehiko; Nishioka, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    In radioactive waste processing facilities and shallow layer underground structures for processing hazardous materials, sheet piles having freezing pipes at the joint portions are spiked into soils at the periphery of a damaged portion of the shallow layer underground structure for processing or storing hazardous materials. Liquid nitrogen is injected to the freezing pipes to freeze the joint portions of adjacent sheet piles. With such procedures, continuous waterproof walls are formed surrounding the soils at the peripheries of the damaged portion. Further, freezing pipes are disposed in the surrounding soils, and liquid nitrogen is injected to freeze the soils. The frozen soils are removed, and artificial foundation materials are filled in the space except for the peripheries of the damaged portion after the removal thereof, and liquid suspension is filled in the peripheries of the damaged portion, and restoration steps for closing the damaged portion are applied. Then, the peripheries of the damaged portion are buried again. With such procedures, series of treatments for removing contaminated soils and repairing a damaged portion can be conducted efficiently at a low cost. (T.M.)

  19. Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures.

  20. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  1. Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Hillis, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Geomechanical modelling of fault stability is an integral part of Australia's GEODISC research program to ensure the safe storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface reservoirs. Storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs requires estimates of sustainable fluid pressures that will not induce fracturing or create fault permeability that could lead to CO 2 escape. Analyses of fault stability require the determination of fault orientations, ambient pore fluid pressures and in situ stresses in a potential storage site. The calculation of effective stresses that act on faults and reservoir rocks lead then to estimates of fault slip tendency and fluid pressures sustainable during CO 2 storage. These parameters can be visualized on 3D images of fault surfaces or in 2D projections. Faults that are unfavourably oriented for reactivation can be identified from failure plots. In depleted oil and gas fields, modelling of fault and rock stability needs to incorporate changes of the pre-production stresses that were induced by hydrocarbon production and associated pore pressure depletion. Such induced stress changes influence the maximum sustainable formation pressures and CO 2 storage volumes. Hence, determination of in situ stresses and modelling of fault stability are essential prerequisites for the safe engineering of subsurface CO 2 injection and the modelling of storage capacity. (author)

  2. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  3. Effects of Formation Damage on Productivity of Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of formation damage on the productivity of gas storage reservoirs was performed with depleted oil reservoir (OB-02, located onshore, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Information on the reservoir and the fluids from OB-02 were collected and used to evaluate the deliverabilities of the gas storage reservoir over a 10-year period of operation. The results obtained were used to plot graphs of deliverability against permeability and skin respectively. The graphs revealed that as the permeability decreased, the skin increased, and hence a decrease in deliverability of gas from the reservoir during gas withdrawal. Over the ten years of operating the reservoir for gas storage, the deliverability and permeability which were initially 2.7 MMscf/d and 50 mD, with a skin of 0.2, changed to new values of 0.88 MMscf/d and 24 mD with the skin as 4.1 at the tenth year.

  4. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  5. Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloyd, Richard M.

    1971-01-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass ground-water basin is divided into the Beaumont, Banning, Cabazon, San Timoteo, South Beaumont, Banning Bench, and Singleton storage units. The Beaumont storage unit, centrally located in the agency area, is the largest in volume of the storage units. Estimated long-term average annual precipitation in the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency drainage area is 332,000 acre-feet, and estimated average annual recoverable water is 24,000 acre-feet, less than 10 percent of the total precipitation. Estimated average annual surface outflow is 1,700 acre-feet, and estimated average annual ground-water recharge is 22,000 acre-feet. Projecting tack to probable steady-state conditions, of the 22.000 acre-feet of recharge, 16,003 acre-feet per year became subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley, 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, and 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon. After extensive development, estimated subsurface outflow from the area in 1967 was 6,000 acre-feet into the Redlands area, 220 acre-feet into Potrero Canyon, and 800 acre-feet into the fault systems south of the Banning storage unit, unwatered during construction of a tunnel. Subsurface outflow into Coachella Valley in 1967 is probably less than 50 percent of the steady-state flow. An anticipated 17,000 .acre-feet of water per year will be imported by 1980. Information developed in this study indicates it is technically feasible to store imported water in the eastern part of the Beaumont storage unit without causing waterlogging in the storage area and without losing any significant quantity of stored water.

  6. Preliminary results of continuous GPS monitoring of surface deformation at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Henton, J. A.; Piraszewski, M.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five of the planned thirteen GPS monitoring stations were installed in November 2012 and results subsequently processed on a weekly basis. The first GPS results prior to CO2 injection have just been determined using both precise point positioning (PPP) and baseline processing with the Bernese GPS Software. The time series of the five sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions are combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. The results are compared to those from InSAR.

  7. Modelling of seismic reflection data for underground gas storage in the Pečarovci and Dankovci structures - Mura Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gosar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Two antiform structures in the Mura Depression were selected as the most promising in Slovenia for the construction of an underground gas storage facility in an aquifer. Seventeen reflection lines with a total length of 157km were recorded, and three boreholes were drilled. Structural models corresponding to two different horizons (the pre-Tertiary basement and the Badenian-Sarmatianboundary were constructed using the Sierra Mimic program. Evaluation of different velocity data (velocity analysis, sonic log, the down-hole method, and laboratory measurements on cores was carried out in order to perform correct timeto-depth conversion and to estabUsh lateral velocity variations. The porous rock in Pečarovci structure is 70m thick layer of dolomite, occurring at a depth of 1900m, whereas layers of marl, several hundred meter thick, represent the impermeable cap-rock. Due to faults, the Dankovci structure, at a depth of 1200m,where the reservoir rocks consist of thin layers of conglomerate and sandstone,was proved to be less reliable. ID synthetic seismograms were used to correlatethe geological and seismic data at the borehole locations, especially at intervals with thin layers. The raytracing method on 2D models (the Sierra Quik packagewas applied to confirm lateral continuity of some horizons and to improve the interpretation of faults which are the critical factor for gas storage.

  8. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  9. Environmental and Economic Impact of Underground Storage Tanks in the United States and Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Pemex ), the Mexico City based state oil company, has accepted responsibility for the gasoline leak into the sewer system and offered to provide $32.7...owned and operated by Pemex , which crossed the southeast part of the city and supplied one of the main storage and distribution plants with gasoline

  10. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS... storage; and (4) Maintained to prevent the accumulation of water. (c) Welding or cutting other than that... contained diesel fuel, these practices shall be followed: (1) Cutting or welding shall not be performed on...

  11. World Energy Needs and Offshore Potential of hydro energy and pump storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2008-09-01

    In 2008, 6,5 Billion people have an overall income of 50.000 Billion US $, use 10 Billion oil equivalent of primary energy, partly through 15.000 TWh of electric power. Most is used by 1 Billion people from industrialized countries, with 10.000 KWh/ year per capita at a cost of 10 cents per KWh, i.e. 1.000 $/year, 3 % of their income close to 30.000 $ per year. In the second half of the Century, we may hope that 10 Billion people will reach this average income per capita; with a better energetic efficiency but a larger share of it through electricity. The world Electricity needs may well be multiplied by 5 along the century. It is possible at a reasonable cost to transport electricity along thousands of Km but this is used only now for 1 %. It is possible to store electricity after generation (pumped storage plants between 2 lakes) but it is used now for only 1 %; energy storage is usually before electricity generation (fuel storage or lakes). But these two possibilities of storage of electricity after generation and long distance transport are the key of the future utilization of renewable energies. The key problem of wind and solar electricity is the intermittent supply and the relevant need of storage along 1 or 2 days. Without storage, wind and solar energies may be used one third of time and should be associated with much more fossil fuel power for two thirds. As fossil fuel power will be limited, wind and solar should be very limited. 2) With storage, wind and solar energies may be used over 80 % of time, much more than fossil fuel. For 10.000 TWh/year of wind energy, a 2 days storage requires a 55 TWh/storage. For 30.000 TWh/year of sun energy, a 16 hours storage requires a 55 TWh/storage. As some storage may be common and as there may be storage is some solar plants, the total storage need may be 80 to 100 TWh. It may be between two lakes: - Possibly 10 to 20 TWh between 2 onshore lakes, as for 2 TWh now (100 GW x 20 hours) - Possibly 10 to 20 TWh from

  12. The First Israeli Hydro-Electric Pumped Storage Power Plant Gilboa PSPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P., Dr.; Sautereau, T.; Sapir, Y.; Barak, H.; Hénard, F.; Blaix, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    The Israeli Public Utilities Authority, PUA, decided to increase the instantaneous power available on the grid by adding Pumped Storage Power Plants, PSPP, to the existing generation capacity. PSP Investments Ltd. is a private investor that decided to develop the Gilboa PSPP. Its capacity is 300MWe. The project performance has to comply with PUA regulation for PSPP, and with all relevant Israeli laws and IECo standards. This paper itemizes an overview of the Gilboa PSPP through short summaries of units’ components from design step to manufacturing processes.

  13. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  14. Contribution of variable-speed pump hydro storage for power system dynamic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the study of variable-speed Pump Storage Powerplant (PSP) in the Portuguese power system. It evaluates the progressive integration in three major locations and compares the power system performance following a severe fault event with consequent disconnection of non-Fault Ride-through (FRT) compliant Wind Farms (WF). To achieve such objective, a frequency responsive model was developed in PSS/E and was further used to substitute existing fixed-speed PSP. The results allow identifying a clear enhancement on the power system performance by the presence of frequency responsive variable-speed PSP, especially for the scenario presented, with high level of renewables integration.

  15. Short term optimization of electric power plants production including pumped storage and nuclear modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourez, M.; Jussiant, C.; Roubens, M.; Trecat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Short term optimization, including start-up costs, pumped storage, constraints on shut-off time and run-time is a classical problem solved by dynamic programming. However when minimum base production is covered only by nuclear plants and is greater then minimum load demand, some sort of optimal modulation of these plants must be taken into account. The program developed deals with this constraint in a quasi-optimal way, and allows also energy exchanges based on short term contracts. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been verified at the Belgian utility where this program was developed

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  17. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  18. Assessment of the potential of the Mainfranken region, northern Bavaria, for underground storage of geothermal energy; Erkundung des regionalen Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (UTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R.; Heinrichs, G.; Udluft, P. [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Ebert, H.P.; Fricke, J. [Abt. Waermedaemmung/Waermetransport, Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The following paper presents a research project that is planned as a cooperation of the Geological Institute, University of Wuerzburg and the Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research. In this project the potentials for underground thermal energy storage will be investigated in the region of Mainfranken, Northern Bavaria (Main = the river `Main`, Franken = Franconia). All aspects of underground storage will be studied with respect to the specific geographical and geological situation of the area. The study will provide a detailed map of possible storage sites, from which several case studies and at least one demonstration projects will result. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, das gemeinsam vom Institut fuer Geologie der Universitaet Wuerzburg und dem Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung in Bayern geplant wird. Ziel des Projekts ist die Erkundung des Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (Nordbayern). Alle Aspekte der Untergrundspeicherung werden regionalspezifisch betrachtet. Neben der Erstellung differenzierter Karten geeigneter Standorte sind Fallstudien und Demonstrationsprojekte in Planung. (orig.)

  19. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  20. Removal of CO2 by storage in the deep underground, chemical utilization and biofixation. Options for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over, J.A.; De Vries, J.E.; Stork, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Utrecht University in Utrecht, Netherlands, initially put the subject of CO2-storage on the agenda as a possible necessary policy element. During 1990/1991 a number of research institutes and engineering consultants carried out several studies. Also in 1991 the lEA Greenhouse Gas Group (IEA GHG) was initiated, including participation from The Netherlands. The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs both attended the meetings of the Executive Committee (ExCo) from the start. This Group started paying attention to the subject of CO2-capturing at large point sources (electricity stations). They then went subsequently from capturing from other (smaller and/or more diffuse) sources, ranking relative to other large scale options to combat or reduce CO2-emissions (i.e. vast areas of forest) to influence and controlling other 'greenhouse gases' such as methane. During 1992/1993 Novem prepared - on request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs - research proposals for investigations and demonstration projects, having a 10 to 15 year horizon, with regard to CO2-capturing technologies. In the beginning of 1994, the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) put more emphasis on demonstration of the feasibility of CO2-storage. When the first 'Kok-government' (the so-called 'Purple Cabinet') came into being, attention shifted to studies on CO2-storage; the central question being whether there would be sufficient potential capacity if the necessity to store CO2 would ever occur. Within this framework Novem was authorized by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to carry out an investigation program on possibilities of CO2-storage. The present publication deals with the results of these studies. The main subject of investigation were: Storage in underground formations (depleted gas fields and aquifers) and the conditions under which this is feasible; Possibilities for enhanced gas recovery by carbon dioxide injection and its

  1. Machine concept optimization for pumped-storage plants through combined dispatch simulation for wholesale and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Klaus; Harasta, Michaela; Braitsch, Werner; Moser, Albert; Schaefer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In Germany's energy markets of today, pumped-storage power plants offer excellent business opportunities due to their outstanding flexibility. However, the energy-economic simulation of pumped-storage plants, which is necessary to base the investment decision on a sound business case, is a highly complex matter since the plant's capacity must be optimized in a given plant portfolio and between two relevant markets: the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market. This mathematical optimization problem becomes even more complex when the question is raised as to which type of machine should be used for a pumped-storage new build option. For the first time, it has been proven possible to simulate the optimum dispatch of different pumped-storage machine concepts within two relevant markets - the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market - thereby greatly supporting the investment decision process. The methodology and findings of a cooperation study between E.ON and RWTH Aachen University in respect of the German pumped-storage extension project 'Waldeck 2+' are described, showing the latest development in dispatch simulation for generation portfolios. (authors)

  2. Numerical modeling of the viscoplastic damage behaviour of rocks and application to underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, A.

    2003-12-01

    The long-term behavior of large, underground works of a civil engineering nature carried out in a rock mass is currently the subject of numerous studies. The object is to attain a better understanding of complex phenomena, such as the convergence of excavated cavities or the outbreak and development of damaged zones in the rock mass neighboring the works, in order to foresee them. This Ph.D. thesis is devoted to the analysis of viscoplastic strain in rocks and to the degradation of their mechanical properties with time, often referred to as deferred damage. A bibliographical record presents the current depth of understanding as regards underlying microstructural phenomena and summarizes the main theories upon which the modeling of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale is based. The formulations enabling a coupling between the viscous effects and the deferred damage are revisited and discussed in detail. One phenomenological model in particular, Lemaitre's viscoplastic constitutive damage law is retained for the numerical modeling. The calculations were performed with the help of a finite element code (CAST3M). Designs of nuclear waste disposal structures at great depth make up the subject of different case studies. The Lemaitre model, originally designed for metallic materials, is next the subject of a theoretical development of which the aim is to better adapt it to the description of the long-term mechanical behavior of rocks. The modifications focus on several points; notably that the hypotheses of anelastic strain at constant volume and of isotropy of damage are rejected. The main characteristics of time-dependent strain in rocks; in particular the phenomena of viscoplastic dilation and contraction as well as the anisotropy induced by damage to the rock matrix are reproduced by the proposed model. A parametric study is then undertaken, using the experimental results obtained on different types of rock, in order to demonstrate the model's capabilities

  3. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  4. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  5. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  6. Stability analysis of the governor-turbine-hydraulic system of pumped storage plant during small load variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Liu, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Governor-turbine-hydraulic (GTH) system is complex because of strong couplings of hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. This paper presents a convenient mathematical model of the GTH system of a pumped storage plant (PSP) during small load variation. By using state space method and eigenvalue method, the stability of the GTH system is analyzed and the stable regions of the system can be given as well, which would help to optimize system design or the turning of governors. The proposed method is used to analyze the stability of a practical pumped storage plant during small load variation, which is also simulated in time domain on the basis of characteristics method. The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with numerical simulations. Based on the proposed method, the effect of the system parameters and operating conditions on the stable regions is investigated. These results are useful for the design of the GTH system of pumped storage plants.

  7. The introduction of wind powered pumped storage Systems in Greek isolated systems. Experiences and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Christakis, Dimitris G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the present paper, the experiences gained from the study of Wind Powered Pumped Storage Systems (WP-PSS), introduced in Greek isolated power production systems, are presented. The presented systems were studied in the frames of either research or development projects, financed by the public or private sector. Two main categories of WP-PSS are presented: The introduction of WP-PSS for power peak saving. The construction and the operation framework of these systems are fully defined in the relevant Greek laws. These systems were studied in the frames of individual development projects. The introduction of WPPSS aiming at the maximisation of wind power. These systems are not yet fully defined in the Greek legislation and were studied in the frames of research works. More than ten WP-PSS have been technically and economically studied so far. Each one of them has been introduced in a Greek isolated insular power system, integrated according to the to the specific design parameters of the examined insular system (power demand, wind potential, land morphology, etc). All the accomplished studies may be considered as parts of one long-time unified project, aiming at the investigation of the prerequisites for the maximisation of the Renewable Energy Sources (R.E.S.) exploitation in Greece. The general conclusions arisen from the so far accomplished work are: The R.E.S. penetration percentage in the Greek insular systems may exceed 80% of the annual energy demand, by introducing pumped storage systems as storage device. The electricity production cost is minimized, even in the isolated systems of small size. The corresponding investments exhibit very good economical indexes, regardless the possible availability of initial capitals subsidy. In case of initial capitals subsidy availability, the investments exhibit quite attractive economical indexes. The dynamic security of the proposed systems (author)

  8. From clay bricks to deep underground storage; vom lehmziegel bis zum tiefenlager -- anwendung von ton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    This booklet issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at the use of clay strata for the storage of radioactive wastes in deep-lying repositories. First of all, a geological foray is made concerning the history of the use of clay and its multifarious uses. The characteristics of clay and its composition are examined and its formation in the geological past is explained. In particular Opalinus clay is looked at and the structures to be found are discussed. The clay's various properties and industrial uses are examined and its sealing properties are examined. Also, Bentonite clay is mentioned and work done by Nagra and co-researchers is noted.

  9. Project on effects of gas in underground storage facilities for radioactive waste (Pegasus project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.; McMenamin, T.

    1993-01-01

    Whereas the subject of gas generation and gas release from radioactive waste repositories has gained in interest on the international scene, the Commission of the European Communities has increased its research efforts on this issue. In particular, in the fourth five-year R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (1990-94), a framework has been set up in which research efforts on the subject of gas generation and migration, supported by the CEC, are brought together and coordinated. In this project, called Pegasus, about 20 organizations and research institutes are involved. The project covers theoretical and experimental studies of the processes of gas formation and possible gas release from the different waste types, LLW, ILW and HLW, under typical repository conditions in suitable geological formations such as clay, salt and granite. In this report the present status of the various research activities are described and 13 papers have been selected

  10. First Results of Continuous GPS Monitoring of Surface Deformation at the Aquistore Underground CO2 Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M. R.; Ferland, R.; Piraszewski, M.; Samsonov, S. V.; Czarnogorska, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS monitoring of surface deformation. Five GPS monitoring stations were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, some collocated on top of InSAR retroreflectors. The GPS data from these stations have been processed on a weekly basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Here we present the first complete results with 1-2 years of data at all sites prior to CO2 injection. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analysed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals and estimates of expected regional ground motion. The individual weekly network solutions have also been combined together in a cumulative 4D network solution to provide a preliminary local velocity field in the immediately vicinity of the injection well. These results are also compared to those obtained independently from InSAR, in particular the direct comparison of GPS and InSAR at the retroreflectors.

  11. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite{trademark} that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE`s waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  12. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1997-07-01

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  13. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-11-15

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  14. Economic competitiveness of underground coal gasification combined with carbon capture and storage in the Bulgarian energy network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaten, Natalie Christine

    2014-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) allows for exploitation of deep-seated coal seams not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. Aim of the present study is to examine UCG economics based on coal conversion into a synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine power plant (CCGT) with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Thereto, a techno-economic model is developed for UCG-CCGT-CCS costs of electricity (COE) determination which, considering sitespecific data of a selected target area in Bulgaria, sum up to 72 Euro/MWh in total. To quantify the impact of model constraints on COE, sensitivity analyses are undertaken revealing that varying geological model constraints impact COE with 0.4% to 4%, chemical with 13%, technical with 8% to 17% and market-dependent with 2% to 25%. Besides site-specific boundary conditions, UCG-CCGT-CCS economics depend on resources availability and infrastructural characteristics of the overall energy system. Assessing a model based implementation of UCG-CCGT-CCS and CCS power plants into the Bulgarian energy network revealed that both technologies provide essential and economically competitive options to achieve the EU environmental targets and a complete substitution of gas imports by UCG synthesis gas production.

  15. Site status monitoring report and Site Ranking Form for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the fourth semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in April 1996. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections with two Appendices. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site. Appendix A contains the original analytical laboratory results for environmental and quality control samples.

  16. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-01-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H 2 , CO, NH 3 , CH 4 , and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  17. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ``Aging`` processes.

  18. Design issues for compressed air energy storage in sealed underground cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perazzelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES systems represent a new technology for storing very large amount of energy. A peculiarity of the systems is that gas must be stored under a high pressure (p = 10–30 MPa. A lined rock cavern (LRC in the form of a tunnel or shaft can be used within this pressure range. The rock mass surrounding the opening resists the internal pressure and the lining ensures gas tightness. The present paper investigates the key aspects of technical feasibility of shallow LRC tunnels or shafts under a wide range of geotechnical conditions. Results show that the safety with respect to uplift failure of the rock mass is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for assessing feasibility. The deformation of the rock mass should also be kept sufficiently small to preserve the integrity of the lining and, especially, its tightness. If the rock is not sufficiently stiff, buckling or fatigue failure of the steel lining becomes more decisive when evaluating the feasible operating air pressure. The design of the concrete plug that seals the compressed air stored in the container is another demanding task. Numerical analyses indicate that in most cases, the stability of the rock mass under the plug loading is not a decisive factor for plug design.

  19. Underfloor pumped storage power plants in facilities of coal mining; Unterflur-Pumpspeicherwerke in Anlagen des Steinkohlebergbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perau, Eugen; Schreiber, Ulrich [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Fachgebiet Geotechnik; Niemann, Andre [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The energy policy turnaround involves a variety of urgent issues. To date, the production of energy is dominated by conventional power plants. Previously the renewable energy only serves to supplement the energy supply from conventional power plants. The desire for an always available and sufficient energy supply requires the need for energy storage in order to avoid fluctuations in energy loss. From this perspective, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on underfloor pumped storage plants in the coal industry.

  20. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  1. The impact of the pumped-storage hydropower plant Cierny Vah on caddisfly communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handanovicova, I.; Navara, T.

    2015-01-01

    The trichopterological research was conducted in six localities of the Cierny Vah river and one locality in the Vah river, not far from the confluence of the Biely Vah and the Cierny Vah rivers. The upper part of the Cierny Vah river represents an undisturbed section, which was examined in four localities. After this section, the river is impacted by the pumped-storage hydropower plant Cierny Vah. Cluster analysis (Ward's method) separated two below-dam localities from other metarhithral localities. The last locality belonged to the unimpacted group, which signalised renaturalization of the river. The dominant species of the unimpacted section was Ecclisopteryx dalecarlica while the below-dam section was dominated by a tolerant genus Hydropsyche. (authors)

  2. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  3. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  4. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH) 2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m tab −3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH) 2 , expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  5. FY 17 Q1 Commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage (AS-IHP) offers significant energy saving over a baseline heat pump with electric water heater. The saving potential is maximized when the AS-IHP serves coincident high water heating and high space cooling demands. A previous energy performance analysis showed that the AS-IHP provides the highest benefit in the hot-humid and hot-dry/mixed dry climate regions. Analysis of technical potential energy savings for these climate zones based on the BTO Market calculator indicated that the following commercial building market segments had the highest water heating loads relative to space cooling and heating loads education, food service, health care, lodging, and mercantile/service. In this study, we focused on these building types to conservatively estimate the market potential of the AS-IHP. Our analysis estimates maximum annual shipments of ~522,000 units assuming 100% of the total market is captured. An early replacement market based on replacement of systems in target buildings between 15 and 35 years old was estimated at ~136,000 units. Technical potential energy savings are estimated at ~0.27 quad based on the maximum market estimate, equivalent to ~13.9 MM Ton CO2 emissions reduction.

  6. An optimisation framework for thermal energy storage integration in a residential heat pump heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaldi, R.; Kiprakis, A.; Friedrich, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated framework for the optimal design of low carbon heating systems. • Development of a synthetic heat demand model with occupancy profiles. • Linear model of a heat pump with thermal energy storage heating system. • Evaluation of domestic heating system from generally available input parameters. • The lower carbon heating system can be cost competitive with conventional systems. - Abstract: Domestic heating has a large share in the UK total energy consumption and significant contribution to the greenhouse gas emissions since it is mainly fulfilled by fossil fuels. Therefore, decarbonising the heating system is essential and an option to achieve this is by heating system electrification through heat pumps (HP) installation in combination with renewable power generation. A potential increase in performance and flexibility can be achieved by pairing HP with thermal energy storage (TES), which allows the shifting of heat demand to off peak periods or periods with surplus renewable electricity. We present a design and operational optimisation model which is able to assess the performance of HP–TES relative to conventional heating systems. The optimisation is performed on a synthetic heat demand model which requires only the annual heat demand, temperature and occupancy profiles. The results show that the equipment and operational cost of a HP system without TES are significantly higher than for a conventional system. However, the integration of TES and time-of-use tariffs reduce the operational cost of the HP systems and in combination with the Renewable Heating Incentive make the HP systems cost competitive with conventional systems. The presented demand model and optimisation procedure will enable the design of low carbon district heating systems which integrate the heating system with the variable renewable electricity supply.

  7. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of underground storage technology for carbon dioxide; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso chichu choryu gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents the fiscal 2000 results of R and D of underground storage technology for carbon dioxide. As basic experiments, a measurement apparatus was manufactured for simulating the pressure and temperature conditions in aquifers to measure the rate at which CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water and the reactivity between CO{sub 2} and rocks, with the basic performance verified. Methods were investigated and classified that monitor environmental impact and safety. For the purpose of anticipating the long-term behaviors of CO{sub 2} sequestered underground, a simulator was developed, extracting, from investigation of the literature, natural phenomena required for the anticipation. As the system studies, examination was conducted for analysis of the energy balance of the underground storage technology, rational design (safety and economy) of an entire system ranging from source to storage point, investigation from social and economic perspectives, and estimation of the effect of suppressing global warming. In the injection experiment, Minami-Nagaoka natural gas field was selected as a prospective experiment site from the characteristics of the cap rock and aquifer. One injection well was drilled to a depth of 1,230 m, with investigations performed such as physical well-logging and core sampling. Existing data were utilized in the simulation study of CO{sub 2} behavior underground during the injection period. The information of the basic geophysical survey/exploratory well by the Japan National Oil Corporation was collected and compiled, with the preliminary geological study undertaken in the areas described. (NEDO)

  8. Current use of wild plants with edible underground storage organs in a rural population of Patagonia: between tradition and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan José; Ladio, Ana Haydee

    2015-09-25

    Edible plants with underground storage organs (USOs) are neglected resources. We studied the local ecological knowledge edible plants with (USOs) in rural populations of North-Patagonia in order to establish how people are utilizing these plants. Some aspect of corpus-praxis-cosmos complex associated to the local ecological knowledge was documented and discussed. In addition, variation in this ecological knowledge due to age, gender, family structure, ethnic self-determination was also evaluated. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 inhabitants in order to study the relationship between the current use of plants with USOs and the age, sex, family group composition and ethnic self-identification of interviewees. In addition, the Cultural Importance Index for each species was calculated. The current richness of known species in these populations is a total of 9 plants. Plants with USOs tend to be used more frequently as the age of the interviewee increases. Women and men showed no differences in the average richness of species cited. The interviewees who share their homes with other generations use these plants more frequently than those who live alone. Our results indicate that the interviewees who identified themselves as belonging to the Mapuche people use these plants more frequently. For the Mapuche people, wild plants have constituted material and symbolic resources of great importance in their historical subsistence. In addition, they are currently being redefined as elements which present a connection with ancestral practices, produce a strong relationship with the 'land', and become markers which identify the 'natural' (historical) ways of their people; these are key elements in the current political processes of identity revaluation. This research is valuable to stimulate cultural revival and health promotion programs in the communities with their own local, cultural food.

  9. Energy performance and economic evaluation of heat pump/organic rankine cycle system with sensible thermal storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical......The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept......-life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water...

  10. Optimal short-term operation and sizing of pumped-storage power plants in systems with high penetration of wind energy

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Díaz, Juan Ignacio; Perea, Alejandro; Wilhelmi Ayza, José-Román

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the short-term optimal operation of an electric system comprising several thermal power plants and one pumped storage plant is studied in several scenarios of power demand and wind penetration in order to draw conclusions about the contribution of the pumped storage plant to system operation costs. A mixed integer linear programming model is used to obtain the optimal hourly thermal, hydro and pumping powers so that the production cost of the entire system is minimized. An aggre...

  11. Optimal operation and forecasting policy for pump storage plants in day-ahead markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate unit commitment deploying stochastic and deterministic approaches. • We consider day-ahead markets, its forecast and weekly price based unit commitment. • Stochastic and deterministic unit commitment are identical for the first planning day. • Unit commitment and bidding policy can be based on the deterministic approach. • Robust forecasting models should be estimated based on the whole planning horizon. - Abstract: Pump storage plants are an important electricity storage technology at present. Investments in this technology are expected to increase. The necessary investment valuation often includes expected cash flows from future price-based unit commitment policies. A price-based unit commitment policy has to consider market price uncertainty and the information revealing nature of electricity markets. For this environment stochastic programming models are suggested to derive the optimal unit commitment policy. For the considered day-ahead price electricity market stochastic and deterministic unit commitment policies are comparable suggesting an application of easier implementable deterministic models. In order to identify suitable unit commitment and forecasting policies, deterministic unit commitment models are applied to actual day-ahead electricity prices of a whole year. As a result, a robust forecasting model should consider the unit commitment planning period. This robust forecasting models result in expected cash flows similar to realized ones allowing a reliable investment valuation

  12. Evaluation of the wind pumped hydropower storage integrated flood mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Aishah; Basrawi, Firdaus

    2018-04-01

    As Wind Pumped Hydropower Storage (WPHS) need high cost to construct, it is important to study their impacts on economic and environmental aspects. Thus, this research aims to evaluate their economic and environmental performances. First, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) was used to simulate power generation system with and without the flood reservoir. Next, the total amount of emitted air pollutant was used to evaluate the environmental impacts. It was found the wind-diesel with reservoir storage system (A-III) will have much lower NPC than other systems that do not include reservoir for flood mitigation when the cost of flood losses are included in the total Net Present Cost (NPC). The NPC for system A-III was RM 1.52 million and for diesel standalone system (A-I) is RM 10.8 million when the cost of flood losses are included in the total NPC. Between both energy systems, the amount of pollutants emitted by the A-III system was only 408 kg-CO2/year which is much less than the A-I system which is 99, 754 kg of carbon dioxide per year. To conclude, the WPHS integrated with flood mitigation system seems promising in the aspects of economic and environment.

  13. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning the surface buildings and structures; Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme der obertaegigen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, H.; Brueggmann, R.; Mende, F.; Steinkraus, D.; Wauer, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article describes the concepts of the plants and equipment and the specific features of the underground storage at Uelsen. The underground storage will be purpose-built as an H-gas storage in a nearly depleted sandstone deposit. At a nominal deliverability of 250.000 cubic m/h (Vn) the storage at Uelsen has more potential for expansion. This potential was taken into account by designing appropriate pressure stages, capacities, performance characteristics and space. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die nachfolgende Veroeffentlichung stellt das anlagentechnische Grundkonzept und die spezifischen Besonderheiten des UGS Uelsen dar. Der im suedwestlichen Niedersachsen als H-Gasspeicher in einer nahezu ausgefoerderten Buntsandsteinlagerstaette eingerichtete UGS Uelsen wird in mehreren Ausbaustufen bedarfsgerecht fertiggestellt. Bei einer Nennentnahmekapazitaet von 450.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) und einer Nenninjektionsleistung von 250.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) weist der UGS Uelsen noch weiteres Potential fuer Erweiterungen auf. Dieses Ausbaupotential wurde bei der Planung und dem Bau der bestehenden Anlagen durch Festlegung entsprechender Druckstufen, Kapazitaeten, Leistungsgroessen und Platzanordnungen beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  14. Deriving Optimal End of Day Storage for Pumped-Storage Power Plants in the Joint Energy and Reserve Day-Ahead Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chazarra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology to maximise the income and derive the optimal end of day storage of closed-loop and daily-cycle pumped-storage hydropower plants. The plants participate in the day-ahead energy market as a price-taker and in the secondary regulation reserve market as a price-maker, in the context of the Iberian electricity system. The real-time use of the committed reserves is considered in the model formulation. The operation of the plants with the proposed methodology is compared to the ones that use an end of day storage of an empty reservoir or half of the storage capacity. Results show that the proposed methodology increases the maximum theoretical income in all the plants analysed both if they only participate in the day-ahead energy market and if they also participate in the secondary regulation service. It is also shown that the increase in the maximum theoretical income strongly depends on the size of the plant. In addition, it is proven that the end of day storages change notably in the new reserve-driven strategies of pumped-storage hydropower plants and that the proposed methodology is even more recommended if the secondary regulation service is considered.

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  16. Mesotoga infera sp. nov., a mesophilic member of the order Thermotogales, isolated from an underground gas storage aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hania, Wajdi; Postec, Anne; Aüllo, Thomas; Ranchou-Peyruse, Anthony; Erauso, Gaël; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Saint-Laurent, Stéphanie; Magot, Michel; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-08-01

    Strain VNs100(T), a novel mesophilic, anaerobic, rod-coccoid-shaped bacterium, having a sheath-like outer structure (toga), was isolated from a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage aquifer. It was non-motile with cells appearing singly (2-4 µm long × 1-2 µm wide), in pairs or as long chains and stained Gram-negative. Strain VNs100(T) was heterotrophic, able to use arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, lactate, mannose, maltose, raffinose, ribose, sucrose and xylose as energy sources only in the presence of elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor. Acetate, CO2 and sulfide were the end products of sugar metabolism. Hydrogen was not detected. Elemental sulfur, but not thiosulfate, sulfate or sulfite, were reduced to sulfide. Strain VNs100(T) grew at temperatures between 30 and 50 °C (optimum 45 °C), at pH values between 6.2 and 7.9 (optimum 7.3-7.5) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 15 g l(-1) (optimum 2 g l(-1)). The DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. The main cellular fatty acid was C16 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain VNs100(T) had as its closest relatives 'Mesotoga sulfurireducens' (97.1 % similarity) and Mesotoga prima (similarity of 97.1 % and 97.7 % with each of its two genes, respectively) within the order Thermotogales. Hybridization between strain VNS100(T) and 'M. sulfurireducens' and between strain VNS100(T) and M. prima showed 12.9 % and 20.6 % relatedness, respectively. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and taxonomic characteristics, strain VNs100(T) is proposed as a representative of a novel species of the genus Mesotoga in the family Thermotogaceae, order Thermotogales. The name Mesotoga infera sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VNs100(T) (= DSM 25546(T) = JCM 18154(T)).

  17. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be ta...

  18. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  19. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  20. Combining Wind and Pumped Hydro Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Generation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Coburn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has one of the highest wind energy potentials in Europe. The intermittent nature of wind makes this renewable resource impractical as a sole source of energy. Combining wind energy with pumped hydro energy storage (PHES can overcome this intermittency, consuming energy during low-demand periods and supplying energy for periods of high demand. Currently Ireland has a number of hydroelectric power plants and wind farms of various scales in operation. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate the potential of securing a reliable source of renewable energy by increasing the penetration of hydroelectric power by means of combined wind-PHES developments. The greatest wind potential is experienced along the western coast of Ireland and a number of sites were identified here which satisfied a minimum mean wind speed criterion of 10.5 ms−1. Each site was then further evaluated according to topographical requirements for PHES. All but two of the identified sites are immediately unsuitable due to the presence of areas protected under European legislation; this highlights the nonenergy related obstacles in the path of renewable energy generation in Ireland and suggests that a compromise should be researched which could facilitate both renewable energy generation and species and habitat protection in Europe.

  1. Integration of Variable Speed Pumped Hydro Storage in Automatic Generation Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgêncio, N.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pumped storage power (PSP) plants are expected to be an important player in modern electrical power systems when dealing with increasing shares of new renewable energies (NRE) such as solar or wind power. The massive penetration of NRE and consequent replacement of conventional synchronous units will significantly affect the controllability of the system. In order to evaluate the capability of variable speed PSP plants participation in the frequency restoration reserve (FRR) provision, taking into account the expected performance in terms of improved ramp response capability, a comparison with conventional hydro units is presented. In order to address this issue, a three area test network was considered, as well as the corresponding automatic generation control (AGC) systems, being responsible for re-dispatching the generation units to re-establish power interchange between areas as well as the system nominal frequency. The main issue under analysis in this paper is related to the benefits of the fast response of variable speed PSP with respect to its capability of providing fast power balancing in a control area.

  2. Heavy-metal compounds in the environment of the Zagorsk pumped-storage station region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrieva, I.L.; Zagoskin, V.A.; Boldenkov, V.S.; Brusilovskii, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Zagorsk pumped-storage station (ZPSS) is being constructed in a rather developed area. Pollution of the environment by compounds of metals is, in particular, a consequence. The tasks of this investigation included: the establishment of the main sources of pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by metal compounds in the region of construction of the ZPSS; determination of the level of content of these substances in various components of the landscape; and evaluation of the effect of regulating the Kun'ya River on processes of migration and accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems. In conformity with these tasks, a comprehensive geochemical study was performed in 1990-1991 of the drainage basin of the Kun'ya River, the results of which are presented here. Samples were collected of soil, forest litter, snow, bottom sediments, and surface waters. The investigation showed that the main sources of pollution of the aquatic environment in the ZPSS construction region by heavy-metal compounds were surface runoff from developed territories and insufficiently treated industrial wastewaters. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Performances achieved to the Grid by a Full Power Converter Used in a Variable Speed Pumped Storage Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    The growth of renewable energies likes wind and solar requires pumped-storage plants to increase their performances to stabilize grid frequency and voltage. The introduction of a full-power converter constitutes the ultimate step forward to meet the requirement in a safe, reliable and sustainable manner. This article quickly introduces the converter topology and technology before describing the performances it aims to deliver to the grid. Finally, converter bypass is discussed.

  4. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  5. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  6. Assessment of Future Whole-System Value of Large-Scale Pumped Storage Plants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impacts and benefits of the pumped storage plant (PSP and its upgrade to variable speed on generation and transmission capacity requirements, capital costs, system operating costs and carbon emissions in the future European electricity system. The combination of a deterministic system planning tool, Whole-electricity System Investment Model (WeSIM, and a stochastic system operation optimisation tool, Advanced Stochastic Unit Commitment (ASUC, is used to analyse the whole-system value of PSP technology and to quantify the impact of European balancing market integration and other competing flexible technologies on the value of the PSP. Case studies on the Pan-European system demonstrate that PSPs can reduce the total system cost by up to €13 billion per annum by 2050 in a scenario with a high share of renewables. Upgrading the PSP to variable-speed drive enhances its long-term benefits by 10–20%. On the other hand, balancing market integration across Europe may potentially reduce the overall value of the variable-speed PSP, although the effect can vary across different European regions. The results also suggest that large-scale deployment of demand-side response (DSR leads to a significant reduction in the value of PSPs, while the value of PSPs increases by circa 18% when the total European interconnection capacity is halved. The benefit of PSPs in reducing emissions is relatively negligible by 2030 but constitutes around 6–10% of total annual carbon emissions from the European power sector by 2050.

  7. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  9. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, R; Popa, B; Popa, F; Zachia-Zlatea, D

    2010-01-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  10. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, R; Popa, B [Faculty of Power Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, sect. 6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Popa, F [Institute for Hydropower Studies and Design, 5-7 Vasile Lascar, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020491 (Romania); Zachia-Zlatea, D, E-mail: bogdan.popa@rosha.r [Hidroelectrica S.A., 3 Constantin Nacu, sect. 2, Bucharest, 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  11. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  12. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  13. Soft energy/seawater pumped-storage power plant in Okinawa; Sofuto energy/Okinawa kaisui yosui hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, S. [Univ. of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-15

    A demonstration seawater pumped-storage power plant which is the first one in the world is under construction in the northern area of Okinawa. The pumped-storage power generation is an electricity recycling system in which the surplus electricity during the night is utilized to pump up water to an upper reservoir to discharge water for power generation during the daytime when demand for electricity increases. It is scheduled that main civil engineering structures are constructed during the year of 1995 to be subjected to trial operation in the following year. Countermeasures to be taken for natural environmental protection during the plant construction are introduced. Countermeasures are devised for environment assessment, muddy water treatment, and prevention of seawater at the upper reservoir. Salinity in the atmosphere is to be measured during the construction work and the demonstration test to evaluate the effects of scattering of salt from the upper reservoir into the atmosphere on the vegetation in the peripheral area and the salt-resistance of vegetation. Sufficient consideration is given to the protection of the existing vegetation and coral, and to the protection of small living creatures. Participants in the construction work are requested to report, for the purpose of taking proper steps, sites, peripheral conditions, and others when precious animals are found. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The transition from monopoly to competition on natural gas markets in europe. The strategic stakes of underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnault, B.

    2000-01-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market permits to the actors the use of the existing distribution networks, which remain managed by ancient monopolies. To manage efficiently a variable demand in spite of the importations and the bottleneck on canalizations, the monopolies have to install storages near the consumption areas. Meanwhile the storages are a rare resource owned by the historical operators, thus it reinforces their market power. The european directive proposes to define an access right to the storage. What kind of legislation should we applied? This thesis analyses the process of deregulation and the storage needs of the different actors. Propositions of regulations are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessment of the impact of the Kruonis hydro pumped storage on the ichtyocenosis of the Kaunas water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valushiene, V.; Gerulaitis, A.; Repechka, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the exploitation period (1992-1993) of one hydroagregate unit of the Kruonis Hydro Pumped Storage (HPS) the lower basin of the Kaunas Water Reservoir (Kauno Marios) fish species, their dimensions and age were found to change insignificantly as compared with the background data of the previous years (1989-1991). These changes can be associated with the peculiarities of natural conditions. At the current velocity 9-10 cm/s the penetration of young fish and their larvae into the hydroagregates of HPS was observed. At the end of summer, the abundance of fish larvae in the reverse canal before the unit started operating made up 41.3, during the pumping period - 51.3, at discharge time - 30.5 spec./100 m 3 . The greater part of the 'pumped in' fish accumulated in the upper basin. The rest ones, having passed through aggregates, penetrated into the reverse canal and came back into the lower basin. When operating one unit at the regime of 'pump', the injuries of young fish do not exceed 3-5%. The larger the fish the more often the injuries. The main injuries were mechanical or associated with fluctuations of pressure. 12 refs., 4 figs

  16. Scenario-based stochastic optimal operation of wind, photovoltaic, pump-storage hybrid system in frequency- based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Oskouei, Morteza; Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage objective function is proposed for optimization problem. • Hourly-based optimal contractual agreement is calculated. • Scenario-based stochastic optimization problem is solved. • Improvement of system frequency by utilizing PSH unit. - Abstract: This paper proposes the operating strategy of a micro grid connected wind farm, photovoltaic and pump-storage hybrid system. The strategy consists of two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hourly contractual agreement is determined. The second stage corresponds to maximizing its profit by adapting energy management strategy of wind and photovoltaic in coordination with optimum operating schedule of storage device under frequency based pricing for a day ahead electricity market. The pump-storage hydro plant is utilized to minimize unscheduled interchange flow and maximize the system benefit by participating in frequency control based on energy price. Because of uncertainties in power generation of renewable sources and market prices, generation scheduling is modeled by a stochastic optimization problem. Uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario generation and scenario reduction method. A powerful optimization algorithm is proposed using by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)/CPLEX. In order to verify the efficiency of the method, the algorithm is applied to various scenarios with different wind and photovoltaic power productions in a day ahead electricity market. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility and viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) is examined in detail through the conceptual design, cost scoping, and economic analysis of three case studies. Modular PSH refers to both the compactness of the project design and the proposed nature of product fabrication and performance. A modular project is assumed to consist of pre-fabricated standardized components and equipment, tested and assembled into modules before arrival on site. This technology strategy could enable m-PSH projects to deploy with less substantial civil construction and equipment component costs. The concept of m-PSH is technically feasible using currently available conventional pumping and turbine equipment, and may offer a path to reducing the project development cycle from inception to commissioning.

  18. A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol for solar heating, cooling and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-03-01

    An engineering development test prototype of the CaCl2-CheOH chemical heat pump was tested. The unit, which has storage capacity in excess of 100,000 BTU, completed over 100 full charge-discharge cycles. Cycling data show that the rate of heat pumping depends strongly on the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. These rates are more than adequate for solar heating or for solar cooling using dry ambient air heat rejection. Performance degradation after 100 cycles, expressed as a contact resistance, was less than 2 C. The heat exchangers showed some warpage due to plastic flow of the salt, producing the contact resistance. The experimental COP for cooling was 0.52, close to the theoretically predicted value.

  19. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate

  20. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fire tests of five-gallon containers used for storage in underground coal mines. Report of Investigations/1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzak, F.J.; Kubala, T.A.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines conducted a study to develop a standard fire test for 5-gal containers used for storing combustible fluids in underground coal mines. A standard test method was developed which evaluates the performance of the container in a 4-min tray fire. Bureau investigators used the standard test method to evaluate several types of closed 5-gal plastic and metal cans in outdoor tests. Each can tested contained 1 gal of nonfire-resistant (NFR) hydraulic oil. A container failed the test if it lost its contents in any of seven trials. Contents spilled either as a result of thermal rupture or melting.

  2. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  3. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  4. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  5. Recycling of underground storage tanks: a way-out to the risks; Reciclagem de tanques de combustiveis: solucoes para os riscos envolvidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano J.P.; Santos, Joao David [Companhia Brasileira de Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In petrol stations, the removal of an underground storage tank happens when it becomes unnecessary or inappropriate. Among the several reasons which motivate this removal, we can mention the environmental license process. According to the Resolution CONAMA 273/00, all the petrol stations are subjected to the previous, installation and operation licenses (including the ones in operation). This will cause the substitution of a large number of tanks all over Brazil along the following years. However, so that the license process can be successful, it is necessary that the environmental impacts caused by its implementation are properly managed, avoiding safety problems and providing that there won't be any damage to the environment. This work shows alternatives for the recycling of the tank, the destination of residue and the maintenance of safety all over the process. (author)

  6. Evaluating Fuel Leak and Aging Infrastructure at Red Hill, Hawaii, the Largest Underground Fuel Storage Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA Region 9, Hawaii’s Department of Health, U.S. Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency are working tprotect human health and the environment at the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  7. Structural analysis within the Rožná and Olší uranium deposits (Strážek Moldanubicum) for the estimation of deformation and stress conditions of underground gas storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Melichar, R.; Hájek, Antonín; Koníček, Petr; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kříž, P.; Lazárek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 237-246 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : structural analysis * deformation * stress * underground gas storage Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_13_Ptacek_237-246.pdf

  8. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  9. Rethinking Pumped Storage Hydropower in the European Alps: A Call for New Integrated Assessment Tools to Support the Energy Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Björnsen Gurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps are well positioned to contribute significantly to the energy transition. In addition to sites with above-average potential for wind and solar power, the “water towers” of Europe provide flexible, low-carbon power generation as well as energy storage. In the future, hydropower systems are expected to become more than mere electricity generators, serving a key role as flexible complements to intermittent power generators and as providers of large-scale seasonal and daily energy storage. Energy transition on national and European scales can be facilitated by expanding the capacity of pumped storage hydropower (PSHP plants. Yet the extension of hydropower production, in particular PSHP, remains controversial, primarily due to environmental concerns. Focusing on 2 Alpine countries, Austria and Switzerland, this paper provides a system view of hydropower production and energy storage in the Alps. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of various assessment tools and identifies gaps and needs for the integrated assessment of PSHP plants. It concludes that instruments that evaluate the impacts and sustainability of PSHP projects need to be developed, elaborated, and applied in a participatory manner, in order to promote public dialogue, increase social acceptance, and, ideally, encourage energy consumers to become advocates of a sustainable energy future.

  10. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  11. Three-dimensional analysis for liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic storage tank with heat pipe pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Son H.; Rahman, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fluid flow and heat transfer of liquid hydrogen in a zero boil-off cryogenic storage tank in a microgravity environment. The storage tank is equipped with an active cooling system consisting of a heat pipe and a pump-nozzle unit. The pump collects cryogen at its inlet and discharges it through its nozzle onto the evaporator section of the heat pipe in order to prevent the cryogen from boiling off due to the heat leaking through the tank wall from the surroundings. A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element model is employed in a set of numerical simulations to solve for velocity and temperature fields of liquid hydrogen in steady state. Complex structures of 3-D velocity and temperature distributions determined from the model are presented. Simulations with an axisymmetric model were also performed for comparison. Parametric study results from both models predict that as the speed of the cryogenic fluid discharged from the nozzle increases, the mean or bulk cryogenic fluid speed increases linearly and the maximum temperature within the cryogenic fluid decreases.

  12. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  13. Water management issues in the underground gasification of coal and the subsequent use of the voids for long-term carbon dioxide storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Newcastle Inst. for Research on Sustainability; Gonzalez, G. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Inst. for Energy Research; Amezaga, J.M. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach

    2010-07-01

    A coupled underground coal gasification (UCG) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology was discussed. The technologies can be coupled so that voids created by mining can be uses as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites. UCG involves the in-situ gasification of coal using directionally-drilled wells. The gasification is achieved by spontaneous combustion initiated by the injection of steam and oxygen. The rate of UCG is controlled by varying the availability of oxygen. The syngas produced during the process is drawn to the surface via neighbouring production boreholes where it can then be transported by pipeline for use in range of applications. Voids created by the UCG process will collapse, leaving high permeability zones isolated from the surface by low permeability superincumbent strata. The UCG goaf and relaxed roof strata will have permeabilities 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the permeabilities of deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs. The void volume needed to store the CO{sub 2} produced from the syngas can be 4 or 5 times the volume occupied by the extracted coal. Risks for groundwater arising from UCG are groundwater depletion, contamination, and gas leakage. Prudent site selection and the use of an effective risk assessment framework are needed to ensure the successful implementation of UCG-CCS processes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Enhanced Open Ocean Storage of CO2 from Shelf Sea Pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Elkalay, K.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal field observations show that the North Sea, a Northern European shelf sea, is highly efficient in pumping carbon dioxide fromthe atmosphere to the North Atlantic Ocean. The bottom topography–controlled stratification separates production and respiration processes in the North Sea, causing a

  15. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  16. Report of working committee 1 ''exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas''; Rapport du comite de travail 1 ''exploration, production, traitement et stockage souterrain du gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rekdal, Ottar

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the activities of Working Committee 1 during the triennium 1997 - 2000. The first part of the report gives an overview of the current situation world-wide within the basic activities of the committee, i.e. exploration, production, treatment and underground storage of natural gas. In the second part of the report analyses of three prioritized topics important to the industry are described: - Improving the performance of existing gas storages; - Use of 3-D seismic data in exploration, production and underground storage. - Development of small-scale offshore gas fields. The report will be presented during the WOC 1 sessions at the World Gas Conference 2000, together with papers selected by the committee. Other relevant papers will be presented during the poster session. Furthermore, the committee will organize a round table session addressing reductions of greenhouse gas emissions along the gas chain. Representatives from industry, environmental organisations and politicians will take part in this round table discussion. (author)

  17. Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen boil-off,...

  18. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  19. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    Domestic heat pumps for shallow geothermal heating of family houses are popular and the range and supply of standard solutions is large. However, in applications for large capacities and temperatures, like district heating in the mega Watt range, standard solutions for high temperatures are scarce...... and usually not suitable off-the-shelf, which demands customized industrial heat pumps to be designed to fit the specific application. At the Brædstrup CHP plant in Denmark, a pilot project deployed in 2012, is being tested involving a seasonal thermal energy storage system in underground boreholes, charged...... by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  20. The swelling of clays and its effects on underground storage works; Le Gonflement des argiles et ses effets sur les ouvrages souterrains de stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaombalet, J

    2004-03-15

    The aim of this work is to study the swelling of clays and more generally the clayey media in relation to storage. Different types of clays, natural or reworked, have been studied in a rheological point of view, with the aim to result in behavior laws allowing to reproduce some identified phenomena. The first part of this work is a presentation of the concept of geological underground storage. The second part deals with clays. They are studied at a microscopic level and their macroscopic behavior are presented too. In the third part, the equations of the couplings: mechanics/transport in the porous media in general and applied to clays are formulated. Three types of clays have particularly been studied: a stiff clay, a plastic clay and a reworked clay. The following part deals with the swelling of clays. The analysis carried out through a bibliographical study has led us to propose a behavior law for the swelling-retirement. This part concerns essentially the mechanics. The behavior model, which integrates the swelling, involves the concentration of the ions present in solution in the interstitial water. Concerning the transport, of water or ions, the research of coherent models have led us to revise some models described in the second part and concerning the transport of solutions in porous media. The last part concerns the computerized simulation. It begins by a brief description of the computer code. We show how the equations described in the work are dealt with in the computer code. At last, some storage applications (computerized simulation) are given. (O.M.)

  1. Functional response of a near-surface soil microbial community to a simulated underground CO2 storage leak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Morales

    Full Text Available Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA and activity (mRNA of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases.

  2. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  3. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  4. Blasting Damage Predictions by Numerical Modeling in Siahbishe Pumped Storage Powerhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Majid; Goshtasbi, Kamran

    2017-04-01

    One of the popular methods of underground and surface excavations is the use of blasting. Throughout this method of excavation, the loading resulted from blasting can be affected by different geo-mechanical and structural parameters of rock mass. Several factors affect turbulence in underground structures some of which are explosion, vibration, and stress impulses caused by the neighbouring blasting products. In investigating the blasting mechanism one should address the processes which expand with time and cause seismic events. To protect the adjoining structures against any probable deconstruction or damage, it is very important to model the blasting process prior to any actual operation. Efforts have been taken in the present study to demonstrate the potentiality of numerical methods in predicting the specified parameters in order to prevent any probable destruction. For this purpose the blasting process was modeled, according to its natural implementation, in one of the tunnels of Siahbishe dam by the 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D codes. 3DEC was used for modeling the blasting environment as well as the blast holes and AUTODYN 3D for modeling the explosion process in the blast hole. In this process the output of AUTODYN 3D, which is a result of modeling the blast hole and is in the form of stress waves, is entered into 3DEC. For analyzing the amount of destruction made by the blasting operation, the key parameter of Peak Particle Velocity was used. In the end, the numerical modeling results have been compared with the data recorded by the seismographs planted through the tunnel. As the results indicated 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D proved appropriate for analyzing such an issue. Therefore, by means of these two softwares one can analyze explosion processes prior to their implementation and make close estimation of the damage resulting from these processes.

  5. Economic Viability of Pumped-Storage Power Plants Equipped with Ternary Units and Considering Hydraulic Short-Circuit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazarra, Manuel; Pérez-Díaz, Juan I.; García-González, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the economic viability of pumped-storage hydropower plants equipped with ternary units and considering hydraulic short-circuit operation. The analysed plant is assumed to participate in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Spanish power system. A deterministic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling model is used to estimate the maximum theoretical income of the plant assuming perfect information of the next day prices and the residual demand curves of the secondary regulation reserve market. Results show that the pay-back periods with and without the hydraulic short-circuit operation are significantly lower than their expected lifetime and that the pay-back periods can be reduced with the inclusion of the hydraulic short-circuit operation.

  6. 420 kV SF/sub 6/-insulated tubular bus for the Wehr pumped-storage plant electric tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, G.P. (Schluchseewerk AG, Freiburg i. B.); Diessner, A.; Luxa, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two 420 kV SF/sub 6/-insulated tubular bus systems, 600 and 700 m long, were completed in the spring of 1975. The three-phase systems consist of isolated-phase transmission lines and form the power link for the Wehr pumped-storage plant. After a brief description of the electrical data specified and of the mechanical design, the large number of electrical tests carried out are described. These included laboratory tests, which were concluded by type-testing of the tubular bus and metalclad surge diverter, and routine tests on insulators and diverters. Special attention was also paid to the performance of the equipment under various fictitious fault conditions, and several test series were carried out for this purpose. For the test at the site, an oscillating switching impulse voltage was applied.

  7. Risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling of a pumped-storage plant in the energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses a new framework for self-scheduling of an individual price-taker pumped-storage plant in a day-ahead (DA) market. The goal is achieving the best trade-off between the expected profit and the risks when the plant participates in DA energy, spinning reserve and regulation markets. In this paper, a set of uncertainties including price forecasting errors and also the uncertainty of power delivery requests in the ancillary service markets are contemplated. Considering these uncertainties, a new approach is proposed which is called dynamic self-scheduling (DSS). This risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling problem is therefore formulated and solved as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed. (author)

  8. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  9. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  10. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez-Larre, Joaquim; Remmelts, Gijs; Breunese, Jaap; Van Gessel, Serge; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2017-04-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all available onshore natural gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natural gas producers in Western Europe. The current decline of its national production and looming production restrictions on its largest field of Groningen -owing to its induced seismicity- have recently made necessary to upgrade the two largest UGS of Norg and Grijpskerk. The joined working volume of these two UGS is expected to replace the swing capacity of the Groningen field to continue guaranteeing the security of supply of low calorific natural gas. The question is whether the current UGS configuration will provide the expected working storage capacity unrestricted by issues on reservoir performances and/or induced seismicity. This matter will be of paramount importance in the near future when production restrictions and/or the advance state of depletion of the Groningen field will turn the Netherlands into a net importer of high calorific natural gas. By then, the question will be whether the current UGS will still be economically attractive to continue operating, or if additional/alternative types of UGS will be needed?. Hence the characterization and ranking of the best potential reservoirs available today is of paramount importance for future UGS developments. We built an in-house automated module based on the application of the traditional inflow performance relationship analysis to screen the performances of 156 natural gas reservoirs in onshore Netherlands. Results enable identifying the 72 best candidates with an ultimate total working volume capacity of 122±30 billion Sm3. A detailed sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the reservoir properties or wellbore/tubing configurations on withdrawal performances and storage capacity. We validate our predictions by comparing them to

  11. Rationale for the closure of the soil density unreviewed safety question and recommended structural analyses improvements for the Tank Waste Remidiation System underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is twofold. First, this report documents the technical evaluation supporting the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractor recommendation to close the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as originally evaluated in TF-94-0260, Soil Compaction Test Data Indicates Soil Density in Excess of Density Used in Tank Qualification Analysis for AP Tank Farm. Second, this report describes the status of existing structural analyses for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) waste storage structures and outlines the associated technical upgrades being considered by the contractor. This second feature of the report serves to communicate the distinction between the soil density issue which is the topic of the open USQ and other technical issues which are important to the contractor from a programmatic standpoint. Contractor actions to address the latter technical issues would support improvements in day-to-day operations (e.g., provide possible relaxations in soil load restrictions) but are not necessary to close the soil density USQ. Section 2.0 of this report documents the rationale for the PHMC contractor recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) to close the soil density USQ. Section 3.0 documents the recommended structural analyses improvements for the double-shell tanks (DSTs) which are the structures associated with the soil density USQ. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 provide, for completeness, the same information for single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Section 6.0 provides the conclusions of this report

  12. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  13. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  14. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ``A Through K`` evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site.

  15. Closure report: Nevada Test Site Underground Storage Tank (UST) number 25-3123-1: Nevada Division of Emergency Management case number H940825D corrective action unit 450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This document has been prepared as a final closure report documenting the assessment and corrective actions taken for the petroleum hydrocarbon release associated with underground storage tank (UST) UST25-3123-1. UST25-3123-1 was located at Area 25 within the Nevada Test Site. The UST was identified as abandoned to be closed under the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Division Program during Fiscal Year 1994. The scope of work for closure of the UST included evaluating site conditions and closing the tank in accordance with all applicable regulations. Site evaluation analytic results of a soil sample collected below the tank showed a diesel concentration of 120 mg/kg at a depth of 3 meters. During remedial excavation, approximately 3.8 cubic meters of hydrocarbon impacted soil was removed. Laboratory analysis of the soil sample collected from the excavation bottom confirms that total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations greater than 100 mg/kg are no longer present. Therefore, it is requested that the site be closed without further action. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  17. Establishing the Ohio Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Release Compensation Board: Dispelling the notion of a open-quotes Pot of Goldclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Miller, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are the Executive Director and the Chief Financial Officer of the Ohio Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Release Compensation Board. Under the guidance of a public-sector governing board, they are responsible for implementing Ohio's UST Financial Assurance Fund program and for managing the resources and priorities necessary to maintain a solvent, practical approach to legislatively-mandated UST corrective action costs in Ohio. The paper will discuss: (1) the challenges of legislating and implementing a state assurance fund; (2) the task of defining the program's mission and coming to terms with open-quotes great expectationsclose quotes of tank owners and clean-up contractors; (3) implementing true cost-controls; how the regulatory back-drop contributes to costs and success; (4) managing the financial assets of an assurance fund and estimating future clean-up needs; (5) the search for the proper mix of financing alternatives, including reinsurance; (6) defining long-term success. The paper will develop the evolution of the essential elements of the Ohio Financial Assurance Fund and focus on the financial management of necessary resources to fulfill the public-sector mission. Managing claim costs and meeting the grassroots expectation of claimants underscore critical development issues: (1) establishing and communicating the Fund's purpose and management philosophy; (2) forging a companion relationship between industry and regulator; (3) how do such funds maintain solvency and dispel the notion that they constitute a open-quotes pot of goldclose quotes for environmental liability?

  18. Finite Element Optimised Back Analysis of In Situ Stress Field and Stability Analysis of Shaft Wall in the Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimised back analysis method is proposed in this paper. The in situ stress field of an underground gas storage (UGS reservoir in a Turkey salt cavern is analysed by the basic theory of elastic mechanics. A finite element method is implemented to optimise and approximate the objective function by systematically adjusting boundary loads. Optimising calculation is performed based on a novel method to reduce the error between measurement and calculation as much as possible. Compared with common back analysis methods such as regression method, the method proposed can further improve the calculation precision. By constructing a large circular geometric model, the effect of stress concentration is eliminated and a minimum difference between computed and measured stress can be guaranteed in the rectangular objective region. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated and confirmed by its capability on restoring in situ stress field, which agrees well with experimental results. The characteristics of stress distribution of chosen UGS wells are obtained based on the back analysis results and by applying the corresponding fracture criterion, the shaft walls are proven safe.

  19. A model predictive framework of Ground Source Heat Pump coupled with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System in heating and cooling equipment of a building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, V.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Keviczky, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a complete model of a building heating and cooling equipment and a ground source heat pump (GSHP) coupled with an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. This model contains detailed
    mathematical representations of building thermal dynamics, ATES system dynamics, heat

  20. Role of vacuolar membrane proton pumps in the acidification of protein storage vacuoles following germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karl A; Chavda, Burzin J; Pierre-Louis, Gandhy; Quinn, Adam; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2016-07-01

    During soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seed development, protease C1, the proteolytic enzyme that initiates breakdown of the storage globulins β-conglycinin and glycinin at acidic pH, is present in the protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), the same subcellular compartments in seed cotyledons where its protein substrates accumulate. Actual proteolysis begins to be evident 24 h after seed imbibition, when the PSVs become acidic, as indicated by acridine orange accumulation visualized by confocal microscopy. Imidodiphosphate (IDP), a non-hydrolyzable substrate analog of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases, strongly inhibited acidification of the PSVs in the cotyledons. Consistent with this finding, IDP treatment inhibited mobilization of β-conglycinin and glycinin, the inhibition being greater at 3 days compared to 6 days after seed imbibition. The embryonic axis does not appear to play a role in the initial PSV acidification in the cotyledon, as axis detachment did not prevent acridine orange accumulation three days after imbibition. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses of cotyledon protein extracts were consistent with limited digestion of the 7S and 11S globulins by protease C1 starting at the same time and proceeding at the same rate in detached cotyledons compared to cotyledons of intact seedlings. Embryonic axis removal did slow down further breakdown of the storage globulins by reactions known to be catalyzed by protease C2, a cysteine protease that normally appears later in seedling growth to continue the storage protein breakdown initiated by protease C1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Intelligent Autofeedback and Safety Early-Warning for Underground Cavern Engineering during Construction Based on BP Neural Network and FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low efficiency of feedback analysis is one of the main shortcomings in the construction of underground cavern engineering. With this in mind, a method of intelligent autofeedback and safety early-warning for underground cavern is proposed based on BP neural network and FEM. The training sample points are chosen by using uniform test design method, and the autogeneration of FEM calculation file for ABAQUS is realized by using the technique of file partition, information grouping, and orderly numbering. Then, intelligent autoinversion of mechanics parameters is realized, and the automatic connection of parameter inversion, subsequent prediction, and safety early-warning is achieved. The software of intelligent autofeedback and safety early-warning for underground cavern engineering during construction is developed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the developed software is verified through an application example of underground cavern of a pumped-storage power station located in Southwest China.

  2. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  3. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  4. Power System Restoration with Black-Start Pump Storage Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Sattinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main duties of a transmission system operator (TSO is to be prepared for the power system worst case, which means to restore the power system operation after a total blackout. To this aim two main principles are currently available. The first one is based on power system restoration with external voltage support and the second more challenging one is based on own voltage support from black-start generation units. The current paper describes experiences of power system restoration based on detailed dynamic system modelling and tested in the real system by interconnecting for the first time two hydro-power generation centers over the Alps and also by using as load the currently worldwide largest voltage source full converter-driven-pump of 100 MVA.

  5. Oil Biosynthesis in Underground Oil-Rich Storage Vegetative Tissue: Comparison of Cyperus esculentus Tuber with Oil Seeds and Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenle; Ji, Hongying; Liu, Dantong

    2016-12-01

    Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis. In contrast to oil-rich fruits, there existed many oleosins, caleosins and steroleosins with very high transcripts in tubers. Surprisingly, only a single ortholog of WRINKLED1 (WRI1)-like transcription factor was identified and it was poorly expressed during tuber development. Our study not only provides insights into lipid metabolism in tuber tissues, but also broadens our understanding of TAG synthesis in oil plants. Such knowledge is of significance in exploiting this oil-rich species and manipulating other non-seed tissues to enhance storage oil production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  7. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  8. Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Wind-Pump Storage Feasibility Study Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn A. LaRoche; Tracey LeBeau; Innovation Investments, LLC

    2007-04-20

    The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.

  9. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) viability associated with other types of intermittent renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. G. P.; Barbosa, P. S. F.; Luvizotto, E., Jr.; Zuculin, S.; Pinto, Marrc; Tiago Filho, G. L.

    2014-03-01

    The energy generated by wind or solar photovoltaic (PV system) can be used by PSP to accumulate water in the upper reservoir, in the form of potential energy to be used later, during periods of high energy demand. This procedure offers the advantage of enabling the use of intermittent renewable energy source in times of growing needs of the electric power supply. The location of the PSP, the environmental aspects involved, their possible use for various purposes (stability of the power system at peak times, associate the turbine water for public supply purposes, among others) and the discussion of regulatory issues needs to be debated in the current context, where environmental issues require reliable sources of power generation and demand shows strong growth rates. A dynamic model is used to analyze the behavior of a PSP proposal for a site in Brazil, analyzing a complete cycle of its operation as a pump or turbine. The existing difficulties to use this proposal based on existing regulatory policies are also discussed, and a list of recommended adjustments is provided to allow the penetrations of PSP projects in the Brazilian institutional framework, coupled with other intermittent energy sources.

  11. Analysis of Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) viability associated with other types of intermittent renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J G P; Barbosa, P S F; Luvizotto, E Jr; Zuculin, S; Pinto, Marrc; Filho, G L Tiago

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by wind or solar photovoltaic (PV system) can be used by PSP to accumulate water in the upper reservoir, in the form of potential energy to be used later, during periods of high energy demand. This procedure offers the advantage of enabling the use of intermittent renewable energy source in times of growing needs of the electric power supply. The location of the PSP, the environmental aspects involved, their possible use for various purposes (stability of the power system at peak times, associate the turbine water for public supply purposes, among others) and the discussion of regulatory issues needs to be debated in the current context, where environmental issues require reliable sources of power generation and demand shows strong growth rates. A dynamic model is used to analyze the behavior of a PSP proposal for a site in Brazil, analyzing a complete cycle of its operation as a pump or turbine. The existing difficulties to use this proposal based on existing regulatory policies are also discussed, and a list of recommended adjustments is provided to allow the penetrations of PSP projects in the Brazilian institutional framework, coupled with other intermittent energy sources

  12. Seawater pumped storage systems and offshore wind parks in islands with low onshore wind potential. A fundamental case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Christakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate the effects of introducing a WP-PSS (Wind Powered Pumped Storage System) in isolated electricity systems assuming unfavourable conditions such as low onshore wind potential and low PSS head height. These disadvantages can be compensated with the installation of offshore wind parks, larger reservoirs and double penstocks to allow simultaneous water fall and pumping using pipes of the greatest diameter that are currently commercially available. With the above modifications, the energy efficiency of the WP-PSS improves while the installation costs rise. A new operation algorithm for the WP-PSS is created to fully utilize the capacity of the double penstock and ultimately maximise wind energy penetration. A case study for a WP-PSS on the island of Rhodes is presented in this paper. Despite unfavourable conditions, the WP-PSS model leads to the following results: • Annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50% of the annual electricity consumption. • The WP-PSS exhibits attractive financial induces without including any subsidies. The WP-PSS presented in this paper proved to be technically and economically feasible and revealed that WP-PSSs are a guaranteed choice for large scale penetration of R.E.S. in electrical systems. - Highlights: • Offshore wind parks (WPs) and seawater PSS can guarantee power production in autonomous systems. • The examined system is proved technically and economically feasible under unfavourable conditions. • A new operational algorithm is developed to maximise the wind energy penetration. • The annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50%. The economic indexes are acceptable. • The WP-PSS is a guaranteed choice for wind energy penetration maximisation

  13. LDV measurements of the velocity field on the inlet section of a pumped storage equipped with a symmetrical suction elbow for variable discharge values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drǎghici, I; Bosioc, A I; Anton, L E; Muntean, S

    2014-01-01

    The storage pumps are equipped with various types of inlet casings. The flow nonuniformity is generated by the suction elbows being ingested by the impeller leading to unsteady phenomena and worse cavitational behaviour. A symmetrical suction elbow model corresponding to the double flux storage pump was manufactured and installed on the test rig in order to assess the flow field at the pump inlet. The experimental investigations are performed for 9 discharge values from 0.5 to 1.3 of nominal discharge. LDV measurements are performed on the annular section of the pump inlet in order to quantify the flow non-uniformity generated by the symmetrical suction elbow. Both axial and circumferential velocity components are simultaneously measured on the half plane (180°) of the annular inlet section along to 19 survey axis with 62 points on each. The flow field on the next half plane is determined tacking into account the symmetry. As a result, the flow map on the pump inlet annular section is reconstructed revealing a significant variation of the circumferential velocity component. The absolute flow angle is computed showing a significant variation of ±38°

  14. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  15. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper

  16. Modeling the Real-Time use of Reserves in the Joint Energy and Reserve Hourly Scheduling of a Pumped Storage Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Chazarra, Manuel; Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Garcia-Gonzàles, Javier; Helseth, Arild

    2016-01-01

    - This paper studies the impact that different approaches of modeling the real-time use of the secondary regulation reserves have in the joint energy and reserve hourly scheduling of a price-taker pumped-storage hydropower plant. The unexpected imbalance costs due to the error between the forecasted real-time use of the reserves and the actual value are also studied and evaluated for the different approaches. The proposed methodology is applied to a daily-cycle and closed-loop pumped-stora...

  17. Analysis of the flow field into a two stages and double entry storage pump taking into account two geometries of stator blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunca, G; Isbasoiu, E C; Muntean, S

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the 3D numerical analysis of the flow into a hydraulic passage of the two stages and double entry storage pump. One of the reasons for choosing this machinery was that, even from the beginning of its operation, high levels of noise and vibration were recorded. According to the literature, these can be considered as effects of the impeller-stator phenomenon. After only 100 hours of operation, the pump' first stator blades was bend and the second stator blades was broken. As a rehabilitation solution, 100 mm of the chord were cut from the stator blades, near the leading edge. After the rehabilitation, a decrease of the noise and vibration levels during pump operation was observed. In order to analyse the pump behaviour, three measurements campaigns were conducted, after the rehabilitation. Yet, the experimental results were not very conclusive. A more detailed experimental analysis on a real turbo machine is very difficult and expensive. Thus, in order to obtain more detailed information regarding the impeller-stator phenomenon inside the analysed pump, a numerical analysis was realized. The impeller-stator (between the first impeller and first stator as well as between second impeller and second stator) and stator-impeller (between the first stator and second impeller) interactions are taken into account with mixing interface method. The hydrodynamic field from the inlet to the outlet is obtained. As a result, the pressure rise and hydraulic efficiency are computed at best efficiency point. These values are validated against experimental data measured into the storage pump. Comparing the numerical results obtained for the two geometries of the stators, it can be seen that they have different behaviour during the pump's operation. It can be considered that, although the same geometry modification was realized for both the stators, the effects on the flow parameters are different, only for the second stator being possible to observe a net

  18. Analysis of the flow field into a two stages and double entry storage pump taking into account two geometries of stator blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunca, G.; Muntean, S.; Isbasoiu, E. C.

    2010-08-01

    The paper presents the 3D numerical analysis of the flow into a hydraulic passage of the two stages and double entry storage pump. One of the reasons for choosing this machinery was that, even from the beginning of its operation, high levels of noise and vibration were recorded. According to the literature, these can be considered as effects of the impeller-stator phenomenon. After only 100 hours of operation, the pump' first stator blades was bend and the second stator blades was broken. As a rehabilitation solution, 100 mm of the chord were cut from the stator blades, near the leading edge. After the rehabilitation, a decrease of the noise and vibration levels during pump operation was observed. In order to analyse the pump behaviour, three measurements campaigns were conducted, after the rehabilitation. Yet, the experimental results were not very conclusive. A more detailed experimental analysis on a real turbo machine is very difficult and expensive. Thus, in order to obtain more detailed information regarding the impeller-stator phenomenon inside the analysed pump, a numerical analysis was realized. The impeller-stator (between the first impeller and first stator as well as between second impeller and second stator) and stator-impeller (between the first stator and second impeller) interactions are taken into account with mixing interface method. The hydrodynamic field from the inlet to the outlet is obtained. As a result, the pressure rise and hydraulic efficiency are computed at best efficiency point. These values are validated against experimental data measured into the storage pump. Comparing the numerical results obtained for the two geometries of the stators, it can be seen that they have different behaviour during the pump's operation. It can be considered that, although the same geometry modification was realized for both the stators, the effects on the flow parameters are different, only for the second stator being possible to observe a net

  19. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  20. Daily Integrated Generation Scheduling for Thermal, Pumped-Storage Hydro and Cascaded Hydro Units and Purchasing Power Considering Network Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Toshiyuki; Sato, Yasuo; Tsurugai, Mitsuo; Onishi, Tsukasa

    We have developed an innovative power generation scheduling method using quadratic programming (QP). The advantage of using our method is that it simultaneously solves unit commitment and economic load dispatch. We relax the binary variables of the unit state into continuous variables to apply QP to this problem. We also add the penalty term to converge the value of those variables to 0 or 1 to the objective function; the sum of fuel costs and start-up costs. This penalty term depends on per-unit fuel cost. The possibility of its variable converging to zero increases as the cost increases. This method was applied to a test system of daily generation scheduling that consisted of 29 thermal units, two pumped-storage units, four cascaded-hydro units, and one transmission. The schedule satisfied all constraints, i.e., load-power balance, operation reserve, power flow, minimum up/down-times, and fuel consumption. This result shows that the developed method is effective.

  1. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  2. An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs, and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs, are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP.

  3. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented...... in Dymola, and validated by the use of testdata from the two experimental setups. This paper shows that there is a good consistency between the modeland the experimental tests....

  4. Development and Implications of a Predictive Cost Methodology for Modular Pumped Storage Hydropower (m-PSH) Projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Manwaring, Michael [MWH, Broomfield, CO (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The slow pace of Pumped Storage Hydropower development in the US over the past twenty years has led to widespread interest in the feasibility and viability of alternative PSH designs, development schemes, and technologies. Since 2011, Oak Ridge National Lab has been exploring the economic viability of modular Pumped Storage Hydropower (m-PSH) development through targeted case studies, revenue simulations, and analysis of innovative configurations and designs. This paper outlines the development and supporting analysis of a scalable, comprehensive cost modeling tool designed to simulate the initial capital costs for a variety of potential m-PSH projects and deployment scenarios. The tool is used to explore and determine innovative research strategies that can improve the economic viability of m-PSH in US markets.

  5. Decree n. 2006-1034 of the 21 August 2006 relative to the access to the underground storages of the natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This document presents the 18 articles of the decree, grouped in even chapters: main principles of the storage use, determination and attribution of the access rules to the storage capacities, distribution of the storage capacities, allocation of the storage capacities, obligation of declaration and detention of suppliers stocks, access to the surplus storage capacities and others dispositions. (A.L.B.)

  6. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  7. Flat-Land Large-Scale Electricity Storage (FLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalij R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth of renewable sources requires a smarter electricity grid, integrating multiple solutions for large scale storage. Pumped storage still is the most valid option. The capacity of existing facilities is not sufficient to accommodate future renewable resources. New locations for additional pumped storage capacity are scarce. Mountainous areas mostly are remote and do not allow construction of large facilities for ecological reasons. In the Netherlands underground solutions were studied for many years. The use of (former coal mines was rejected after scientific research. Further research showed that solid rock formations below the (unstable coal layers can be harnessed to excavate the lower water reservoir for pumped storage, making an innovative underground solution possible. A complete plan was developed, with a capacity of 1400 MW (8 GWh daily output and a head of 1400 m. It is technically and economically feasible. Compared to conventional pumped storage it has significantly less impact on the environment. Less vulnerable locations are eligible. The reservoir on the surface (only one instead of two is relatively small. It offers also a solution for other European countries. The Dutch studies provide a valuable basis for new locations.

  8. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  9. Addendum 2 to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 12-25-08, Spill H950524F (from UST 12-B-1) • 12-25-10, Spill H950919A (from UST 12-COMM-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining these URs will be

  10. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2009-05-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical Underground Storage Tank Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 1998 as described in the document Supplemental Investigation Report for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (SIR) dated November 2008. The SIR document was approved by NDEP on December 5, 2008. The approval of the SIR document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the SIR document, this addendum consists of: • This page that refers the reader to the SIR document for additional information • The cover, title, and signature pages of the SIR document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the SIR document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for CASs: • 25-25-09, Spill H940825C (from UST 25-3101-1) • 25-25-14, Spill H940314E (from UST 25-3102-3) • 25-25-15, Spill H941020E (from UST 25-3152-1) These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove these URs because contamination is not present at these sites above the risk-based FALs

  11. Désulfuration sélective du gaz soutiré d'un stockage souterrain Selective Desulfurization of Gas Withdrawn from an Underground Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaubertou G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La présence d'H2S constatée dès les premiers soutirages de gaz au stockage souterrain en nappe aquifère de Chémery avait nécessité la mise en place d'unités de désulfuration. Le gaz injecté étant exempt de gaz carbonique, le procédé par voie liquide utilisant la monoéthanolamine avait été retenu. Depuis 1977, le gaz injecté contenant des quantités appréciables de gaz carbonique a rendu inutilisable ce procédé. Parallèlement à l'injection de ce composé acide, la production d'H2S a fortement augmenté. La mise en oeuvre d'une amine sélective (MDEA a permis d'éliminer les composés soufrés en laissant pratiquement inchangée la composition du gaz chargé en C02. Les installations existantes ont pu être conservées, la banalisation des circuits facilitant l'utilisation de cette nouvelle amine. La communication présente les études et essais réalisés ainsi que les résultats d'exploitation qui se sont révélés particulièrement intéressants tant au point de vue technique qu'économique The presence of H2S in the first gas withdrawn from the underground storage aquifer at Chémery, France, required the installation of desulfurization units. Since there was no carton dioxide in the injected gas, a liquid process using monoethanolamine was selected. This process has become unusable since 1977 because the injected gas contains appreciable amounts of carton dioxide. At the same time as the injection of this acid compound, the production of H2S has considerably increased. A selective amine (MDEA was used tg eliminate the sulfur-containing compounds while leaving the composition of the C02-containing gas almost unchanged. The existing installations have been maintained as the result of the standardizing of the circuits for this new amine. This article describes the research and tests performed as well as the operational results which have turned out to be particularly intersting from both the technical and economic stand

  12. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  13. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  14. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility

  15. Feasibility study for the partial conversion of a hydropower plant into a pumped-storage power plant: a case study of hydroelectric power plant La Barca (Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Antuña Yudego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have reported an unprecedented increase of global installed renewable power capacity. Against the advantages provided by this renewable power generation technology it should be taken into account an important issue: these intermittent energy sources supply a fluctuating output which is difficult to manage. Pumped-storage hydro power plants reappear in these circumstances as an efficient form of energy storage which allows to use reserves when necessary, enabling power generation output to cover continuously this energy demand. The present paper shows a simplified feasibility study of the partial conversion of hydropower plant La Barca, in Asturias, into a reversible storage through the development of an algorithm to simulate its operation according to electricity market prices. For this purpose, the operation in the deviation management market is considered and the technical modifications required for the conversion are shown. The estimation of costs and incomes present a feasible scenario.

  16. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, G; Boot-Handford, N; Grice, J; Dennis, W; Ajileye, A; Revesz, A; Maidment, GG

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a collaborative research project in the UK, focussing on the recovery of waste heat from underground railway tunnels, using London as a case study. The aim of the project was to investigate the feasibility of combining cooling of London’s underground railway tunnels with a waste heat recovery system. The recovered heat will then be transferred to a heat pump to upgrade its temperature, before delivery to a district heating network for reuse. The paper des...

  18. Performance of a hydraulic air compressor for use in compressed air energy storage power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. A.; Ahrens, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fluid mechanical analysis of a hydraulic air compression system for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) application is presented. With this compression concept, air is charged into an underground reservoir, for later use in power generation, by entraining bubbles into a downward flow of water from a surface reservoir. Upon releasing the air in the underground reservoir, the water is pumped back to the surface. The analytical model delineated is used to predict the hydraulic compressor performance characteristics (pumping power, pump head, compression efficiency) as a function of water flow rate and system geometrical parameters. The results indicate that, although large water pumps are needed, efficiencies as high as 90% (relative to ideal isothermal compression) can be expected. This should result in lower compression power than for conventional compressor systems, while eliminating the need for the usual intercoolers and aftercooler.

  19. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  20. Development of PFAS-heat storage type air conditioning system with individual heat pump. Chikunetsushiki kobetsu hito ponpu kucho system 'PFAS' no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, S. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)); Seki, Y. (Takasago Thermal Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Igarashi, M. (Nippon P-MAC Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-05

    With various uses of building, a good air conditioning system with individual control is needed. Meanwhile, the maximum electric power during summer days is increasing year by year, equalization of electricity load consumed by air conditioning system becomes an important subject in the aspect of stable supply of energy. For meeting these requirements, authors developed a system of the PMAC fancoil air conditioning and heat storage system (PFAS) which provides with a distributed individual type hydrothermal source air conditioner and a heat storage system. This paper introduced a summary of the PFAS system and some operating examples. This system was constructed by the air conditioning unit of combining a hydrothermal source unitary heat pump with a fancoil, a machine of a heat source such as an air cooling heat pump, a heat storage tank and a control system, and it realized equalization of electricity load consumed and saving the running cost of the air conditioning system owing to the night electric use. 8 refs.

  1. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...... cogeneration plants rather than central power plants are giving way for wind power in the electricity mix. Could intermittent renewables be a threat to the system-wide energy, economic and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration have to offer? This paper investigates how existing cogeneration...... recovered from flue gasses as the only low-temperature heat source, furthermore applying an intermediate cold storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of heat pump and cogeneration unit. The novel concept is subject to a detailed techno-economic comparative modelling and analysis, hich finds...

  2. Continuous on-line calculation of permissible load change in a pumped storage power plant; Kontinuierliche On-Line Berechnung der zulaessigen Lastaenderung in einem Pumpspeicherwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyrer, R.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary simulator establishes the maximum possible load change in a pumped storage power plant. The complex hydraulic system of such power plants renders controlling of their operation difficult. The preliminary simulator continuously determines the maximum permissible turbine output and number of pumps at each instance, thereby facilitating power plant operation control. This simulator is installed at the Witznau power plant and is currently undergoing intense testing. It will be integrated into the new process control system installed in 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Vorabsimulator ermittelt die maximal moegliche Lastaenderung in einem Pumpspeicherwerk. Das komplizierte Wasserfuehrungsystem des Pumpspeicherwerks erschwert die Betriebsfuehrung. Der Vorabsimulator bestimmt kontinuierlich die momentan maximal zulaessige Turbinenleistung und Pumpenanzahl, und erleichtert damit die Betriebsfuehrung des Kraftwerks. Der Vorabsimulator ist im Kraftwerk Witznau installiert und wird derzeit intensiv getestet. Eine Einbindung in die neue Leittechnik, die 1994 installiert wird, ist vorgesehen. (orig.)

  3. Adaptation des techniques de forage à la recherche et à l'équipement des stockages souterrains de gaz naturel Adapting Drilling Techniques to the Search for and Equipment of Underground Natural-Gas Storage Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandin J.

    2006-11-01

    search for geological structures suitable for holding this gas, the drilling and equipment of exploration or production wells, their maintenance and the controlling of such storage facilities were entrusted to the Underground Reservoirs Department of the Service for Research and New Technologies. The exploration and development phases of an underground storage facility require the drilling of petroleum-type wells. Such boreholes are used to recover the maximum amount of information concerning the different geological layers crossed and to assess their suitability for storing gas. At the same time, they must be capable of ensuring the optimal and reliable exploitation of the storage facilities under the best possible safety conditions. The practical drilling experience acquired by Gaz de France enabled it to adapt many petroleum drilling techniques to underground storage facilities. At the same time, original procedures were developed to cope with various specific requirements inherent to drilling wells into underground reservoirs, particularly requirements concerning the proper sizing of boreholes and casing cementation quality. This article describes all these adaptations and original developments. Primarily a contribution to the field of Specific Problems in Boreholes for Underground Storage Facilitiesamong petroleum technologies, some of these developments should in turn result in interesting applications in medium-depth oil and gas wells.

  4. Optimal operation of a pumped-storage hydro plant that compensates the imbalances of a wind power producer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Duque, Álvaro; Castronuovo, Edgardo Daniel; Sánchez, Ismael; Usaola García, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The participation of wind energy in electricity markets requires providing a forecast for future energy production of a wind generator, whose value will be its scheduled energy. Deviations from this schedule because of prediction errors could imply the payment of imbalance costs. In order to decrease these costs, a joint operation between a wind farm and a hydro-pump plant is proposed; the hydro-pump plant changes its production to compensate wind power prediction errors. In order to optimize...

  5. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  6. Energy Optimization for Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Combined Heating and Cooling and Thermal Storage Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Blarke, Morten; Yazawa, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    and cold thermal storages know as Thermal Battery (TB) (Blarke, 2012). Smart and effective use of intermittent renewable energy resources (for example solar and wind power) is obtained supplying water heating (>70 oC) and cooling services (... hypothesis is that if electricity generated by intermittent sources is destined for thermal end-uses an efficient conversion of electricity to thermal energy and storage enables a flexible power supply. Thermal storage is more cost-effective than any electro-chemical or mechanical storage technology...

  7. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 3: Project design criteria: CAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The design criteria presented provided the basis for development of the design approaches and preliminary plant design. These design criteria are based, where possible, upon related facilities and experiences and are representative of normal utility practices. They cover the major plant equipment, systems, and facilities and the plant characteristics which depend upon or have an impact on plant surroundings. Project team studies and outside development contracts concentrated on those areas where current technology or practice does not provide adequate information to support plant design activities or economic analyses.

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches. CAES. Appendix E: Electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The design approaches provided the basis for development of the preliminary plant design. The electrical systems described include the plant power system, switchyard and electrical motor starting system. The design approaches presented are based on the design criteria presented in the Project Design criteria - CAES. Selection of the preferred approach reflect the Task 3 study results and conform to the greatest extent possible with PEPCO's standard practices.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and Compressed-Air Energy Storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches: CAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    During Task 3C of the PEPCO/CAES study detailed design requirements and alternate designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. Based upon a preliminary economic and technical evaluation, preferred designs were chosen as the basis for subsequent development in Task 5C. A summary of the project design criteria, a pressure optimization study, and the design approaches for the major plant systems which were developed are presented. The performance, operation and control capabilities of the plant and the results of the preliminary cost estimate are reported.

  10. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 9: Design approaches. CAES. Appendix B: Champagne effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The significance of the release of dissolved air from the water in the water shaft during air compression on the design and operation of a hydrolically compensated CAES plant was investigated. This air release phenomena was named the Champagne Effect. Included is a description of the work to investigate the rate of diffusion of air into water, the rate of the subsequent release of air from the water during passage up the water shaft, and an evaluation of the resulting behavior of the air bubbles in the shaft. Also included is a discussion of dynamic modeling. Simulation was based upon a two fluid model of the PEPCO system and includes an analysis of potential modifications to the design that might further mitigate any operation problems.

  11. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 12: Plant design, CAES

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. These designs were based upon the preliminary economic and technical evaluations and alternative designs developed in Task 3C. The detailed project design drawings for the major plant systems and structures are presented. The site development report, updated cost estimate, cost/schedule risk study, reliability/availability, analysis, and recommendations for additional research and development are included.

  12. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota

  13. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O' Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  14. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock

  15. Underground CO{sub 2} Storage: Approach for Favourable Formations in Ebro Basin; AGP de CO{sub 2}: Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables en la Cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Perucha, A.; Recreo, F.

    2008-04-10

    The study of the possibilities of conducting Deep Geological CO{sub 2} Storage inside Spanish territory is being performed through the Strategic Singular Project PS-120000-2005-2 of the National Program of Energy from the Education and Science Ministry, and called CO{sub 2} generation, sequestration and storage advanced technologies, sub project N3 CO{sub 2} Geological Storage This report studies the possibilities the Ebro basin offers for definitive CO{sub 2} storage as one of the Spanish selected areas from previous studies. The study and reinterpretation of the information obtained from the hydrocarbon exploration accomplished in the area has lead to the selection of a series of geological formations. These formations have been chosen attending certain characteristics such as their disposition, extension, depth and porosity. The study has also been conducted considering the characteristics of the geological formations above the CO{sub 2} storage formations so as to guarantee the sealing of the storage. The study includes the approximate estimation of the storage capacity for each of the formations in Megatons of CO{sub 2}, which can be useful in future decision making. Deep geological storage is one of the more relevant international initiatives in order to eliminate or reduce the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. (Author) 68 refs.

  16. A Multiobjective Robust Scheduling Optimization Mode for Multienergy Hybrid System Integrated by Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic Power, and Pumped Storage Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power plant (WPP, photovoltaic generators (PV, cell-gas turbine (CGT, and pumped storage power station (PHSP are integrated into multienergy hybrid system (MEHS. Firstly, this paper presents MEHS structure and constructs a scheduling model with the objective functions of maximum economic benefit and minimum power output fluctuation. Secondly, in order to relieve the uncertainty influence of WPP and PV on system, robust stochastic theory is introduced to describe uncertainty and propose a multiobjective stochastic scheduling optimization mode by transforming constraint conditions with uncertain variables. Finally, a 9.6 MW WPP, a 6.5 MW PV, three CGT units, and an upper reservoir with 10 MW·h equivalent capacity are chosen as simulation system. The results show MEHS system can achieve the best operation result by using the multienergy hybrid generation characteristic. PHSP could shave peak and fill valley of load curve by optimizing pumping storage and inflowing generating behaviors based on the load supply and demand status and the available power of WPP and PV. Robust coefficients can relieve the uncertainty of WPP and PV and provide flexible scheduling decision tools for decision-makers with different risk attitudes by setting different robust coefficients, which could maximize economic benefits and minimize operation risks at the same time.

  17. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  18. Application of a generic superstructure-based formulation to the design of wind-pumped-storage hybrid systems on remote islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chu; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model for hybrid power system (HPS) design to support a remote island. • Use pumped hydro storage to store tentative surplus electricity. • Formulate the HPS design problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). - Abstract: This paper aims to present a mathematical model for the design of a hybrid power system (HPS) to support a remote island with 100 thousand citizens. The goal is to reduce diesel fuel consumption by adequate expansion of wind power supply. Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is used in the HPS to buffer the impact of intermittent behavior of wind energy. A superstructure is proposed for HPS design, considering all possible capital decisions (e.g. the number of wind turbines) and hourly-basis operational variables (such as the amount of surplus electricity in storage and its discharge). The HPS design problem can then be formulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) based on the proposed superstructure. For a given total share of wind power, the optimal mix of diesel-based and wind power supplies as well as the required capacity of PHS are determined using a four-step optimization approach, involving minimizing (i) the consumption of diesel fuel, (ii) the number of wind turbines, (iii) the size of the upper water reservoir, and (iv) the charge/discharge rates of the PHS system. In this sequential optimization, the objective value obtained in a previous step is added as an additional constraint to the next step. The proposed HPS design model is applied to a real case study of the remote K Island on the other side of Taiwan Strait using hourly-basis, year-round historical data. Inclusion of other renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic cells and biomass-fired power plants, as well as economic perspectives will be considered in future work.

  19. Experimental investigations and geochemical modelling of site-specific fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions in underground storage of CO2/H2/CH4 mixtures: the H2STORE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Pilz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting the energy demand and environmental targets of many industrialized countries. Besides the long-term CO2 sequestration, energy can be chemically stored in form of CO2/CH4/H2 mixtures, for example resulting from excess wind energy. A precise estimation of the impact of such gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. Underground gas storage is increasingly regarded as a technically viable option for meeting environmental targets and the energy demand through storage in form of H2 or CH4, i.e. resulting from excess wind energy. Gas storage in salt caverns is nowadays a mature technology; in regions where favorable geologic structures such as salt diapires are not available, however, gas storage can only be implemented in porous media such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers. In such settings, a significant amount of in-situ gas components such as CO2, CH4 (and N2) will always be present, making the CO2/CH4/H2 system of particular interest. A precise estimation of the impact of their gas mixtures on the mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical properties of specific reservoirs and caprocks is therefore crucial for site selection and optimization of storage depth. In the framework of the collaborative research project H2STORE, the feasibility of industrial-scale gas storage in porous media in several potential siliciclastic depleted gas and oil reservoirs or suitable saline aquifers is being investigated by means of experiments and modelling on actual core materials from the evaluated sites. Among them are the Altmark depleted gas reservoir in Saxony-Anhalt and the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Brandenburg (Germany). Further sites are located in the Molasse basin in South Germany and Austria. In particular, two

  20. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System with Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, C.; Dumont, O.; Nielsen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between electrical and thermal energy demands represent a potential area for balancing supply and demand that could contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables in energy systems. To enable the interaction between thermal and electric energy, an innovative concept...... that consists of a ground-source heat pump with possibility of reversing operation as an ORC power cycle combined with solar heating in a single-family building is introduced. The ORC mode enables the use of solar energy in periods of no heat energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical....... The results with the two different configurations are simulated in the Modelica language and compared in terms of energy shift potential in order to optimize RES integration, as well as the economic feasibility of the system in a cold climate....

  2. Performance Evaluation of HP/ORC (Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle) System with Optimal Control of Sensible Thermal Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    come to contribute to the integration of intermittent renewables.This paper describes an innovative concept that consists of the addition of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) to a combined solar system coupled to a ground-source heat pump (HP) in a single-family building. The ORC enables the use of solar...... energy in periods of no thermal energy demand and reverses the heat pump cycle to supply electrical power. A dynamic model based on empirical data of this system is used to determine the annual performance. Furthermore, this work assesses the benefits of different control strategies that address...... of the users. Results show that real load control logic can lessen the adverse effects of cycling in the compressor of the system as well as increase the thermal demand (up to 33%) and the electrical demand (max. 8.4%) covered by renewable energy (solar). However, the extension of these improvements is highly...

  3. Integrated environmental and safety assessment of selected mechanical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The environmental, safety, and social impacts of two mechanical storage systems, underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) are similar to those of existing peaking power plants. These impacts, with engineering factors, form a methodology for selecting sites for these two systems. Application of this methodology to a hypothetical case indicates that, although design alternatives which mitigate adverse environmental impacts are recommended, site selection effectively limits the environmental effect of CAES or UPH plants. Public perception of CAES and UPH energy storage facilities should generally be positive, provided that those affected are informed and allowed to participate in the siting process.

  4. Numerical modeling of the thermomechanical behavior of networks of underground galleries for the storage of the radioactive waste: approach by homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zokimila, P.

    2005-10-01

    Deep geological disposal is one of the privileged options for the storage of High Level radioactive waste. A good knowledge of the behavior and properties of the potential geological formations as well as theirs evolution in time under the effect of the stress change induced by a possible installation of storage is required. The geological formation host will be subjected to mechanical and thermal solicitations due respectively to the excavation of the disposal tunnels and the release of heat of the canisters of radioactive waste. These thermomechanical solicitations will generate a stress relief in the host layer and disposal tunnels deformations as well as the extension of the damaged zones (EDZ) could cause local and global instabilities. This work aims to develop calculation methods to optimize numerical modeling of the thermoelastic behavior of the disposal at a large scale and to evaluate thermomechanical disturbance induced by storage on the geological formation host. Accordingly, after a presentation of the state of knowledge on the thermomechanical aspects of the rocks related to deep storage, of numerical modeling 2D and 3D of the thermoelastic behavior of individual disposal tunnel and a network of tunnels were carried out by a discrete approach. However, this classical approach is penalizing to study the global behavior of disposal storage. To mitigate that, an approach of numerical modeling, based on homogenization of periodic structures, was proposed. Formulations as numerical procedures were worked out to calculate the effective thermoelastic behavior of an equivalent heterogeneous structure. The model, obtained by this method, was validated with existing methods of homogenization such as the self-consistent model, as well as the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The comparison between the effective thermoelastic behavior and current thermoelastic behavior of reference showed a good coherence of the results. For an application to deep geological storage, the

  5. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... pumped out 'raw' and sold to the public without any form of treatment and is used for drinking and ... underground water was pumped out and allowed to run for some- time (15 – 20 min) prior to collection of ..... Technique and uses in soil, plant and water analysis: In Walsh LM. (ed) Instrumental methods for ...

  6. Prediction of ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests as it relates to siting of a nuclear waste storage facility at NTS and compatibility with the weapons test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vortman, L.J. IV.

    1980-04-01

    This report assumes reasonable criteria for NRC licensing of a nuclear waste storage facility at the Nevada Test Site where it would be exposed to ground motion from underground nuclear weapons tests. Prediction equations and their standard deviations have been determined from measurements on a number of nuclear weapons tests. The effect of various independent parameters on standard deviation is discussed. That the data sample is sufficiently large is shown by the fact that additional data have little effect on the standard deviation. It is also shown that coupling effects can be separated out of the other contributions to the standard deviation. An example, based on certain licensing assumptions, shows that it should be possible to have a nuclear waste storage facility in the vicinity of Timber Mountain which would be compatible with a 700 kt weapons test in the Buckboard Area if the facility were designed to withstand a peak vector acceleration of 0.75 g. The prediction equation is a log-log linear equation which predicts acceleration as a function of yield of an explosion and the distance from it

  7. Characterization of the rock salt for the design of underground storage in saline domes; Caracterizacion de la roca sal-gema para el diseno de almacenamientos en domos salinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Meyenberg, Lucia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The saline domes are natural geological formations, that have been formed in the underground, through the passage of millions of years. In Europe, they are used for hydrocarbon storage; for instance France is planning to increase, in a short term, its crude storing capacity in domes of 5 to 10 millions cubic meters (60 million of barrel), holding capacity. Additionally, studies are being conducted on the stability of this type of domes, for the storage of nuclear wastes during 100 thousand or 1 million years. [Espanol] Los domos salinos son formaciones geologicas estructurales naturales, que se han constituido en el subsuelo, en el transcurso de millones de anos. En Europa, se aprovechan para almacenar hidrocarburo; por ejemplo, Francia planea aumentar, a corto plazo, su capacidad de almacenamiento de crudo en domos de 5 a 10 millones de metros cubicos (60 millones de barriles). Ademas, se realizan estudios de estabilidad en este tipo de domos, para almacenar desechos nucleares durante 100 mil o 1 millon de anos.

  8. ULTimateCO2 project: Field experiment in an underground rock laboratory to study the well integrity in the context of CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, J.C.; Audigane, P.; Claret, F.; Parmentier, M.; Tambach, T.J.; Wasch, L.; Gherardi, F.; Dimier, A.; Ukelis, O.; Jeandel, E.; Cladt, F.; Zorn, R.; Yalamas, T.; Nussbaum, C.; Laurent, A.; Fierz, T.; Pieedevache, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wells drilled through low-permeable caprock are potential connections between the CO2 storage reservoir and overlying sensitive targets like aquifers and targets located at the surface. The wellbore integrity can be compromised due to in situ operations, including drilling, completion, operations

  9. Natural resources and geothermal energy in the Netherlands. Annual report 2012. A review of exploration and production activities and underground storage; Delfstoffen en Aardwarmte in Nederland. Jaarverslag 2012. Een overzicht van opsporings- en winningsactiviteiten en van ondergrondse opslag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    The annual review reports on the activities and results of exploration and production of hydrocarbons, rock salt and geothermal energy in the Netherlands. Moreover the underground storage of various substances (e.g. natural gas, nitrogen, CO2 and brackish water) is included as well. In this way all the exploration, production and storage activities in the Netherlands and the Netherlands' part of the Continental shelf, related to the realm of the Mining Act, are combined in this report. The first section of the report deals with developments during the year 2012. The section shows the developments in the exploration, production and underground storage of hydrocarbons. It concerns changes in natural gas and oil resource estimates during 2012 and the way these changes affected the situation at 1 January 2013. This section also presents a prognosis for the gas production for the next 25 years. This year the remaining resources of natural gas and oil are reported in accordance with the Petroleum Resource Management System. This system should lead to a uniform classification of all reported resources. Subsequently, a number of tables summarise developments during 2012, with respect to licences and exploration efforts (seismic surveys and wells drilled). This section ends with a summary of the volumes of natural gas, condensate and oil that were produced in 2012. The subsequent chapters report on the exploration for and production of coal, rock salt and geothermal energy and on the underground storage of substances. The second section comprises a large number of annexes that report on the current situation as well as on historical developments during the past decades. Subsequently an overview of the situation as at 1 January 2013 is presented in the final part of the review [Dutch] Het Jaarverslag rapporteert over de activiteiten en resultaten van de opsporing en winning van koolwaterstoffen, steenzout en aardwarmte in Nederland. Daarnaast komt de ondergrondse opslag

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy storage (TES is a technology that stocks thermal energy by heating or cooling a storage medium so that the stored energy can be used at a later time for heating and cooling applications and power generation. TES systems are used particularly in buildings and in industrial processes. This paper is focused on TES technologies that provide a way of valorizing solar heat and reducing the energy demand of buildings. The principles of several energy storage methods and calculation of storage capacities are described. Sensible heat storage technologies, including water tank, underground, and packed-bed storage methods, are briefly reviewed. Additionally, latent-heat storage systems associated with phase-change materials for use in solar heating/cooling of buildings, solar water heating, heat-pump systems, and concentrating solar power plants as well as thermo-chemical storage are discussed. Finally, cool thermal energy storage is also briefly reviewed and outstanding information on the performance and costs of TES systems are included.

  11. Case histories in scientific and pseudo-scientific mass-media communication in energy/heat production from underground (geogas storage, geothermics, hydrocarbons), in the frame of Nimby Sindrome enhancement in Europe: the proposal of a new European Direct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, Fedora; Boschi, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of energy/heat production from underground, the paper considers some European case histories and the needs of a complex and motley stakeholders community, made by scientific-industry-institutions, involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, as Italy, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour. Successively, the paper recalls years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media, highlighting the positive and negative messages, in comparison to the true and objective experimental data gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoop. The authors retrace case histories of heuristic-participatory communication with the citizenship about the scientific results on challenges raised by certain technologies. The objective and rational communication is often impeded by local interests and by local journalism, which prefers to create sensationalist news more than scientific truths. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and with conflicting use of underground to produce energy (heat as gas storage, geothermical, unconventional gas exploitation, mining, etc…). Even the chain of renewables meets by now serious issues, exacerbated also by the need to start mining and drilling for the smart grids materials too (metals, rare Earths, etc..). A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity is discussed, starting from the Italian regulatory issue. The review efforts for a "paper" on both a newspaper or a blog could be more difficult than the review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest in a newspaper article or in a blog

  12. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  13. Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and glacier melt on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. Glacierized and non-glacierized areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of glacier melt, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by glaciers, accounting for glacier melt is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.

  14. Market optimization of a cluster of DG-RES, micro-CHP, heat pumps and energy storage within network constraints: The Power Matching City field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliek, F.W.; Van den Noort, A. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); De Wit, J.; Van de Velde, J. [HumiQ, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Eijgelaar, M. [Essent, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    The share of renewable energy resources for electricity production, in a distributed setting (DG-RES), increases. The amount of energy transported via the electricity grid by substitution of fossil fuels for mobility applications (electric vehicles) and domestic heating (heat pumps) increases as well. Apart from the volume of electricity also the simultaneity factor increases at all grid levels. This poses unprecedented challenges to capacity management of the electricity infrastructure. A solution for tackling this challenge is using more active distribution networks, intelligent coordination of supply and demand using ICT and using the gas distribution network to mitigate electricity distribution bottlenecks. In the EU FP6 Energy Program Integral project, a large scale heterogeneous field test has been designed for application of the software agent based PowerMatcher technology. The test is conducted in a suburb of Groningen, Hoogkerk, and entails approximately 30 homes with either a 'dual fuel' heating system (electrical heat pump with gas-fired peak-burners) or a micro-CHP. Homes also may have PV. Furthermore, a wind production facility and nodes with electricity chargers for EVs and electricity storage are part of the Virtual Power Plant cluster, constructed in this way. Domestic heating systems have intrinsic operational flexibility in comfort management through the thermal mass of the dwellings. Furthermore, the field test comfort systems are equipped with possibilities for hot water storage for central heating as well as for tap-water. Finally, having additional gas-fired heating capacity for electrical heat pumps adds to increasing flexibility by switching the energy source dependent on the status of the electricity grid. Purpose of the field test is using this flexibility to react to phenomena in the electricity system. From a commercial perspective, the aggregated cluster reacts on small-time scale events like real-time portfolio imbalance

  15. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  16. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.

    2017-05-01

    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  17. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  18. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhun Yıldız; Mustafa Şekkeli

    2016-01-01

    In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP) have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP) wh...

  19. Sealing efficiency of an argillite-bentonite plug subjected to gas pressure, in the context of deep underground nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In France, the deep underground nuclear waste repository consists of a natural barrier (in an argillaceous rock named argillite), associated to artificial barriers, including plugs of swelling clay (bentonite)-sand for tunnel sealing purposes. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug in contact with argillite, in presence of both water and gas pressures. To assess the sealing ability of partially water-saturated bentonite/sand plugs, their gas permeability is measured under varying confining pressure (up to 12 MPa). It is observed that tightness to gas is achieved under confinement greater than 9 MPa for saturation levels of at least 86-91%. We than assess the sealing efficiency of the bentonite-sand plug placed in a tube of argillite or of Plexiglas-aluminium (with a smooth or a rough interface). The presence of pressurized gas affects the effective swelling pressure at values P gas from 4 MPa. Continuous gas breakthrough of fully water-saturated bentonite-sand plugs is obtained for gas pressures on the order of full swelling pressure (7-8 MPa), whenever the plug is applied along a smooth interface. Whenever a rough interface is used in contact with the bentonite-sand plug, a gas pressure significantly greater than its swelling pressure is needed for gas to pass continuously. Gas breakthrough tests show that the interface between plug/argillite or the argillite itself are two preferential pathways for gas migration, when the assembly is fully saturated. (author)

  20. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.