WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground permit boundaries

  1. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  2. Letter Report: Contaminant Boundary at the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann

    2004-01-01

    As part of the corrective action strategy reached between the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Nevada, the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations must be addressed. This report provides the contaminant boundary for the Project Shoal Site, based on the groundwater flow and transport model for the site, by Pohlmann (and others)

  3. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  4. Hanford facility RCRA permit condition II.U.1 report: mapping of underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to fulfill Condition Il.U.1. of the Hanford Facility (HF) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit. The HF RCRA Permit, Number WA7890008967, became effective on September 28, 1994 (Ecology 1994). Permit Conditions Il.U. (mapping) and II.V. (marking) of the HF RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste (OW) Portion, require the mapping and marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines subject to the provisions of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-303. Permit Condition Il.U.I. requires the submittal of a report describing the methodology used to generate pipeline maps and to assure their quality. Though not required by the Permit, this report also documents the approach used for the field marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines.

  5. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  6. Investigation of the stability of blocks around underground openings by using the boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ünal

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two-dimensional software was developed by using the boundary element method, in order to model and solve the rock mechanics problems encountered in surface and underground excavations. Stability of rock wedges formed at the roof of underground excavations were investigated in detail by using this software. The behaviour of the symmetric wedge on different joint stiffnesses was studied using a modified boundary element software. Then the results obtained were discussed and compared with the analytical solution, considering the surface tractions, shear stresses (developed along the discontinuity, wedge displacements and strains (along the wedge height.

  7. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP

  8. Application of Three Existing Stope Boundary Optimisation Methods in an Operating Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Gamze; Yavuz, Mahmut

    2017-12-01

    The underground mine planning and design optimisation process have received little attention because of complexity and variability of problems in underground mines. Although a number of optimisation studies and software tools are available and some of them, in special, have been implemented effectively to determine the ultimate-pit limits in an open pit mine, there is still a lack of studies for optimisation of ultimate stope boundaries in underground mines. The proposed approaches for this purpose aim at maximizing the economic profit by selecting the best possible layout under operational, technical and physical constraints. In this paper, the existing three heuristic techniques including Floating Stope Algorithm, Maximum Value Algorithm and Mineable Shape Optimiser (MSO) are examined for optimisation of stope layout in a case study. Each technique is assessed in terms of applicability, algorithm capabilities and limitations considering the underground mine planning challenges. Finally, the results are evaluated and compared.

  9. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  10. UNDERGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-11-15

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  11. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  12. 30 CFR 937.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.784 Section 937.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  13. 30 CFR 903.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.784 Section 903.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application...

  14. 30 CFR 910.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.784 Section 910.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  15. 30 CFR 947.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.784 Section 947.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  16. 30 CFR 942.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.784 Section 942.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  17. 30 CFR 939.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 939.784 Section 939.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  18. 30 CFR 941.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.784 Section 941.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  19. 30 CFR 922.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.784 Section 922.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  20. 30 CFR 905.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.784 Section 905.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  1. 30 CFR 933.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.784 Section 933.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  2. 30 CFR 912.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.784 Section 912.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  3. 30 CFR 921.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.784 Section 921.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  4. The density jump at the inner core boundary using underground nuclear explosion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoshchekov, D.N.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of the minimum jump value using experimental wave forms reflected from the boundary between the Earth core and mantle (PcP) and the one between the inner and outer core (PKiKP) at a distance of 6 deg. Digital seismic records of underground nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site in 70s by Zerenda-Vostochny-Chkalovo seismic array have been used. (author)

  5. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  6. Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parishani, Hossein; Pritchard, Michael S.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wyant, Matthew C.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2017-07-01

    Systematic biases in the representation of boundary layer (BL) clouds are a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. A variation on superparameterization (SP) called "ultraparameterization" (UP) is developed, in which the grid spacing of the cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is fine enough (250 × 20 m) to explicitly capture the BL turbulence, associated clouds, and entrainment in a global climate model capable of multiyear simulations. UP is implemented within the Community Atmosphere Model using 2° resolution (˜14,000 embedded CRMs) with one-moment microphysics. By using a small domain and mean-state acceleration, UP is computationally feasible today and promising for exascale computers. Short-duration global UP hindcasts are compared with SP and satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere radiation and cloud vertical structure. The most encouraging improvement is a deeper BL and more realistic vertical structure of subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) clouds, due to stronger vertical eddy motions that promote entrainment. Results from 90 day integrations show climatological errors that are competitive with SP, with a significant improvement in the diurnal cycle of offshore Sc liquid water. Ongoing concerns with the current UP implementation include a dim bias for near-coastal Sc that also occurs less prominently in SP and a bright bias over tropical continental deep convection zones. Nevertheless, UP makes global eddy-permitting simulation a feasible and interesting alternative to conventionally parameterized GCMs or SP-GCMs with turbulence parameterizations for studying BL cloud-climate and cloud-aerosol feedback.

  7. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  8. Underground risk management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakai, T.

    2006-03-15

    JCOAL has conducted Joint Research on an Underground Communication and Risk Management Information System with CSIRO of Australia under a commissioned study project for the promotion of coal use starting in fiscal 2002. The goal of this research project is the establishment of a new Safety System focusing on the comprehensive risk management information system by the name of Nexsys. The main components of the system are the Ethernet type underground communication system that represents the data communication base, and the risk management information system that permits risk analysis in real-time and provides decision support based on the collected data. The Nexsys is an open system and is a core element of the underground monitoring system. Using a vast amount of underground data, it is capable of accommodating a wide range of functions that were not available in the past. Because of it, it is possible to construct an advanced underground safety system. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable... manholes and ducts in connection with construction work and the cost of permits and privileges for the...

  10. Deeper underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brearley, D. [Pantek Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper describes how efficient data gathering has led to production and uptime improvements in UK Coal's Daw Mill colliery in Warwickshire. Software called FactorySuite A{sup 2} from Wonderware is being used to control and monitor all underground production and conveying. 3 photos.

  11. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  12. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  13. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  14. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  15. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  16. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories

  17. 40 CFR 144.51 - Conditions applicable to all permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Permit Conditions § 144.51 Conditions applicable... permit. Any permit noncompliance constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds... denial of a permit renewal application; except that the permittee need not comply with the provisions of...

  18. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  19. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... work is to be performed in a manhole or unvented vault: (i) No entry shall be permitted unless forced...

  20. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  1. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  5. Solution of tasks concerning protection of underground waters and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.T.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Use of environment isotopes and indicators in solving problems concerning protection of underground waters and environment is discussed. The applied methods permit to study dynamics of underground waters and to estimate risk of their contamination; to follow the surface and underground waters interrelations using data on infiltration recharge estimation etc. Complex nuclear-geophysical and isotope studies may be applied to detect hindered water exchange zones where liquid industrial waste disposals could be placed with minimum damage to environment. 48 refs.; 74 figs.; 22 tabs

  6. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  7. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  8. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  9. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  10. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  11. Ci PERMIT

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations at Geneva recalls that only the spouses and children of members of personnel resident in Switzerland and in possession of a legitimation card of types 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are entitled to benefit from a Ci Permit.The 'demande d'attestation de permis Ci' (request for a Ci permit attestation) can be sent to the Mission only through Personnel Division (Administrative Services, Office 33/1-025).Additional information on access by family members of CERN officials to the Swiss labour market are available to you on the Web site of the Relations with the Host States Service (cf. document entitled 'Employment in Switzerland for spouses and children of CERN officials' dated March 1996).Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  12. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  13. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  14. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  15. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  16. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  17. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  18. 77 FR 36273 - Public Meeting on Draft Permitting Guidance for Oil and Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Activities Using...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... duration and well closure; area of review; information submitted with the permit application; and... Fracturing Activities Using Diesel Fuels--Draft: Underground Injection Control Program Guidance 84.'' The... permits under the Safe Drinking Water Act to ensure protection of underground sources of drinking water...

  19. The underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This educational booklet is a general presentation of the selected sites for the installation of underground research laboratories devoted to the feasibility studies of deep repositories for long-life radioactive wastes. It describes the different type of wastes and their management, the management of long life radioactive wastes, the site selection and the 4 sites retained, the preliminary research studies, and the other researches carried out in deep disposal facilities worldwide. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  1. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  2. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    underground nuclear explosion event in a composite media with faults and complex ... faults, in situ stresses and tectonic strains, location of the free surface with respect .... at the elastic radius are the local geological formations, porosity, water con- ... the problem for a longer duration Sommerfeld (1949) radiation boundary ...

  3. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  4. Underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  5. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1969-01-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  6. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  7. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  8. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  9. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  10. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  11. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, Chamaka; Caspar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CASPAR mainly focuses on Stellar Nucleosynthesis, its impact on the production of heavy elements and study the strength of stellar neutron sources that propels the s-process, 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg. Currently, implementation of a 1MV fully refurbished Van de Graaff accelerator that can provide a high intensity Î+/- beam, is being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The accelerator is built among a collaboration of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, University of Notre Dame and Colorado School of Mines. It is understood that cosmic ray neutron background radiation hampers experimental Nucleosynthesis studies, hence the need to go underground in search for a neutron free environment, to study these reactions at low energies is evident. The first beam was produced in the middle of summer 2017. The entire accelerator will be run before the end of this year. A detailed overview of goals of CASPAR will be presented. NFS Grant-1615197.

  12. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  13. Regulating and Combating Underground Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In combating and regulating underground banking, a choice can be made of roughly two models, the risk model and the assimilation model. The risk model comes down to a complete prohibition of underground banking combined with an active investigation and prosecution policy. In the assimilation model,

  14. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  15. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  16. Underground transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibka, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several underground tomographic transmission surveys have been carried out. Targets were cavities, ore veins and fault zones. Examples from measurements in a german heavy/fluor spar mine a lead/zinc mine and a rock laboratory of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive waste are presented. Measurements were carried out between boreholes and road ways. The recording equipment was the intrinsically safe SEAMEX85 system built and sold by WBK. Receivers were mounted in a chain of 6 two-component probes. Sources were an inhole hammer a sledge hammer a sparker and explosives from a single detonator to 180 g depending on the distance and absorption of the rock material. Cavities showed very distinct velocity reductions between 30 and 50%. Different vein material showed velocity reduction as well as velocity increase relative to the surrounding rock

  17. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  18. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  19. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Yue, Q; Chen, Y H; Shen, M B; Wu, S Y

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory - China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  20. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  1. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  2. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  3. FAST goes underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlund, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The FAST-M Cost Estimating Model is a parametric model designed to determine the costs associated with mining and subterranean operations. It is part of the FAST (Freiman Analysis of Systems Techniques) series of parametric models developed by Freiman Parametric Systems, Inc. The rising cost of fossil fuels has created a need for a method which could be used to determine and control costs in mining and subterranean operations. FAST-M fills this need and also provides scheduling information. The model works equally well for a variety of situations including underground vaults for hazardous waste storage, highway tunnels, and mass transit tunnels. In addition, costs for above ground structures and equipment can be calculated. The input for the model may be on a macro or a micro level. This allows the model to be used at various stages in a project. On the macro level, only general conditions and specifications need to be known. On the micro level, the smallest details may be included. As with other FAST models, reference cases are used to more accurately predict costs and scheduling. This paper will address how the model can be used for a variety of subterranean purposes

  4. Reflection Phenomena in Underground Pumped Storage Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pummer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage through hydropower leads to free surface water waves in the connected reservoirs. The reason for this is the movement of water between reservoirs at different elevations, which is necessary for electrical energy storage. Currently, the expansion of renewable energies requires the development of fast and flexible energy storage systems, of which classical pumped storage plants are the only technically proven and cost-effective technology and are the most used. Instead of classical pumped storage plants, where reservoirs are located on the surface, underground pumped storage plants with subsurface reservoirs could be an alternative. They are independent of topography and have a low surface area requirement. This can be a great advantage for energy storage expansion in case of environmental issues, residents’ concerns and an unusable terrain surface. However, the reservoirs of underground pumped storage plants differ in design from classical ones for stability and space reasons. The hydraulic design is essential to ensure their satisfactory hydraulic performance. The paper presents a hybrid model study, which is defined here as a combination of physical and numerical modelling to use the advantages and to compensate for the disadvantages of the respective methods. It shows the analysis of waves in ventilated underground reservoir systems with a great length to height ratio, considering new operational aspects from energy supply systems with a great percentage of renewable energies. The multifaceted and narrow design of the reservoirs leads to complex free surface flows; for example, undular and breaking bores arise. The results show excessive wave heights through wave reflections, caused by the impermeable reservoir boundaries. Hence, their knowledge is essential for a successful operational and constructive design of the reservoirs.

  5. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  6. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  7. Underground treatment of combustible minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapuu, E

    1954-10-14

    A process is described for treating oil underground, consisting in introducing several electrodes spaced one from the other in a bed of combustibles underground so that they come in electric contact with this bed of combustibles remaining insulated from the ground, and applying to the electrodes a voltage sufficient to produce an electric current across the bed of combustibles, so as to heat it and create an electric connection between the electrodes on traversing the bed of combustibles.

  8. Safety consideration and economic advantage of a new underground nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Ching, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of an underground nuclear power plant is proposed to make undergrounding of nuclear reactors not only environmentally desirable but also economically feasible. Expedient to the underground environment, this design capitalizes on the pressure-containing and radiation filtering characteristics of the new underground boundary conditions. Design emphasis is on the containment of a catastrophic accident - that of a reactor vessel rupture caused by external means. The High Capacity Rapid Energy Dissipation Underground Containment (HiC-REDUCE) system which efficiently contains loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and small break conditions is described. The end product is a radiation-release-proof plant which, in effect, divorces the public from the safety of the reactor. (Auth.)

  9. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  10. Investigation of underground caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.; Lichter, D.

    1979-01-01

    By means of a probe the condition of the boundary surfaces, other parameters, or the contents of the caverns, e.g. in salt rock may be investigated for ultimate storage of radioactive waste. The probe is hanging on a measuring cable designed as a suspending wire leading to a driving and remote-control mechanism and to evaluation units standing on the surface. At the lower end of the probe an extensionarm is hinged as supporting arm for the testing equipment. The supporting arm can be rotated about the probe axis. As testing equipment e.g. ultrasonic probes, lasers, temperature and moisture sensors may be used. (RW) [de

  11. International activities concerning seismic effects on underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    At the 5th Annual Meeting of the ITA in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 15-17, 1979, the General Assembly approved the formation of the Working Group Seismic Effects on Underground Structures. The objectives of this Working Group are to: (1) collect data on earthquake damage to underground facilities throughout the world; (2) collect information on aseismic design procedures used within the various countries; and (3) synthesize the information and disseminate the results to the member nations of ITA. William W. Hakala of the US was designated the Animateur of the Working Group. The Working Group decided on the following sequential course of action to achieve the stated objectives: (1) continue to develop a bibliograhy on damages to underground structures by dynamic forces. This will be an ongoing activity of the Working Group; (2) each country is to develop a summary of case histories of earthquake damage to underground structures. These case histories will be discussed at the next meeting of the Working Group in order to identify those parameters that permit or prevent such damage; (3) the state-of-the-art paper on earthquake damage to underground opening being prepared in the US (John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers) is presently being printed and will then be distributed to the membership for comment. This report will form the basis for the activities described below; (4) the above activities should lead to a textbook - like document that provides a design philosophy for underground structures subjected to seismic forces; (5) the work tasks will suggest needed research to solve the identified problems. At each Working Group meeting the member nation delegates will provide a summary of research progress in their countries. These research needs will be documented, reviewed, revised, and disseminated on an annual basis

  12. Permit.LOA table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This table includes the effective dates by vessel and permit number for each issued letter of authorization (LOA) by the Permit Office (APSD)

  13. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  14. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  15. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  16. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  17. Henderson Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: Unearthing the secrets of the Universe, underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Henderson Mine near Empire, Colorado is proposed to be the site to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which will have a rich program for forefront research in physics, biology, geosciences, and mining engineering. The mine is owned by the Climax Molybdenum Company (CMC). It is located about 50 miles west of Denver and is easily accessible via major highways. The mine is modern and has extensive infrastructure with reserve capacity well-suited to the demands of DUSEL. CMC owns all land required for DUSEL, including the tailings site. It also has all environmental and mining permits required for DUSEL excavation, core drilling, and rock disposal. The mine owners are enthusiastic supporters of this initiative. In support of the Henderson DUSEL project, the State of Colorado has pledged substantial funding for surface construction.

  18. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  19. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  20. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  2. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  3. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  4. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  5. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  6. Tradeable carbon permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The research project on tradeable carbon permits has focused on three elements. First of all, the practical implications of designing a system of tradeable emission permits for reducing CO2 has been studied. In the second part, the consequences of introducing a system of tradeable carbon permits for entry barriers have been considered. Finally, the institutional requirements and welfare effects of coordination of CO2 abatement in a second-best world have been examined

  7. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Newmark, Robin L.; Udell, Kent; Buetnner, Harley M.; Aines, Roger D.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  8. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stored in these underground tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will solidify pretreated tank waste into a glass product that will be packaged for disposal in a national repository. This Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Revision 2, consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions, including Revision 4 submitted with this application, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987)

  10. Emerging boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of temporal and material variables have been applied as a means of exploring the processes leading to their socioconceptual anchorage. The outcome of this analysis is a series of interrelated, generative boundary principles, including boundaries as markers, articulations, process-related devices, and fixation...

  11. Changing Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodkin, Evelyn; Larsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    project that is altering the boundary between the democratic welfare state and the market economy. We see workfare policies as boundary-changing with potentially profound implications both for individuals disadvantaged by market arrangements and for societies seeking to grapple with the increasing...

  12. Simulation of the three-dimensional dispersion of radioactive gases through layers of ground in connection with underground design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkelacker, A.

    1979-01-01

    In connection with underground design of nuclear power plants there is studied the dispersion of radioactive gases released from the underground plant into the ground covering, following a hypothetical accident. For this purpose there was developed a model of dispersion describing the one-and two-component flow of ideal gases in an inhomogeneous porous medium. The description of the gas flow is based on Darcy's Law. The flow process is assumed to be isothermal. The model is completed by simulation of radioactive tracer particles for determining retention times. Based on the mathematical dispersion model the computer code FLOG3D was developed. It permits to calculate the unsteady distributions of pressure and concentration in an inhomogeneous porous medium in cartesian coordinates as well as the location of radioactive tracer particles. According to the choice of boundary conditions the calculation can be performed in up to three dimensions. For numerical solution of the model equations a special wide-mesh method was used. This method applies polymonial set-ups for the behavior of the solution in the individual meshes. For verification of the code FLOG3D there were performed comparative and test computations. One- and multidimensional calculating examples demonstrate the overall applicability for this code. (orig.) [de

  13. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    2010-01-01

    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...

  14. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  15. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  16. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  17. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  18. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  19. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  20. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  1. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  2. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  3. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  4. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks

  5. Heat transfer in underground heating experiments in granite, Stipa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Javandel, I.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical heater experiments have been conducted underground in granite at Stripa, Sweden, to investigate the effects of heating associated with nuclear waste storage. Temperature data from these experiments are compared with closed-form and finite-element solutions. Good agreement is found between measured temperatures and both types of models, but especially for a nonlinear finite-element heat conduction model incorporating convective boundary conditions, measured nonuniform initial rock temperature distribution, and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. In situ thermal properties, determined by least-squares regression, are very close to laboratory values. A limited amount of sensitivity analysis is undertaken

  6. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  7. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  8. Allegheny County Asbestos Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Current asbestos permit data issued by the County for commercial building demolitions and renovations as required by the EPA. This file is updated daily and can be...

  9. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  10. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  11. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  12. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  13. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  14. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  15. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  16. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  17. Intensive use of diesels underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R W

    1980-07-01

    At a US mine, coal is extracted by room and pillar mining. Tyred diesel vehicles are used to transport men and materials, to spread gravel on the roadway, and to tow and provide hydraulic power to rock dusting machines. Hydraulic power take-offs from the vehicles are used to operate equipment such as drills and chain saws. A deisel ambulance is kept underground, and diesel lubrication units and maintenance tracks are used. A diesel generator provides electrical power when or where no permanent electricity supply is available e.g. for tramming continuous miners in to or out of the mine.

  18. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  19. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983 and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008. The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of financial markets. Thus, using specific stock market mathematical tools analysis, one can analyze the dynamic of underground economy

  20. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  1. Cathode protection for underground steel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelovski, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Cathodic protection of underground petroleum storage tanks and piping systems is acceptable for both economic and ecological reasons. With out the cathodic protection of underground steel reservoirs, short time after the exploitation, there was a bore as a result of underground corrosion. The bore causes ecological consequences and at the same time its repair needs big investments. Furthermore, there are great number of tanks placed near cities, so in the future this problem needs a special attention in order to preserve ecological surrounding. The topic of this paper is underground corrosion as well as cathodic protection of steel tanks for oil derivatives storage. (author)

  2. Hanford Facility RCRA permit handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Purpose of this Hanford Facility (HF) RCRA Permit Handbook is to provide, in one document, information to be used for clarification of permit conditions and guidance for implementing the HF RCRA Permit.

  3. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  4. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  5. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  6. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  7. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  8. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...... and distributive justice at national level....

  9. Underground laboratories in Japan and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, Henry W

    2006-01-01

    There is a blossoming demand for deep underground laboratory space to satisfy the expanding interest in experiments that require significant cosmic-ray shielding. I'll briefly describe the existing deep facilities and their plans for expansion. I will also discuss the planning for a new major underground facility in the U.S

  10. Concept of underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Sotoaki

    1976-01-01

    The concept of constructing nuclear power plants on the sea or underground as the future sitting is based on moving the present power plants on the ground with actual results to the sea or underground without changing the design. The underground nuclear power plants have many similar points to underground hydro-electric power stations with many achievements in the construction viewpoint, though they have their proper difficult problems. Of course, it requires to excavate larger underground caves than the case of underground hydro-electric power plants. The maximum dimensions of the caves have been determined through experience in practice. Therefore the developments of design theory and construction technique are desirable in this field. In discussing underground construction, two evaluating methods are considered for the shielding effect of base rocks. The minimum vertical distance up to ground surface from the center of the cave differs depending upon the in-cave pressure, and the conditions of base rock, soil and underground water in case of the accident assumed in the design, and is approximately 60m, if the cave is assumed to be an indefinite cylindrical shape, by the safer side calculation in the above two evaluations. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  12. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  13. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done on...

  14. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  15. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  16. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  17. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  18. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  19. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  20. Radiogenic cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple studies have yielded remarkably consistent results relating radon daughter exposure to lung cancer risk in underground mining populations. The U.S. uranium miner study appears to be at variance with the other results. The primary reason is that the doses in the U.S. miner study were systematically overestimated, resulting in a risk coefficient that is lower than all the others. The significance of these findings for radiogenic lung cancer goes well beyond mining populations, because one is now aware of the implications of radon daughters detected in homes. The highest cumulative levels from radon exposures within homes have been found in Sweden, evidently because of their unusual geology with uranium-bearing ores near the surface. The Swedish authorities view this as a major public health problem that needs to be addressed

  1. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  2. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  3. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  4. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  6. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  7. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.; Pratt, H.R.; Wahi, K.K.; Science Applications, Inc., La Jolla, CA; Science Applications, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  8. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} and 1.5 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  9. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, F.

    1969-01-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 μCi/ft 3 and 1.5 μCi/ft 3 respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  10. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...... electric field stress and other parameters of EHV underground cables with given boundary conditions using 2-D electric field analysis software package (IES-ELECTRO module) which is based on the finite element method (FEM).......Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...

  11. Permitting issues in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    As background, LG and E Development Corporation (formerly Hadson) has successfully put 16 Qualifying Facilities in the ground over the past 9 years in California, Maine, Virginia, and North Carolina. Each of these qualifying facilities has had some environmental innovative first, so there is no apology for the authors' environmental credentials. In Virginia, there are four identical 60 MW stoker coal cogeneration projects in Southampton County, Altavista, Hopewell, and -lastly-Buena Vista. The Buena Vista cogeneration project becomes the exception that proves the permitting rules. It has been in the permitting process for over 4 years; and despite being the cleanest coal project ever considered east of the Mississippi (design at 0.1 lbs/MMBtu for both So 2 and NO x ), it has suffered serous consequences from permitting delays and BACT ratcheting. As a simple comparison of importance, the Virginia Power Mt. Storm coal power facility emits approximately 150,000 tons of So 2 per year, while the Buena Vista project will actually emit approximately 150 tons of SO 2 per year (not including 1,500' tons of purchased SO 2 offsets). Both are similar distances from the Shenandoah National Park which has been the primary environmental point of concern in Virginia

  12. Underground coal mining - methods, equipment developments and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R

    1988-12-01

    Underground mines are truly beginning to accept the so-called 'high tech' technology evident in other industries. Automation, remote control and robotics have taken an added significance. Wireless communication, mine-wide equipment health and performance monitoring, and transmission of data from deeper levels to surface is moving towards becoming the norm. There is emphasis on developing and applying continuous mining systems, as well as on modifying cyclical discontinuous methods to continuous systems. Multi-purpose equipment is also being developed. Technology transfer is playing its role - equipment and systems from surface coal mining are being applied to underground mining and vice-versa. At the American Mining Congress Exhibition held in Chicago in April 1988, a variety of equipment for underground mining was displayed including coal face equipment such as shearer loaders, conveyors and powered supports, and equipment for room-and-pillar coal mining. The trend continues to be towards high power machines equipped with a variety of electronics and sensors, safety devices, and alarm systems. Ancillary equipment on display covered a variety of cutting drums, cutting tools, conveying equipment and so on. In room-and-pillar mining, the overall emphasis was on moving away from the cyclical nature of the work. Transportation by shuttle cars must be replaced by continuous transport systems such as conveyors. Experience from Australia has shown that the application of continuous haulage and breaker line supports has permitted a doubling of production from room-and-pillar systems. Production levels of 3,000tpd have already been achieved, and 4,000tpd is considered achievable.

  13. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  14. Underground science initiatives at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed two major new initiatives in underground science. Following the dissolution of the original gallium solar neutrino collaboration, Los Alamos has formed a new North American collaboration. We briefly review the rationale for solar neutrino research, outline the proposal and new Monte Carlo simulations, and describe the candidate locations for the experiment. Because there is no dedicated deep underground site in North America suitable for a wide range of experiments, Los Alamos has conducted a survey of possible sites and developed a proposal to create a new National Underground Science Facility. This paper also reviews that proposal

  15. Age of underground waters: isotopes contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chery, L.; Olive, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Does water has an age? The age of underground waters can be the duration of their underground travel between their infiltration inside the ground and their captation at a spring or a drilled well. The isotopic geochemistry comes to the support of classical geochemistry to estimate these residence times. Radio-isotopes, like tritium for young waters or carbon 14 for old waters, are used as chronometers to interpret the recharge ways, the flow mechanisms and the residence times of underground waters. Their use is presented in this article with some theoretical recalls and some examples of application. (J.S.)

  16. Underground storage tanks: State regulations and compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to resolve underground storage tank (UST) management problems, several states and localities have moved ahead of EPA in the promulgation of UST regulations. Developed independently, these regulations represent different strategies for ensuring compliance: from an extensive set of permitting requirements that allow for the implementation of site-specific control measures to a uniform set of technical and operational requirements that vary according to installation date. For the tank owner, complying with these regulations can be a time-consuming and frustrating endeavor. However, during the course of several environmental audits of similar facilities in different states, useful strategies were observed or developed that enabled facilities to respond more effectively to requirements: these included computerization of files, designation of tank custodians, installation of low-maintenance equipment, and increased use of above-ground tanks. Of special additional interest was the wide variation in costs for similar tank services quoted by both private and government sources. These strategies are coupled with general observations on the efficacy of the various regulatory approaches to provide a field view that may be useful to tank owners and others involved in underground tank management and evaluation

  17. Underground gas storage in the World - Cedigaz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benquey, R.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' provides an update to the previous survey released by CEDIGAZ in 2006. At that time, 610 underground gas storage (UGS) facilities were in operation worldwide, with a working capacity of 319 billion cubic metres (bcm). As of 1 January 2010, this number had reached 642 facilities with a working gas capacity of 333 bcm, or 10.8% of world gas consumption. By 2020, the global UGS demand is expected to grow at a pace of 3.3% per year, and according to the projects identified, more than 760 UGS sites could be active in the world with a total working capacity of approximately 465 bcm. In this survey, CEDIGAZ analyses the following trends which characterise the rapid development of underground gas storage in the world: - the strong dynamics of the European storage market, where 127 projects could add 75 bcm of working capacity by 2020, - the continued development of the UGS market in the United States (49 projects), encouraged by market-based rates allowed by the FERC, and rapid permitting processes, - the development of facilities in countries with little or no storage capacities at present, in Asia/Oceania, the C.I.S., and Eastern Europe in particular. This survey provides an analysis of the recent evolutions in the technic-economic aspects of the underground gas storage business, as well as an overview of the UGS markets and their developments in the world, country by country. A specific section is dedicated to the analysis of future UGS needs in Europe by 2020: - Technic-economic aspects of UGS: This part of the survey analyses the latest technical improvements and research axes in the field of underground gas storage. As it is more difficult to build greenfield storage facilities, a lot of work has been done to improve the performance and flexibility of existing storage sites. This section also deals with the evolution of investment and operational costs in storage over the last few years. Furthermore, the

  18. Direct Energy Centre underground parking integrated light control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    LightSavers is a project undertaken by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund to accelerate the use of lighting technologies. As part of the project a pilot test has been carried out in the Direct Energy Center in Toronto. The aim of this report is to present the study and its results. The Direct Energy Center is a large event facility with an large underground parking facility. A lighting energy management system, the energy control system (ECS), capable of adjusting lighting levels based on occupancy was implemented in the centre and data was collected during over one year. Results showed that the ECS permitted a reduction in energy consumption and thus greenhouse gas emissions by 47% and the payback will take less than 6 years. This project demonstrated that the energy control system provides better energy, environmental and economic performance than a traditional automation system.

  19. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  20. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan

    1998-01-01

    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  1. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  2. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  3. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  4. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1998-01-01

    .... The audit was performed in response to a Senate Armed Services Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks...

  5. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  6. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  7. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  8. Giant Magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT, 28th February 2007, the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva

  9. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  10. GPS-deprived localisation for underground mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available robots. Opencast mines utilise the global positioning system (GPS) to obtain location information. The unavailability of this technology in underground mining has actuated numerous researchers to investigate possible alternatives. These attempts exploit...

  11. System for remote control of underground device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics

  12. Posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Page 1 of 8 25th International Conference of CAD/CAM, Robotics & Factories of the Future Conference, 13-16 July 2010, Pretoria, South Africa A POSTURE ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND MINE VEHICLES Khonzumusa Hlophe1, Gideon Ferreira2... and the transmitter. The main difference between the three systems is their implementation. This paper describes an implementation of a posture estimation system for underground mine vehicles. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, a brief...

  13. System for remote control of underground device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  14. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  15. Physics of multiple muons in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, T.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize results of Monte Carlo simulations of underground muons with a set of parametrizations for number and lateral distribution of muons at various detector depths. We also describe the size distributions of accompanying showers at the surface. We give some illustrations of the use of these results to study the surface-underground correlation and to interpret preliminary results of the Soudan-I detector presented at this conference

  16. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  17. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  18. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  19. Pacific Islands Region Fishing Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sustainable Fisheries Division Permits Program issues around 300 permits annually for pelagic longline and troll & handline, bottomfish, crustacean (lobster...

  20. Vessel Permit System Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GARFO issues federal fishing permits annually to owners of fishing vessels who fish in the Greater Atlantic region, as required by federal regulation. These permits...

  1. Contamination of surface and underground waters owing to the disaster of the Sasa mine tailing pond

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Spasovski, Orce

    2003-01-01

    The uncontrolled run off of flotation waste from the Sasa Mine causes contamination of the flows of the Rivers Kamenicka and Bregalnica as well as the water of Kalimanci Lake and further afield. Boundary, fracture and karst type of aquifers formed depending on the structural type of porosity along the marginal parts of the terrain. The aquifers are recharged mostly by the above mentioned rivers that results in contamination of their waters. Contamination of underground waters is particularly ...

  2. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  3. An algorithm for leak point detection of underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin

    2004-01-01

    Leak noise is a good source to identify the exact location of a leak point of underground water pipelines. Water leak generates broadband noise from a leak location and can be propagated to both directions of water pipes. However, the necessity of long-range detection of this leak location makes to identify low-frequency acoustic waves rather than high frequency ones. Acoustic wave propagation coupled with surrounding boundaries including cast iron pipes is theoretically analyzed and the wave velocity was confirmed with experiment. The leak locations were identified both by the acoustic emission (AE) method and the cross-correlation method. In a short-range distance, both the AE method and cross-correlation method are effective to detect leak position. However, the detection for a long-range distance required a lower frequency range accelerometers only because higher frequency waves were attenuated very quickly with the increase of propagation paths. Two algorithms for the cross-correlation function were suggested, and a long-range detection has been achieved at real underground water pipelines longer than 300 m.

  4. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  5. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  6. Underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strever, M.T.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.; McDaniel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design and installation of an underground ventilation remote monitoring and control system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This facility is designed to demonstrate safe underground disposal of U.S. defense generated transuranic nuclear waste. To improve the operability of the ventilation system, an underground remote monitoring and control system was designed and installed. The system consists of 15 air velocity sensors and 8 differential pressure sensors strategically located throughout the underground facility providing real-time data regarding the status of the ventilation system. In addition, a control system was installed on the main underground air regulators. The regulator control system gives indication of the regulator position and can be controlled either locally or remotely. The sensor output is displayed locally and at a central surface location through the site-wide Central Monitoring System (CMS). The CMS operator can review all sensor data and can remotely operate the main underground regulators. Furthermore, the Virtual Address Extension (VAX) network allows the ventilation engineer to retrieve real-time ventilation data on his personal computer located in his workstation. This paper describes the types of sensors selected, the installation of the instrumentation, and the initial operation of the remote monitoring system

  7. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Denver [Indiana U.

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  8. Studies on muon showers underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Castagnoli, C; Dardo, M; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Sitte, K [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1976-08-21

    The 4 m/sup 2/ spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, and to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm/sup 2/ of rock.

  9. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.

    1976-01-01

    The 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm 2 of rock

  10. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change

  12. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Morisawa, S.

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65 Zn, 60 Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59 Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  13. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  14. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  15. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  16. Location of leaks in pressurized underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Millions of underground storage tanks (UST) are used to store petroleum and other chemicals. The pressurized underground pipelines associated with USTs containing petroleum motor fuels are typically 2 in. in diameter and 50 to 200 ft in length. These pipelines typically operate at pressures of 20 to 30 psi. Longer lines, with diameters up to 4 in., are found in some high-volume facilities. There are many systems that can be used to detect leaks in pressurized underground pipelines. When a leak is detected, the first step in the remediation process is to find its location. Passive-acoustic measurements, combined with advanced signal-processing techniques, provide a nondestructive method of leak location that is accurate and relatively simple, and that can be applied to a wide variety of pipelines and pipeline products

  17. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  18. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report

  19. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  20. 10 CFR 205.329 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.329 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... such Presidential Permits: (1) ERA will determine whether an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or an...

  1. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms reduction of capital structures handover to operation. The results of work of a commission responsible for completed underground railway system objects acceptance and putting into operation were analyzed. Considering example of object «Second entrance hall area of «Sportivnaya» station the statistical data of revealed snagging items is consolidated and dynamics of corrective actions is provided.Proposed solutions laid the foundation for corrections of requirements documents and were accepted for realization in the process of works acceptance of Saint-Petersburg underground railway system objects.

  2. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  3. Analysis and design of SSC underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of underground structures for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Project. A brief overview of the SSC Project and the types of underground structures are presented. Engineering properties and non-linear behavior of the geologic materials are reviewed. The three-dimensional sequential finite element rock-structure interaction analysis techniques developed by the author are presented and discussed. Several examples of how the method works, specific advantages, and constraints are presented. Finally, the structural designs that resulted from the sequential interaction analysis are presented

  4. Background Models for Muons and Neutrons Underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic-induced activity is an issue of great concern for many sensitive experiments sited underground. A variety of different arch-type experiments - such as those geared toward the detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and solar neutrinos - have reached levels of cleanliness and sensitivity that warrant careful consideration of secondary activity induced by cosmic rays. This paper reviews some of the main issues associated with the modeling of cosmogenic activity underground. Comparison with data, when such data is available, is also presented

  5. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies......This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  6. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM. The implementation consists of four phases: (1 geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2 implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3 accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4 creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  7. Regulatory analysis of the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program has been developed to identify, demonstrate, test, and evaluate technologies that will provide alternatives to the current underground storage tank remediation program. The UST-ID Program is a national program that consists of five participating US Department of Energy (DOE) sites where technologies can be developed an ultimately demonstrated. Once these technologies are demonstrated, the UST-ID Program will transfer the developed technology system to industry (governmental or industrial) for application or back to Research and Development for further evaluation and modification, as necessary. In order to ensure that the UST-ID Program proceeds without interruption, it will be necessary to identify regulatory requirements along with associated permitting and notification requirements early in the technology development process. This document serves as a baseline for identifying certain federal and state regulatory requirements that may impact the UST-ID Program and the demonstration of any identified technologies

  8. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available. Reference

  9. Mathematical simulation of point defect interaction with grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Published works, where the interaction of point defects and grain boundaries was studied by mathematical simulation methods, have been analysed. Energetics of the vacancy formation both in nuclei of large-angle special grain boundaries and in lattice regions adjoining them has been considered. The data obtained permit to explain specific features of grain-boundary diffusion processes. Results of mathematical simulation of the interaction of impurity atoms and boundaries have been considered. Specific features of the helium atom interaction with large-angle grain boundaries are analysed as well

  10. Underground leaching - A method for the economic extraction of uranium from low-grade ores; Podzemnoe vyshchelachivanie - sposob ehkonomicheskogo izvlecheniya urana iz bednykh rud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zefirov, A P [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj EHnergii SSSR, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1967-06-15

    The method of underground leaching of uranium ores has a number of advantages over extraction followed by processing of the ores in factories. It has been studied in two types of deposit, occurring in rock masses and sandy shales. Research techniques were worked out accordingly for the leaching of uranium from large-grained ore (-200 mm) and from layers in natural stratification. Special models were constructed permitting the simulation of underground leaching conditions. The results obtained were checked in field conditions on experimental plots and experimental underground blocks. The investigations demonstrated the practicability of the process of underground leaching of uranium from certain ores and made it possible to work out flow-sheets and routines for an industrial process, information about which is given in the paper. (author)

  11. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  12. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  13. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  14. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  15. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  16. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  17. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa is currently developing a robot for the inspection of the ceiling (hanging-wall) in an underground gold mine. The robot autonomously navigates the 30 meter long by 3 meter...

  19. US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  20. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S.; Telleschi, P.

    1978-10-01

    Two of the main underground siting alternatives, the rock cavity plant and the pit siting, have been investigated in detail and two layouts, developed for specific sites, have been proposed. The influence of this type of siting on normal operating conditions and during abnormal occurences have been investigated. (Auth.)

  1. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  2. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  3. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 98, Frenchman Flat, Underground Test Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for Calendar Year 2016 (January 2016–December 2016), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98: Frenchman Flat on the Nevada National Security Site was the location of 10 underground nuclear tests. CAU 98 underwent a series of investigations and actions in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order to assess contamination of groundwater by radionuclides from the tests. A Closure Report completed that process in 2016 and called for long-term monitoring, use restrictions (URs), and institutional controls to protect the public and environment from potential exposure to contaminated groundwater. Three types of monitoring are performed for CAU 98: water quality, water level, and institutional control. These are evaluated to determine whether the UR boundaries remain protective of human health and the environment, and to ensure that the regulatory boundary objectives are being met. Additionally, monitoring data are used to evaluate consistency with the groundwater flow and contaminant transport models because the contaminant boundaries (CBs) calculated with the models are the primary basis of the UR boundaries. In summary, the monitoring results from 2016 indicate the regulatory controls on the closure of CAU 98 remain effective in protection of human health and the environment. Recommendations resulting from this first year of monitoring activities include formally incorporating wells UE-5 PW-1, UE-5 PW-2, and UE-5 PW-3 into the groundwater-level monitoring network given their strategic location in the basin; and early development of a basis for trigger levels for the groundwater-level monitoring given the observed trends. Additionally, it is recommended to improve the Real Estate/Operations Permit process for capturing information important for evaluating the impact of activities on groundwater resources, and to shift the reporting requirement for this annual report from the second quarter of the federal fiscal year (end of March) to the second quarter of the calendar year (end of June).

  4. Optimal location of emergency stations in underground mine networks using a multiobjective mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Reza; Najafi, Mehdi

    2018-02-26

    Background Every year, many mining accidents occur in underground mines all over the world resulting in the death and maiming of many miners and heavy financial losses to mining companies. Underground mining accounts for an increasing share of these events due to their special circumstances and the risks of working therein. Thus, the optimal location of emergency stations within the network of an underground mine in order to provide medical first aid and transport injured people at the right time, plays an essential role in reducing deaths and disabilities caused by accidents Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the location of emergency stations (ES) within the network of an underground coal mine in order to minimize the outreach time for the injured. Methods A three-objective mathematical model is presented for placement of ES facility location selection and allocation of facilities to the injured in various stopes. Results Taking into account the radius of influence for each ES, the proposed model is capable to reduce the maximum time for provision of emergency services in the event of accident for each stope. In addition, the coverage or lack of coverage of each stope by any of the emergency facility is determined by means of Floyd-Warshall algorithm and graph. To solve the problem, a global criterion method using GAMS software is used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the model. Conclusions 7 locations were selected from among 46 candidates for the establishment of emergency facilities in Tabas underground coal mine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Surface Signatures of an Underground Explosion as Captured by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Swanson, E.; Coppersmith, R.; Cooley, J.; Rougier, E.; Larmat, C. S.; Norskog, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study employed high-resolution photogrammetric modeling to quantify cm-scale surface topographic changes resulting from a 5000kg underground chemical explosion. The test occurred in April 2016 at a depth of 76m within a quartz monzonite intrusion in southern Nevada. The field area was a 210m x 150m polygon broadly centered on the explosion's emplacement hole. A grid of ground control points (GCPs) installed in the field area established control within the collection boundaries and ensured high-resolution digital model parameterization. Using RTK GPS techniques, GCP targets were surveyed in the days before and then again immediately after the underground explosion. A quadcopter UAS with a 12MP camera payload captured overlapping imagery at two flight altitudes (10m and 30m AGL) along automated flight courses for consistency and repeatability. The overlapping imagery was used to generate two digital elevation models, pre-shot and post-shot, for each of the flight altitudes. Spatial analyses of the DEMs and orthoimagery show uplift on the order of 1 to 18cm in the immediate area near ground zero. Other features such as alluvial fracturing appear in the photogrammetric and topographic datasets. Portions of the nearby granite outcrop experienced rock fall and rock rotation. The study detected erosional and depositional features on the test bed and adjacent to it. In addition to vertical change, pre-shot and post-shot surveys of the GCPs suggest evidence for lateral motion on the test bed surface, with movement away from surface ground zero on the order of 1 to 3cm. Results demonstrate that UAS photogrammetry method provides an efficient, high-fidelity, non-invasive method to quantify surface deformation. The photogrammetry data allow quantification of permanent surface deformation and of the spatial extent of damage. These constraints are necessary to develop hydrodynamic and seismic models of explosions that can be verified against recorded seismic data.

  6. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  7. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  8. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  9. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  10. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  11. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013...

  12. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal... Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Limited reopening of the... for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals...

  13. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... Agency's Request for Information (RFI) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension...), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI...

  14. Seismic Correlation and Coupling from Underground, Surface, to the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Waysand, G.

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic activity correlated to seismicity is displayed in a variety of ways. Earthquake precursors and aftershocks associated with local fault slips have been detected regionally by visual observations and radar reflections, and globally by satellite measurements of electromagnetic profiles. Magnetic excitations have recently been measured underground that associated with major earthquakes (e.g., the 2008 Sichuan and the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes). In all cases, the frequencies are extremely low; hence, the corresponding wavelengths are extremely large. In other term, wherever an earthquake occurs on Earth, any electromagnetic measurement of it is always near-field from the signal source. Thus, signal-to-noise ratio is the only limiting factor. The increasing abundance of observations, and the variety of instruments enabling these observations, requires investigators to look beyond borders of their individual discipline and adopt a global approach to the problem. To elucidate the dynamic generation and propagation of seismic-induced electromagnetic signals, it is important to assess from small to large scales the variability of (1) the seismic-electromagnetic coupling at localized zones and block boundaries, (2) the potential signal paths through the earth geomagnetic fields, and (3) the ionosphere and atmospheric measurements and observations. The pre-earthquake signals as potential precursors have generated great interests for decades, especially with the deployments of satellites for geophysical measurements. The emerging understanding is that stress buildups and releases induce electromagnetic emissions which are likely associated with charged particle movements, propagations mainly along waveguides through the earth magnetic field to the atmosphere and ionosphere. The globally distributed perturbations and profiles above ground are systematically mapped. The signals could also be transmitted nearly vertically from epicenters to the ground and beyond

  15. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  16. Multidimensional flow of radioactive gases through the soil surrounding an underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkelacker, A.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the underground siting of nuclear power plants the spreading of radioactive gases that are released into the soil coverage after a hypothetical accident is investigated. A physical model is presented that includes the isothermal one- and two-component flow of ideal gases through an inhomogeneous porous medium on the basis of Darcy's law. Based on this model a computer code has been developed that permits the calculation of transient pressure and concentration distributions in inhomogeneous porous media in one to three dimensions, as well as the determination of retention times. (orig.) [de

  17. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  18. Noncooperative models of permit markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2011-07-15

    The applicability of some popular and basic permit market theories has been questioned. Drawing on noncooperative equilibrium theory for pure exchange economies, this article adapts several well-established alternative models to permit exchange. Some qualitative properties of the associated equilibria are provided, including two games with equilibria that in a sense coincide. Nevertheless, as there exist quite a few models potentially applicable to emissions trading, with equilibria that range from autarky to Pareto optimality, it seems that economics lacks a broadly accepted basic theory for permit markets. (Author)

  19. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  20. Measurement of age of underground water, using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio; Kagami, Tadaaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Onuma, Akiko; Shoka, Yasushi

    1978-01-01

    Age of four kinds of underground water in Aichi prefecture was estimated by measuring a concentration of tritium. The tritium concentration was measured by the usual method. The first water-bearing zone of the shallow part, about 50m in depth, of Nobi plain is a new underground water cultivated within 20 years, whereas second water-bearing zone is an old underground water of 20 years old or more. No relationship of water flow between the first and the second water-bearing zone was observed. A very deep underground about 100m or more in depth, of the Nobi plain is confirmed to be infinite years old fossil water by measuring of tritium. The underground water in Atsumi peninsula is mostly a new underground water within 20 years. Only one out of eight showed the existence of old underground water before 20 years or more. The underground water of the granite area at Mikawa district is confirmed to be old underground water before 20 years or more. Alkaline underground water in the granite zone is considered to be very old in view of composition of water. The origin of underground water can be learned by tritium concentration, which shows whether the water is new water in the neighborhood of earth's surface or very old cultivated water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  2. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  3. The National Solar Permitting Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar — costs not associated with hardware — remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  4. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  5. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  6. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  7. Control of radon daughters in underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swent, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical developments that may enable uranium mine operators to improve engineering controls of radon daughter concentrations in mines, and developments in regulatory controls. The origin of radon daughters in underground mines is explained. The procedure for sampling and determining the concentration of alpha radiation in sampled air is reviewed. The principal technical development in the last few years has been the perfection and use of a class of meters which determine radon daughter concentrations in an air sample in a matter of two or three minutes without any aging period. A number of underground uranium mine operators are now using ''instant'' type meters and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has approved their use in a number of mines. The difficulty experienced by uranium mine operators in complying with a MSHA regulation which requires that no person be exposed to radon daughter concentrations exceeding 1 Working Level (WL) in any active working place is discussed

  8. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  10. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability

  11. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  12. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties

  13. The first underground low radioactivity bolometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.

    1990-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator was installed in an underground location for the first time. The cryostat is made of as clean as possible material from the radioactivity point of view, with the aim to measure rare events like double beta decay or 'dark matter' interactions via coherent nuclear scattering. It is also planned to surround all the cryostat frame with lead and with a specially built Faraday cage. All the experimental apparatus involved have to be tested to obtain a very good background rejection. An 11g Ge bolometer, already tested on surface coupled with a 4.2 K GaAs preamplifier was built to measure the effective bolometer background in this new experimental area and to check the experimental set-up for double beta decay experiment. The present performance of the underground bolometric system is reported. (R.P.) 8 refs.; 7 figs

  14. The Swedish underground containment studies - state of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbo, T.

    1977-01-01

    Since May 1973 studies of underground siting for nuclear power plants have been going on in Sweden. War protection being the primary aim in accordance with the instructions the first containment study has lead to siting in rock or in a pit. Rock siting gives better war protection than pit siting and also has less effect on the landscape, the cost being about equal. The second study was aimed at surveying the advantages and disadvantages of a rock sited 1000 MW BWR nuclear power plant from a reactor safety standpoint, compared to a plant above ground. Based on the instructions and considerations within the study group, the following criteria for the plant design have been established: (1) The plant should be designed to give protection against external acts of war with conventional weapons. (2) The plant should have a safety level equal to that of an above ground plant. It should fulfil the demands set by the authorities for above ground plants with respect to normal operation and accidents. No accidents that can be dealt with above ground may be permitted to result in more serious consequences, nor may they have a higher probability in a plant sited in rock. (3) The design of the plant should moreover utilize the possbilities of improving the safety afforded by rock siting. The criterion about war protection leads to siting in rock or pit, as shown in a previous CDL study. The study group has concentrated its work on rock siting. (Auth.)

  15. The Swedish underground containment studies: state of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbo, T.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1973 studies of underground siting for nuclear power plants have been going on in Sweden. War protection, being the primary aim in accordance with the instructions, the first containment study has lead to siting in rock or in a pit. Rock sitting gives better war protection than pit sitting and also has less affect on the landscape, the cost being about equal. The second study was aimed at surveying the advantages and disadvantages of a rock sited 1000 MW BWA nuclear power plant from a reactor safety standpoint, compared to a plant above ground. Based on the instructions and considerations within the study group, the following criteria for the plant design have been established. (1) The plant should be designed to give protection against external acts of war with conventional weapons. (2) The plant should have a safety level equal to that of an above ground plant. It should fulfil the demands set by the authorities for above ground plants with respect to normal operation and accident. No accidents that can be dealt with above ground may be permitted to result in more serious consequences, nor may they have a higher probability in a plant sited in rock. (3) The design of the plant should moreover utilize the possibilities of improving the safety afforded by rock siting. (Auth.)

  16. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  17. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  18. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  19. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Underground mining of aggregates. Main report

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Teresa J.; Coggan, John S.; Evans, David J.; Foster, Patrick J.; Hewitt, Jeremy; Kruyswijk, Jacob B.; Smith, Nigel; Steadman, Ellie J.

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the economic feasibility of underground mining for crushed rock aggregates in the UK, but particularly in the London, South East and East of England regions (the South East area of England). These regions import substantial volumes of crushed rock, primarily from the East Midlands and South West regions, requiring relatively long transport distances to market for this bulk commodity. A key part of the research was to determine whether or not aggregate could be produced an...

  1. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  2. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  3. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Eugenio, E-mail: coccia@lngs.infn.i [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  4. Giant CMS magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing today (February 28) that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground. A huge gantry crne is slowly lowering the CMS detector's preassembled central section into place in the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  5. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  6. 50 CFR 679.4 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, with the exception that an IFQ hired master permit or a CDQ hired master permit need not... program permit or card type is: Permit is in effect from issue date through the end of: For more... section (C) Halibut & sablefish hired master permits Specified fishing year Paragraph (d)(2) of this...

  7. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, N M [Morwijk Enterprises Ltd., (Canada); Morin, K A [Normar Enterprises, (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs.

  8. Geotechnical design of underground slate mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Taboada Castro, J.; Arzúa Touriño, J.; Giráldez Pérez, E.; Martín Suárez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Slate is one of the most important natural materials in Spain, with a potent extractive and processing industry concentrated in the autonomous communities of Galicia, Castile and León. Thanks to its resistance to external agents, its impermeability and its excellent cleavability, slate is used as for roofing and tiling. Almost all the active exploitations in our country where this resource is extracted are open pit mines, where the exploitation ratios have nearly reached their economic limit, making it necessary to look for alternatives that will allow the mining works to be continued. Underground mining is a solution that offers low exploitation ratios, with low spoil generation. The room-and-pillar method with barrier pillars is usually applied for the exploitation of slate deposits. There are several factors to be taken into account when designing a mine (economic, logistical, geotechnical, technical, environmental…), especially for an underground mine. This study focuses on the geotechnical design process of a room-and-pillar underground mine, based on the tributary area theory, the analysis of the tensions in the ground with numerical methods and the choice of an appropriate reinforcement in view of the expected instabilities. This explanation is completed with an example of a design that includes the estimate exploitation rates and production. [es

  9. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  10. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  11. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  12. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  13. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability. (paper)

  16. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  17. Design study of underground facility of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU is consisted of surface and underground facilities down to the depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program which includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed last year, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  18. Propagation Characteristics in an Underground Shopping Area for 5GHz-band Wireless Access Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Kiyohiko; Kita, Naoki; Sato, Akio; Matsue, Hideaki; Mori, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hironobu

    5-GHz band wireless access systems, such as the RLAN (Radio Local Area Network) system of IEEE802.11a, HiperLAN/2, HiSWANa and AWA, are developed and provide transmission rates over 20 Mbps for indoor use. Those 5-GHz access systems are expected to extend service areas from the office to the so-called “hot-spot" in public areas. Underground shopping malls are one of the anticipated service areas for such a nomadic wireless access service. Broadband propagation characteristics are required for radio zone design in an underground mall environment despite previous results obtained by narrow band measurements. This paper presents results of an experimental study on the propagation characteristics for broadband wireless access systems in an underground mall environment. First, broadband propagation path loss is measured and formulated considering human body shadowing. A ray trace simulation is used to clarify the basic propagation mechanism in such a closed environment. Next, a distance dependency of the delay spread during a crowded time period, rush hour, is found to be at most 65 nsec, which is under the permitted maximum value of the present 5-GHz systems. Finally, above propagation characteristics support the result of transmission test carried out by using AWA equipment.

  19. Potential Advantages of Underground Nuclear Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Carl W.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Kunze, Jay F.; Mahar, James M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an underground nuclear park (UNP) could potentially lead to lower capital and operating cost for the reactors installed in the UNP compared to the traditional approach, which would be to site the reactors at the earth's surface at distributed locations. The UNP approach could also lead to lower waste management cost. A secondary benefit would be the increased margins of safety and security that would be realized simply as a consequence of siting the reactors underground. Lowered capital and operating cost for a UNP relative to traditional reactor siting is possible through the aggregate effect of the elimination of containment structures, in-place decommissioning, reduced physical security costs, reduced weather-related costs, reduced cost of liability insurance and reduced unit-cost for the nth reactor made possible through the continuous construction of multiple reactors at the same underground location. Other cost reductions might be possible through the transfer of the capital cost for part of the underground construction from the reactor owners to the owners of the UNP. Lower waste management cost is possible by siting the UNP at a location where there are geological and hydrological conditions suitable for hosting both the reactors and the repository for the waste from those reactors. After adequate storage and cooling, and assuming direct disposal, this would enable the spent fuel from the reactors to be transported directly to the repository and remain entirely underground during the transport process. Community concerns and transportation costs would be significantly reduced relative to current situations where the reactors are separated from the repository by long distances and populated areas. The concept for a UNP in bedded salt is used to develop a rough order of magnitude cost estimate for excavation of the reactor array portion of a UNP. Excavation costs appear to be only a small fraction of the overall power plant costs

  20. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  1. Difficulties with interpretation of underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinskij, V.S.; Ioffe, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A possibility are analysed to explain the underground muon flux detected from Cygnus X-3, using new particles (cygnets). The following constraints on the cygnet properties are obtained: on the life-time τ>1.3x10 6 (Γ/10 6 )s where Γ is the cygnet Lorentz factor, on the mass, m 7 e and on the mean scattering angle (due to an arbitrary process) on the way from Cygnus X-3 to the Sun Θ -3 grad. It is shown that the NUSEX data (the angular spread of muons within 10 0 x10 0 box of observation and the dependence of the Cygnus X-3 exposition time on the depth of the matter along the observation line) contradict muon generation in the atmosphere and require muon generation in the ground. These data determine narrow boundaries for the cygnet-nucleon interaction cross section 2μb 10(E c /1TeV) 1.1 μb where E c is the energy of cygnets responsible for the muon flux observed by NUSEX

  2. Considerations in modeling groundwater inflow to underground respositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater in and around underground radioactive waste repositories has several potential effects on repository performance. Repository excavation produces conditions where the repository is underpressured relative to the surrounding host rock, resulting in groundwater inflow to the repository. The presence of groundwater has been shown to enhance gas generation from emplaced waste forms, which expedites repository pressurization. Repository pressurization results in an increased driving force for dissolved radionuclide movement away from the repository. Repository excavation also produces a zone surrounding the repository having disturbed hydrologic and geochemical properties. Within the disturbed rock zone (DRZ), intrinsic permeability and porosity change over time due to the formation of microfractures and grain boundary dilation. Additionally, elastic and inelastic changes in pore volume may cause variation in the near-field fluid pressure and fluid saturation distributions that influence groundwater flow toward the repository excavation. Increased permeability, decreased pore-fluid pressure, and partially saturated conditions in the DRZ contribute to enhancing potential release pathways away from the repository. It is important for a repository performance assessment to consider chemical processes, hydrologic processes, as well as the complex coupling between these processes

  3. Riemann surfaces with boundaries and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.Yu.; Roslyj, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A consideration of the cutting and joining operations for Riemann surfaces permits one to express the functional integral on a Riemann surface in terms of integrals over its pieces which are suarfaces with boundaries. This yields an expression for the determinant of the Laplacian on a Riemann surface in terms of Krichever maps for its pieces. Possible applications of the methods proposed to a study of the string perturbation theory in terms of an universal moduli space are mentioned

  4. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  5. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  6. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA

  7. Dynamic Response of Underground Circular Lining Tunnels Subjected to Incident P Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stress concentration in tunnels and underground structures during earthquakes often leads to serious structural damage. A series solution of wave equation for dynamic response of underground circular lining tunnels subjected to incident plane P waves is presented by Fourier-Bessel series expansion method in this paper. The deformation and stress fields of the whole medium of surrounding rock and tunnel were obtained by solving the equations of seismic wave propagation in an elastic half space. Based on the assumption of a large circular arc, a series of solutions for dynamic stress were deduced by using a wave function expansion approach for a circular lining tunnel in an elastic half space rock medium subjected to incident plane P waves. Then, the dynamic response of the circular lining tunnel was obtained by solving a series of algebraic equations after imposing its boundary conditions for displacement and stress of the circular lining tunnel. The effects of different factors on circular lining rock tunnels, including incident frequency, incident angle, buried depth, rock conditions, and lining stiffness, were derived and several application examples are presented. The results may provide a good reference for studies on the dynamic response and aseismic design of tunnels and underground structures.

  8. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  9. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  10. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  11. HUD GIS Boundary Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  12. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  13. On boundary superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  14. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  15. Design Criteria for Wireless Mesh Communications in Underground Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kenneth Reed

    2009-01-01

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response (MINER) Act of 2006 was enacted in response to several coal mining accidents that occurred in the beginning of 2006. The MINER Act does not just require underground mines to integrate wireless communication and tracking systems, but aims to overall enhance health and safety in mining at both surface and underground operations. In 2006, the underground communication technologies available to the mining industry had inherent problems that limited ...

  16. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  17. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  18. Neutrino burst identification in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgione, W.; Mengotti-Silva, N.; Panaro, L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the problem of neutrino burst identification in underground ν-telescopes. First the usual statistical analysis based on the time structure of the events is reviewed, with special attention to the statistical significance of burst candidates. Next, we propose a second level analysis that can provide independent confirmation of burst detection. This exploits the spatial distribution of the single events of a burst candidate, and uses the formalism of the entropy of information. Examples of both techniques are shown, based on the LVD experiment at Gran Sasso. (orig.)

  19. Does underground storage still require sophisticated studies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de

    1997-01-01

    Most countries agree to the necessity of burying high or medium-level wastes in geological layers situated at a few hundred meters below the ground level. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of rock such as salt, clay, granite and volcanic material are examined. Sophisticated studies are lead to determine the best geological confinement but questions arise about the time for which safety must be ensured. France has chosen 3 possible sites. These sites are geologically described in the article. The final place will be proposed after a testing phase of about 5 years in an underground facility. (A.C.)

  20. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Fire extinguishing system in large underground garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antonov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work is considered an acceptable constructive scheme from a practical point of view at fire extinguishing in underground garages. The garage space is divided into quadrants which covering, for example, 2 cars. In case of ignition on one of them, a sprinkler nozzle system is triggered by the effect of the vertical convective jet. A protective curtain preventing the spread of fire to adjacent vehicles is realized. The solution is based on an integrated method which allows the calculation from hydrodynamic point of view on extinguishing time of the fire extinguishing system.

  2. Forest as Underground-Closed Dendrocenoecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of quantitative «microecosystem» analysis of structural and functional relationships between biogeocenosis components in coniferous forests, the leading role of stand-edificator's root competition factor has been identified in determining the undergrowth and lower layer plant’s growth, compared with its «light» competition. Considering the dominant role of a tree stand root competition in the formation of other forest biogeocenosis components, new definition of «forest» as «underground-closed dendrocenoecosystem» have been proposed.

  3. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  4. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of Massachusetts was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (see 74 Fed. Reg. No. 233, pages 64074 - 64075).

  5. Experimental research data on stress state of salt rock mass around an underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Baryshnikov, DV

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the experimental stress state data obtained in surrounding salt rock mass around an excavation in Mir Mine, ALROSA. The deformation characteristics and the values of stresses in the adjacent rock mass are determined. Using the method of drilling a pair of parallel holes in a stressed area, the authors construct linear relationship for the radial displacements of the stress measurement hole boundaries under the short-term loading of the perturbing hole. The resultant elasticity moduli of rocks are comparable with the laboratory core test data. Pre-estimates of actual stresses point at the presence of a plasticity zone in the vicinity of the underground excavation. The stress state behavior at a distance from the excavation boundary disagrees with the Dinnik–Geim hypothesis.

  6. Research on prognostics and health management of underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangdi; Yang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Ni, Na

    2018-04-01

    With the development of the city, the construction of the underground pipeline is more and more complex, which has relation to the safety and normal operation of the city, known as "the lifeline of the city". First of all, this paper introduces the principle of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) technology, then proposed for fault diagnosis, prognostics and health management in view of underground pipeline, make a diagnosis and prognostics for the faults appearing in the operation of the underground pipeline, and then make a health assessment of the whole underground pipe network in order to ensure the operation of the pipeline safely. Finally, summarize and prospect the future research direction.

  7. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.best@lngs.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Görres, Joachim [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Junker, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Kratz, Karl-Ludwig [Department for Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz (Germany); Laubenstein, Matthias [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Long, Alexander [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nisi, Stefano [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), 67100 Assergi (Italy); Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael [Department of Physics and The Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of {sup 3}He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  8. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2017-11-01

    A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity exceeds the so called critical velocity for splashing. Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it and finally breaks into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outwards, provoking the splash. Here, the tangential deceleration experienced by the fluid entering the thin liquid sheet is investigated making use of boundary layer theory. The velocity component tangent to the solid, computed using potential flow theory provides the far field boundary condition as well as the pressure gradient for the boundary layer equations. The structure of the flow permits to find a self similar solution of the boundary layer equations. This solution is then used to calculate the boundary layer thickness at the root of the lamella as well as the shear stress at the wall. The splash model presented in, which is slightly modified to account for the results obtained from the boundary layer analysis, provides a very good agreement between the measurements and the predicted values of the critical velocity for the splash.

  9. Preliminary studies of tunnel interface response modeling using test data from underground storage facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bartel, Lewis Clark

    2010-11-01

    In attempting to detect and map out underground facilities, whether they be large-scale hardened deeply-buried targets (HDBT's) or small-scale tunnels for clandestine border or perimeter crossing, seismic imaging using reflections from the tunnel interface has been seen as one of the better ways to both detect and delineate tunnels from the surface. The large seismic impedance contrast at the tunnel/rock boundary should provide a strong, distinguishable seismic response, but in practice, such strong indicators are often lacking. One explanation for the lack of a good seismic reflection at such a strong contrast boundary is that the damage caused by the tunneling itself creates a zone of altered seismic properties that significantly changes the nature of this boundary. This report examines existing geomechanical data that define the extent of an excavation damage zone around underground tunnels, and the potential impact on rock properties such as P-wave and S-wave velocities. The data presented from this report are associated with sites used for the development of underground repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste; these sites have been excavated in volcanic tuff (Yucca Mountain) and granite (HRL in Sweden, URL in Canada). Using the data from Yucca Mountain, a numerical simulation effort was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the damage zone on seismic responses. Calculations were performed using the parallelized version of the time-domain finitedifference seismic wave propagation code developed in the Geophysics Department at Sandia National Laboratories. From these numerical simulations, the damage zone does not have a significant effect upon the tunnel response, either for a purely elastic case or an anelastic case. However, what was discovered is that the largest responses are not true reflections, but rather reradiated Stoneley waves generated as the air/earth interface of the tunnel. Because of this, data processed in the usual way may not

  10. 50 CFR 660.25 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change and the reasons for the request. If the permit requested to be changed to the base permit is..., vessel owner, or permit owner for any reason. The sablefish at-sea processing exemption will expire upon... ownership. (G) For a request to change a permit's ownership that is necessitated by divorce, the individual...

  11. 10 CFR 50.23 - Construction permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction permits. 50.23 Section 50.23 Energy NUCLEAR... Description of Licenses § 50.23 Construction permits. A construction permit for the construction of a... part 52 of this chapter, the construction permit and operating license are deemed to be combined in a...

  12. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  13. Underground coal mining technology - the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lama, R P [Kembla Coal and Coke Pty Limited, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1989-01-01

    Discusses development of underground coal mining in Australia in the last four decades. The following aspects are reviewed: technology for underground mining (longwall mining, unidirectional cutting, bidirectional cutting, operation of more than one shearer on a working face, optimum dimensions of longwall blocks), longwall productivity (productivity increase will depend on increasing the availability factor of equipment, reducing failures due to human errors, organizational models, improving on-site decision making, improving monitoring, maintenance, planning and scheduling, concept of 'Transparent Mine'), roadway development systems (types of heading machines, standard systems for mine drivage and roof bolting and their productivity), size of coal mines, man and material transport systems (20,000-30,000 t/d from a single longwall face, mine shafts with a diameter 9-10 m), mine layout design (layout of longwall blocks, main intakes and returns situated in rock layers), mine environmental systems (ventilation systems, gas control), management, training and interpersonal relationships. Future coal mines will be developed with an integral capacity of 8-10 Mt/a from a single longwall operation with main development arteries placed in rocks. Development of gate roadways will require novel solutions with continuous cutting, loading and bolting. Information technology, with the concept of 'transparent mine', will form the backbone of decision making.

  14. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  16. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M., E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: mayarapinheiroduarte@gmail.com, E-mail: lauratakahashi@hotmail.com, E-mail: natyfontaveira@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B., E-mail: vgouvea@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: flavia.borges@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jbsiquei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are {sup 40}K, as well as, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  17. Siting technology of underground nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, M.; Hibino, S.

    1989-01-01

    For the site of a nuclear power station, it may be possible to select a seaside mountain area, if the condition is suitable to excavate large rock caverns in which a reactor and other equipments are installed. As the case study on the siting technology for an underground nuclear power station, the following example was investigated. The site is a seaside steep mountain area, and almost all the equipments are installed in plural tunnel type caverns. The depth from the ground surface to the top of the reactor cavern is about 150 m, and the thickness of the rock pillar between the reactor cavern of 33 m W x 82 mH x 79 mD and the neighboring turbine cavern is 60 m. In this paper, the stability of rock caverns in this example, evaluated by numerical analysis, is described. The numerical analysis was carried out on the central cross section of the reactor cavern, taking the turbine cavern, geostress, the mechanical properties of rock mass and the process of excavation works in consideration. By the analysis, the underground caverns in this example were evaluated as stable, if the rock quality is equivalent to C H class or better according to the CRIEPI rock classification. (K.I.)

  18. Natural radionuclides concentration in underground mine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.O.; Rocha, Z.; Taveira, N.F.; Takahashi, L.C.; Pineiro, M.M.; Borges, P.F.; Cruz, P.; Gouvea, V.A.; Siqueira, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Radionuclides are present in earth's environment since its origin. The main radionuclides present are 40 K, as well as, 238 U and 232 Th with their decay products. These radionuclides occur in minerals in different activity concentration associated with geological and geochemical conditions, appearing at different levels from point to point in the world. Underground mines may present a high natural background radiation which is due to the presence of these radiogenic heavy minerals. To address this concern, this work outlines on the characterization of the natural radionuclides presence in underground mines in Brazil which are located in many cases on higher radiation levels bed rocks. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, AlphaGUARD and CR-39 track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. Radon concentration measurement in groundwater was performed by using RAD7 detector. The 238 U and 232 Th activity concentration in ore and soil samples were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis using TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 Reactor. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K activity concentrations. The results show that the natural radioactivity varies considerably from mine to mine and that there are not risks of radiological damage for exposed workers in these cases. Based on these data, recommendations for Brazilian regulatory standards are presented. (author)

  19. Evaluation of underground pipe-structure interface for surface impact load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shen, E-mail: swang@terrapower.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of underground pipelines for surface impact load considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. • The proposed simple method can be used to evaluate the magnitude of damage within a short period of time after accidental drop occurs. • The proposed method is applied in a practical example and compared by using finite element analysis. - Abstract: Nuclear safety related buried pipelines need to be assessed for the effects of postulated surface impact loads. In published solutions, the buried pipe is often considered within an elastic half space without interference with other underground structures. In the case that a surface impact occurs in short distance from an underground pipe-structure interface, this boundary condition will further complicate the buried pipe evaluation. Neglecting such boundary effect in the assessment may lead to underestimating potential damage of buried pipeline, and jeopardizing safety of the nuclear power plant. Comprehensive analysis of such structure-pipe-soil system is often subjected to availability of state-of-art finite element tools, as well as costly and time consuming. Simple, but practical conservative techniques have not been established. In this study, a mechanics based solution is proposed in order to assess the magnitude of damage to a buried pipeline beneath a heavy surface impact considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. The proposed approach provides an easy to use tool in the early stage of evaluation before the decision of applying more costly technique can be made by owner of the nuclear facility.

  20. Evaluation of underground pipe-structure interface for surface impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of underground pipelines for surface impact load considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. • The proposed simple method can be used to evaluate the magnitude of damage within a short period of time after accidental drop occurs. • The proposed method is applied in a practical example and compared by using finite element analysis. - Abstract: Nuclear safety related buried pipelines need to be assessed for the effects of postulated surface impact loads. In published solutions, the buried pipe is often considered within an elastic half space without interference with other underground structures. In the case that a surface impact occurs in short distance from an underground pipe-structure interface, this boundary condition will further complicate the buried pipe evaluation. Neglecting such boundary effect in the assessment may lead to underestimating potential damage of buried pipeline, and jeopardizing safety of the nuclear power plant. Comprehensive analysis of such structure-pipe-soil system is often subjected to availability of state-of-art finite element tools, as well as costly and time consuming. Simple, but practical conservative techniques have not been established. In this study, a mechanics based solution is proposed in order to assess the magnitude of damage to a buried pipeline beneath a heavy surface impact considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. The proposed approach provides an easy to use tool in the early stage of evaluation before the decision of applying more costly technique can be made by owner of the nuclear facility.

  1. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  2. Ground penetrating radar for fracture mapping in underground hazardous waste disposal sites: A case study from an underground research tunnel, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Um, Evan Schankee

    2017-06-01

    Secure disposal or storage of nuclear waste within stable geologic environments hinges on the effectiveness of artificial and natural radiation barriers. Fractures in the bedrock are viewed as the most likely passage for the transport of radioactive waste away from a disposal site. We utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map fractures in the tunnel walls of an underground research tunnel at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). GPR experiments within the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) were carried out by using 200 MHz, 500 MHz, and 1000 MHz antennas. By using the high-frequency antennas, we were able to identify small-scale fractures, which were previously unidentified during the tunnel excavation process. Then, through 3-D visualization of the grid survey data, we reconstructed the spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the multi-scale fractures within the wall. We found that a multi-frequency GPR approach provided more details of the complex fracture network, including deep structures. Furthermore, temporal changes in reflection polarity between the GPR surveys enabled us to infer the hydraulic characteristics of the discrete fracture network developed behind the surveyed wall. We hypothesized that the fractures exhibiting polarity change may be due to a combination of air-filled and mineralogical boundaries. Simulated GPR scans for the considered case were consistent with the observed GPR data. If our assumption is correct, the groundwater flow into these near-surface fractures may form the water-filled fractures along the existing air-filled ones and hence cause the changes in reflection polarity over the given time interval (i.e., 7 days). Our results show that the GPR survey is an efficient tool to determine fractures at various scales. Time-lapse GPR data may be essential to characterize the hydraulic behavior of discrete fracture networks in underground disposal facilities.

  3. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Vault design, run-on/run-off control design, and asphalt compatibility with 90-degree celsius double-shell slurry feed

  4. [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Kiselev, S M; Akhromeev, S V

    2016-01-01

    This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.

  5. NPDES permits and water analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended by P. L. 92-500, including an explanation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and EPA's criteria for the analysis of pollutants are discussed. The need for a revision of current restrictive variance procedures is pointed out. References for the comparison of analytical methods for water pollutants under permits, including radioactive parameters, are tabulated. (U.S.)

  6. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  7. Concept Design and Development Model of Underground Villas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of society, modern buildings have been consuming excessive amount of energy and resources. Eco-friendly building is going to be the leading style of architecture in the future. Underground villa, as a type of energy efficient architecture, has widely drawn humans’ attention. However, Chinese are still at an exploratory stage in terms of the development of underground construction. This paper describes several typical underground villas in western developed countries; briefly states the advantages and shortcomings of underground villas; discusses the design of style-planning, inner-space design, lighting and ventilation, and waterproof and fireproof of underground villas; also puts forward how to improve the living environment of underground villas. Besides, the paper suggests an innovative concept of underground living that best suits China’s market based on the merits of underground villas and the analysis upon China’s traditional cave-house. In addition, it roughly analyzes the prospect of this innovate style of dwelling in China.

  8. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  9. Connected Cities : Guide to good practice underground space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Hobma, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guide to good practice underground space is developed within the framework of the EU-funded INTERREG IIIC project ‘Connected Cities’. It focuses on how a strategic use of underground space can facilitate sustainable modes of transportation and mobility in urban and rural areas. Twelve strategic

  10. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57.4161 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  12. Review of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A review of the potential for the underground siting of nuclear power generating plants has been undertaken. The review comprised a survey and assessment of relevant published documents currently available, together with discussions with Government sponsored agencies and other bodies, to evaluate the current status of technology related to the design and construction of underground nuclear power plants. It includes a review of previous work related to the underground siting of power plants and other facilities; a preliminary evaluation of the relative merits of the various concepts of undergrounding which have been proposed or constructed; a review of current technology as it relates to the requirements for the design, construction and operation of underground nuclear power plants; an examination of the safety and environmental aspects; and the identification of areas of further study which will be required if the underground is to be established as a fully viable alternative to surface siting. No attempt has been made to draw final conclusions at this stage. Nothing has been found to suggest that the underground siting concept could not provide a viable alternative to the surface concept. It is also apparent that no major technological developments are required. It is not clear, however, whether the improvements in safety and containment postulated for the underground can be realized at an economic cost; or even whether any additional cost is in fact involved. The problem is essentially site dependent and requires further study for which recommendations are made. (auth)

  13. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  14. Spent fuel disposal: is the underground the sole solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachmilner, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following 4 major approaches to spent fuel disposal are discussed: permanent storage in an underground repository, reprocessing, partitioning and transmutation, and accelerator driven transmutation. It is concluded that underground disposal will remain the basic option for the near future, although pursuing the other methods is certainly worth while. (P.A.)

  15. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  16. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  17. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  18. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; "2"2"6Ra ("2"1"4Bi), "2"3"2Th e "4"0K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m"-"3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m"-"3. The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a"-"1 (mean 10 mSv.a"-"1). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  19. Experimental determination of the boundary condition for diffuse photons in a homogeneous turbid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, David L.; Zhu, Tuo; Zhu, H.-M.; Zhu, X. D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple experimental method that permits an empirical determination of the effective boundary condition and the extrapolated end point for the diffuse photon density in a homogeneous turbid medium. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  20. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act established a Federal and State... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program AGENCY... Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M, Environmental...

  1. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  2. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  3. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  4. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allensworth, J.A.; Finger, J.T.; Milloy, J.A.; Murfin, W.B.; Rodeman, R.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1977-08-01

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  5. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  6. Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations

  7. Analysis of slifer data from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, M.

    1979-01-01

    A formula describing the distance--time relationship of a shock wave moving outward from an underground explosion is derived. Calculated results are compared with those computed using the LASL and BOTE formulas and with slifer data obtained from field experiments. For many of the field events, the derived curve provides a better fit than do the LASL or BOTE formulas. Methods are presented for the determination of the detonation energy W under three conditions: (a) where time and distance are known accurately; (b) where there is an unknown offset of time and distance; and (c) where there is an unknown offset of both time and distance. These methods are applied with moderate success to a set of (t,r) data supplied by Goldwire

  8. Underground storage tanks cause environmental chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruver, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during the 1950s and the subsequent three decades, petroleum products were stored in single-walled steel underground tanks; an out-of-sight, out-of-mind philosophy prevailed. Unfathomable amounts of toxic petroleum products leaking into the nation's ground water supplies has prompted enactment of recent and much needed legislation and regulation to remedy this major problem. Is the public aware of this serious ecological imbroglio? No, not as yet; except for the closing of many rural service stations and the plethora of dug-up, exposed tanks at urban stations, one could never imagine the severity of this debacle confronting the petroleum industry and the nation's environment

  9. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  10. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  11. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  12. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  13. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  14. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E.J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  15. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S.B.; Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M.C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J.J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10 −46 cm 2 , equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  16. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  17. METHODS TO QUANTIFY THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Simona HUDEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground economy issue has raised in time miscellaneous discussions, it representing a large interest problem that affects the nations all over the world, without exception and, thereby, the well—being of stand—alone individuals. Although also treated in some previous works of the author, this topic in herein approached from a different perspective, namely the one related to distinct methods to be used in order to capture, by quantification, this undesirable economic form. Such methods, empirically tested or just imposed, based on arguments, by the researchers having launched the same, are rendered while considering their pluses and minuses in revealing, with a reasonable accuracy, the level of the above—mentioned informal economy.

  18. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  19. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  20. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, L

    1976-05-20

    Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use. This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.

  2. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  3. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  4. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, G H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  6. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  7. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  8. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  9. Ecology and economic estimate of using of the underground excavation space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umnov, V.A.; Tarasov, V.F.; Tret'yakov, I.O.; Sheloumov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Stages of ecological and economic estimates of utilizing underground space, including evaluation of underground space resources, selection of its utilization trends and substantiation of optimal parameters for selected trends, are considered. Certain directions of possible repeated utilization of mining excavations are shown, including underground hydropower stations, underground energy storages, underground nuclear stations. Underground waste disposal is one of the most available directions in utilization of the underground space presently. Evaluation of the underground space utilization at all stages envisages complete account of all economical, social and ecological results

  10. Forest Products Industry Permitting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  12. 78 FR 20796 - Data Specifications for Collecting Study Area Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ..., DC 20554, and may also be purchased from the Commission's copy contractor, BCPI, Inc., Portals II... submission. Third, the Bureau permits incumbent LECs that are price cap carriers to submit exchange-level... study area boundary data should notify the Commission in writing of their intention to do so by filing a...

  13. 5 CFR 734.202 - Permitted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Permitted Activities § 734.202 Permitted activities. Employees may take an active part in political activities, including political management and political campaigns, to the extent not expressly prohibited by law and this part. ...

  14. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  15. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  16. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  17. Development of boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.

    1980-01-01

    Boundary layers develop along the blade surfaces on both the pressure and the suction side in a non-stationary flow field. This is due to the fact that there is a strongly fluctuating flow on the downstream blade row, especially as a result of the wakes of the upstream blade row. The author investigates the formation of boundary layers under non-stationary flow conditions and tries to establish a model describing the non-stationary boundary layer. For this purpose, plate boundary layers are measured, at constant flow rates but different interferent frequency and variable pressure gradients. By introducing the sample technique, measurements of the non-stationary boundary layer become possible, and the flow rate fluctuation can be divided in its components, i.e. stochastic turbulence and periodical fluctuation. (GL) [de

  18. Resource conversation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume II contains attachments for Module II and Module III. Attachments for Module II are: part A permit application; examples of acceptable documentation; Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program; inspection schedule and monitoring schedule; inspection log forms; personnel training course outlines; hazardous waste job position training requirements; contingency plan; closure plan; and procedures for establishing background for the underground units. One attachment, facility process information, is included for Module III. Remaining attachments for this module are in Volume III

  19. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  20. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  1. Transmission line undergrounding : rate impact investigation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the residents of Markham, Ontario regarding the possible environmental and health impacts of a proposed 230 kV overhead transmission line, Hydro One Networks Inc. (HONI) has proposed to place the line underground as an alternative. This analysis was prepared to evaluate the potential impacts on transmission rates and consumer prices related to changes in the level of underground construction of transmission lines by HONI, as opposed to overhead construction. The report presents the approach to data collection; cost estimates and projections; the modeling and projecting of HONI's regulated rate base and revenue requirement on a basis that reflects the manner in which its future transmission rates are expected to be established; estimates of the incremental cost of undergrounding reflecting a range of reasonable assumptions; and a comparison of the resulting transmission costs and total customer bill. To address the issue of potential demand in other municipalities for additional undergrounding, the study also examined the cumulative effects of ten years' incremental undergrounding costs (i.e. effects on 2014 rates). It was concluded that if HONI were to implement an undergrounding program beginning in 2005, resulting in the installation of 80 km of underground lines by 2014, and shared costs by all users of HONI's system through the network transmission charges, the 2014 transmission rates would be higher. 5 tabs

  2. Love waves trains observed after the MW 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake by an underground ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, A.; Belfi, J.; Beverini, N.; Di Virgilio, A.; Giacomelli, U.; De Luca, G.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation and analysis of the MW 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake-induced rotational ground motion as observed by the Gingerino ring laser gyroscope (RLG).This instrument is located inside the National laboratory of the "Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare" in Gran Sasso (Italy) in a deep underground environment.We compare the vertical rotation rate with the horizontal acceleration measured by a co-located broadband seismometer. This analysis, performed by means of a wavelet-based correlation method, permits to identify the G1,G2,G3,G4 onsets of the surface Love waves in the 120 to 280 seconds period range.

  3. Air permitting of IGCC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitikela, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    The IGCC process is, currently, the preferred choice over conventional thermal power production in regard to cleanup of fuel and significantly reduced contaminant emissions. The air permitting requirements include the review of: feed preparation and PM emissions; feed gasification and contaminant emissions; elemental sulfur recovery and SO{sub 2} emissions; options for carbon-dioxide recovery; syngas characteristics for combustion; CT design and combustion mechanisms; air contaminant emissions of CT; controlled CT emissions of nitrogen-oxides and carbon-monoxide gases using the SCR and oxidation catalysts, respectively; and, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, the IGCC processes are being rigorously reviewed for the system integration and reliability, and significant reduction of air contaminant emissions (including the greenhouse gases). This paper included a review of IGCC air contaminant emission rates, and various applicable regulatory requirements, such as NSR (New Source Review), NSPS (New Source Performance Standards), and MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The IGCC facility's NOX, CO, SO{sub 2}, PM, VOCs, and HAPs emission rates would be significantly low. Thus, effective, construction and installation, and operation air permits would be necessary for IGCC facilities.

  4. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anezaki, S.

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs

  5. 7 CFR 319.75-3 - Permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Port Operations, Permit Unit... article may be imported only after issuance of a written permit by Plant Protection and Quarantine. (b) An application for a written permit should be submitted to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

  6. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  7. 40 CFR 70.6 - Permit content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 70.5(d) of this part. (B) Prompt reporting of deviations from permit requirements, including those... corrective actions or preventive measures taken. The permitting authority shall define “prompt” in relation... and air pollution control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit...

  8. Applications of radio frequency identification systems in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knights, P F; Kairouz, J; Daneshmend, L K; Pathak, J [McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Canadian Centre for Automation and Robotics in Mining

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in underground hardrock mines. The operating principles and some of the applications of RDIF systems are described. The system operates by the exchange of information between transponder tags and an antenna and controller device. The suitability of RFID systems for process control, inventory control, materials handling, control of access, security, and transportation in underground coal and hardrock mines is discussed. An ore tonnage tracking system is under development that uses RDIF transponder tags to locate vehicles in an underground mine. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  10. 10 CFR 205.328 - Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits-Alternative 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Facilities for Transmission of Electric Energy at International Boundaries § 205.328 Environmental... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for Presidential Permits... responsible for the costs of preparing any necessary environmental document, including an Environmental Impact...

  11. Design of underground layout and their maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 1) Direction: The main haulage way of the mines where diesel equipment are operating is ramp way system. For optimizing safety measures, and minimizing maintenance cost of the tunnels, it is strongly recommended that all the tunnels including ramp way, rooms and sublevels should be designed in parallel to the direction of principal stress and perpendicular to the direction of major discontinuity. 2) Inclination: Basically, the inclination of the ramp way depends on the specification of the equipment, but 10-15% is usual. The steep inclination needs less initial investment but there will be an adverse effects such as higher operating and maintenance costs. 3) Profile (Cross section): The maximum dimension of the equipment operating in local mines appeared 12.8m long, 3.705m wide and 3.68m high. Considering the dimension, the requested profile simply can be calculated to 4m x 4m, but it should be decided according to the regulated minimum clearances from the walls and roof. The minimum inner curvature radius of the tunnels should be more than 5.2m, and in this case, the tunnel width of the curved zone should be more than 5.5m. 4) Sight distance and braking distance: For the safe operation of the equipment, the sight distance must be longer than braking distance, so that the driver can hold up the equipment safely after finding the obstacles in front of him. The maximum braking distance without heating of brake shoe is 60m. 5) Support and maintenance: Due to the large dimensional tunnels where diesel equipment are operating, the conventional supporting system is not applicable. Therefore, the active support concept should be

  12. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  13. Underground storage touted as CO2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    As power generating companies weigh the merits of switching from coal to natural gas in order to reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, energy analysts predict that coal will remain a major contributor to world energy supplies well into the 21st century. For example, the Electric Power Institute estimates that a new 1,000 MW power plant need to be built somewhere in the world every two days for the next fifty years to meet the global demand for energy, and that in major emerging economies such as India and China, many of those plants will be fueled by coal. Various methods already are being tried to safely contain the carbon dioxide resulting from this vastly carbon-intensive economy. One of the more promising approaches involves burying the gas deep in the ground where it will stay safely for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Burial underground may take the form of burial in deep exhausted oil or gas formations, or burial in the deep ocean. Injection into exhausted oil and gas formations is favoured because of the ready availability of thousands of gigatonnes of underground formations and because of the extensive knowledge base already in existence regarding the size and geological properties of oil and gas reservoirs and the behaviour of carbon dioxide under these conditions. Injecting carbon dioxide into unmineable coal seams could replace methane bound to the coal; it is already being done in Alberta as one of the two pilot projects in North America, the other being in Mexico. Carbon dioxide injection to stimulate enhanced oil recovery is also being experimented with, among others by PanCanadian Resources Ltd at its Weyburn reservoir in Saskatchewan. Injection into salt domes and deep saline aquifers is another alternative. Sequestration in the ocean in a variety of forms is also the subject of several experiments. To illustrate the attractiveness of deep ocean storage, it is stated that the ocean contains at least 50 times more carbon than the

  14. ONKALO. Underground characterisation and research programme (UCRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the ONKALO Underground Characterisation and Research Programme (UCRP) is to explore Olkiluoto rock conditions and thereby enhance the current geoscientific understanding of the site, to allow the submission of an application for a construction licence for the deep repository. The characterisation programme has the following geoscientific goals: to develop and demonstrate techniques for detailed characterising volumes of rock from the underground, to update the current descriptive model of Olkiluoto bedrock and to increase confidence in this model such that it will serve the needs of construction and the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report (PSAR) in the construction licence application, and to identify volumes of rock that could be suitable for housing parts of the repository. The development of ONKALO will be based on coordinated investigation, design and construction activities. Mapping data from the tunnel front and data obtained from short probe holes will constitute most of the data needed to control the construction of ONKALO. Pilot holes will be drilled along the tunnel profile as the excavation proceeds and investigations will be carried out for geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterisation. Investigations cover more detailed mapping and sampling in parts of the tunnel, mapping and sampling of potential groundwater inflows to the tunnel and investigations from characterisation bore holes drilled from ONKALO. In addition, monitoring is planned in surface-drilled boreholes, in boreholes drilled from ONKALO, and in ONKALO itself. Monitoring will reveal changes in bedrock conditions and thus provide important information for site characterisation. The information collected by characterisation and monitoring will all be assessed in an integrated modelling effort. The aim of this modelling is both to successively enhance the description and understanding of the rock volume around ONKALO and to assess potential

  15. Relationship of 220Rn and 222Rn progeny levels in Canadian underground U mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon-222 and 220 Rn progeny are found in some Canadian underground U mines. Because both can contribute to lung dose, their experimental determinations are important. The relationship between 222 Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Rn)] and 220 Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Tn)] has been investigated in U mines. Experimental measurements extended from 1981 to 1986 and consisted of about 700 measurements of each WL(Rn) and WL(Tn). The data were analyzed by standard linear and power-function regression analysis. A power-function relationship between WL(Rn) and WL(Tn) seemed to fit the experimental data best. The relationship obtained permits the calculation of WL(Tn) from experimental values of WL(Rn). The relationship is useful for lung-dose-calculation purposes and in mine-ventilation-engineering calculations

  16. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  17. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  18. Underground waters and soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Camargos, Claudio C.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Maybe the greatest problem associated to the nuclear energy is what to do with the waste generated. As example, in Portugal, two of the most important of uranium mines produced a significant amount of waste, now deposited in several storage facilities. To evaluate the impacts generated, samples of water, sediments and soils were analyzed. The space distribution of these samples revealed that the contamination is restricted in the vicinity of the mining areas, and the biggest problem happened due to the illegal use of waters for irrigation, originated from the mine effluents treatment stations. In Brazil, the radioactive waste remains a problem for the authorities and population, since there is not until now a final repository to storage them. The objective of this work is to do studies with the software FRAC3DVS, which simulates the contamination of soils and underground waters due to radioactive and no radioactive sources of pollution. The obtained results show that this tool can help in environmental evaluations and decision making processes in the site selection of a radioactive waste repository. (author)

  19. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  20. Underground Storage Alternative To Nigeria's Gas Flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, A.I

    2004-01-01

    Energy demands are increasing as the world's population of energy users grows. At the same time many nations want to decommission nuclear plants in support of a cleaner environment. Clean burning natural gas is the fuel most likely to meet society's complex requirements. Demand for natural gas will rise more strongly than for any fossil fuel. The utilization of the huge gas resources form the petroleum deposit in the Niger Delta area is the major problem confronting the oil/gas industry in Nigeria and the disposal of associated gas has been a major challenge for the barrel of oil; hence with oil production of about 2.0 million barrels per day, some 2.0 billion standard cubic feet of AG is producing everyday. An alarming proportion of the gas is wasted by flaring, while very small proportion is used by oil-producing companies and other most alarming rate of flaring in the world compared with other oil/gas producing countries. This paper highlights the numerous benefits accruing from proper utilization of natural gas using SASOL of South Africa as an example and recommends underground storage of natural gas as an industry that will help check flaring, meet fluctuating demand and create wealth for the nation

  1. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, Antti; Ylae-Mella, Mia; Aeikaes, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  2. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  3. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  4. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  5. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  6. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  7. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  8. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  9. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  10. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  11. Study of the Pasquasia underground cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes have to be verified both by laboratory and on site research, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. On the area around the Pasquasia mine, a detailed geological mapping (1: 5000 scale) has been carried out. For the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several measurement stations were installed (multibase straingauges, convergency rods, pressure cells, centering and concrete straingauges). Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of a clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks, their sides measuring measurement 30cm, along 72 samples collected during the excavation, have been analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, micropaleontological, interstitial water content, thermal properties, etc). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements have been carried on up to March 1987. At this date the work programme has been unfortunately stopped by local authorities unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  12. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, B.; Moridi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  13. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  14. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  15. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  16. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  17. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. This status report also addresses Permit Condition I.E.22, as interpreted in Section 12.1.25 of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, General Information Portion (DOE/RL-91-28, Rev. 4), that states this report will be prepared annually and a copy of this report will be placed in the Facility Operating Record, General Information file by October 1 of each year

  18. Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The information contained in, and/or referenced in, this Annual Hanford Site Environmental Permitting Status Report addresses Permit Condition II.W (Other Permits and/or Approvals) of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA7890008967). Condition II.W specifies that the Permittees are responsible for obtaining all other applicable federal, state, and local permits authorizing the development and operation of the Hanford Facility. Condition II.W further specifies that the Permittees are to use their best efforts to obtain such permits. For the purposes of this Permit Condition, ''best efforts'' mean submittal of documentation and/or approval(s) in accordance with schedules specified in applicable regulations, or as determined through negotiations with the applicable regulatory agencies

  19. 41 CFR 102-74.500 - Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can Federal agencies disapprove permit applications or cancel issued permits? 102-74.500 Section 102-74.500 Public Contracts and... cancel issued permits? Yes, Federal agencies may disapprove any permit application or cancel an issued...

  20. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  1. Method of treating non-supporting underground formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.W.; Trotty, K.D.

    1977-01-01

    Method of treating non-supporting underground formations, through which passes a borehole, aimed at preventing the transport of sand particles from the formation into the borehole during conveyance of liquids. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Horonobe underground research program. Research report of 2002 FY investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Main results of investigation about Horonobe deep underground research center in 2002 FY were reported. It consists of six chapters: introduction, main results, selection of research center area, underground science research, R and D of geological disposal, and the environmental survey and research center on the ground. The research center area at about 3 km north of Horonobe (B1) was selected in the four areas: A, B1, B2 and C on the basis of data, researches in the sky, aboveground and underground and other conditions. The model of geological environment was constructed by physical, geological, surface water supply researches. Development of geological environment monitoring techniques, investigation of long stabilization of geological environment and design of underground facilities are reported. The basic design of preparation of research center was investigated. (S.Y.)

  3. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  4. New advances in processing ore and minerals underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, P.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    An outline of the basis for the design of a process for the efficient concentration of gold, uranium and pyrite is carried out underground. Practical steps of comminution, concentration and classification are described and probable further development is considered

  5. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  6. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... dangerous accumulations of water, gas, mud, or fire atmosphere could be encountered, persons shall be...

  7. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  8. Development of a smart rock bolt for underground monitoring operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moema, JS

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available of magnetic methods in measuring the stress or microstructural transformation in an individual bolt in both laboratory and underground environment. The corrosion performance of the smart bolt alloy was evaluated in synthetic mine water and compared...

  9. Neutrons from rock radioactivity in the new Canfranc underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J; Bauluz, B; Beltran, B; Carmona, J M; Cebrian, S; GarcIa, E; Gomez, H; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; MartInez, M; Morales, J; Solorzano, A Ortiz de; Pobes, C; Jpuimedon; RodrIguez, A; Ruz, J; Sarsa, M L; Torres, L; Villar, J A

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of radioactivity and composition of rock from the main hall of the new Canfranc underground laboratory are reported. Estimates of neutron production by spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions are given

  10. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  11. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  12. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  13. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  14. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  15. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  16. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  17. HUC 8 Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  18. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  19. Sebuah Kajian Cultural Criminology Atas Moshing di dalam Konser Underground

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad Robbyansyah

    2011-01-01

    This minithesis discussed about moshing phenomenon in an underground music concert as a considerable study about criminalization of popular culture’s product in society, and how to deconstruct the meaning of it. This study has been done in qualitative approach with researcher being a medium for data references to get the ”first person” view for seeing the true meaning of moshing in an underground community. They are suffered with culture constructiont made by the dominant cu...

  20. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  1. Underground economy modelling: simple models with complicated dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Lucian-Liviu

    2003-01-01

    The paper aims to model the underground economy using two different models: one based on the labor supply method and a generalized model for the allocation of time. The model based on the labor supply method is conceived as a simulating one in order to determine some reasonable thresholds of the underground sector extension based only on the available macroeconomic statistical data. The generalized model for the allocation of time is a model based on direct approach which estimates the underg...

  2. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h -1 , while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m -3 [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  3. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  4. Case study of siting technology for underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, Satoshi; Komada, Hiroya; Honsho, Shizumitsu; Fujiwara, Yoshikazu; Motojima, Mutsumi; Nakagawa, Kameichiro; Nosaki, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Underground siting method is one of new feasible siting methods for nuclear power plants. This report presents the results on case studies on underground siting. Two sites of a steeply inclined and plateau like configurations were selected. 'Tunnel type cavern; all underground siting' method was applied for the steeply inclined configuration, and 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was applied for the plateau like configuration. The following designs were carried out for these two sites as case studies; (1) conceptual designs, (2) geological surveys and rock mechanics tests, (3) stability analysis during cavern excavations, (4) seismic stability analysis of caverns during earthquake, (5) reinforcement designs for caverns, (6) drainage designs. The case studies showed that these two cases were fully feasible, and comparison between two cases revealed that the 'shaft type semi-cavern; partial underground siting' method was more suitable for Japanese islands. As a first step of underground siting, therefore, the authors recommend to construct a nuclear power plant by this method. (author)

  5. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  6. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  7. About working of the research program on development of underground space of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartoziya, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Basic proposition relative to the developed federal program on scientific research in the area of assimilating underground space in Russia are presented. The underground objects are divided by their purpose into four groups: 1) underground objects of house-hold purpose (energy and mining complex, industrial enterprises, storages, garages, etc); 2) underground objects of social purpose (libraries, shops, restaurants, etc); 3) underground objects of ecological purpose (storages, disposal sites for radioactive wastes and hazardous substances, dangerous productions, etc); 4) underground objects of defense purpose. Trends in the scientific-research program formation, relative to underground space assimilation are enumerated. 7 refs

  8. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  9. Characteristic behavior of underground and semi-underground structure at earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Yoshihiro; Komada, Hiroya

    1985-01-01

    An appropriate earthquake-resistant repository design is required to ensure the safety of the radioactive wastes (shallow or deep ground disposal of low- and high-level wastes, respectively). It is particularly important to understand the propagation characteristics of seismic waves and the behaviors of underground hollow structures at the time of an earthquake. This report deals with seismologic observations of rock beds and undergound structures. The maximum acceleration deep under the ground is found to be about 1/2 - 1/3 of that at the ground surface or along the rock bed in the horizontal direction and about 1/1 - 1/2 in the longitudinal direction. A large attenuation cannot be expected in shallow ground. The decrease in displacement amplitude is small compared to that in acceleration. The attenuation effect is larger for a small earthquake and at a short hypocentral distance. The attenuation factor reaches a maximum at a depth of several tens of meters. The seismic spectrum under the ground is flatter than that at the surface. The maximum acceleration along the side wall of a cavity is almost the same as that in the surrounding rock bed. An underground cavity shows complicated phase characteristics at the time of a small earthquake at a short hypocentral distance. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Using underground mine Karst water to solve water supply problem in underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Wanbei Mining Administration (China). Liuqiao No. 2 Mine

    1995-05-01

    There is a very rich karst water resource under the Liuqiao No. 2 underground mine. Under normal mining conditions the drainage is 546 m{sup 3}/h while the maximum drainage is up to 819 m{sup 3}/h. If water inrush occurred from a broken zone of a fault or a sinkhole of the karst, the flow could be up to 3269 m{sup 3}/h. The karst water is of good quality and high in pressure. The water head pressure at -400 m level is about 3.5 MPa. To save mine construction cost, it was decided that the water supply for coal production equipment, mining operation and mine fire control was to be changed from the surface to the underground by drilling a water well to tap the karst water resource. A water well with a depth of 63.3 m was drilled in the -400 m transportation roadway. The diameter of the well is 127 mm and it has a casing pipe with a diameter of 108 mm which is connected to the water supply pipeline. The pressure of the water supply is measured at 23.5 MPa and the water flow rate is 252 m{sup 3}/h. The establishment of the water supply system has achieved great cost saving for Liuqiao No. 2 Mine. 2 figs.

  11. UNDERGROUND-1: ICARUS prepares to fly; UNDERGROUND-2: New Soudan detector nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Operating at CERN since 1991 is a 3-tonne liquid argon time projection chamber, a detector breakthrough which combines the visual advantages of bubble chamber tracks with the flexibility of fully electronic data acquisition. The 3-tonne chamber is a prototype for a much larger configuration for the ICARUS* solar neutrino and proton decay detector to be installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground laboratory. ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is built around the cryogenic imaging chamber idea initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia in 1977. With electrons drifting for a relatively long time (several milliseconds) and with sensitive amplifiers picking up the ionization from just a few millimetres of track, events can be imaged inside the cryogenic volume. A special arrangement of readout wires provides drift time measurements and ensures simultaneous imaging in several different views. The prototype has shown that the challenges of obtaining ultra-pure argon and operating readout techniques for large sensitive volumes have been met. The full ICARUS detector (with three liquid argon modules each containing 5,000 tonnes) will be able to detect low energy electrons (down to a few MeV) emerging from solar neutrino interactions, proton decays, or other rare events over a large volume

  12. UNDERGROUND-1: ICARUS prepares to fly; UNDERGROUND-2: New Soudan detector nears completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-15

    Operating at CERN since 1991 is a 3-tonne liquid argon time projection chamber, a detector breakthrough which combines the visual advantages of bubble chamber tracks with the flexibility of fully electronic data acquisition. The 3-tonne chamber is a prototype for a much larger configuration for the ICARUS* solar neutrino and proton decay detector to be installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground laboratory. ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is built around the cryogenic imaging chamber idea initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia in 1977. With electrons drifting for a relatively long time (several milliseconds) and with sensitive amplifiers picking up the ionization from just a few millimetres of track, events can be imaged inside the cryogenic volume. A special arrangement of readout wires provides drift time measurements and ensures simultaneous imaging in several different views. The prototype has shown that the challenges of obtaining ultra-pure argon and operating readout techniques for large sensitive volumes have been met. The full ICARUS detector (with three liquid argon modules each containing 5,000 tonnes) will be able to detect low energy electrons (down to a few MeV) emerging from solar neutrino interactions, proton decays, or other rare events over a large volume.

  13. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  14. ANALYSIS OF HYGROTHERMAL CONDITIONS OF EXTERNAL PARTITIONS IN AN UNDERGROUND FRUIT STORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Nawalany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of hygrothermal conditions of external partitions in an underground fruit store. The results of measurements of temperature and humidity of the indoor and outdoor air as well as the surface surrounding temperature and the temperature of the air surrounding the store constituted the boundary conditions for the hygrothermal calculations. The paper presents the calculation of the distribution of the temperature and humidity on the ground floor, the wall contacting the ground, the wall contacting the outside air, and the ceiling above the storage chamber. The heat and moisture calculations have shown high risk of condensation submerged in non-insulated external walls. The condition of the adaptation of a traditional cold store to a simple and atmosphere controlled cold one is to increase the thermal resistance of the partitions. Such a solution will let cut the energy demand in those types of agricultural buildings.

  15. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  16. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  17. Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcez Thalles V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc. or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.

  18. Subsidence caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, W W [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    An underground nuclear detonation creates a cavity, which may be followed by the formation of a rubble chimney and possibly by a surface subsidence crater. A knowledge of the mechanisms of surface and subsurface subsidence is valuable not only because of the potential engineering uses of the chimneys and craters that may form, but also for the prevention of surface damage. Some of the parameters that are of interest in the subsidence phenomenon are the height and volume of the chimney, the porosity of the chimney, the crater size (depth and radius) and shape, and the time required after detonation for formation of the chimney or crater. The influence of the properties of the subsidence medium on the geometry of the subsidence crater must be considered. The conditions under which partial or complete subsidence is prevented must also be studied. The applicability of the relations that have been developed for the flow of bulk solids for relatively small masses and low pressures to the subsidence problem associated with nuclear explosions is examined. Rational modifications are made to describe the subsidence problem. Sensitivity of the subsidence parameters to material properties and the prevailing geometry is shown. Comparison with observed results at the Nevada Test Site is made and the variations encountered are found to be within reasonable limits. The chimney size and subsidence crater dimensions are found to be a function of the bulking characteristics of the medium, the strength parameters, the dimensions of the subsurface cavity, and the depth of the cavity. The great influence of the strength parameters on the collapse times is shown. For a given medium, the prevention of subsidence is dependent on the cavity size. (author)

  19. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  20. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  1. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  2. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document is updated on a quarterly basis

  3. RPP Environmental Permits and Related Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the current list of environmental permits and related documentation for RPP facilities and activities. Copies of these permits and related approvals are maintained by RPP Environmental. In addition, Notices of Correction and Notices of Violation are issued by State and Federal Regulators which are tracked by RPP Environmental to resolve any recently identified deficiencies. A listing of these recent Notices is provided as an attachment to this document. These permits, approval conditions, and recent regulatory agency notices, constitute an important element of the RPP Authorization Envelope. Permits are issued frequently and the reader is advised to check with RPP environmental for new permits or approval conditions. Interpretation of permit or approval conditions should be coordinated with RPP Environmental. This document will be updated on a quarterly basis

  4. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  5. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  7. Prediction of underground argon content for dark matter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.; Spaans, J.; Keller, C.; Yin, Z.-B.; Koppang, M.; Hime, A.; Gehman, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of 39 Ar and 40 Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic 39 Ar production and radiogenic 40 Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39 Ar to 40 Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the 39 Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on 39 K and (α,n) induced subsequent 39 K(n,p) 39 Ar reactions. The production of 39 Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in 39 Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. Stopping negative muon capture on 39 K dominates over radiogenic production at depths of less than 2000 m.w.e., and that production by muon-induced neutrons is subdominant at any depth. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of 39 Ar and 40 Ar produced underground being dissolved in the water, the upper limit of the concentration of 39 Ar in the underground water at this site is estimated to be in a range of a factor of 1.6 to 155 less than the 39 Ar concentration in the atmosphere. The calculation tools presented in this paper are also critical to the dating method with 39 Ar.

  8. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  9. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  10. The Bottom Boundary Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J

    2018-01-03

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  11. The Bottom Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H.; Lentz, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  12. Generalised functions method in the boundary value problems of elastodynamics by stationary running loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyeva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of diffraction processes of seismic waves on underground tunnels and pipelines with use of mathematical methods is related to solving boundary value problems (BVP) for hyperbolic system of differential equations in domains with cylindrical cavities when seismic disturbances propagate along boundaries with subsonic or transonic speeds. Also such classes of problems appear when it's necessary to study the behavior of underground constructions and Stress-strain State of environment. But in this case the velocities of running loads are less than velocities of wave propagation in surrounding medium. At present similar problems were solved only for constructions of circular cylindrical form with use of methods of full and not full dividing of variables. For cylindrical constructions of complex cross section strong mathematical theories for solving these problems were absent.(author)

  13. MINING SECURITY PIPE© (TSM© WITH UNDERGROUND GPS GLOBAL© (RSPG© ESCAPE SECURITY DEVICE IN UNDERGROUND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrionuevo GIMÉNEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TSM is escape pipe in case of collapse of terrain. The TSM is a passive security tool placed underground to connect the work area with secure area (mining gallery mainly. TSM is light and hand able pipe made with aramid (Kevlar, carbon fibre, or other kind of new material. The TSM will be placed as a pipe line network with many in/out entrances/exits to rich and connect problem work areas with another parts in a safe mode. Different levels of instrumentation could be added inside such as micro-led escape way suggested, temperature, humidity, level of oxygen, etc.. The open hardware and software like Arduino will be the heart of control and automation system.

  14. Dynamic response of underground openings in discontinuous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, H.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report examines the behaviour of underground openings in discontinuous rock in response to seismic waves associated with either earthquakes or rock bursts. A literature search revealed that well-constructed underground structures, such as would be expected for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, underground pumped-storage or nuclear plants, have an extremely high resistance to damage from seismic motion. To complement these qualitative results, it was necessary to examine the basic mechanisms of the entire progression of seismic motion, from wave generation and propagation, to wave interaction with the underground opening. From these investigations, it was found that unless a seismic event occurs very close to the installation, the stresses generated will be low with respect to the excavation stresses, because high stress waves are rapidly attenuated in travelling through rock. As well, an earthquake may generate extremely high accelerations, but is limited in the maximum amount of stress that it can create. The question, however, of the actual specific nature of underground seismic motions still remains essentially unanswered, although it is expected that there is a reduction in peak motions with depth due to the effect of the free surface of the earth

  15. Pro and con decision criteria to underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.

    1981-01-01

    In general, basic design criteria for underground siting define increased safety margins which are mostly step-wise augmentated. The larger those postulated additional impacts become, the more the general concept might already be previously determined. Depending on site availability in general two ways may be practised - the berm-contained concept as well as mined rock caverns. According to the present technical feasibility the cut-and-cover burial seems to be favoured more. If increased external (artificial) impacts are postulated underground facilities have considerable advantages since the earth coverage provides an excellent stopping medium. In case of internal influences the features suggested mostly are additional pressure relief systems which cannot be considered typical for undergrounding. The problem of the access-way sealing is a key-point of a 'real' supplemental underground containment. With a very high safety degree a reliable closure of the penetrations must be guaranteed in case extreme external as well as internal events occur. To come to a final conclusion wheter the benefits or penalties predominate, valuation criteria and matrices are elaborated from the view of different initial points. At this time period it still seems too early to give a definite judgement of pro or con for the underground concept. (orig./HP)

  16. Evaluation method of radon preventing effect in underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shaodong; Deng Yuequan; Dong Faqin; Qu Ruixue; Xie Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)

  17. Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodym Oldøich

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process focuses on methods of presentation of an underground mine technologies in intranet technology. It shows usage of platform independent VRML client for presentation of static and dynamic information about technological process. Bi-directional interactions between client and process information database are solved.Based on analysis of technological process of underground mine a database structure was designed. It is skeleton for storing all information about any underground mine. This skeleton can be modified in any direction. Data in this "static model" of underground mine can be applied for visualization in VRML environment. In this way it is possible to simplify and unify a user's front-end for all kinds of tasks.All designed scenes can be interactively displayed in full view or in any detail view, so that a user is able to recognize every important part of installed equipment, its stage, technical parameters and other information. If manufacturers of mining equipment will supply VRML model of their real products everybody would be able to place it into VRML scene and learn everything about it.This work explores and tries to enlighten some of the areas and available approaches compliant with VRML 97 specification of modifying static scene by its browser. Concepts of animation pipeline, inside and outside scripting in scene displayed and authoring of VRML targeted geometry are discussed including database connectivity.

  18. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  19. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  20. THE JOSEF REGIONAL UNDERGROUND RESEARCH CENTRE (JOSEF URC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pacovská

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Josef Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Josef Underground Educational Facility (Josef UEF, which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre (Josef URC which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research center is to provide practical in-situ instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency has added the Josef URC to its prestigious list of international training canters involved in the “Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities – A Network of Centers of Excellence” project.