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Sample records for underground high explosive

  1. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    Chile (1960, mb = 9.4), and Anchorage (1964, mb = 9.1). In the 21st century Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (mb = 9.3) occurred on December 26, 2004 caused a...explosion source mechanism is less complex than the earthquake source mechanism. Therefore, the waves produced by explosions have more impulsive first...Seismic waves generated by nuclear and chemical explosions are comparable with natural earthquakes in their intensity and (for industrial chemical

  2. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  3. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  4. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  5. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  6. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  7. Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Radiation from Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    into the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code and using it to simulate high-speed fracture experiments. Simulation of explosions has shown that the...magnitude earthquakes are usually based on the ratio Pn/Lg or Pg/Lg since these wave trains tend to dominate short-period records observed in...continental areas. Pn are compression waves critically refracted at the moho. The Lg train is S wave energy trapped in the “granitic” upper crust. It can be

  8. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  9. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  10. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  11. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  12. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  13. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  14. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  15. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  16. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  17. Surface Signatures of an Underground Explosion as Captured by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Swanson, E.; Coppersmith, R.; Cooley, J.; Rougier, E.; Larmat, C. S.; Norskog, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study employed high-resolution photogrammetric modeling to quantify cm-scale surface topographic changes resulting from a 5000kg underground chemical explosion. The test occurred in April 2016 at a depth of 76m within a quartz monzonite intrusion in southern Nevada. The field area was a 210m x 150m polygon broadly centered on the explosion's emplacement hole. A grid of ground control points (GCPs) installed in the field area established control within the collection boundaries and ensured high-resolution digital model parameterization. Using RTK GPS techniques, GCP targets were surveyed in the days before and then again immediately after the underground explosion. A quadcopter UAS with a 12MP camera payload captured overlapping imagery at two flight altitudes (10m and 30m AGL) along automated flight courses for consistency and repeatability. The overlapping imagery was used to generate two digital elevation models, pre-shot and post-shot, for each of the flight altitudes. Spatial analyses of the DEMs and orthoimagery show uplift on the order of 1 to 18cm in the immediate area near ground zero. Other features such as alluvial fracturing appear in the photogrammetric and topographic datasets. Portions of the nearby granite outcrop experienced rock fall and rock rotation. The study detected erosional and depositional features on the test bed and adjacent to it. In addition to vertical change, pre-shot and post-shot surveys of the GCPs suggest evidence for lateral motion on the test bed surface, with movement away from surface ground zero on the order of 1 to 3cm. Results demonstrate that UAS photogrammetry method provides an efficient, high-fidelity, non-invasive method to quantify surface deformation. The photogrammetry data allow quantification of permanent surface deformation and of the spatial extent of damage. These constraints are necessary to develop hydrodynamic and seismic models of explosions that can be verified against recorded seismic data.

  18. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  19. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  20. Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusubov, A.S.

    1976-06-01

    The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions

  1. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  2. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  3. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1970-01-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  4. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  5. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, C.; Garnier, J.L.

    1969-01-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [fr

  6. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  7. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  8. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  9. 30 CFR 75.1312 - Explosives and detonators in underground magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Blasting § 75.1312 Explosives and detonators in underground magazines. (a) The quantity of explosives kept... roadways and any source of electric current; (2) Located out of the direct line of the forces from blasting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and detonators in underground...

  10. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  11. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  12. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  13. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  14. The 20th nuclear explosion test of the Peoples' Republic of China (underground nuclear test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    (1) The New China News Agency and the Radio Peking announced that China conducted the underground nuclear explosion test on 17 October, 1976. However, no exact data concerning the data, the place and the scale of this test was stated in above announcement. (2) However, relatively high radioactivity than that of normal level was detected in the rain and dry fallout samples collected from several prefectures. (author)

  15. Discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes using discriminant functions: Examples for Eurasia and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowroozi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Discriminant functions are extensively used as a technical tool in educational and psychological research as well as in some branches of geological sciences. The application of this technique to the problem of discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported. Here we apply this technique to a known population of underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes for the determination of various statistical parameters needed for setting up the discriminant function equations for discrimination between unknown population of earthquakes, anomalous events, and underground explosions, then we classify earthquakes, explosions and anomalous events in Eurasia and North America

  16. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of 39 Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of 39 Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with 37 Ar and 85 Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish 39 Ar from the fission product 85 Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of 85 Kr can be mistaken for that of 39 Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of 37 Ar. Measured values for the 39 Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. Shooting on shift: Conventional mining utilizing permissible explosives underground in southeastern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooton, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Presently, 98 percent of all underground coal mined in Illinois is produced by either continuous or longwall miner. Conventional mining had declined due to various factors. Conventional producing sections require one-third more personnel than continuous miner sections. Two additional pieces of equipment are required on a conventional section. More importantly, the limitations of using compressed air as a means of breaking down cut coal in Illinois left the industry behind the other states who use permissible explosives. The use of high pressure air unnecessarily exposed miners to the hazards of ruptured air lines and excessive exposure to a half-shot coal face, unsupported roof, and dusty conditions. For conventional mining to be considered safe and feasible, shooting-on-shift with permissible explosives is necessary

  1. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  2. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Jackson, E.C.; Miller, A.B.

    1970-01-01

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  3. Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Bowyer, T.W.; Haas, D.A.; Hayes, J.C.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases radioxenon and radioargon constitute the primary smoking gun of an underground nuclear explosion. The aim of subsurface sampling of soil gas as part of an on-site inspection (OSI) is to search for evidence of a suspected underground nuclear event. It has been hypothesized that atmospheric gas can disturb soil gas concentrations and therefore potentially add to problems in civilian source discrimination verifying treaty compliance under the comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty. This work describes a study of intrusion of atmospheric air into the subsurface and its potential impact on an OSI using results of simulations from the underground transport of environmental xenon (UTEX) model. (author)

  4. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  5. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  6. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  7. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  8. Seismic Wave Propagation from Underground Chemical Explosions: Sensitivity to Velocity and Thickness of a Weathered Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, E. T.; Ezzedine, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recorded motions from underground chemical explosions are complicated by long duration seismic coda as well as motion in the tangential direction. The inability to distinguish the origins of these complexities as either source or path effects comprises a limitation to effective monitoring of underground chemical explosions. With numerical models, it is possible to conduct rigorous sensitivity analyses for chemical explosive sources and their resulting ground motions under the influence of many attributes, including but not limited to complex velocity structure, topography, and non-linear source characteristics. Previously we found that topography can cause significant scattering in the direct wave but leads to relatively little motion in the coda. Here, we aim to investigate the contribution from the low-velocity weathered layer that exists in the shallow subsurface apart from and in combination with surface topography. We use SW4, an anelastic anisotropic fourth order finite difference code to simulate chemical explosive source in a 1D velocity structure consisting of a single weathered layer over a half space. A range of velocity magnitudes are used for the upper weathered layer with the velocities always being lower than that of the granitic underlaying layer. We find that for lower weathered layer velocities, the wave train is highly dispersed and causes a large percentage of energy to be contained in the coda in relation to the entire time series. The percentage of energy contained in the coda grows with distance from the source but saturates at a certain distance that depends on weathered layer velocity and thickness. The saturation onset distance increases with decreasing layer thickness and increasing velocity of the upper layer. Measurements of relative coda energy and coda saturation onset distance from real recordings can provide an additional constraint on the properties of the weathered layer in remote sites as well as test sites like the Nevada

  9. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions

  10. Stochastic Three Dimensional Investigation of Near-Source Motions from AN Underground Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have performed 3D simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in granitic outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) campaign. The main goal of these simulations is to understand the nature of the shear motions recorded in the near field under condition of uncertainties in a) the geological characterization of the joints, such as density, orientation and persistency and b) the geomechanical material properties, such as friction angle, bulk sonic speed, poro-elasticity etc. The approach is probabilistic; joints are depicted using a Boolean stochastic representation of inclusions conditional to their probability density functions inferred from borehole data. Then, using a novel continuum approach, joints and faults are painted into the continuum host material, granite. To insure the fidelity of the painted joints we have conducted a sensitivity study on the numerical depiction of joints. Simulating wave propagation into heterogeneous discontinuous rock mass is highly non-linear problem and uncertainty propagation via intrusive methods is practically forbidden. Therefore, using a series of nested Monte Carlo simulations, we have explored and propagated both the geological and the geomechanical uncertainty parameters using a Bayesian sampling approach. We have probabilistically shown that significant shear motions can be generated by sliding on the joints caused by spherical wave propagation. Polarity of the shear motion may change during unloading when the stress state may favor joint sliding on a different joint set. Although this study focuses on understanding shear wave generation in the near field, the overall goal of our investigation is to understand the far field seismic signatures associated with shear waves generated in the immediate vicinity of an underground explosion. Using a filtering technique, we have abstracted the near field behavior into a probabilistic source-zone model that can be used in the far field wave propagation

  11. Role of body posture during mechanical effects caused by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelis, J.

    1981-02-01

    Underground explosions involve a special hazard due to the effects of wind pressure on the body. The wind pressure at which there is a chance of survival with a 1% lethality was determined in an research project using dummies with different body postures during the explosion. Personnel protection measures were then derived from the head and thorax accleration values, the resulting acclerations, the head-injury criterion (HIC) and severity index (SI) values, and the cinematographic recording of the lenght and velocity of their fall. The hazard is greatly reduced by changing from a standing position to a kneeling or lying-down postion as the resulting acceleration of the head is reduced by a factor 200 to 300. To better protect the head helmets with self-openging chin straps should be used. The potential of personnel safety measures depends largely on the explosion events alarm signs and individual reactions to it. The latter requires training of the underground special personnel.

  12. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-09-04

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.

  13. Remote detection of weak aftershocks of the DPRK underground explosions using waveform cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, R.; Rozhkov, M.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Sanina, I.

    2017-12-01

    Association of weak seismic signals generated by low-magnitude aftershocks of the DPRK underground tests into event hypotheses represent a challenge for routine automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, due to the relatively low station density of the International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network. Since 2011, as an alternative, the IDC has been testing various prototype techniques of signal detection and event creation based on waveform cross correlation. Using signals measured by seismic stations of the IMS from DPRK explosions as waveform templates, the IDC detected several small (estimated mb between 2.2 and 3.6) seismic events after two DPRK tests conducted on September 9, 2016 and September 3, 2017. The obtained detections were associated with reliable event hypothesis and then used to locate these events relative to the epicenters of the DPRK explosions. We observe high similarity of the detected signals with the corresponding waveform templates. The newly found signals also correlate well between themselves. In addition, the values of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimated using the traces of cross correlation coefficients, increase with template length (from 5 s to 150 s), providing strong evidence in favour of their spatial closeness, which allows interpreting them as explosion aftershocks. We estimated the relative magnitudes of all aftershocks using the ratio of RMS amplitudes of the master and slave signal in the cross correlation windows characterized by the highest SNR. Additional waveform data from regional non-IMS stations MDJ and SEHB provide independent validation of these aftershock hypotheses. Since waveform templates from any single master event may be sub-efficient at some stations, we have also developed a method of joint usage of the DPRK and the biggest aftershocks templates to build more robust event hypotheses.

  14. Seismic Source Scaling and Characteristics of Six North Korean Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Stump, B. W.; Che, I. Y.; Hayward, C.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the range of yields and source depths for the six North Korean underground nuclear explosions in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016 (January and September), and 2017, based on regional seismic observations in South Korea and China. Seismic data used in this study are from three seismo-acoustic stations, BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR, cooperatively operated by SMU and KIGAM, the KSRS seismic array operated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, and MDJ, a station in the Global Seismographic Network. We calculate spectral ratios for event pairs using seismograms from the six explosions observed along the same paths and at the same receivers. These relative seismic source scaling spectra for Pn, Pg, Sn, and surface wave windows provide a basis for a grid search source solution that estimates source yield and depth for each event based on both the modified Mueller and Murphy (1971; MM71) and Denny and Johnson (1991; DJ91) source models. The grid search is used to identify the best-fit empirical spectral ratios subject to the source models by minimizing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) in the frequency range of 0.5-15 Hz. For all cases, the DJ91 model produces higher ratios of depth and yield than MM71. These initial results include significant trade-offs between depth and yield in all cases. In order to better take the effect of source depth into account, a modified grid search was implemented that includes the propagation effects for different source depths by including reflectivity Greens functions in the grid search procedure. This revision reduces the trade-offs between depth and yield, results in better model fits to frequencies as high as 15 Hz, and GOF values smaller than those where the depth effects on the Greens functions were ignored. The depth and yield estimates for all six explosions using this new procedure will be presented.

  15. Problems of geodynamics of deep underground explosions and prognosis of efficiency of blasting in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobler, M.; Michaluk, A.W.; Wowk, A.A.

    1978-09-01

    The basic problems which determine the efficiency of application of underground explosions for increasing the productivity of wells is studied. The change of crack porosity and permeability of rocks and their influence on the hydrodynamics of fluids in the zone of blast action is shown. Some data on the influence of rock and seam pressures on rock fracturing near the shot point are cited. The perspectives of application of single-round, group, and sequential explosions for an assigned change of rock properties are considered with regard for pecularities of mechanical behavior or rocks under dynamic loading. 37 references.

  16. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  17. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45 0 dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3

  18. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics

    2015-04-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  19. To the issue about negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions in the salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. From 1970 to 1984, 26 underground explosions were conducted at Azgir test site salt domes and Karachaganak gas-condensate deposit (KGKD) of Kazakhstan. Consequence, 9 and 6, relatively, underground cavities were created. At Azgir test site 5 cavities were filled by water and brines. Some of them were destroyed with surface spotting formation. It is noticed the spreading of radionuclides out of cavities bounds. At the KGKD gas-condensate is loaded into 4 cavities, another 2 cavities are in the accident condition, the last one (5TK) was filled by brine. There are characters of radioecological situation degradation above the last cavity. Radioactive logging in the cavity shown that the γ-activity of rock was increased more then 8 times in the distance of depths 0-64 m for 3 years. Apparently, outbreak of radioactive brines takes place along the zones of fissuring on the bound of casing tubes into the 5TK borehole and along enclosing rocks with sorption of radioactive isotopes in clay rocks. 2. There are examples of negative evolution of events at the Astrakhan gas-condensate deposit, where 15 nuclear cavities were created from 1980 to 1984 years. In 1986 year, 13 of them stopped to exist because of tectonic shearing, triggering by underground nuclear explosion in the salt dome. Many of them are flooded and they throw out the radioactive brines, reaching the surface. 3. Negative development of radioecological situation is occurred because of depressurization of cavities, their flooding, displacement of radionuclides with salt into the brines, destroying of cavities, extrusion of radioactive brines along the permeable zones, more often along the militant and observation boreholes. It is possible to spread of radioactive contamination along horizontal at the distance for l,5-3 km. In 2 years after the underground nuclear explosion at the Grachev oil deposit of Bashkiria radioactive tritium was detected in underground water and in the ground more then 3 km far from

  20. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  1. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to dat...

  2. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  3. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60 Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60 Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations

  4. Deep underground measurements of {sup 60}Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Mikael E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure {sup 60}Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure {sup 60}Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  5. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jean

    1970-01-01

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  6. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  7. Source characterization of underground explosions from hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Pitarka, A.; Ford, S. R.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.

    2017-12-01

    A major improvement in ground motion simulation capabilities for underground explosion monitoring during the first phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is the development of a wave propagation solver that can propagate explosion generated non-linear near field ground motions to the far-field. The calculation is done using a hybrid modeling approach with a one-way hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling in three dimensions where near-field motions are computed using GEODYN-L, a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and then passed to WPP, an elastic finite-difference code for seismic waveform modeling. The advancement in ground motion simulation capabilities gives us the opportunity to assess moment tensor inversion of a realistic volumetric source with near-field effects in a controlled setting, where we can evaluate the recovered source properties as a function of modeling parameters (i.e. velocity model) and can provide insights into previous source studies on SPE Phase I chemical shots and other historical nuclear explosions. For example the moment tensor inversion of far-field SPE seismic data demonstrated while vertical motions are well-modeled using existing velocity models large misfits still persist in predicting tangential shear wave motions from explosions. One possible explanation we can explore is errors and uncertainties from the underlying Earth model. Here we investigate the recovered moment tensor solution, particularly on the non-volumetric component, by inverting far-field ground motions simulated from physics-based explosion source models in fractured material, where the physics-based source models are based on the modeling of SPE-4P, SPE-5 and SPE-6 near-field data. The hybrid modeling approach provides new prospects in modeling explosion source and understanding the uncertainties associated with it.

  8. Simulations of Si-PIN photodiode based detectors for underground explosives enhanced by ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mete; Bayrak, Ahmet; Yücel, Esra Barlas; Ozben, Cenap S.

    2018-02-01

    Massive Ammonium Nitrate (NH4-NO3) based explosives buried underground are commonly used in terror attacks. These explosives can be detected using neutron scattering method with some limitations. Simulations are very useful tools for designing a possible detection system for these kind of explosives. Geant4 simulations were used for generating neutrons at 14 MeV energy and tracking them through the scattering off the explosive embedded in soil. Si-PIN photodiodes were used as detector elements in the design for their low costs and simplicity for signal readout electronics. Various neutron-charge particle converters were applied on to the surface of the photodiodes to increase the detection efficiency. Si-PIN photodiodes coated with 6LiF provided the best result for a certain energy interval. Energy depositions in silicon detector from all secondary particles generated including photons were taken into account to generate a realistic background. Humidity of soil, one of the most important parameter for limiting the detection, was also studied.

  9. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  10. High temperature two component explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  11. Effect of underground explosions on the migration of elements and characteristics of water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Lunin, S.E.; Zhdanov, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    During the analysis process of nuclear explosions effect to the earth' crust condition, among the others results it was extracted the changes of chemical staff of underground water at the testing place. For the control of this suggestion logging potentiometric measurement of chemical containment of water environment took place before and after calibrate explosions of non nuclear nature. The investigations were conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site for September to October 1997 year. The observations for hydrochemical parameters changes before and after seismic event were carried out in the 4103 hydrogeological hole, during 700 hours. 2 measurement in a week after the seismic event were conducted also on the ruins of the 1349 structural hole (55 m depth). As measuring equipment the potentiometric tester PT-64 was used, developed by the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy (patent 1681643, 6.07.93) and allowed to record the changes of pressure (P, abs), temperature (T, C), p H, Eh and concentrations of Na (p Na), Cl (p CI), S (p S). Conducted measurements verify the supposition about influence of explosions on the chemical water structure for the distance to 1 -5 km from epicenter. At the moment of explosions discontinuity all measured parameters and pres-sure to 20 abs were noted. By preliminary data's all the temporal range momentary and more smooth long-term changes measuring equipment are picked out. Pronounced first kind of changes were noted in one day (twenty-four hours) and in ten days after explosion (Table). In the first case, value p H is decreased sharply, concentrations of CI and Na are increased . In 10 days after explosion values p H appears to be increased, so as values Cl and Na. Long-time changes are manifested themselves in the smooth increasing of value p H and containing Cl during 5 days, but Na has smooth tendency to decrease. Then these processes changed their behavior: concentration of Na smooth increases and concentrations of CI and p H

  12. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  13. The use of high-power explosions in the operation of low-productivity fields of oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobler, M.; Michaluk, A.W.; Wowk, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    This review examines the theoretical and practical foundations for the use of nuclear explosions in speeding up oil and natural gas output in low-productivity fields. An analysis is given of the mining-physical and economic conditions for performing nuclear explosions, and possibilities of increasing oil and gas extraction by using high-power explosions and geothermal energy. Examples are given of using molecular explosions to increase oil output in the USSR and USA, along with recommendations for conducting high-power explosions and methods for improving the operation of low-productivity oil and gas fields. Nuclear explosions are usually conducted at a depth of 2-4 km. The explosive material is placed into a large diameter wall of 200-500 mm. However, using nuclear explosions is limited by several factors: lack of knowledge on the mechanical action of underground explosions; absence of information on formation of thermal fields around the explosion center; the danger of radioactivity, etc.

  14. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  15. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  16. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, M A; Zumwalt, R E

    2001-12-01

    An unusual death caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine was investigated by the Office of the Medical Investigator of the State of New Mexico. The 50-year-old miner had 18 years of mining experience but no documented safety training. He collapsed approximately 20 minutes after entering the mine and working at the bottom of the single vertical shaft. The tight confines of the mine shaft hindered rescue personnel from reaching him, and the body was not recovered until 2 days later. The autopsy showed severe coronary artery atherosclerosis with remote and resolving myocardial microinfarcts, as well as the characteristic pink lividity of carbon monoxide poisoning, which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Detailed investigation of the scene revealed no sources of carbon monoxide other than the explosives. The case represents an uncommon cause of death in mining that may have been avoided through the use of proper safety procedures, and illustrates the importance of recognizing the many sources of carbon monoxide.

  17. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  18. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  19. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  20. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  1. ON INFLUENCE OF THE UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS CRYSTAL AND KRATON-3 ON RADIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN THE NEAREST SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of radiological investigations (in 2001-2002 conducted near sites of the underground nuclear explosions Crystal and Kraton-3 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia are presented. The sum of the current effective internal doses from 137Cs and 90Sr (from consumption of natural products and the external dose from 137Cs deposition was about 21 μSv y-1 for adult residents of the urban settlements Aihal and Udachny. Intake of 137Cs and 90Sr (originating from global fallout with reindeer meat contributes ~87% to the internal dose determined. At present, the consequences of the underground nuclear explosions, conducted in the 1970s, have no influence on the technogenic exposure of the local population.

  2. Radionuclide observables for the Platte underground nuclear explosive test on 14 April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    Past nuclear weapons tests provide invaluable information for understanding the radionuclide observables and data quality objectives expected during an On-site Inspection (OSI) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). These radioactive signatures are complex and subject to spatial and temporal variability. The Platte Underground Nuclear Test on 14 April 1962 provides extensive environmental monitoring data that can be modelled and used to assess an OSI. The 1.6 kT test is especially useful as it released the highest amounts of recorded activity during Operation Nougat at the Nevada Test Site – now known as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It has been estimated that 0.36% of the activity was released, and dispersed in a northerly direction. The deposition ranged from 1 x 10-11 to 1 x 10-9 of the atmospheric release (per m2), and has been used to evaluate a hypothetical OSI at 1 week to 2 years post-detonation. Radioactive decay reduces the activity of the 17 OSI relevant radionuclides by 99.7%, such that detection throughout the inspection is only achievable close to the explosion where deposition was highest.

  3. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  4. Spatial selection of focal of underground nuclear explosion by means of directed investigation and a method of vibroseismic oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikova, G.M.; Sedukhina, G.F.; Khajretdinov, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to task solving on parameters localization and determination within focal area of underground nuclear explosion (UNE) by scanning the inspected area by vibroseismic translucent field is considered. For the method, which application has been justified for task solving on On-Site Inspection (OSI), results of numerical modeling of seismic antenna orientation specifications are given, results of experiments on directed method of vibroseismic oscillation is described, questions on practical application of On-Site Inspection tasks are discussed. (author)

  5. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  6. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  7. Numerical investigation and Uncertainty Quantification of the Impact of the geological and geomechanical properties on the seismo-acoustic responses of underground chemical explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Pitarka, A.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L.; Antoun, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have performed three-dimensional high resolution simulations of underground chemical explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) being conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The main goal of the current study is to investigate the effects of the structural and geomechanical properties on the spall phenomena due to underground chemical explosions and its subsequent effect on the seismo-acoustic signature at far distances. Two parametric studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of different 1) conceptual geological models including a single layer and two layers model, with and without joints and with and without varying geomechanical properties, and 2) depth of bursts of the chemical explosions and explosion yields. Through these investigations we have explored not only the near-field response of the chemical explosions but also the far-field responses of the seismic and the acoustic signatures. The near-field simulations were conducted using the Eulerian and Lagrangian codes, GEODYN and GEODYN -L, respectively, while the far-field seismic simulations were conducted using the elastic wave propagation code, WPP, and the acoustic response using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz-Rayleigh time-dependent approximation code, KHR. Though a series of simulations we have recorded the velocity field histories a) at the ground surface on an acoustic-source-patch for the acoustic simulations, and 2) on a seismic-source-box for the seismic simulations. We first analyzed the SPE3 experimental data and simulated results, then simulated SPE4-prime, SPE5, and SPE6 to anticipate their seismo-acoustic responses given conditions of uncertainties. SPE experiments were conducted in a granitic formation; we have extended the parametric study to include other geological settings such dolomite and alluvial formations. These parametric studies enabled us 1) investigating the geotechnical and geophysical key parameters

  8. Radioecological zoning of territories of carrying out of underground nuclear explosions in conditions of Yakutia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, V.D.; Stepanov, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In territory of Yakutia on period 1974 - 1987 years in the industrial purposes 12 peace underground nuclear explosions (UNE) have been made seven from which is carried out on Average-Botuobinsk a deposit with the purpose of an intensification of an oil recovery and inflow of gas (a chink No. 42, 43, 47, 66, 61, 68) and one (No. 101) - for creation of underground capacity - storehouses of the oil, four explosions - for seismic sounding an earth's crust ('Kimberlit', 'Horizon - 4', 'Kraton-4', 'Kraton-3'), and one 'Crystal' - for creation of a dam by loosening of breeds. From them 'Crystal' and 'Kraton-3' are emergency where the dead woods forming impact zones were formed. Impact zones are the sites dated for places with attributes of changes of an environment from influence of radiation. Differently, impact zone can be characterized as a zone of shock influence of the radiating factor on an environment allocated on the basis of seen damages of a vegetative cover. On Average-Botuobinsk 'air-blast cleaning' a deposit are available local radioactive a stain, formed (educated) at 'air-blast cleaning' chinks 42, 43, 47, 68 after end of chisel works and opening potted component which is taking place under the cement bridge. As a result of it has taken place teknogen change of a radiating background as a local stain the area approximately from 4 up to 25 m 2 , adjoining to mouth blowing lines (in approximately 100 m from a mouth of chinks). As a result of radioecological researches on vicinities of objects UNE conclusions which further can be a basis of the concept are received. 1. radioactive pollution of objects UNE have spotty character, are found out: on emergency UNE - a) cesium - 137, americium - 241, cobalt - 60; 6) cesium - 134, antimony - 125, europium - 155; a) objects kamuflet cesium - 137 and americium -241. 2. Definition impact zones on objects UNE is based on attributes- a) the vegetative cover is damaged; the level of a scale - background is

  9. A Study on distinguishing seismic waves caused by natural earthquakes and underground nuclear explosion within North Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premlet, B.; Sabu, S.; Kamarudheen, R.; Subair, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first nuclear test on 15 July 1945 , there have been over 2,051 other weapon tests around the world . The waveforms of a natural earthquake which generates strong S waves and an underground explosion which is dominated by P waves were distinguished from the analysis of data corresponding to a 2005 M5.0 Earthquake and a 2016 North Korean nuclear test , both at similar distances from seismometer . Further differences between the seismograms were evaluated and successfully distinguished between the origins of the elastic waves through the data using Moment Tensor Solution using stations BJT , HIA and INCN . North Korea has developed a nuclear fuel cycle capability and has both plutonium and enriched uranium programs at Pyongyang . Seismic recordings of vertical ground motion at Global Seismographic Network station IC.MDJ of the 4 seismic events at Punggye-ri , North Korea , which occurred on the 9th of October 2006 , 25th of May 2009, 12th of February 2013 and on the 6th of January and 9th of September , 2016 were examined and the P waves of these seismic waves , which show very similar wave form , were inspected and compared to the seismic data of the latest underground nuclear test on the 3rd of September 2017 at 03:30 UTC at the same site which is many times more powerful than the previous tests . The country , which is the only nation to have tested nuclear weapons in this millennium , has successfully prevented the release of radioactive isotopes and hampered data collection but further studies were done using acoustic data which was analysed from sonograms of the 4 North Korean tests at station MDJ. The latest explosion data from 3rd September was also compared to 42 presumed underground explosions which occurred in China , India , the U.S.S.R , Iran , Turkey and recorded at Arkansas Seismic Network.

  10. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  11. A study of seismic discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes at Indian and Pakistan test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Shepelev, O.M.; Sokolova, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Using data from Talgar seismic station located in the Northern Tien-Shan, we have studied the structure of short-period seismic fields for underground nuclear explosions (conducted at Pokharan and Chagai Hills test sites) and earthquakes with epicenters close to these test sites. The records of 37 seismic events with the magnitudes between 4.1 and 5.9 and epicenters 1600-2290 km away from the station have been studied. Amplitude ratios have been analyzed for different phases of longitudinal and shear waves and narrow-band filters with the central frequencies of 0.3, 0.6, 1.25, and 2.5 Hz. The optimal parameters have been determined for each test site, thus allowing the most effective discrimination between explosions and earthquakes. (author)

  12. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  13. Investigation into the potential for dust and gas explosions in underground coal mines with reference to pick tip geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Albert D.

    2011-01-01

    In underground coal mines, methane gas, if present in sufficient concentration, may be ignited by sparks from hot spots on the picks of coal cutting machines striking hard bands of rock. During the coal cutting, wear-flat areas develop on the trailing side of the tips of picks. As pick wear progresses, the generation of frictional heat and coal dust increases and the development of hot spots at the cutting tips may lead to an explosion of methane gas. Field experience and research work over the last few years have facilitated excellent cutting performance for certain picks through the optimisation of the cutting parameters. Such performance improvements show great promise in preventing the incidence of gas or dust explosions occurring at the coal face area. This study sets out some of the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the methods which have been employed to achieve improvements in reducing the hazards of gas or dust explosions. It is based on the comparative trial results of two types of picks with different designs and on a range of available research information on the subject. My investigation looked at the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the current suppression techniques in place to control the dust and gas explosions on the coal operating face.

  14. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  15. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, H.L.; Kansa, E.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress report on our work toward detecting explosion-related SP signals at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in understanding the physics of these anomalies that persist and continue changing over periods of time that range from months to years. As background, we also include a brief description of how SP signals arise, and we mention their use in other areas such as exploring for geothermal resources and locating seepage through dams. Between the years 1988 and 1991, we surveyed the areas around seven underground nuclear tests for persistent SP anomalies. We not only detected anomalies, but we also found that various phenomena could be contributing to them and that we did not know which of these were actually occurring. We analyzed our new data with existing steady state codes and with a newly developed time-dependent thermal modeling code. Our results with the new code showed that the conductive decay of the thermal pulse from an underground nuclear test could produce many of the observed signals, and that others are probably caused by movement of fluid induced by the explosion. 25 refs

  17. The migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil-vegetation cover at accidental underground nuclear explosion site «Kraton 3»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Chevychelov

    2017-12-01

    analysis. This study also revealed that radioactive contamination levels of local vegetation remain considerably high. The concentration of radioactive cesium in plants growing on the site of accidental underground nuclear explosion is 40–5000 times higher than its natural background levels.

  18. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  19. OCENER, a one-dimensional computer code for the numerical simulation of the mechanical effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of a one-dimensional spherical symmetric computer code for the numerical simulation of the effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks (OCENER). In the code, the nature of the stress field and response of the medium to this field are modelled numerically by finite difference form of the laws of continuum mechanics and the constitutive relations of the rock medium in which the detonation occurs. It enables to approximate well the cavity growth and fracturing of the surrounding rock for contained explosions and the events upto the time the spherical symmetry is valid for cratering-type explosions. (auth.)

  20. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhova, O.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Tur, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on “Degelen” site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere, vegetation–atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area “Degelen”. - Highlights: ► The basic mechanisms for tritium distribution in the air of nuclear testing sites were examined. ► We researched the distribution of tritium in the systems such as water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere and vegetation–atmosphere. ► An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere was performed. ► We experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in

  1. Analysis of Short-Period P-Coda Measurements for Presumed Underground Nuclear Explosions in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-13

    EASTERN NEVADA - YUCCA FLAT JULY 10,1974 02601 D a65-10 AZ a583 0 US EXPLOSION STRAIT EASTERN NEVADA - PAHUTE MESA MARCH 17.,1976 02801D 65.10 AZ... Atmoic Energy Agency, pp. 227-255, 1975. IX Key, F. A., Signal-Generated Noise Recorded at the eskdalemuir Seismometer Array Station, Bull. Seism

  2. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  3. Intersite Magnitude-Yield Bias Exemplified by the Underground Nuclear Explosions MILROW, BOXCAR and HANDLEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-05

    DISTRIBUTION UNLrtITED. L i" ABSTRACT Estimates of surface-wave and body-wave magnitude were made from all available teleseismic WWSSN recordings of the...event mb magnitudes, J. Geophys, Res., 79, 2967- 2978. Springer, ). L ., and R. L . Kinnaman, 1971. Seismic source summary for U. S. underground nuclear...flux in the immediate area of Amchitka Island was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that around the Nevada Test Site ( Lomnitz , 1974). This

  4. Development of cycloconverter-IM system for explosion-proof underground mine hoist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guilin; Zhao Yifan (China University of Mining Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Automation Engineering)

    1990-12-01

    A recently developed Cycloconverter-IM haulage drive for underground mining is described in this paper. The control of this system is fully digitized. Six INTEL 8031 single-chip microprocessors are interconnected to perform the functions of motor speed control, cycloconverter firing, fault diagnosis, etc. The implementations of the above functions are illustrated, and also a new method called 'slip feedback control' for improving power factor of cycloconverter is put forward. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Ionospheric disturbances due to underground nuclear explosions and other sources: an elementary discussion, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effect of verticle ground surface motion on the ionosphere, as a consequence of acoustic propagation, is discussed. Estimates of R. F. phase path perturbations are developed for several representative sources and several propagative modes (both terrestrial and atmospheric). In particular, amplitude models for ionospheric density perturbations are used. The discrimination of earth quakes and nuclear explosive disturbances is considered and some detailed properties of the extended atmosphere are described. A list of references is provided. (U.S.)

  6. High Explosive Detonation–Confiner Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE–confiner material interface. The detonation–confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation–confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation–confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation–confiner interactions.

  7. An Approximate Analytical Model of Shock Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    of the official yields. 14, SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES iilr’sh41old JI Vs B/lIT1 rt t , lirodvinam it methiods, ’-hock waves, 74 1111(1 rl ~I...shock wave methods, to appear in Explosion Source Pheno neiolgy, S. R. Taylor, P. G. Richards, and H. J. Patton , eds., American Geophysical Union...Fig. A6 62 DISTR I TON ,1 1ST Proo. ’i ifl as Ahrcns Dr. T.J. BennettSe-inotogical Lab, 252-21 S-CUBF.D Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences A

  8. Modern radionuclide content of the underground water and soils near the epicentral zone of cratering explosion at the Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.K.; Kvasnikova, E.V. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation wells for a control of the underground water contamination were bored after the cratering explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, now they are restored partially. The analysis of the retrospective information of the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology (Moscow, Russia) give a possibility to choose wells and terrains for the successful study of radionuclide migration with the underground water. The epicentral zone, the crater and the territory with radius 1,5 km around the underground cratering explosion '1003' were investigated under the ISTC project K-810. Underground water and soil samples were taken at the two expeditions of 2003. The chemical extraction methods taking into account the water mineral composition, gamma-spectrum methods, methods of the liquid scintillation spectrometry and methods of alpha-spectrometry were used. The modern radionuclide content ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) of the underground water will be presented and compare with a radionuclide content of soils around crater. The retrospective information will be added by these modern data. The vertical radionuclide distribution in soils will be presented. (author)

  9. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  10. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  11. Underground disposal of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering aspects relating to the deep burial of high active waste in stable geological formations. The design of a repository depends upon a number of factors not least of which is the type of rock in which it is to be constructed. High level wastes must be isolated from man's environment for such periods that subsequent release will not result in an unacceptable hazard to human population. Design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual design are present in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Over long time periods the most probable mode of release of radionuclides is through groundwater contacting the waste. The proposed concepts therefore include the use of engineered and natural barriers to delay the eventual release of waterborne radionuclides into mans environment. In all cases the ultimate barrier will be the geological formation. Nevertheless, depending upon the type of host rock, use will be made of various additional engineered barriers to delay water contacting the high level waste for several hundreds of years. During this time the level of radiation and associated heat emitted by the waste, will fall by several orders of magnitude and the rock temperatures within a repository will be returning to ambient. Thereafter the residual activity will mainly arise from the actinides. Containment may be enhanced by surrounding the canisters with materials having high sorption capabilities for many of the radionuclides involved. The depth at which a repository is excavated must be sufficient to ensure that the overburden will withstand changes in environmental conditions. The depth of cover required in different rock types may vary. In clay excavating at depth of up to -250 m appears feasible, while in hard rocks and salts working at depth of up to -1000 m is entirely practicable. (orig./RW)

  12. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  13. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N 2 and H 2 O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N 2 and H 2 O productions

  14. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Safety Standards--Underground Coal Mines Section 75.823 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machines; Scope... High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... of high-voltage continuous mining machines in underground coal mines. It also revises MSHA's design...

  15. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This papent describes a method for suppressing the tendency of a porous solid high explosive to ignite and detonate. It comprises: filling substantially all the press of the solid high explosive material with a predetermined pore radius of at least 10μm with a relatively inert, stable, pore filling material in liquid form, the pore filling being selected from gallium, rubidium-potassium eutectic, and Wood's metal; and solidifying the pore filling material in the pores of the explosive material

  16. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  17. Application of high explosion cratering data to planetary problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with the conditions of explosion or nuclear cratering required to simulate impact crater formation. Some planetary problems associated with three different aspects of crater formation are discussed, and solutions based on high-explosion data are proposed. Structures of impact craters and some selected explosion craters formed in layered media are examined and are related to the structure of lunar basins. The mode of ejection of material from impact craters is identified using explosion analogs. The ejection mode is shown to have important implications for the origin of material in crater and basin deposits. Equally important are the populations of secondary craters on lunar and planetary surfaces.

  18. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  19. Controlled Detonation Dynamics in Additively Manufactured High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Andrew; Tappan, Bryce; Bowden, Patrick; Manner, Virginia; Clements, Brad; Menikoff, Ralph; Ionita, Axinte; Branch, Brittany; Dattelbaum, Dana; Espy, Michelle; Patterson, Brian; Wu, Ruilian; Mueller, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The effect of structure in explosives has long been a subject of interest to explosives engineers and scientists. Through structure, detonation dynamics in explosives can be manipulated, introducing a new level of safety and directed performance into these previously difficult to control materials. New advances in additive manufacturing (AM) allow the deliberate introduction of exact internal structures at dimensions approaching the mesoscale of these energetic materials. We show through simulation and experiment that this structure can be used to control detonation behavior by manipulating complex shockwave interactions. We use high-speed video and shorting mag-wires to determine the detonation velocity in AM generated explosive structures, demonstrating, for the first time, a method of controlling the directional propagation of reactive flow through the controlled introduction of structure within a high explosive. With ongoing improvement in the AM methods available coupled with guidance through modeling and simulations, more complex interactions are being explored. LANL LDRD Office.

  20. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  1. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report

  2. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  3. On the Initiation of High Explosives by Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M

    2006-03-28

    The problem of laser initiation of high explosives in munitions is considered. In this situation, the laser illuminates a small spot on the casing, and lateral thermal transport affects the initiation temperature. We use a variational method to calculate the critical temperature for explosive initiation as a function the laser spot size, for common high explosives. The effect of the dwelling time of the irradiation is then evaluated. We demonstrate that in typical situations the critical temperature is determined by the dwelling time rather than by the laser spot size.

  4. Estimation on the yield ratio between the DPRK's 2013 and 2016 underground nuclear explosions using P wave amplitude and corner frequency ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. S.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, I.

    2016-12-01

    On January 6, 2016 Democratic People's Republic of Korea conducted the fourth underground nuclear test at their test site near to P'unggyeri where they had performed the other three underground nuclear tests in 2006, 2009 and 2013. A relative yield ratio between the DPRK's 2013 and 2016 event is calculated using amplitude and corner frequency ratios. For this study, 10.24 seconds of 100 Hz sampled first P wave recorded at thirty five broadband stations including thirty three stations in the Republic of Korea, one station of China and one station of Japan are used for the analysis. With an assumption of fully coupled explosions for the closely located DPRK's third and fourth UNE in a granitic medium, the geological effect of the medium around the explosive source and the attenuation effect along the propagation path are eliminated by calculating spectral ratio between the two events. The yield ratio of the two explosions is expressed as a function of amplitude ratio at low frequency and depth ratio. Another function expressed with corner frequency and depth ratios also constrains the yield ratio. These two relationships give a solution of depth and yield ratios between the two events with 95 % confidence intervals.

  5. Treatment of multicomponent microbarographic signals excited by high power explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, C.

    1986-04-01

    A method for analysis of microbarographic signals recorded on a sensor network is developed, the aim is the localization of the source with maximum accuracy. It is shown that the method using the interspectral matrix finds a direct application in the discrimination of waves from high power explosion in a noisy environment. Its powerfulness is demonstrated on actual signals (explosion of the volcano Mt St Helens) allowing interesting results on propagation mechanisms (Brunt period, Lamb modes and acoustic modes) [fr

  6. Acoustic analysis of explosions in high noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2008-04-01

    Explosion detection and recognition is a critical capability to provide situational awareness to the war-fighters in battlefield. Acoustic sensors are frequently deployed to detect such events and to trigger more expensive sensing/sensor modalities (i.e. radar, laser spectroscope, IR etc.). Acoustic analysis of explosions has been intensively studied to reliably discriminate mortars, artillery, round variations, and type of blast (i.e. chemical/biological or high-explosive). One of the major challenges is high level of noise, which may include non-coherent noise generated from the environmental background and coherent noise induced by possible mobile acoustic sensor platform. In this work, we introduce a new acoustic scene analysis method to effectively enhance explosion classification reliability and reduce the false alarm rate at low SNR and with high coherent noise. The proposed method is based on acoustic signature modeling using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Special frequency domain acoustic features characterizing explosions as well as coherent noise are extracted from each signal segment, which forms an observation vector for HMM training and test. Classification is based on a unique model similarity measure between the HMM estimated from the test observations and the trained HMMs. Experimental tests are based on the acoustic explosion dataset from US ARMY ARDEC, and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Simulation of Local Seismic Ground Motions from the FLASK Underground Nuclear Explosion near the Source Physics Experiment Dry Alluvium Geology Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The FLASK underground nuclear explosion (UNE) was conducted in Area 2 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 26, 1970. The yield was 105 kilotons (DOE/NV-209-Rev 16) and the working point was 529 m below the surface. This test was detonated in faulted Tertiary volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat. Coincidently, the FLASK UNE ground zero (GZ) is close (conducting Phase II of its chemical high explosives test series in the so-called Dry Alluvium Geology (DAG) site. Ground motions from FLASK were recorded by twelve (12) three-component seismic stations in the near-field at ranges 3-4 km. We digitized the paper records and used available metadata on peak particle velocity measurements made at the time to adjust the amplitudes. These waveforms show great variability in amplitudes and waveform complexity with azimuth from the shot, likely due to along propagation path structure such as the geometry of the hard-rock/alluvium contact above the working point. Peak particle velocities at stations in the deeper alluvium to the north, east and south of GZ have larger amplitudes than those to the west where the basement rock is much shallower. Interestingly, the transverse components show a similar trend with azimuth. In fact, the transverse component amplitudes are similar to the other components for many stations overlying deeper basement. In this study, we simulated the seismic response at the available near-field stations using the SW4 three-dimensional (3D) finite difference code. SW4 can simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D inelastic earth structure, including surface topography. SW4 includes vertical mesh refinement which greatly reduces the computational resources needed to run a specific problem. Simulations are performed on high-performance computers with grid spacing as small as 10 meters and resolution to 6 Hz. We are testing various subsurface models to identify the role of 3D structure on path propagation effects from the source. We are also testing 3D models to

  8. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  9. Observations of shock-induced partial reactions in high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2007-06-01

    The high speed photography, pressure measurements and numerical simulation of gap test of the high explosive have been carried out. The height of donor is 50 mm and acceptor is 40 mm with 26 mm inner diameter. When the gap length is 23 mm or large, the sympathetic detonation was not confirmed. Although the detonation does not occur, the gas expansion from the acceptor appears as the results of remarkable decomposition if the gap length approaches 23 mm. Those phenomena are very important on the point of view of the safety engineering. Finally, the parameters of initiation model which could reproduce the behaviors of high explosive around the critical condition were constructed.

  10. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. 75.811 Section 75.811 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. [Statutory Provisions] Frames, supporting...

  11. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  12. Plan of deep underground construction for investigations on high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayanovskij, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The program of studies of the Japanese PNC corporation on construction of deep underground storage for high-level radioactive wastes is presented. The program is intended for 20 years. The total construction costs equal about 20 billion yen. The total cost of the project is equal to 60 billion yen. The underground part is planned to reach 1000 m depth

  13. Equations of State and High-Pressure Phases of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Suhithi M.; Gump, Jared C.

    Energetic materials, being the collective name for explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and other flash-bang materials, span a wide range of composite chemical formulations. Most militarily used energetics are solids composed of particles of the pure energetic material held together by a binder. Commonly used binders include various oils, waxes, and polymers or plasticizers, and the composite is melt cast, cured, or pressed to achieve the necessary mechanical properties (gels, putties, sheets, solid blocks, etc.) of the final energetic material. Mining, demolition, and other industries use liquid energetics that are similarly composed of an actual energetic material or oxidizer together with a fuel, that is to be mixed and poured for detonation. Pure energetic materials that are commonly used are nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate, ammonium or sodium perchlorate, trinitrotoluene (TNT), HMX, RDX, and TATB. All of them are molecular materials or molecular ions that when initiated or insulted undergoes rapid decomposition with excessive liberation of heat resulting in the formation of stable final products. When the final products are gases, and they are rapidly produced, the sudden pressure increase creates a shock wave. When decomposition is so rapid that the reaction moves through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive, the material is said to detonate. Typically, energetic materials that undergo detonation are known as high explosives (HEs) and energetic materials that burn rapidly or deflagrate are known as low explosives and/or propellants.

  14. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  15. Detonation initiation of heterogeneous melt-cast high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzeville, V.; Baudin, G.; Lefrançois, A.; Genetier, M.; Barbarin, Y.; Jacquet, L.; Lhopitault, J.-L.; Peix, J.; Boulanger, R.; Catoire, L.

    2017-01-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widely used in conventional and insensitive munitions as a fusible binder, commonly melt-cast with other explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-one (NTO). In this paper, we study the shock-to-detonation transition phenomenon in two melt-cast high explosives (HE). We have performed plate impact tests on wedge samples to measure run-distance and time-to-detonation in order to establish the Pop-plot relation for several melt-cast HE. Highlighting the existence of the single curve buildup, we propose a two phase model based on a Zeldovich, Von-Neumann, Döring (ZND) approach where the deflagration fronts grow from the explosive grain boundaries. Knowing the grain size distribution, we calculate the deflagration velocities of the explosive charges as a function of shock pressure and explore the possible grain fragmentation.

  16. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  17. Observations of Shock-Induced Partiall Reactions in High Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Ogata, Y.; Wada, Y.; Saburi, T.; Nagayama, K.

    2007-12-01

    The high speed photography, pressure measurements and numerical simulation of gap test of the high explosive have been carried out. The height of donor is 50 mm with 26 mm inner diameter, and that for acceptor charges is varied. When the gap length is 22.8 mm or large, the sympathetic detonation was not confirmed. Although the detonation does not occur, the gas expansion from the acceptor appears as the results of remarkable decomposition if the gap length approaches 23 mm. Those phenomena are very important on the point of view of the safety engineering. Finally, the parameters of initiation model which could reproduce the behaviors of high explosive around the critical condition were constructed.

  18. Storage of high-level wastes, investigations in underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the different collaborations made by ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the fields of underground radioactive waste storage. ANDRA has taken part in various experimental research programs performed in laboratories such as Mol in Belgium, Aspo in Sweden, Pinawa in Canada and Grimsel in Switzerland. This article details the experiments led at Mol since 1984. ANDRA is commissioned by the 30.12.91 decree to study the possibility of storage in deep geological layers. A thorough knowledge of the matter requires the building of underground laboratories in order to test and validate technological choices on a real scale. 6 themes will have to be investigated: 1) the capacity to seal up the storage facility after its use in order to assure the protection of man and environment, 2) the effects of geological perturbations on the confining properties of the site, 3) the confining ability of the Callovian-Oxfordian geological formation, 4) the transfer of radionuclides from the geological formation to the biosphere, 5) the constructing possibility of an underground storage facility, and 6) the possibility of retrieving the stored packages. (A.C.)

  19. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  20. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  1. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  2. Integrated Experiment and Modeling of Insensitive High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Lambert, David E.; Yoo, Sunhee; Lieber, Mark; Holman, Steven

    2009-12-01

    New design paradigms for insensitive high explosives are being sought for use in munitions applications that require enhanced safety, reliability and performance. We describe recent work of our group that uses an integrated approach to develop predictive models, guided by experiments. Insensitive explosive can have relatively longer detonation reaction zones and slower reaction rates than their sensitive counterparts. We employ reactive flow models that are constrained by detonation shock dynamics (DSD) to pose candidate predictive models. We discuss the variation of the pressure dependent reaction rate exponent and reaction order on the length of the supporting reaction zone, the detonation velocity curvature relation, the computed critical energy required for initiation, the relation between the diameter effect curve and the corresponding normal detonation velocity curvature relation.

  3. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a second of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last six years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students resea...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  4. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a first of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last 6 years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students research...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  5. Initiation of Insensitive High Explosives Using Multiple Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Elizabeth; Burritt, Rosmary; Biss, Matt; Bowden, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs) increase safety in many types of weapons. However, the safety comes at the cost of performance. Initiation of IHE requires large boosters and powerful detonators as well. Multipoint initiation is being utilized to exploit explosive wave interactions to create overdriven states, greatly facilitating the initiation of IHEs. This presentation will build from recent explosive experiments where the minimum spot size for single-point initiation in PBX 9502 was determined. Below this threshold, PBX 9502 could not be initiated. This was then expanded to three initiation points, which were smaller this threshold. Measurements of the velocity and pressure of the wave interactions were measured using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Initiation was observed, and the resulting pressures at the double and triple points were found to be above the CJ state for PBX 9502. Based on these results, further tests were conducted to isolate and measure the longevity and pressure of this phenomenon using cut-back tests. All results will be presented and discussed.

  6. Research and Development of High-performance Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Rodger; Wrobel, Erik; Anderson, Paul E

    2016-02-20

    Developmental testing of high explosives for military applications involves small-scale formulation, safety testing, and finally detonation performance tests to verify theoretical calculations. small-scale For newly developed formulations, the process begins with small-scale mixes, thermal testing, and impact and friction sensitivity. Only then do subsequent larger scale formulations proceed to detonation testing, which will be covered in this paper. Recent advances in characterization techniques have led to unparalleled precision in the characterization of early-time evolution of detonations. The new technique of photo-Doppler velocimetry (PDV) for the measurement of detonation pressure and velocity will be shared and compared with traditional fiber-optic detonation velocity and plate-dent calculation of detonation pressure. In particular, the role of aluminum in explosive formulations will be discussed. Recent developments led to the development of explosive formulations that result in reaction of aluminum very early in the detonation product expansion. This enhanced reaction leads to changes in the detonation velocity and pressure due to reaction of the aluminum with oxygen in the expanding gas products.

  7. Results from a high speed pyrometer measuring detonating explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richley, James; Ferguson, James

    2017-06-01

    High speed pyrometry has been deployed on two series of cylinder test experiments in order to investigate its ability to measure the temperature of a detonating explosive. The pyrometer fielded on the first series of cylinder tests consisted of two, three channel systems fed by optical fibres. The optical fibres were placed such that they observed the exposed explosive at the end of the cylinder (through a lithium fluoride window). In addition an optical emission spectrometer was used to capture the emission spectrum from the same area of the explosive. The pyrometer design was then modified to produce a six-channel system, which incorporated detectors with rise times on the order of 1 ns, this was tested on a second series of cylinder tests. Half of the cylinder tests in the second series were performed without a LiF window. Results from the second series of experiments are reported and compared with those from the first series. Initial analysis suggests that the temperature observed was at least 3700 K.

  8. Model of non-ideal detonation of condensed high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, E. B.; Kostitsin, O. V.; Koval, A. V.; Akhlyustin, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering theory of ideal detonation allows one to describe adequately the detonation of charges with near-critical diameter. For smaller diameters, detonation velocity can differ significantly from an ideal value expected based on equilibrium chemical thermodynamics. This difference is quite evident when using non-ideal explosives; in certain cases, this value can be up to one third of ideal detonation velocity. Numerical simulation of these systems is a very labor-consuming process because one needs to compute the states inside the chemical reaction zone, as well as to obtain data on the equation of state of high-explosive detonation products mixture and on the velocity of chemical reaction; however, these characteristics are poorly studied today. For practical purposes, one can use the detonation shock dynamics model based on interrelation between local velocity of the front and its local curvature. This interrelation depends on both the equation of state of explosion products, and the reaction velocity; but the explicit definition of these characteristics is not needed. In this paper, experimental results are analyzed. They demonstrate interrelation between the local curvature of detonation front and the detonation velocity. Equation of detonation front shape is found. This equation allows us to predict detonation velocity and shape of detonation wave front in arbitrary geometry by integrating ordinary differential equation for the front shape with a boundary condition at the charge edge. The results confirm that the model of detonation shock dynamics can be used to describe detonation processes in non-ideal explosives.

  9. Spectra of explosive glowing of heavy metal azides at initiation by high-current electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, V. I.; Lysyk, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Glowing spectra of products resulted by heavy metal azides explosive decomposition initiated by high-current electron beam were measured and identified. Intensive emission lines related to atoms of alkali metals were observed in spectra of samples under study. These atoms enter explosives during their preparation. Emission lines of elements being part of a sample holder were also presented in spectra of explosion.

  10. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  11. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  12. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  13. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  14. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  15. An explosively driven high-power microwave pulsed power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M A; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Walter, J W; Kristiansen, M; Altgilbers, L L

    2012-02-01

    The increased popularity of high power microwave systems and the various sources to drive them is the motivation behind the work to be presented. A stand-alone, self-contained explosively driven high power microwave pulsed power system has been designed, built, and tested at Texas Tech University's Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics. The system integrates four different sub-units that are composed of a battery driven prime power source utilizing capacitive energy storage, a dual stage helical flux compression generator as the main energy amplification device, an integrated power conditioning system with inductive energy storage including a fast opening electro-explosive switch, and a triode reflex geometry virtual cathode oscillator as the microwave radiating source. This system has displayed a measured electrical source power level of over 5 GW and peak radiated microwaves of about 200 MW. It is contained within a 15 cm diameter housing and measures 2 m in length, giving a housing volume of slightly less than 39 l. The system and its sub-components have been extensively studied, both as integrated and individual units, to further expand on components behavior and operation physics. This report will serve as a detailed design overview of each of the four subcomponents and provide detailed analysis of the overall system performance and benchmarks.

  16. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  17. How and When Metals React in High Performance Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The reaction kinetics of aluminum and other metals in detonations has long been studied with the goal to obtain the full enthalpy energy of aluminum oxidation at early timeframes. This requires the oxidation reaction to occur at the same rate as explosive CHNO compounds. While the literature claims some success with model formulations, few fielded formulations obtain such performance due to competing carbon oxidation of the inert formulation binder ingredients. Moreover, from gas analysis data in detonation calorimetry, it is hypothesized that high pressure/high temperature gas equilibrium concentrations are one of some factors that play a role in obtaining early reactivity of metals in the detonation. The mechanism of these reactions and the effect on detonation responses such as detonation pressure and velocity will be discussed Membership pending.

  18. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...... electric field stress and other parameters of EHV underground cables with given boundary conditions using 2-D electric field analysis software package (IES-ELECTRO module) which is based on the finite element method (FEM).......Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...

  19. Acoustic Methods for Evaluation of High Energy Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanovsky, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Two independent acoustic methods were used to verify the results of earlier explosion energy calculations of Chelyabinsk meteoroid. They are: estimations through a path length of infrasound wave and through maximum concentration of the wave energy. The energy of this explosion turned out the same as in earlier calculations, and it is close to 57 Mt of TNT. The first method, as well as evaluations through seismic signals and barograms, have confirmed the energy of Tunguska meteoroid explosion ...

  20. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyichev, Vyacheslav; Nikiforova, Nadezhda; Konnov, Artem

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by "Moscow method" is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts) and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method) are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  1. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  2. Analysis of Social Sciences High School Students' Remarks on Underground Resources--Kütahya Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Sahin Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain secondary school students' perceptions of underground resources through metaphors. 154 students studying at Social Sciences High School of Kütahya during 2014-2015 educational year are included in this study. Questions asked in this study are (1) Which metaphors did the secondary school students use in order…

  3. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday, April 6, 2010, make the following correction...

  4. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyichev Vyacheslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by “Moscow method” is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  5. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  6. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  7. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, Christina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code

  8. The ionization effects from nuclear explosions in high-altitude and their effect to radio propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rongsheng; Li Qin

    1997-01-01

    A high-altitude nuclear explosions releases large quantities of energetic particles and electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionization in the atmosphere. These particles and rays radiation character in the atmosphere are discussed. Ionizations due to explosion X rays, γ rays, neutrons and β particles are considered separately. The time-space distribution of additional electron density is computed and its nature is analyzed. The effects of explosion-induced ionization on the absorption of radio wave is considered and the dependence of the absorption on explosion characteristics, distance from the earth's atmosphere, and frequency of the radio wave is determined

  9. From the Underground to the High Ground: The Insurgent Use of Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    airpower of the flea .” Tamil Tigers Air Wing For two and a half years, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) employed an Air Wing that was a...the Tamil Tigers mated two types of indigenously produced bombs: one high explosive model with contact fusing and one antipersonnel version with

  10. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Golikov, V.; Mishine, A.; Kaduka, M.; Burtcev, I.; Gedeonov, A.; Bulatenkov, Y.U.; Strand, P.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km 2 . Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137 Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90 Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240 Pu 44(25-72); 60 Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90 Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137 Cs were found to

  11. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Pelin; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steve; Sidhoum, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol) and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model. PMID:19440524

  12. Experimental investigation of detonation waves instabilities in liquid high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosikov, V. A.; Torunov, S. I.; Utkin, A. V.; Mochalova, V. M.; Rapota, D. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Experimental investigation of unstable detonation front structure in mixtures of liquid high explosives (nitromethane and FEFO—bis-(2-fluor-2.2-dinitroethyl)-formal) with inert diluents (acetone, methanol, DETA—diethylene triamine) has been carried out. Inhomogeneities have been registered by electro-optical camera NANOGATE 4BP allowing to make 4 frames with the exposure time 10 ns. According to experimental results the detonation front in nitromethane–acetone mixture is unstable. It is evident that pulsations on detonation front do not form spatial periodic structure and their dimensions differ several times. But mean longitudinal size of pulsation is about 500 μm at 20 wt% of acetone concentration. This means that the typical size of cell equals to reaction zone width. The same structure of cellular front have been registered in 70/30 FEFO–methanol mixture. Second kind of instability, failure waves, was observed in neat nitromethane at the free surface. In this case the stability loss result in turbulent flow which is clearly detected in the shots obtained. Adding small amount of DETA (0.5 wt%) results in disappearance of the failure waves and flow stabilization. The effect is caused by the fact that DETA sharply accelerates initial rate of chemical reaction because it is sensitizer for nitromethane.

  13. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  14. Shock Initiation of Explosives - High Temperature Hot Spots Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will

    2017-06-01

    The pore-collapse mechanism for hot spot creation is currently one of the most intensely studied subjects in the initiation of energetic materials. In the present study, we use 1.5 - 3.5 km s-1 laser-driven flyer plates to impact microgram charges of both polymer-bound and pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) while recording the temperature and spatially-averaged emissivity with a high-speed optical pyrometer. The 32-color pyrometer has nanosecond time resolution and a high dynamic range with sensitivity to temperatures from 7000 to 2000 K. Hot spot temperatures of 4000 K at impact are observed in the polymer-bound explosive charges where an elastomeric binder is used to fill void spaces. In pure PETN and more heterogeneous polymer-bound charges, in which significant void space is present, hot spot temperatures of 6000 K are observed, similar to previous reports with significant porosity. We attribute these high temperatures to gas-phase products formed in-situ being compressed under the driving shock. Experiments performed under various gas environments (air, butane, etc.) showed a strong influence on observed temperature upon impact. Control experiments where the PETN in the polymer-bound charges were replaced with sucrose and silica reinforce the result that hot spots are a result of in-situ gas formation from decomposition of organic molecules. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards FA9550-14-1-0142 and FA9550-16-1-0042; US Army Research Office award W911NF-13-1-0217; Defense Threat Reduction Agency award HDTRA1-12-1-0011. In collaboration with: Belinda Pacheco and Dana Dlott, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.

  15. Non-classical detonation regimes of liquid high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. V.; Mochalova, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data of studies of the liquid explosives characteristics, in the reaction zone of which the distribution of parameters does not correspond to the classical detonation theory. An increase of the pressure and particle velocity behind a shock jump in liquid explosives and the possibility of the existence of a steady-state detonation wave without a von Neumann spike are interpreted within the framework of models that take into account the possibility of chemical reactions directly in the shock wave front.

  16. iVCJ: A tool for Interactive Visualization of high explosives CJ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-12

    A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.

  17. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    electrostatic discharge, heat, and shock . Primaries are known to reach detonation very quickly after such an initiation event. The large amount of...bullet/fragment impact are critical. Minimizing sympathetic detonation —the unintended detonation of a nearby explosive charge which has been caused by...deflagration rather than a detonation when subjected to fast cook-off, slow cook-off, fragment impact, bullet impact, and sympathetic detonation . TNT failed

  18. Development of new model for high explosives detonation parameters calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Radun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The simple semi-empirical model for calculation of detonation pressure and velocity for CHNO explosives has been developed, which is based on experimental values of detonation parameters. Model uses Avakyan’s method for determination of detonation products' chemical composition, and is applicable in wide range of densities. Compared with the well-known Kamlet's method and numerical model of detonation based on BKW EOS, the calculated values from proposed model have significantly better accuracy.

  19. Formic Acid Investigation for the Prediction of High Explosive Detonation Properties and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, January 1993. 4. Cowperthwaite, M. and Zwisler, W. H., "The JCZ Equations of State for Detonation Products and Their...AD AD-E403 298 Technical Report ARMET-TR-10006 FORMIC ACID INVESTIGATION FOR THE PREDICTION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE DETONATION PROPERTIES AND...DATES COVERED {From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMIC ACID INVESTIGATION FOR THE PREDICTION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE DETONATION PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE

  20. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  1. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  2. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  3. Promising New High-Explosives: Triaminoguanidinium (TAG) and Dinitramide (DN) Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Figure 1 A) Steel sleeve loaded with 27 g of 4. B) Koenen test setup showing four Bunsen burners . C) Moment of explosion filmed using a high speed...secured with a nut. The explosion is initiated via thermal ignition using four Bunsen burners , which are started simultaneously. The test is completed... burners , which are started simultaneously. 7 Figure 2 A) Steel sleeve loaded with 23.6 g of 9. B) Koenen test setup showing four Bunsen

  4. Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersen, Kyle Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    High explosives are energetic materials that release their chemical energy in a short interval of time. They are able to generate extreme heat and pressure by a shock driven chemical decomposition reaction, which makes them valuable tools that must be understood. This study investigated the accuracy and performance of two Los Alamos National Laboratory hydrodynamic codes, which are used to determine the behavior of explosives within a variety of systems: xRAGE which utilizes an Eulerian mesh, and FLAG with utilizes a Lagrangian mesh. Various programmed and reactive burn models within both codes were tested using a copper cylinder expansion test. The test was based on a recent experimental setup which contained the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9404. Detonation velocity versus time curves for this explosive were obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The modeled results from each of the burn models tested were then compared to one another and to the experimental results. This study validate

  5. A simple approach for determining detonation velocity of high explosive at any loading density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2005-05-20

    A simple empirical relationship is introduced between detonation velocity at any loading density and chemical composition of high explosive as well as its gas phase heat of formation, which is calculated by group additivity rules. The present work may be applied to any explosive that contains the elements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen with no difficulties. The new correlation can easily be applied for determining detonation velocity of explosives with loading densities less than 1g/cm3 as well as greater than 1g/cm3. Calculated detonation velocities by this procedure for both pure and explosive formulations show good agreement with respect to measured detonation velocity over a wide range of loading density.

  6. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

  7. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion

  8. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthurajan, H; Sivabalan, R; Pon Saravanan, N; Talawar, M B

    2009-01-30

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-à-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (DeltaH(e)) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9721 with a linear equation y=0.9262x+101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials.

  9. Research of explosives in an environment of high pressure and temperature using a new test stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the test stand for determining the blast abilities of explosives in high pressure and temperature conditions as well as the initial results of the research are presented. Explosives are used in rock burst and methane prevention to destroy precisely defined fragments of the rock mass where energy and methane are accumulated. Using this preventive method for fracturing the structure of the rocks which accumulate the energy or coal of the methane seam very often does not bring the anticipated results. It is because of the short range of destructive action of the post-blast gases around the blast hole. Evaluation of the blast dynamics of explosives in a test chamber, i.e. in the pressure and temperature conditions comparable to those found “in situ”, will enable evaluation of their real usefulness in commonly used mining hazard preventive methods. At the same time, it will enable the development of new designs of the explosive charges used for precisely determined mining hazards. In order to test the explosives for their use in difficult environmental conditions and to determine the characteristics of their explosion, a test chamber has been built. It is equipped with a system of sensors and a high-frequency recording system of pressure and temperature during a controlled explosion of an explosive charge. The results of the research will enable the development of new technologies for rock burst and methane prevention which will significantly increase workplace health and safety level. This paper presented results constitute the initial phase of research started in the middle of 2014.

  10. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  11. Use of Booster Charges and Explosives in Cartridges in Underground Blasting Operations. Possibilities of Initiation of Small-Diameter Explosive Columns; Einsatz von Verstaerkungsladungen und patronierten Sprengstoffen bei der untertaegigen Sprengarbeit. Moeglichkeiten der Initiierung kleinkalibriger Ladesaeulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Albrecht, T. [Orica Germany GmbH, Sprengtechnischer Dienst, Troisdorf (Germany)

    2005-03-10

    An outline of the history of industrial explosives was concluded by a description of the importance of an effective detonation chain in Glueckauf 1/2. Nowadays there are various possibilities of initiation of small-diameter explosive columns, which are encountered predominantly in the mining industry. The ignition systems and booster charges commonly used at present and also suitable for future use are described with their properties and the respective advantages and disadvantages in this contribution. The individual products are compared and evaluated. (orig.)

  12. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollier, A., E-mail: arnaud.sollier@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M. [CEA, DAM, Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France)

    2016-06-28

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  13. Discrimination of chemical and high-explosive munitions by neutron interrogation for arms control treaty verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Cole, J.D.; Gehrke, R.J.; Greenwood, R.C.; Krebs, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    For treaty verification purposes, due to the hazards of direct sampling of chemical and explosive munitions, non-destructive evaluation methods have important safety advantages. The authors assay method employs neutrons from a californium-252 radioisotopic source to induce capture and inelastic reactions in a munition under test, and the resulting gamma radiation is measured with an high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector. For field verification, a portable, battery-operated assay system has been developed that performs automatic spectrum analysis and agent identification in near-real time. In tests with actual chemical and high explosives munitions, the assay method reliably identifies nerve agents GB and VX, blister agents HD and L, white phosphorous, and high explosives

  14. Interaction between emission-line filaments and highly energetic explosions in QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions under which QSO line-emitting regions can survive a relativistic explosion are investigated along with the question of whether past and future observations can place constraints on both predicted highly energetic outbursts of ultrarelativistic plasma or LF electromagnetic radiation and the line-emitting gas. Observed properties of QSO emission-line regions are reviewed, and the interaction between a relativistic explosion and a dense cloud is analyzed for the cases of a sudden release of relativistic plasma and an outburst of LF electromagnetic waves. Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission from shocked QSO filaments is calculated, the evolution of dense QSO clouds is examined, and radiative acceleration is excluded as the process responsible for the high bulk velocities of filaments, at least in sources that display energetic outbursts. An alternative mechanism involving highly energetic explosions is proposed.

  15. An underground research tunnel for the validation of high-level radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Park, S. I.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this study, minimum requirements and the conceptual design for an efficient construction of a small scale URL, which is named URT, were derived based on a literature review. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design for construction at KAERI, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, electronic resistivity survey, borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Based on the results, it was possible to design URT effectively with a consideration of the site characterization. The construction of URT was started in May 2005 and the first stage of the construction of the access tunnel could be successfully completed in Aug. 2005

  16. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  17. Comparison Between Surf and Multi-Shock Forest Fire High Explosive Burn Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Nicholas Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-18

    PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.

  18. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  19. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  20. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  1. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  2. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  3. Emission spectroscopy of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, organic and high-explosive targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Day, J.P.R.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Loiseau, J.; Huneault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Devir, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, nylon and high-explosive targets are presented. Spectral measurements of the impact flash are recorded, together with radiometric measurements to derive the temperature of the flash. Such experiments aim at demonstrating that the impact

  4. Nanotwin Formation in High-Manganese Austenitic Steels Under Explosive Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, D.; Uzer, B.; Elmadagli, M.; Guner, F.

    2018-04-01

    The micro-deformation mechanisms active in a high-manganese austenitic steel were investigated upon explosive shock loading. Single system of nanotwins forming within primary twins were shown to govern the deformation despite the elevated temperatures attained during testing. The benefits of nanotwin formation for potential armor materials were demonstrated.

  5. The possibilites of coal seam underground excavation in Republic of Macedonia with high productive excavation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents mining and geology properties of coal deposits in R.Macedonia predetermined for underground exploitation. Also it will be shown the way of coal seams preparation and development for underground excavation with longwall mining methods. Based on mining and geology properties of coal and it’s caloric value it will be observed the possibilities for application on the longwall mining which is among excavation methods with highest production and capacity applied in the contemp...

  6. Calculating the dynamics of High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) after ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2008-10-15

    We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating, and to describe the evolution of the energy release. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the applications described here, we are studying a UK-developed HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult such as a drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation, have been observed to react. In some circumstances the reaction can be violent. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR). Fundamental to our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the explosive near the trajectory of the impactor. The damage is manifest as surface area through the creation of cracks and fragments, and also as porosity through the separation of crack faces and isolation of the fragments. Open porosity permits a flame to spread easily and so ignite the newly formed surface area. The additional surface area leads to a direct increase in the mass-burning rate. As the kinetic energy and power of the insult increases, the degree of damage and the volume of damage both increase. Upon a localized ignition, the flame spreads to envelop the damaged volume, and the pressure rises at an accelerated rate until neither mechanical strength nor inertial confinement can successfully contain the pressure. The confining structure begins to expand. This reduces the pressure and may even extinguish the flame. Both the mass of explosive involved and the rate at which the gas is produced contribute to each of several different measures of violence

  7. High-Speed Imaging of Explosive Droplet Boiling at the Superheat Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, F. Robert; Hermanson, Jim; Asadollahi, Arash; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2017-11-01

    The explosive boiling processes of droplets of diethyl ether (1-2 mm in diameter) at the superheat limit were examined both experimentally and computationally. Experimentally, droplet explosion was studied using a heated bubble column to bring the test droplet to the superheat limit. The droplet fluid was diethyl ether (superheat limit 147 C at 1 bar) with immiscible glycerol employed as the heated host fluid. Tests were carried out at pressures between 0.5 and 4 bar absolute. The pressure rise associated with the explosive boiling event was captured using a piezoelectric quartz pressure transducer with a 1 MHz DAQ system. High-speed imaging of the interfacial behavior during explosive boiling was performed using a Phantom v12.1 camera at a frame rate of up to one million frames per second with the droplets illuminated by diffuse back-lighting. The imaging reveals features of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the vapor-liquid interface resulting from the unstable boiling process. Computationally, Direct Numerical Simulations are performed at Southern Illinois University Carbondale to compliment the experimental tests. NSF Award Number 1511152.

  8. Going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winqvist, T.; Mellgren, K.-E. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Contains over 100 short articles on underground structures and tunneling based largely on Swedish experience. Includes papers on underground workers - attitudes and prejudices, health investigations, the importance of daylight, claustrophobia; excavation, drilling and blasting; hydroelectric power plants; radioactive waste disposal; district heating; oil storage; and coal storage.

  9. High-Energy-Absorbing Enclosure for Internal Explosion Containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-15

    NAVY CASE NO. 76,971 PAGE 7 should be significantly reduced . For many embodiments of this invention the inner and outer fiber-reinforced highly...visualized as related to the area » under a strees -versus-etrain curve. Conventional composites have a maximum strain-to-failure of about 10...DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In order that the present invention may be clearly understood, it will now be described, by way of example, with 5 reference

  10. Underground storage tank waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure waterjet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD ampersand E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier, Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Simulant materials representative of tank waste have been used to test the performance of the scarifier over a wide range of waste types. This technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste simulants at desired retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of proposed deployment devices. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  11. Managing the explosion of high resolution topography in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Phan, Minh; Gross, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds that come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM and UAS-based laser scanning, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The U.S. National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 225 datasets and 15,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected high-resolution topographic data. OT has developed a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community

  12. The underground retrievable storage (URS) high-level waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    This papers presents the concept of long-term underground retrievable storage (URS) of spent reactor fuel in unsaturated rock. Emplacement would be incremental and the system is planned to be experimental and flexible. The rationale for retrievability is examined, and a technical basis for 300-year retrievability is presented. Maximum isolation is the rationale for underground as opposed to surface storage. Although the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain Nevada would be suitable for a URS, alternate sites are discussed. The technical issues involved in licensing a URS for 300 years are simpler than licensing a 10,000 year repository. 16 refs

  13. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dies, J; Miralles, L; Tarrasa, F; Pueyo, J J; de las Cuevas, C

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC 2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in the second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 degrees C and 90 degrees C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h(-1) and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction (80 microm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fraction can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon.

  14. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechancial insult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2008-07-29

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  15. Evaluating Macro and Microscopic Rock Damage from Explosions and the Effects on Shear Wave Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    the rock was highly pulverized and granulated . Outward and above the emplacement level, the granite was characterized by high angle fractures...underground explosion (after Rodean (1971) and modified by Sammis for acoustic fluidization from Melosh, 1979...145 Figure 7-6. Displacement seismograms recorded at Station R06 located approximately 6 km from the test bed

  16. Detonation of high explosives in Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes using the programmed burn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.E.

    1975-09-01

    Two initiation methods were developed for improving the programmed burn technique for detonation of high explosives in smeared-shock Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. The methods are verified by comparing the improved programmed burn with existing solutions in one-dimensional plane, converging, and diverging geometries. Deficiencies in the standard programmed burn are described. One of the initiation methods has been determined to be better for inclusion in production hydrodynamic codes

  17. Evaluation of SW846 Method 8330 for Characterization of Sites Contaminated with Residues of High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the transformation pathways of some explosives have Method 8330 is the sum of the TNB and TNBA initially been studied in cell cultures , composting...soil. Talanta, 39:419-428. products in soils and plant tissues by high-performance Jenkins, T.F., P.H. Miyares, K.F. Myers, E.F. McCor- liquid... hydroponic plants. Environmental Toxicology and (1976)Aquaticfield survey at Iowa, Radford, and Joliet Chemistry, 10: 845-855. Armn Ammunition Plants

  18. Future explosive pulse-power technology for high-energy plasma physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Marsh, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of high-performance pulse-power systems in the 10 to 20-MJ class have been built in the last ten years or are planned in the next 3--5 years. Such systems, using capacitive energy storage, are employed in particle beam fusion, x-ray effects, x-ray physics, and plasma physics experiments. Advances in the technology of high-energy- density capacitors over the same time period has substantially decreased the cost per joule of the basic capacitor and kept the total parts count in large systems within reason. Overall, the savings in capacitor costs has about balanced the generally increasing system costs keeping the total cost of large, high-performance systems at $1--2 per joule over the period. The next step, to 100-MJ class systems, will profit from the improvements of the last decade, but there seems little reason to project a lowering of the cost per joule. In contrast, there is every reason to expect the continuously growing system costs to outstrip any savings to be realized from improvements in capacitor technology. Over the same period, explosive pulse power systems in the 10 to 20-MJ class have been employed, routinely, in plasma physics experiments. These one- shot systems currently cost about $100 K for the generator and switching and deliver energy to a plasma physics experiment in a few microseconds. Comparing only hardware costs, such systems are competitive with capacitor systems for developmental activities involving 100--200 shots -- but not for repetitive applications involving 1000's of shots. At this rate, explosive systems are competitive systems for applications involving up to 200--500 shots. In this paper, we discuss general concepts for generators and power-conditioning systems appropriate for high-energy applications. We scope two such applications and show how explosive pulse power can address those applications. And we describe one example of an explosively powered generator suitable for 100-MJ operation

  19. High-speed photography of underwater sympathetic detonation of high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    The donor and the acceptor charges are arranged into the water with the interval. The donor charge has a cylindrical geometry with 30 mm diameter and 50 mm long. The acceptor has a disk form with 100 mm diameter and 10 or 5 mm thickness. Composition B is used for both of the donor and acceptor charges. The propagation processes of underwater shock waves from the top end of acceptor charge along the axis of charges are taken by the image converter camera under the intervals of 10, 15, 20 and 25 mm. In the case of 10 mm thick acceptor charge, the velocities of the underwater shock wave are the almost the same up to the interval of 20 mm. However, in the case of 25 mm the underwater shock wave has remarkable low velocity compared to the other cases. In the case of 20 mm interval, the velocity of the underwater shock wave in the case of the 5 mm thick acceptor is slower than that of 10 mm. Furthermore, the numerical simulations are conducted. The reaction rate law of the high explosive is a phenomenological model that is proposed by Lee and Tarver. The results of the optical measurement and numerical simulation demonstrate a good agreement.

  20. Modeling heterogeneous high explosive burn with an explicit hot-spot process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, P.K.; Johnson, J.N.; Forest, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    We present a method of treating high explosive burn with a multi-step process which includes the hot-spot excitation, decomposition, and the propagation of reaction into the region outside the hot spots. The basic features of this model are the separation of the thermal-mechanical and chemical processes, and the partition of the explosive into hot spots and the region exclusive of the hot spots. The thermal-mechanical aspects are formulated in a way similar to the chemical process. The combined processes lead to a set of rate equations for the mass fractions of reactants, intermediate states, and final products. The rates are expressed initially in terms of general characteristic times, but with specific phenomenological correlations introduced in the final model. Computational examples are given of simulated flyer plate impacts, short-shock initiation, corner turning, and shock desensitization. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J R; Lightstone, J M; Piecuch, S; Koch, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science

  2. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  3. Determining the Coalescence of Hotspots into Uniform Detonation Fronts in High Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Mays, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Converse, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baluyot, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, J. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Microwave Interferometry (MI) offers the advantage of a continuous time measurement of detonation front velocity from detonation initiation to disassembly, which is an important step to assure the quality of stockpile high explosives. However, the method is currently characterized by areas of poor signal strength, which lead to low confidence measurements. Experiments in inert materials were conducted to determine if reflective hot spots, pockets of plasma that form during detonation, are responsible due to varying hot spot concentrations. Instead, it was found that the copper tube used in a range of standard HE test configurations is the cause of the poor signal reception. Hot spots were represented by microwave reflective aluminum particles. The aluminum was mixed with Titanium Dioxide, a material electrically similar to the insensitive high explosive, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), in volume percent fractions (VPFs) between 0 and 100% aluminum, in increments of 10%. Reflectivity was measured based on input and reflection received from a test apparatus with a layer representing undetonated explosive and another representing an approaching shockwave. The results showed no correlation between VPF and measured reflectivity test cases while enclosed in the standard copper tube. Upon further testing, each sample’s measured reflectivity independent of the copper enclosure did correlate with VPF. This revealed that the test enclosure currently used for MI measurements is causing poor MI signal reception, and new methods must be developed to account for this aberration in MI measurements.

  4. Characterisation and Modification of Thermally Stable High Explosives for Laser Flyer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Claridge, R. P.; Proud, W. G.; Johnson, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Laser initiation offers improved weapon survivability, versatility and greater Insensitive Munitions (IM) compliance. Detonators based on laser-driven flyers are less vulnerable to electrical initiation and can be based on insensitive secondary explosives. Additionally, this technology will offer advantages in terms of improved flexibility and reliability. Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and nonanitro-m-terphenyl (NONA) were selected for investigation at QinetiQ as their increased thermal stability over conventional explosives makes them ideal candidates for use in insensitive munition compliant applications. The response of these materials to short duration high-amplitude shock impulses provided by exploding foil initiators (EFI), the electrical equivalent of a laser-driven flyer system, was investigated. Preparation techniques including sonication and the incorporation of additives were used to sensitize the materials to flyer impact, yet maintain their insensitivity to external hazards. Sonication significantly reduced the particle size of both HNS and NONA. The reduced-size explosives exhibited increased sensitivity to EFI impact than the starting materials.

  5. Perchlorate contamination from the detonation of insensitive high-explosive rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael R; Walsh, Marianne E; Ramsey, Charles A; Brochu, Sylvie; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy

    2013-11-15

    The insensitive high-explosive PAX-21 was the first of its kind fielded in an artillery munition by the United States military. This formulation contains three main components: RDX, dinitroanisole, and ammonium perchlorate (AP). In March 2012, detonation tests were conducted on PAX-21 60mm mortar rounds to determine the energetic residues resulting from high-order and blow-in-place (BIP) detonations. Post-detonation residues were sampled and analyzed for the three main PAX-21 components. Concentrations of RDX and dinitroanisole in the samples were quite low, less than 0.1% of the munitions' original organic explosive filler mass, indicating high order or near high order detonations. However, disproportionately high concentrations of AP occurred in all residues. The residues averaged 15% of the original AP following high-order detonations and 38% of the original AP mass following the BIP operations. There was no correlation between AP residues and the RDX and dinitroanisole. Perchlorate readily leached from the detonation residues, with over 99% contained in the aqueous portion of the samples. Use of these rounds will result in billions of liters of water contaminated above drinking water perchlorate limits. As a result of this research, PAX-21 mortar rounds are currently restricted from use on US training ranges. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  7. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  8. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test...

  9. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The

  10. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In2O3 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Wei-De; Chen, Lu-Ya

    2010-08-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 °C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In2O3 nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  12. A new computer code to evaluate detonation performance of high explosives and their thermochemical properties, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Motamedoshariati, Hadi; Moghayadnia, Reza; Nazari, Hamid Reza; Azarniamehraban, Jamshid

    2009-12-30

    In this paper a new simple user-friendly computer code, in Visual Basic, has been introduced to evaluate detonation performance of high explosives and their thermochemical properties. The code is based on recently developed methods to obtain thermochemical and performance parameters of energetic materials, which can complement the computer outputs of the other thermodynamic chemical equilibrium codes. It can predict various important properties of high explosive including velocity of detonation, detonation pressure, heat of detonation, detonation temperature, Gurney velocity, adiabatic exponent and specific impulse of high explosives. It can also predict detonation performance of aluminized explosives that can have non-ideal behaviors. This code has been validated with well-known and standard explosives and compared the predicted results, where the predictions of desired properties were possible, with outputs of some computer codes. A large amount of data for detonation performance on different classes of explosives from C-NO(2), O-NO(2) and N-NO(2) energetic groups have also been generated and compared with well-known complex code BKW.

  13. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  14. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Val d`Or, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of cross-hole explosive malfunctioning in rock blasting (including sympathetic detonation, desensitization and cut-offs) is a function of delay and spacing in a blast which should be designed to avoid such occurrences. On a delay-spacing chart, the phenomenon of explosive malfunctioning is explained by dividing the chart into different regions, while the shape and size of each region could vary from one explosive to the other. Over seventy blasts have been carried out at the CANMET Experimental Mine to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water-gel and dynamite explosives. In each experiment, two parallel blastholes, 32 mm in diameter and 1.7 m deep, were drilled downwards in an underground drift. Full coupling was achieved by tamping the explosives in the wet holes. The receptor hole is initiated with a delay following the donor hole in order to observe the timing effect on the explosives being shocked. High frequency vibration monitoring was used to identify the detonation or failure of the receptor hole. The VOD measurement was used for donor holes but not for the receptor holes because of the cut-off at the collar as a result of donor hole cratering, which was further confirmed with high speed video recording. The spacing is varied to modify the shock pressure the receptor charges are subjected to. Results are presented for the three explosives tested.

  15. Problems of natural lighting for deepened buildings and underground premises under screen effect of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, Kira; Stetsky, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The main rationale and objective of the submitted research work is to create a quality lighting environment in the premises of deepened buildings and below-ground structures under screen effect of high-rise construction (high-rise buildings). It is noted, that in modern megapolises, a deficiency of vacant urban territories leads to the increased density of urban development with increased amount of high-rise construction and tendency to increase efficiency in the use of underground space. The natural lighting of premises in underground buildings and structures is the most efficient way, but it can be implemented only under use of roof lighting system in the form of roof monitors or skylights. In this case the levels of indoor natural lighting will be affected with serious screening effect of high-rise buildings in surrounding development. Such an situation is not regulated, or even considered by the contemporary building Codes and Regulations on natural lighting of interiors. The authors offered a new formula for a daylight factor calculation with roof lighting system in the described cases. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental studies showed very similar values. This proved the truth of the offered formula and elaborated method of calculation on the basis of an offered hypothesis. It prooves, that it is possible to use some factor and guide points in the daylight factors design under system of side natural lighting in the same design for a system of roof lighting.

  16. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Ruminal bioremediation of the high energy melting explosive (HMX) by sheep microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Hillary L; Murty, Lia D; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The ability of ruminal microorganisms to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high melting explosive, HMX) as consortia from whole rumen fluid (WRF), and individually as 23 commercially available ruminal strains, was compared under anaerobic conditions. Compound degradation was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for delineation of the metabolic pathway. In WRF, 30 μM HMX was degraded to 5 μM HMX within 24 h. Metabolites consistent with m/z 149, 193 and 229 were present throughout the incubation period. We propose that peaks with an m/z of 149 and 193 are arrived at through reduction of HMX to nitroso or hydroxylamino intermediates, then direct enzymatic ring cleavage to produce these HMX derivatives. Possible structures of m/z 229 are still being investigated and require further LC-MS/MS analysis. None of the 23 ruminal strains tested were able to degrade HMX as a pure culture when grown in either a low carbon or low nitrogen basal medium over 120 h. We conclude that microorganisms from the rumen, while sometimes capable as individuals in the bioremediation of other explosives, excel as a community in the case of HMX breakdown. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-strain rate Brazilian testing of an explosive simulant using speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, S. G.; Siviour, C. R.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-09-01

    The application of high-speed photography and image correlation has allowed dynamic Brazilian tests to be carried out using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) on PBS9501, an explosive simulant. The essential features of low-rate Brazilian tests are found to occur in the high-rate experiments, with the samples reaching equilibrium quickly and remaining in equilibrium throughout the experiment. The advantage of the approach described here is the ability to make tensile stress/strain measurements in the high-strain rate regime using a compression Hopkinson bar. This allows smaller sample sizes, making testing of expensive or dangerous materials easier, while expanding the capabilities of the compression bar.

  19. Multiphysics Simulations of Hot-Spot Initiation in Shocked Insensitive High-Explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. M.; Fried, L. E.

    2010-11-01

    Solid plastic-bonded high-explosive materials consist of crystals with micron-sized pores embedded. Under mechanical or thermal insults, these voids increase the ease of shock initiation by generating high-temperature regions during their collapse that might lead to ignition. Understanding the mechanisms of hot-spot initiation has significant research interest due to safety, reliability and development of new insensitive munitions. Multi-dimensional high-resolution meso-scale simulations are performed using the multiphysics software, ALE3D, to understand the hot-spot initiation. The Cheetah code is coupled to ALE3D, creating multi-dimensional sparse tables for the HE properties. The reaction rates were obtained from MD Quantum computations. Our current predictions showcase several interesting features regarding hot spot dynamics including the formation of a "secondary" jet. We will discuss the results obtained with hydro-thermo-chemical processes leading to ignition growth for various pore sizes and different shock pressures.

  20. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  1. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    of various kinds, as well as for identifying and displacing undesired individuals/groups/bodies. A case in point is a recently-established police project (REVA) in Sweden for strengthening the so-called internal border control. Specifically, several underground stations in Stockholm now have checkpoints......Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...

  2. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  3. A validated numerical investigation of the effects of high blockage ratio and train and tunnel length upon underground railway aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, D.; Hughes, B.; Ingham, D.; Ma, L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers and staff, an underground railway requires an extensive ventilation and cooling system. One mechanism for underground railway ventilation is the movement of air induced by trains, termed the ‘piston effect’. This study investigated the effect of altering the blockage ratio of an underground train upon the ventilating air flows driven by a train. First a computational model was developed and validated with experimental data from literatur...

  4. Enhanced mass removal due to phase explosion during high irradiance nanosecond laser ablation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jong Hyun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The morphology of craters resulting from high irradiance laser ablation of silicon was measured using a white light interferometry microscope. The craters show a dramatic increase in their depth and volume at a certain irradiance, indicating a change in the primary mechanism for mass removal. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to characterize and differentiate the mass ejection processes for laser irradiances above and below the threshold value. Time-resolved images show distinct features of the mass ejected at irradiances above the threshold value including the presence of micron-sized particulates; this begins at approximately 300 ~ 400 ns after the start of laser heating. The analysis of the phenomena was carried out by using two models: a thermal evaporation model and a phase explosion model. Estimation of the crater depth due to the thermally evaporated mass led to a large underestimation of the crater depth for irradiances above the threshold. Above the threshold irradiance, the possibility of phase explosion was analyzed. Two important results are the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature and the time for vapor bubbles that are generated in the superheated liquid to achieve a critical size. After reaching the critical size, vapor bubbles can grow spontaneously resulting in a violent ejection of liquid droplets from the superheated volume. The effects of an induced transparency, i.e. of liquid silicon turning into an optically transparent liquid dielectric medium, are also introduced. The estimated time for a bubble to reach the critical size is in agreement with the delay time measured for the initiation of large mass ejection. Also, the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature at the time of the beginning of the large mass ejection is representative of the crater depth at the threshold irradiance. These results suggest that phase explosion is a plausible thermal

  5. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Fine Tuning the CJ Detonation Speed of a High Explosive products Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    For high explosive (HE) simulations, inaccuracies of a per cent or two in the detonation wave speed can result from not suficiently resolving the reaction zone width or from small inaccuracies in calibrating the products equation of state (EOS) or from variation of HE lots. More accurate detonation speeds can be obtained by ne tuning the equation of state to compensate. Here we show that two simple EOS transformations can be used to adjust the CJ detonation speed by a couple of per cent with minimal effect on the CJ release isentrope. The two transformations are (1) a shift in the energy origin and (2) a linear scaling of the speci c volume. The effectiveness of the transformations is demonstrated with simulations of the cylinder test for PBX 9502 starting with a products EOS for which the CJ detonation speed is 1 per cent too low.

  7. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  8. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted ...

  9. Intensive evaporation and boiling of a heterogeneous liquid droplet with an explosive disintegration in high-temperature gas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The using of the high-speed (not less than 105 frames per second video recording tools (“Phantom” and the software package ("TEMA Automotive" allowed carrying out an experimental research of laws of intensive vaporization with an explosive disintegration of heterogeneous (with a single solid nontransparent inclusion liquid droplet (by the example of water in high-temperature (500-800 K gases (combustion products. Times of the processes under consideration and stages (liquid heat-up, evaporation from an external surface, bubble boiling at internal interfaces, growth of bubble sizes, explosive droplet breakup were established. Necessary conditions of an explosive vaporization of a heterogeneous droplet were found out. Mechanisms of this process and an influence of properties of liquid and inclusion material on them were determined.

  10. Thermal decomposition and kinetics of 2,4-dinitroimidazole: An insensitive high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniyappan, M., E-mail: anniorganic@rediffmail.com; Sonawane, S.H.; Pawar, S.J.; Sikder, A.K.

    2015-08-20

    Highlights: • Pure 2,4-dinitroimidazole was prepared by re-crystallization from hot methanol. • A detailed thermal analysis of 2,4-DNI by DSC, TGA, GC–MS and ignition temperature. • Activation energy was calculated for thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI • Effect of polymeric binder on thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI were also studied. • Decomposition mechanisms of 2,4-DNI based on EI mass spectra were also described. - Abstract: 2,4-Dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) is a novel energetic material with much less sensitive and potential for use as a propellant/insensitive munition (IM) formulations. 2,4-DNI possess high thermal stability and less sensitivity as compared to RDX and HMX which are high explosives extensively used at present. This paper reports a detailed thermal study of 2,4-DNI using various instrumental techniques. The activation energy (E = 205 ± 15 kJ/mol) was calculated from thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI using DSC at different heating rate. The ignition temperature of pure 2,4-DNI was measured and showed at 285 °C. The TGA experiments demonstrate that 2,4-DNI decomposes in three steps with 92% total weight lose. Moreover, the effect of thermal energy on decomposition of 2,4-DNI in presence of polymeric binders like GAP and HTPB were investigated. Further, decomposition mechanisms of 2,4-DNI based on Electron Impact mass spectra analysis were also reported along with its explosive properties.

  11. High-temperature acquifer thermal storage and underground heat storage; IEA ECES Annex 12: Hochtemperatur-Erdwaermesonden- und Aquiferwaermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Koch, M.; Adinolfi, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete und Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-12-31

    Heat storage is essential for the reconciliation of heat supply and demand. The earth has already proved to be an excellent medium for storing large amounts of heat over longer periods of time, for instance during the cold and hot season. The efficiency of the storage is the better the lower storage losses are at high temperature levels. Unfortunately this can not be easily achieved. While thermal underground stores, which are widely used for cold storage, have proved to perform quite well at temperatures between 10 C - 40 C, it has been rather difficult to achieve similar results at higher temperatures up to 150 C as test and demonstration plants of the 1980s proved. This issue has again attracted so much interest that the IEA launched a project on high temperature underground storage in December 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waermespeicherung ist von entscheidender Bedeutung, wenn es darum geht, ein Waermeangebot mit einer Waermenachfrage zeitlich zur Deckung zu bringen. Der Untergrund hat sich schon seit vielen Jahren als ein geeignetes Medium erwiesen, groessere Waermepumpen ueber laengere Zeitraeume wie etwa die kalten und warmen Jahreszeiten zu speichern. Die Effizienz eines solchen Speichers steigt mit der Hoehe des erreichten Temperaturniveaus und mit sinkenden Speicherverlusten, was leider eher gegenlaeufige Erscheinungen sind. Waehrend thermische Untergrundspeicher im Temperaturbereich von 10-40 C inzwischen erfolgreich demonstriert wurden und vor allem zur Kaeltespeicherung auch bereits vielfach eingesetzt werden, haben hoehere Temperaturen bis etwa 150 C in den Versuchs- und Demonstrationsanlagen der 80er Jahre vielfaeltige Probleme bereitet. Im Gefolge eines erneuten Interesses an unterirdischer thermischer Energiespeicherung wurde im Dezember 1997 ein Vorhaben des IEA Energiespeicherprogramms zu Untergrund-Waermespeichern hoeherer Temperatur eingerichtet. (orig.)

  12. Simulation of changes in temperature and pressure fields during high speed projectiles forming by explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miloš D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Research in this paper considered the temperatures fields as the consequently influenced effects appeared by plastic deformation, in the explosively forming process aimed to design Explosively Formed Projectiles (henceforth EFP. As the special payloads of the missiles, used projectiles are packaged as the metal liners, joined with explosive charges, to design explosive propulsion effect. Their final form and velocity during shaping depend on distributed temperatures in explosively driven plastic deformation process. Developed simulation model consider forming process without metal cover of explosive charge, in aim to discover liner’s dynamical correlations of effective plastic strains and temperatures in the unconstrained detonation environment made by payload construction. The temperature fields of the liner’s copper material are considered in time, as the consequence of strain/stress displacements driven by explosion environmental thermodynamically fields of pressures and temperatures. Achieved final velocities and mass loses as the expected EFP performances are estimated regarding their dynamical shaping and thermal gradients behavior vs. effective plastic strains. Performances and parameters are presented vs. process time, numerically simulated by the Autodyne software package. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47029

  13. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. Klingsporn

    2005-11-14

    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  14. The Mechanisms and Dynamics of High-Energy Lava-Water Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, E. P.; Fagents, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The study of explosive interactions between surface lava flows and water can provide context for understanding explosive magma-water interactions, without the competing effects of juvenile degassing-induced fragmentation. Explosive melt-water experiments and analysis of tephra produced during natural lava-water explosions (i.e. rootless tephra) indicate that the energy release during an explosion is proportional to the abundance of ash having undergone brittle fragmentation. This "blocky" ash contributes significant energy, even if the total mass of blocky ash is small relative to coarser ejecta, making it the thermodynamic driver of the explosion. Previous work has focused on relatively low-energy lava-water explosions, with a dispersal diameter of 150 m, but cones of rootless tephra (i.e. rootless cones) range in diameter from approximately 5 to 450 m, and an increase in explosion energy generally produces a more widely dispersed cone. Therefore, in order to identify processes occurring on the higher-energy end of the spectrum, we investigated the characteristics of tephra from a cone with a diameter of 400 m. In general, we find that coarser-grained beds contain a larger total abundance of fluidal grains (i.e. molten spatter) than finer-grained beds, consistent with previous work. However, some beds display an elevated abundance of fluidal ash, independent of the mean grain size of the deposit, which may be evidence of changing mixing conditions resulting in a different explosion type. Additionally, beds of the 400 m cone contain three to six times as much blocky ash as beds of the 150 m cone having similar grain-size distributions. We interpret this result to be a product of higher-energy explosions, in which ash-scale fragmentation is the most important, energetically. However, the potential effect of lava rheology will be constrained through additional analyses of tephra morphology, vesicle sizes and shapes, in addition to more detailed analysis of tephra

  15. Characterization of laser-induced plasmas as a complement to high-explosive large-scale detonations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kimblin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations into the characteristics of laser-induced plasmas indicate that LIBS provides a relatively inexpensive and easily replicable laboratory technique to isolate and measure reactions germane to understanding aspects of high-explosive detonations under controlled conditions. Spectral signatures and derived physical parameters following laser ablation of aluminum, graphite and laser-sparked air are examined as they relate to those observed following detonation of high explosives and as they relate to shocked air. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS reliably correlates reactions involving atomic Al and aluminum monoxide (AlO with respect to both emission spectra and temperatures, as compared to small- and large-scale high-explosive detonations. Atomic Al and AlO resulting from laser ablation and a cited small-scale study, decay within ∼10-5 s, roughly 100 times faster than the Al and AlO decay rates (∼10-3 s observed following the large-scale detonation of an Al-encased explosive. Temperatures and species produced in laser-sparked air are compared to those produced with laser ablated graphite in air. With graphite present, CN is dominant relative to N2+. In studies where the height of the ablating laser’s focus was altered relative to the surface of the graphite substrate, CN concentration was found to decrease with laser focus below the graphite surface, indicating that laser intensity is a critical factor in the production of CN, via reactive nitrogen.

  16. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  17. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2013-01-01

    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  18. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Damage & fracture of high-explosive mock subject to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lovato, Manuel L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    We use four-point bend specimen with a single shallow edge notch to study the fracture process in Mock 900-21, a PBX 9501 high explosive simulant mock. Subject to monotonic loading we determine quantitatively the threshold load for macroscopic crack initiation from the notch tip. The four-point bend specimen is then subject to cyclic loading in such a way that during the first cycle, the applied force approaches but does not exceed the threshold load determined from the monotonic loading test and in the subsequent cycles, the overall maximum deformation is maintained to be equal to that of the first cycle. It is expected and is also confirmed that no macroscopic damage and cracking occur during the first cycle. However, we observe that sizable macroscopic crack is generated and enlarged during the subsequent cycles, even though the applied force never exceeds the threshold load. Details of the process of damage fonnation, accumulation, and crack extension are presented and the mechanical mechanism responsible for such failure process is postulated and discussed.

  20. Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, Damian G; Prokhorova, Darya A; Korter, Timothy M

    2006-02-09

    The experimental solid-state terahertz (THz) spectrum (3-120 cm(-1)) of the beta-crystal form of the high explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) has been analyzed using solid-state density functional theory calculations. Various density functionals (both generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation) are compared in terms of their abilities to reproduce the experimentally observed solid-state structure and low-frequency vibrational motions. Good-to-excellent agreement between solid-state theory and experiment can be achieved in the THz region where isolated-molecule calculations fail to reproduce the observed spectral features, demonstrating a clear limitation of using isolated-molecule calculations for the assignment of THz frequency motions in molecular solids. The deficiency of isolated-molecule calculations is traced to modification of the molecular structure in the solid state through crystal packing effects and the formation of weak C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

  1. Confinement Effect on Detonation Propagation in Condensed-Phase High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquete, Carlos; Short, Mark; Meyer, Chad D.; Quirk, James J.

    2017-11-01

    In applications that embed condensed-phase high explosives (HEs) in engineering scale geometries, the confining material's density and impedance have a strong influence on the resulting speed and front shape of the detonation wave in the HE. This is due to the post-shock flow divergence induced by the inert material yielding to the intense reaction zone pressures. Here, we systematically investigate this confinement effect on multi-dimensional detonation propagation. Specifically, we use a simplified HE model and stylized 2D planar and axisymmetric geometries. A shock-attached formulation of the reactive Euler equations is adopted and the post-shock flow divergence is mimicked by enforcing a (linear) boundary streamline at a prescribed deflection angle. The steady-state propagation of the wave is examined as a function of this angle including its phase velocity, detonation front pressure and the reaction zone structure. We focus on the transition from subsonic or confined flow along the boundary to supersonic flow when the detonation propagation becomes insensitive to further increases in flow divergence.

  2. Low amplitude insult project: PBX 9501 high explosive violent reaction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W.; Scammon, R.J.; Browning, R.V.; Middleditch, J.; Dienes, J.K.; Skidmore, C.B.; Buntain, G.A.

    1998-12-31

    The Modified Steven test geometry has been used with several different target designs to investigate the mechanical loading behavior of PBX 9501 to a low velocity impact. A 2 kg. mild steel spigot projectile is launched via a new powder driven gun design, from {approximately} 20 to 105 m/s, at lightly confined, steel targets. Brief descriptions of the gun design and operation are given. The threshold velocity to reaction for various target designs, different PBX 9501 lots, and different high explosive (HE) thicknesses are reported and compared. Various diagnostics have been employed to evaluate the pressure profile and timing, and target strain behavior relative to projectile impact. The violence of reaction, as measured by both passive and active techniques, is reported relative to a steady state detonation in PBX 9501. Experimental results suggest slightly different ignition mechanisms dominate based on (HE) thickness, resulting in delayed reactions from {approximately} 0.2- to 2.8-ms after impact. Post-test analyses of the PBX 9501 are briefly summarized.

  3. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  4. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  5. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  6. Sensitivity effects of void density and arrangements in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gronbech - Jensen, Niels [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-28

    The shock response of two-dimensional model, high explosive crystals with various arrangements of circular voids is explored. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. In square lattices of voids all of one size, reducing that size or increasing the porosity while holding the other parameter fixed causes the hotspots to consume the material more quickly and detonation to occur sooner and at lower piston velocities. The early time behavior is seen to follow a very simple ignition and growth model. The hotspots are seen to collectively develop a broad pressure wave (a sonic, diffuse deflagration front) that, upon merging with the lead shock, transforms it into a detonation. The reaction yields produced by triangular lattices are not significantly different. With random void arrangements, the mean time to detonation is 15.5% larger than with the square lattice; the standard deviation of detonation delays is just 5.1%.

  7. KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won

    2007-01-01

    An underground research tunnel is essential to validate the integrity of a high-level waste disposal system, and the safety of geological disposal. In this study, KAERI underground research tunnel (KURT) was constructed in the site of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI). The results of the site investigation and the design of underground tunnel were presented. The procedure for the construction permits and the construction of KURT were described briefly. The in-situ experiments being carried out at KURT were also introduced

  8. Particle size analysis of prepared solutions and fingerprint deposits of high explosive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) was tasked via the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct various studies involving the detection and measurement of explosive materials and their associated residues. This report details the results of an investigation to determine the particle size characteristics of the explosive materials used in the design, development, and testing of trace explosives detection systems. These materials, in the form of water suspensions of plastic explosives, are used to provide a quantitative means of monitoring the performance characteristics of the detection systems. The purpose of this investigation is to provide data that allows a comparison between the particles deposited using the suspension standards and the particles deposited from fingerprints. This information may support the development of quality control aids, measurement methods, or performance criteria specifications for the use of trace explosives detection systems. For this report, particle size analyses were completed on explosives standard suspensions/solutions for composition C-4, Semtex-H, and Detasheet and fingerprints for C-4, Detasheet, and pentolite. Because of the difficulty in collecting microscopic images of the particles in the suspensions from test protocol surfaces, this paper discusses the characteristics of the particles as they are found on metal, glass, and paper. The results of the particle characterization analyses indicate that the water suspensions contain particulate composed of binder materials and dissolved portions of the explosive compounds. Upon drying of the water suspensions, significant particle nucleation and growth is observed. The nucleated particulate is comparable to the particulate deposited by fingerprints.

  9. Performance evaluation of diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) as a booster material for insensitive high explosives using the onionskin test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harry, Herbert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-09

    Initiation of insensitive high explosive (IHE) formulations requires the use of a booster explosive in the initiation train. Booster material selection is crucial, as the initiation must reliably function across some spectrum of physical parameters. The interest in DAAF for this application stems from the fact that it possesses many traits of an IHE but is shock sensitive enough to serve as an explosive booster. A hemispherical wave breakout test, termed the onionskin test, is one of the methods used to evaluate the performance of a booster material. The wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemisphericallHE charge is recorded and the relative uniformity of the breakout can be quantitatively compared between booster materials. A series of onionskin tests were performed to investigate breakout and propagation diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) at low temperatures to evaluate ignition and detonation spreading in comparison to other explosives commonly used in booster applications. Some wave perturbation was observed with the DAAF booster in the onionskin tests presented. The results of these tests will be presented and discussed.

  10. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  11. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Beltran, B. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Carmona, J.M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, S. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gomez, H. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Luzon, G. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, M. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ortiz de Solorzano, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Pobes, C. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Puimedon, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ruz, J. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sarsa, M.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, L. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villar, J.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics, University of Zaragoza. 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories.

  12. High-temperature explosive development for geothermal well stimulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.W.; Mars, J.E.; Wang, C.

    1978-03-31

    A two-component, temperature-resistant liquid explosive called HITEX has been developed which is capable of withstanding 561/sup 0/K (550/sup 0/F) for 24 hours in a geothermal environment. The explosive is intended for the stimulation of nonproducing or marginally producing geothermal (hot dry rock, vapor-dominated or hydrothermal) reservoirs by fracturing the strata in the vicinity of a borehole. The explosive is inherently safe because it is mixed below ground downhole from two nondetonable liquid components. Development and safety tests included differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability, minerals compatibility, drop-weight sensitivity, adiabatic compression, electrostatic discharge sensitivity, friction sensitivity, detonation arrest capability, cook-off tests, detonability at ambient and elevated pressure, detonation velocity and thin film propagation in a wedge.

  13. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portable, mobile, or, stationary high-voltage equipment shall contain either a direct or derived neutral which shall be grounded through a suitable resistor at the source transformers, and a grounding circuit, originating at the grounded side of the grounding resistor, shall extend along with the power conductors and...

  14. Toward an Empirically-based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.; Ruppert, S.; Matzel, E.; Hauk, T. F.; Gok, R.

    2010-12-01

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases (Pn, Pg, and Lg) that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. These parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. There is a correlation of high gas-porosity (low strength) with increased spectral slope. However, there are trade-offs between the slope and corner-frequency, which we try to independently constrain using Mueller-Murphy relations and coda-ratio techniques. The relationship between the parametric equation and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source, and aid in the prediction of observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing.

  15. Calculation of intensity of high energy muon groups observed deep underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilov, Y. N.; Dedenko, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    The intensity of narrow muon groups observed in Kolar Gold Field (KGF) at the depth of 3375 m.w.e. was calculated in terms of quark-gluon strings model for high energy hadron - air nuclei interactions by the method of direct modeling of nuclear cascade in the air and muon propagation in the ground for normal primary cosmic ray composition. The calculated intensity has been found to be approx. 10 to the 4 times less than one observed experimentally.

  16. Underground disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste: a review of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A review has been undertaken of the worldwide status of research and development related to the geological disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The nature and quantities of vitrified high level waste that will arise from nuclear power generation in the UK have been estimated and considered. The safety case for establishing a geological repository would have to be based on predictive models, which could adequately represent the interactions and effects of a wide range of gradual processes and possible sudden events. No detailed repository design has yet been published, but the configuration currently favoured, in the UK and in most other countries, comprises a small number of vertical shafts, from which a network of horizontal tunnels would be excavated. Waste packages would be placed in holes drilled in the floors of the tunnels. The excavation of such a repository in hard crystalline rock, in a thick homogeneous formation of rock salt, or in the less plastic argillaceous formations, appears to be within the scope of present technology. Rock types available in the UK, which are likely to prove suitable for the accommodation of a repository, have been identified. The strategies and programmes for high level waste disposal in other countries have been reviewed. (U.K.)

  17. Reliable discrimination of high explosive and chemical/biological artillery using acoustic UGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi

    2005-10-01

    discrimination between conventional and simulated chemical/biological artillery rounds using acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because high explosive warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas, therefore employing a slower burning, less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. The ensuing blast waves are readily characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. We show that, highly reliable discrimination (> 98%) between conventional and potentially chemical/biological artillery is achieved at ranges exceeding 3km. A feedforward neural network classifier, trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition yields.

  18. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  19. PBX 9501 high explosive violent response/low amplitude insult project: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Scammon, R.; Straight, J.; Skidmore, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary modeling and experimental analyses of the violent reaction threshold of semi-heavily confined PBX 9501 to low velocity impact have been completed. Experimental threshold measurements were obtained with ten tests using a spigot gun design to launch a hemispherical projectile at the high explosive contained in stainless steel. Powder curves were determined for several gun barrel designs, powders, and projectile materials and have proven to be very reproducible over the range of 75 to 325 ft/s. A threshold velocity of approximately 246 ft/s for violent reaction of the PBX 9501 was determined with experimental gauge and switch measurements and the remaining physical test evidence. Preliminary analyses of the PBX 9501 samples retrieved from both unreacted and partially reacted targets have been completed. Core samples were obtained from the unreacted targets and submitted for density determinations. The subsequent analysis supports the concept that the PBX 9501 yields and fractures under the low velocity compression event to expand and fill the annular gap in the target design. Samples of PBX 9501 from the partially reacted targets were examined with scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques. Increased evidence of mechanical twinning effects are noted in the HMX crystals from the partially reacted targets. Finite element calculations using DYNA213, with a modified ORION post processor, without reaction or chemistry models, were used to support the design of targets, to compare predictive analyses with experimental measurements, and to evaluate a proposed ignition criterion in a power law form for threshold to reaction with dependence on pressure, maximum shear strain rate, and time variables. The calculations show good agreement with the physical dent and deformation data from the remaining target evidence; however, they do not match the experimental pressure gauge measurements well.

  20. Xsense: using nanotechnology to combine detection methods for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to produce a handheld explosives sensor the Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners. Using micro- and nano technological approaches it will be attempted to integrate four detection principles into a single de...

  1. KURT, a small-scale underground research laboratory for the research on a high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Kwon, Sangki; Park, Jung-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    To obtain information on an underground environment and to investigate the behavior of repository barriers in an underground environment, a small-scale underground research laboratory named KURT was constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, an electronic resistivity survey, and a borehole drilling as well as in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Using the geological survey results, the design of KURT and an analysis of its mechanical stability to confirm the validity of the design were performed. The construction of KURT was started in May 2005 and it was successfully completed in July 2006. Also, the operation of KURT was started in November 2006. The research programs in KURT are introduced here

  2. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  3. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  4. High seas to high explosives: the evolution of calcaneus fracture management in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, George C; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Brelin, Alaina M; Gordon, Wade T

    2014-11-01

    Calcaneus fractures typically occur as a consequence of axial load. In the civilian population, this is most often because of motor vehicle accidents or falls from height. Early management of these injuries in the military population largely mirrored that of civilian surgeons. However, calcaneus fractures secondary to underfoot blasts became a significant source of morbidity and mortality in World War II. First described in the aftermath of large-scale naval battles between metal-deck ships, this "deck-slap" phenomenon is associated with high rates of concomitant injuries, infection, and amputation. We review the historical and contemporary management of calcaneus fractures by military orthopedic surgeons, as well as detailing the unique challenges faced in managing the soft-tissue component and associated injuries commonly observed in this population. Combat-related calcaneus fractures are associated with very high rates of concomitant injuries and extensive soft-tissue wounds. Despite significant research and technological advances, functional outcomes following these devastating injuries have remained unsatisfying. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  6. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  7. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  8. Evaluation of a sheathed permissible explosive charge for open shooting in flammable atmospheres: Adobe charge program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainiero, R. J.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    A prototype nonincendive explosive rock-breaker charge that can be fired unconfined in underground bituminous coal mines without the danger of igniting a flammable atmosphere that might be present is described. At present, unconfined shooting in underground coal mines is prohibited, but there are situations where the use of such shots would yield an overall improvement in safety. The charge consists of 1-1/2 lb of permissible water gel explosive in the form of a short cylinder 7 inches in diameter and 7/8 inches high, surrounded by a 1/2-inch-thick layer of damp salt, and encased in latex rubber reinforced with cheese cloth. The latex rubber housing provides a charge package that is strong enough to resist rough handling yet is pliable enough to conform to an irregular stone surface. A charge of this shape was found to be more effective at breaking rock than charges with lined or unlined cavities.

  9. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  10. Design methodology for understanding the sympathetic detonation characteristics of insensitive high explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Dinesh.

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of sympathetic detonation of energetic materials is important from the stand point of safety, shelf life, storage requirements and handling. The objective of this thesis is to introduce a methodology to assess performance and sensitivity levels of insensitive munitions to sympathetic detonations. AUTODYN code was utilized to validate the shock sensitivity results for Composition B explosives. Upon code validation, simulations were conducted to evaluate small scale sympat...

  11. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response su...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  12. A Multipathway Model for High Explosives and Barium Transport Using GoldSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B. D.; Hickmott, D. D.; Keating, E. H.; Robinson, B. A.; Gard, M. O.

    2002-05-01

    Outfalls from High Explosives (HE) production sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) discharged RDX, TNT, HMX, and barium contaminated waters onto a mesa /canyon system on the western edge of the Pajarito Plateau from 1944 to 1996. HE concentrations in surface soils ranged to over 20 wt.%, and HE in waters range to over 800 ug/L. HE in water is present in springs, surface waters, alluvial waters and deep perched (> 700 ft. depth) and possibly regional (> 1200 ft depth) groundwaters. Barium concentrations range to over 4 wt.% in sediments, and to over 5000 ug/L in spring and alluvial waters. Because of the size of contaminant inventories and observations of HE in the perched zone and possibly deeper, there has been concern that there may be a long-term risk at a downgradient drinking water supply well. To address this concern, a GoldSim multipathway model was developed to simulate transport of HE and barium from source areas to the supply well. The objectives of the modeling effort were to generate a preliminary assessment of potential concentrations at the supply well and to identify any model components/parameters that require additional characterization based on model sensitivity and uncertainty. The model evaluates two main source areas, one is controlled by flow through the mesa vadose zone, and the other by flow through the canyon vadose zone. The two vadose zone modules feed into a saturated zone module that terminates at a pumping well (drinking water) module. The hydrogeology of the site is extremely complex and includes a heterogeneous, unfractured/fractured tuff vadose zone geology, ponds, springs, alluvial aquifers, a perennial stream reach, and two deep aquifers. Because of this complexity, and limited characterization and contaminant inventory information, we used a stochastic approach to quantitatively represent model/parameter uncertainties. Model parameters were developed using a variety of information including flow and transport modeling

  13. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1970-01-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  14. Application of resistivity-based high-density prospecting to embankments with underground structure; Chika kozobutsu wo yusuru moritsuchi ni okeru hiteiko komitsudo tansa no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Park, G. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ueno, N. [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Park, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    A structure was embedded in an embankment with homogeneous sandy soil. Resistivity was measured using three kinds of arrays, to investigate effects of the array on the underground structure. For a vertical structural model with high resistivity and a horizontal structural model with low resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles by individual arrays. For a transverse structural model with high resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles using Wenner array and pole-pole array. However, it could not be grasped from the apparent resistivity profile using dipole-dipole array. Based on the resistivity measurements for individual structural models, the dipole-dipole array was suitable for the vertical structural model, the pole-pole array was suitable for the transverse structural model, and the Wenner array was suitable for the horizontal structural model. Thus, the best apparent resistivity profiles and contrasts were obtained for individual structural models. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  16. CITEQ creates a transformer for underground electric networks: a joint initiative by Hydro-Quebec and ABB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeau, P.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in technology regarding underground transformers was discussed. After more than 3 years of research, CITEQ (Centre d'innovation sur le transport d'energie du Quebec), a new company founded by Hydro-Quebec and ABB, is on the verge of a breakthrough with a new submersible transformer with solid insulation. This transformer was specially designed for use in underground electric networks. The new transformer is a good alternative to conventional oil transformers which have a high risk of pollution mainly due to corrosion, leaks, explosions or fires. Also, the outer shell of the new transformer is composed of composite material which will eliminate the need for maintenance. The service life of the new transformer is expected to be approximately 30 to 40 years. CITEQ is hoping that this new technology will benefit the residential sector which is powered by underground distribution networks. 1 fig

  17. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  18. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  19. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  20. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  1. A brief introduction to high altitude nuclear explosion and a review on high altitude nuclear tests of usa and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    1999-11-01

    The author briefly introduces some knowledge about high altitude nuclear explosion (HANE) and presents a general review on high altitude nuclear tests of USA and former USSR. Physical phenomenon generated by HANE is given. The effects of HANE on space flyer, artificial satellite and communication are discussed. Some aspects of a mechanism of antimissile for HANE are described and the effect and role of HANE for USA and USSR are reviewed

  2. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  3. The Xsense project: The application of an intelligent sensor array for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Bosco, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Multiple independent sensors are used in security and military applications in order to increase sensitivity, selectivity and data reliability. The Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners in an effort to produce a handheld...... sensor for trace detection of explosives. We are using micro- and nano technological approaches for integrating four sensing principles into a single device. At the end of the project, the consortium aims at having delivered a sensor platform consisting of four independent detector principles capable...

  4. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wenhui; Zhang Weide; Chen Luya, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [Nano Science Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-08-06

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 deg. C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  7. Mid-IR DIAL for high-resolution mapping of explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, V.; Babichenko, S.; Bennes, J.; Borelli, R.; Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.; Fiorani, L.; Hespel, L.; Huet, T.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, A.; Rebane, O.; Sobolev, I.

    2013-10-01

    A DIAL instrument on a moving platform is seen as a valuable remote sensing component in a sensor network for area monitoring, targeting sites involved in unauthorised explosive manufacturing. Such instrument will perform the area mapping of the vapour concentration of key substances, known to be used as precursors in explosive fabrication, such as acetone and nitromethane. The IR spectra of acetone and nitromethane vapours have been defined from available spectroscopy databases and from laboratory measurements as showing optimal spectral band for the DIAL operation in the spectral range of 3.0 μm - 3.5 μm. The DIAL operation has been numerically simulated, with inputs based on the HITRAN database, the U.S. Standard Atmosphere and aerosol simulation software package OPAC. A combination of OPO and OPA has been chosen as a transmitter, where the idler wavelength is used for probing, with wavelength tuning in sequence. A scanner mounted on top of the coaxially aligned laser and receiver, is capable of covering almost 360 degrees horizontally and +/-30 degrees vertically. The detection is performed by a photovoltaic photodiode with 4-stage cooling, with a signal digitalisation having 14 bit amplitude resolution and 125 Ms/s sampling rate. Here we present the development and the first test of the DIAL instrument.

  8. Explosion confinement system for exploitations by sublevels; Sistema de Confinamiento de Explosiones para Explotaciones por Subniveles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a explosion suppression system capable to confine and extinguish gas explosions of the type produced in sub level caving faces when blasting to the coal pillar. Existing systems, such as triggered barriers, were considered not to be valid because of size, weight, cost, and other operational constraints. The research activities have been focused in the development of a mixed water/air spray system that should be manually activated some second before blasting. Two prototypes have been developed and tested, the first one using nozzle operating at the standard ranges of pressure that are normally available in underground coal mines, and a second one based in high-pressure nozzles. In this case, bottles containing a pressurized air/water mixtures are required. The works carried out included theoretical studies, hydraulic nozzles characterization, and modelling of the explosion phenomena using the AutoReaGas code. Besides, extensive testing of the prototypes has been carried out in an underground explosion test facility that has been set up specially for this project at the Barredo Pit in Mieres (Asturias). The results obtained show that the low-pressure system is not valid for this particular application, whereas the high-pressure yielded a more promising performance. However, further testing is required to confirm these results.

  9. Characterization of ANFO explosive by high accuracy ESI(±)-FTMS with forensic identification on real samples by EASI(-)-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Franco, Marcos Fernado; Santos, Jandyson Machado; Melendez-Perez, Jose J; de Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) is an explosive used in many civil applications. In Brazil, ANFO has unfortunately also been used in criminal attacks, mainly in automated teller machine (ATM) explosions. In this paper, we describe a detailed characterization of the ANFO composition and its two main constituents (diesel and a nitrate explosive) using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry performed on an FT-ICR-mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI(±)-FTMS) in both the positive and negative ion modes. Via ESI(-)-MS, an ion marker for ANFO was characterized. Using a direct and simple ambient desorption/ionization technique, i.e., easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), in a simpler, lower accuracy but robust single quadrupole mass spectrometer, the ANFO ion marker was directly detected from the surface of banknotes collected from ATM explosion theft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  11. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  12. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  13. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  14. Xsense: using nanotechnology to combine detection methods for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael S.; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo; Olsen, Jesper K.; Johnsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Kent A.; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Alstrøm, Tommy S.; Larsen, Jan; Jakobsen, Mogens H.; Thundat, Thomas; Boisen, Anja

    2010-04-01

    In an effort to produce a handheld explosives sensor the Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners. Using micro- and nano technological approaches it will be attempted to integrate four detection principles into a single device. At the end of the project, the consortium aims at having delivered a sensor platform consisting of four independent detector principles capable of detecting concentrations of TNT at sub parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations and with a false positive rate less than 1 parts-per-thousand. The specificity, sensitivity and reliability are ensured by the use of clever data processing , surface functionalisation and nanostructured sensors and sensor surfaces.

  15. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  16. Underground verification of the large deflection performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete subjected to high stresses and convergence and to dynamic loading.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joughin, WC

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Committee Final Project Report Underground verification of the large deflection performance of fibre reinforced shotcrete subjected to high stresses and convergence and to dynamic loading W.C. Joughin, J.L. Human and P.J. Terbrugge Research agency...) Drycrete with 2% by mass a) Drycrete with 0.5% by mass a) Drycrete Slimes tailings a) Drycrete with no fibre, x 40mm long Dramix steel x 40mm long Polypropelene with 0.5% by mass x 40mm 60 to 70mm thick fibre, 60 to 70mm thick...

  17. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  18. Underground Storage Tank (working)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Database contains information on ownership and system construction for underground storage tank facilities statewide. Database was developed in early 1990's for...

  19. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  20. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  1. Measurement of carbon condensation using small-angle x-ray scattering during detonation of the high explosive hexanitrostilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge-Hansen, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lauderbach, L. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hodgin, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bastea, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); van Buuren, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benterou, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Graber, T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Jensen, B. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ilavsky, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Willey, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The dynamics of carboncondensation in detonating high explosives remains controversial. Detonation model validation requires data for processes occurring at nanometer length scales on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. A new detonation endstation has been commissioned to acquire and provide time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from detonating explosives. Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) was selected as the first to investigate due to its ease of initiation using exploding foils and flyers, vacuum compatibility, high thermal stability, and stoichiometric carbon abundance that produces high carbon condensate yields. The SAXS data during detonation, collected with 300 ns time resolution, provide unprecedented signal fidelity over a broad q-range. This fidelity permits the first analysis of both the Guinier and Porod/power-law regions of the scattering profile during detonation, which contains information about the size and morphology of the resultant carbon condensate nanoparticles. To bolster confidence in these data, the scattering angle and intensity were additionally cross-referenced with a separate, highly calibrated SAXS beamline. The data show that HNS produces carbon particles with a radius of gyration of 2.7 nm in less than 400 ns after the detonation front has passed, and this size and morphology are constant over the next several microseconds. These data directly contradict previous pioneering work on RDX/TNT mixtures and TATB, where observations indicate significant particle growth (50% or more) continues over several microseconds. As a result, the power-law slope is about –3, which is consistent with a complex disordered, irregular, or folded sp2 sub-arrangement within a relatively monodisperse structure possessing radius of gyration of 2.7 nm after the detonation of HNS.

  2. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  3. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground nuclear explosion events – A case study for Baneberry site ... After the successful validation of the 3D numerical model for Baneberry site rock media, parametric studies are carried out for 1 and 8 kT yields at 100 m depth (Scaled Depths of Burst SDOB ...

  4. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cotthem, Alain [TRACTEBEL ENGINEERING SA (Belgium); Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Biurrun, Enrique [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  5. High-resolution Raman Spectroscopy for the Nanostructural Characterization of Explosive Nanodiamond Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Pichot, Vincent; Spitzer, Denis; Deckert, Volker

    2017-01-18

    The specific attributes of nanodiamonds have attracted increasing interest for electronics or biomedical applications. An efficient synthetic route towards nanodiamonds is via detonation of hexolite (i.e. a mixture of TNT [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene] and RDX [1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine]). In particular, detonation of hexolite crystallized by spray flash evaporation (SFE) yields extremely small diamonds (<4 nm). To unravel the detonation mechanism, a structural characterization of the explosives is required but is challenging due to their thermal instability. We demonstrate a combination of conventional Raman spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for resolving morphological and structural differences of differently prepared hexolite nanocomposites. The experiments allow for the first time a structural differentiation of individual TNT and RDX crystals and 15-20 nm sized core-shell structures, consequently providing a general approach to investigate the actual composition of mixtures on the nanometer scale. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Explosively developing extratropical cyclone associated with the high wind-waves along the east coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ki-Young; Choi, Jin-Yong; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    An extreme extratropical cyclone struck the northern part of Korea on May 3, 2016 causing significant damage to property on the land due to extreme winds and abnormal high waves in coastal area. The meteorological composite fields for the cyclone show a strong surface wind velocity (up to 45 m s-1) during its mature phase. This study investigated the development mechanisms of an explosive cyclone through numerical simulation and sensitivity experiments using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The trigger mechanism for the explosive cyclogenesis is the strong baroclinic instability and temperature advection associated with upper-level cut-off low and the interaction of potential vorticity (PV) anomalies between the lower- and upper-level. The efficient placement of the high- and low-level jets forms a favorable condition for its development and transportation of water vapor and the instability energy into the cyclone. The sea-state wave simulation of large swell waves along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is obtained using the wave model WAVEWATCHIII (WW3) forced by the 10-m above ground level wind field from the WRF-ARW simulations. The simulation results of WW3 for the significant wave height were compared against buoy observation data at 1-h intervals. The simulated significant wave height systematically underestimated by 0.5 m. However, strong wind field generated by the cyclone is clarified as key features determining the characteristics of the high waves in terms of the temporal growth and decay patterns.

  7. GAP pre-polymer, as an energetic binder and high performance additive for propellants and explosives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet S. Eroglu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of energetic composite formulations, functionally terminated pre-polymers have been used as binder. After physically mixing the pre-polymers with oxidizing components, metallic fuel, burning rate modifier and other minor ingredients, they are cured with a suitable curing agent to provide physical and chemical stability. These pre-polymers could be functionalized with carboxyl, epoxide or hydroxyl groups at varying average chain functionalities. For carboxyl-terminated pre-polymers, an epoxy functional curing agents could be used. If the pre-polymer possesses hydroxyl groups, isocyanate functional curing agents are the most suitable curing agents in terms of easy and efficient processing. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP is one of the well-known low-molecular weight energetic liquid pre-polymer, which was developed to use as energetic binder, high performance additive and gas generator for high performance smokeless composite propellant and explosive formulations. Linear or branched GAP can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of corresponding poly(epichlorohydrin (PECH with sodium azide through replacement of chloromethyl groups of PECH with pendant energetic azido-methyl groups on the polyether main chain. Positive heat of formation (+957 kJ/kg enables exothermic and rapid decomposition of GAP producing fuel rich gases. Its polyether main chain provides GAP with relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg= - 48 oC and presence of hydroxyl functional groups allows it to have easy processing in curing with isocyanate curing agents to form covalently crosslinked polyurethane structure. These outstanding properties of GAP enable it to be used as energetic polymeric binder and high performance additive in preparation of energetic materials and low vulnerable explosives.

  8. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  9. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out.

  10. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out

  11. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  12. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  13. Nuclear explosive development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groseclose, B. Clark

    1970-01-01

    The nuclear explosive itself is the point about which the Plowshare program revolves. The energy potential of a thermal neutron fissionable material such as Pu 239 or U 235 of ∼17 kt/kg or of Li 6 D of ∼60 kt/kg is indeed impressive. Such large energy densities allow many applications for nuclear explosives that are unthinkable for conventional high explosives. This country has been involved in the design of nuclear explosives for almost thirty years. A question often asked is, 'Why do we still need design effort on nuclear explosives? Hasn't all the possible design work been done?' In a partial reply, let me give an analogy. Why work on nuclear reactors? They were successful even before the first explosive worked. Why should new accelerators be designed? They have worked for many decades. The obvious answer to these questions is that new data, new theories, new insights into the problems and thus new possibilities are found and new requirements are continually being formulated. The development of larger and faster computers has allowed an enormous increase in the design calculations for nuclear explosives. Approximations in the physics involved in the calculations must be made in order to obtain solutions in a finite time, but these approximations can be 'made more accurately as the computing capability increases. Additional calculational capability also allows the designer to examine his design under a variety of possible conditions and configurations. The net effect is a much more sophisticated design. New developments in the area of materials and material, properties open doors that have hitherto been closed. We have seen an increasing emphasis on the interaction of the explosive with its environment. Very specific applications require tailored features such as low fission yield, low fusion yield, low residual radioactivity in particular species, small diameter, low weight, low cost, etc. The Plowshare program in particular imposes stringent requirements on

  14. Heat pipe cooling system of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter based on the loss calculation and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    The special using condition of high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter limits its cooling system within heat pipe and water-cooled cooling systems. How to calculate these two systems quantitatively to provide references for engineering application becomes one of the critical problems. In this paper, the principle of three-level explosion-proof was introduced first, and the power-loss generation theory was described and deduced into equations. Secondly, the heat pipe cooling system theory calculation was conducted based on the power losses of power devices, and the whole cooling system model was built by using finite element analysis. Finally, the temperature rise experiment was carried out on a 1 MW high-power three-level explosion-proof inverter, and the results proved the feasibility of this theory and its accuracy of analysis.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL's current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL's existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility

  17. Blasting Impact by the Construction of an Underground Research Tunnel in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The underground research tunnel, which is under construction in KAERI for the validation of HLW disposal system, is excavated by drill and blasting method using high-explosives. In order not to disturb the operation at the research facilities such as HANARO reactor, it is critical to develop a blasting design , which will not influence on the facilities, even though several tens of explosives are detonated almost simultaneously. To develop a reasonable blasting design, a test blasting at the site should be performed. A preliminary analysis for predicting the expected vibration and noise by the blasting for the construction of the underground research tunnel was performed using a typical empirical equation. From the study, a blasting design could be developed not to influence on the major research facilities in KAERI. For the validation of the blasting design, a test blasting was carried out at the site and the parameters of vibration equation could be determined using the measured data during the test blasting. Using the equation, it was possible to predict the vibration at different locations at KAERI and to conclude that the blasting design would meet the design criteria at the major facilities in KAERI. The study would verify the applicability of blasting method for the construction of a research tunnel in a rock mass and that would help the design and construction of large scale underground research laboratory, which might be carried out in the future. It is also meaningful to accumulate technical experience for enhancing the reliability and effectiveness of the design and construction of the HLW disposal repository, which will be constructed in deep underground by drill and blasting technique

  18. Life cycle guideline of petrochemical plant underground piping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Jeng-Ywan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to statistics of petrochemical plant disaster, the type of underground pipeline leakage is the highest proportion, for example, Kaohsiung gas explosion in 2014 is a typical case. Therefore, improvement strategy of petrochemical plant underground piping system from both engineering and management becomes an important issue. Through reviewing regulations as well as surveying questionnaire, including kinds of piping materials, 3D drawing files, operation procedures, information sharing, etc., the findings show lack contact of integrated management with engineering executive and insufficient technical requirements are major defects. Overviewing current problems of domestic petrochemical plant underground piping system management, and comparing to international criteria and specifications, this research focuses on the of piping design, construction, operations, maintenance, and inspection. Then management procedures and engineering technical feasibility strategies are suggested. In addition, the proposed life cycle guideline in order to reduce the disaster incidence of petrochemical plant underground pipelines.

  19. Relating pressure measurements to phenomena observed in high speed video recordings during tests of explosive charges in a semi-confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mostert, FJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tests with explosive charges of 0.5 kg and 2 kg were conducted in the semi-confined blast chamber at the CSIR DBEL test range. Pressure measurements were obtained with side-on and face-on sensors mounted in the walls of the chamber and high speed...

  20. Luminescent metal-organic framework-functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposites and the reversible detection of high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2013-08-01

    Achieving both high specificity and sensitivity are essential for gas phase chemical detection systems. Recent implementation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have shown great success in separation and storage systems for specific gas molecules. By implementing a MOF structure comprised of Zn2+ coordinated trans-stilbene derivatives, a gas responsive material has been created which exhibits a high photoluminescence quantum yield, offering new opportunities for chemical sensors. Here, we reveal a nanocomposite material, assembled from azobenzene functionalized graphene oxide and stilbene-MOF, that is capable of luminescent quenching by explosive gases. This unique system displays selectivity to dinitrotoluene (71% quenching) over trinitrotoluene (20% quenching) with sub ppm sensitivity and response times of less than a minute. We show that this implementation of a graphene-based MOF composite provides a unique strategy in the development of molecularly well-defined materials having rapid, reversible, and gas selective fluorescent quenching capabilities. This opens the way for new advances in the assembly of low density frameworks using isomerization suppressed materials.Achieving both high specificity and sensitivity are essential for gas phase chemical detection systems. Recent implementation of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have shown great success in separation and storage systems for specific gas molecules. By implementing a MOF structure comprised of Zn2+ coordinated trans-stilbene derivatives, a gas responsive material has been created which exhibits a high photoluminescence quantum yield, offering new opportunities for chemical sensors. Here, we reveal a nanocomposite material, assembled from azobenzene functionalized graphene oxide and stilbene-MOF, that is capable of luminescent quenching by explosive gases. This unique system displays selectivity to dinitrotoluene (71% quenching) over trinitrotoluene (20% quenching) with sub ppm sensitivity and

  1. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  2. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  3. Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions: Insights into Highly Explosive Basaltic Volcanism from Alkali-rich Magma at Sunset Crater, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, C. M.; Roggensack, K.; Clarke, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    to 17 km, assuming fluid saturation. We do not observe any significant differences between MIs from Strombolian and sub-Plinian phases, suggesting that while a high CO2 content may drive rapid magma ascent and be partly responsible for highly explosive eruptions, shallower processes may play an important role in the final eruptive character.

  4. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

    2007-04-13

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  5. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  6. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep K Sharma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical and computed tomography features of 'explosive pleuritis', an entity first named by Braman and Donat in 1986, and to propose a case definition. A case report of a previously healthy, 45-year-old man admitted to hospital with acute onset pleuritic chest pain is presented. The patient arrived at the emergency room at 15:00 in mild respiratory distress; the initial chest x-ray revealed a small right lower lobe effusion. The subsequent clinical course in hospital was dramatic. Within 18 h of admission, he developed severe respiratory distress with oxygen desaturation to 83% on room air and dullness of the right lung field. A repeat chest x-ray, taken the morning after admission, revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax. A computed tomography scan of the thorax demonstrated a massive pleural effusion with compression of pulmonary tissue and mediastinal shift. Pleural fluid biochemical analysis revealed the following concentrations: glucose 3.5 mmol/L, lactate dehydrogenase 1550 U/L, protein 56.98 g/L, amylase 68 U/L and white blood cell count 600 cells/mL. The pleural fluid cultures demonstrated light growth of coagulase-negative staphylococcus and viridans streptococcus, and very light growth of Candida albicans. Cytology was negative for malignant cells. Thoracotomy was performed, which demonstrated a loculated parapneumonic effusion that required decortication. The patient responded favourably to the empirical administration of intravenous levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and conservative surgical methods in the management of the empyema. This report also discusses the patient's rapidly progressing pleural effusion and offers a potential case definition for explosive pleuritis. Explosive pleuritis is a medical emergency defined by the rapid development of a pleural effusion involving more than 90% of the hemithorax over 24 h, which causes compression of pulmonary tissue and

  7. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  8. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  9. Differential Expression of Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Gene of Polygonum sibiricum Leaves, Stems and Underground Stems, Subjected to High-Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Feng Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In aerobic organisms, protection against oxidative damage involves the combined action of highly specialized antioxidant enzymes, such as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase. In this work, a cDNA clone which encodes a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase gene, named PS-CuZnSOD, has been identified from P. sibiricum Laxm. by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method (RACE. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene cDNA clone consists of 669 bp, containing 87 bp in the 5' untranslated region; 459 bp in the open reading frame (ORF encoding 152 amino acids; and 123 bp in 3' untranslated region. The gene accession nucleotide sequence number in GenBank is GQ472846. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein, like most plant superoxide dismutases (SOD, includes two conserved ecCuZnSOD signatures that are from the amino acids 43 to 51, and from the amino acids 137 to 148, and it has a signal peptide extension in the front of the N-terminus (1–16 aa. Expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR reveals that the PS-CuZnSOD gene is expressed in leaves, stems and underground stems. PS-CuZnSOD gene expression can be induced by 3% NaHCO3. The different mRNA levels’ expression of PS-CuZnSOD show the gene’s different expression modes in leaves, stems and underground stems under the salinity-alkalinity stress.

  10. Failure Mode Analysis and Dynamic Response of a Coal Mine Refuge Chamber with a Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A gas and coal dust explosion is potential hazard in majority coal mines. A coal mine mobile refuge chamber is a new class of device for miners those who are unable to escape after an accident which can provide basic survival conditions. In this paper, in order to study the propagation law of an underground methane/air mixture explosive wave, and check the failure mode of a coal mine mobile refuge chamber, a full-sized underground tunnel model and a refuge chamber model have been established in ANSYS/LS-DYNA (LSTC, R7.0.0, Livermore, CA, USA, 2014. The simulation results show that the reflected wave pressure on the front surface of the refuge chamber was about twice as high than the incident wave. The pressure on various locations of the chamber was also analyzed. When the peak pressure of the explosive shockwave reached 0.64 MPa, the maximum displacement and stress occur at the center of the front door and the joint of stiffeners and the front plate, respectively. Most parts of the coal mine mobile refuge chamber were in a plastic failure state and the refuge chamber could be defined as damaged. The front door, the front plate, the connecting flange, and the stiffeners on each side were the primary key components. In the end, suggestions were proposed for the refuge chamber.

  11. Chemical Explosions and the Discrimination Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-26

    et al. (1989). The events are near the eastern Kazakhstan nuclear test site and include two chemical explosions ( Chemex I and 2; see Given et al...0.75 times window length) between successive windows. Chemex I consisted of a linear array of 30 boreholes with about 10 m spacing between each hole...all subshots were contained underground. Thus, the event was a typical multiple-hole instantaneous shot. The spectrograms from Chemex 1 (Figure 2) are

  12. High-precision (p,t) reactions to determine reaction rates of explosive stellar processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matić, Andrija

    2007-01-01

    The aim of my study was to investigate the nuclear structure of 22Mg and 26Si. These two nuclei play a significant role in stellar reaction processes at high temperatures. On base of the obtained nuclear structure we calculated the stellar reaction rates for the following reactions: 18Ne(α,p)21Na,

  13. RAPTOR Observations of Delayed Explosive Activity in the High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 060206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, P. R.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wren, J. A.; White, R. R.; Evans, S. M.; Casperson, D.

    2006-05-01

    The Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) system at Los Alamos National Laboratory observed GRB 060206 starting 48.1 minutes after γ-ray emission triggered the Burst Alert Telescope on board the Swift satellite. The afterglow light curve measured by RAPTOR shows a spectacular rebrightening by ~1 mag about 1 hr after the trigger and peaks at R~16.4 mag. Shortly after the onset of the explosive rebrightening, the optical transient doubled its flux on a timescale of about 4 minutes. The total R-band fluence received from GRB 060206 during this episode is 2.3×10-9 ergs cm-2. In the rest frame of the burst (z=4.045), this yields an isotropic equivalent energy release of Eiso~0.7×1050 ergs in just a narrow UV band, λ~=130+/-22 nm. We discuss the implications of RAPTOR observations for untriggered searches for fast optical transients and studies of GRB environments at high redshift.

  14. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  15. Dose prediction in Japan for nuclear test explosions in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The impact on Japan of the underground test conducted in North Korea on October 9, 2006 is examined. By the use of the results of modelling assessment and environmental monitoring, it is concluded that there was no radiation impact on Japan. This suggests a safely conducted underground nuclear test or an explosion with a very low output.

  16. Highly stable and luminescent layered hybrid materials for sensitive detection of TNT explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Nan; Wang, Kang; Wang, Feng-Bin; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2015-04-21

    Self-assembly is an effective way to fabricate optical molecular materials. However, this strategy usually changes the nanoenvironment surrounding fluorescence molecules, yielding low luminescence efficiency. Herein, we report the intercalation of a ruthenium polypyridine (Ru) complex into the interlayer galleries of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), forming a Ru/LDH hybrid. The Ru complex exists as an ordered monolayer state, and the hybrid exhibits high thermal and photo stability. Its luminescence efficiency and lifetime are increased by ∼1.7 and ∼1 times, respectively, compared to those of free molecules. We constructed a Ru/LDH sensing platform based on a fluorescence quenching effect for highly sensitive detection of TNT with a detection limit of 4.4 μM.

  17. Methane Explosion Mitigation in Coal Mines by Water Mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Mikheil; Krauthammer, Ted; Mansurov, Zulkhair; Alyiev, Erhan

    2017-12-01

    Statistics shows that the majority of accidents with fatal outcome are caused by methane and/or coal dust explosion. This leads to assume that contemporary counter-explosion systems of various designs cannot be considered effective. Considering the growing threat of methane explosion in the coming years along with the development of deeper levels, the improvement of a system for protecting people in underground opening appears urgent. This paper focuses on technical solutions to be used in designing a protective system for minimizing the consequences of methane explosions in coalmines. The new protective system consists of three main modules: i) a high-speed shock wave suppression section; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action and iii) a system activating device. The shock wave suppressor contains a 200 litre volume water tank with a built-in gas generator and nozzles. It is activated after 12ms from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 40 s. The suppression section with a long-term action contains a 2000 litre volume water tank, a high-pressure pump, a hydraulic accumulator, solenoid valves, and a system of pipes with built-in nozzles. It is activated after 4 s from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 8 min. The activation device includes a detection block containing sensors, an emergency signal generation module, a signal transmission module, a signal receiving module and a power supply module. The system operates in a waiting mode and activates immediately upon the receipt of the start signal generated by the detector. The paper also addresses the preliminary results of the system prototype testing in the tunnel.

  18. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H

    1986-05-01

    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application.

  19. Evaluation of occupational fatalities among underground coal mine workers through hierarchical loglinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Mustafa; Adiguzel, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the all precautions, underground coal mining is one of the dangerous industries owing to fatal occupational accidents. Accidents are complicated events to which many factors effect on their formation and preventing them is only possible by the analyses of the accident occurred in past and by straight evaluation of the obtained results. In this study, hierarchical loglinear analysis method was implemented to occupational fatalities occurred in the period of 1980-2004 in the five underground coal mines of Turkish Hardcoal Enterprises which has the most important coal production areas in Turkey. The accident records were evaluated and the main factors affecting the accidents were defined as mine, miners' age, occupation, and accident type. By taking into account the sub factors of the main factors, multi way contingency tables were prepared and thus, the probabilities might effect fatality accidents were investigated. At the end of this study, it was found that the mostly affected job group by the fatality accidents was the production workers and additionally, these workers were mostly exposed to roof collapses and methane explosions. Moreover, important accident risk factors and the occupational job groups which have high probability to be exposed to these risk factors were determined and important information about decreasing the accidents in the underground coal mines were presented.

  20. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  1. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. 30 CFR 75.1313 - Explosives and detonators outside of magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet from any source of electric current; (2) Out of the direct line of the forces from blasting; (3... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and detonators outside of magazines... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting...

  3. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  4. Death due to a methane gas explosion in a tunnel on urban reclaimed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takatori, T; Oono, T; Iwase, H; Iwadate, K; Yamada, Y; Nakajima, M

    1997-06-01

    Studies of four male victims who were killed in an accidental tunnel gas explosion on urban reclaimed land are described. The studies were judicial autopsy examinations to determine the precise causes of death. Two men died of carbon monoxide intoxication, one died of massive brain damage, and the fourth died of drowning. The concentrations of methane in several organs were much lower than the lethal level, whereas those in adipose tissue were relatively high. These findings indicated that a low concentration of methane was almost always present in the atmosphere at the construction site. Recently, coal mine accidents have been decreasing in Japan. However, there is still a possibility of underground explosions or gas leaks in confined spaces other than coal mines. To determine the precise cause of death in such cases, careful autopsies and other examinations should be performed using methods similar to those used in coal mine accidents.

  5. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D B [ed.; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  6. Energetic Residues and Crater Geometries from the Firing of 120-mm High-Explosive Mortar Projectiles into Eagle River Flats, June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    method, but with three new randomly chosen starting points. Figure 5. Sampling of 200 m × 200 m cell. Each point was cleared with a metal detector for...propellant burn was visible (despite the blackened surface produced by the June burn (Fig. 3e). Because of the uncertainty of the exact location of the...detect a metallic signal, indicating that the projectile penetrated several meters. Analysis for Comp B Residue No high-explosives residues were

  7. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-15

    reflected waveleld travels sourcewards through the crustal passes through a CIO transition region such as that layer of the tramition region, and the region...the transition, why this transmitted energy is maximum near to increase the amplitudes in the second grid by as much as te tramition and decream a the

  8. A Damage Mechanics Source Model for Underground Nuclear Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    of Caiifornia, San Diego P. 0. Drawer 719 La JoWl, CA 92093 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 Dr Gilb.’z Bollinger Prof. Stanley Flatte ie!ar-nent of Geological...Paris, FRANCE (2 Copies) Dr. Pierre Mecheler Societe Radiomana 27 rue Claude Bernard 75005 Paris, FRANCE Dr. Svein Mykkeltveit NTNF/NORSAR P.O. Box...Bouchon Prof. Ari Ben-Menahem I.R.I.G.M.-B.P. 68 Department of Applied Mathematics 38402 S t. Martin D’Heres Weizman Institute )f Science CIe-x, FRANCE

  9. Regional Discrimination of Quarry Blasts, Earthquakes and Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-07

    AK 99701 Dr. Anthony Gangi Texas A&M University Dr. G. A. Bollinger Department of Geophysics Department of Geological Sciences College Station, TX...AUSTRALIA Dr. B. Massinon Societe Radiomana 27, Rue Claude Bernard 7,005, Paris , FRANCE (2 copies) Dr. Pierre Mechler Societe Radiomana 27, Rue Claude...Bernard 75005, Paris , FRANCE Dr. Svein Mykkeltveit NTNF/NORSAR P.O. Box 51 N-2007 Kjeller, NORWAY (3 copies) -8- GOVERNMENT Dr. Ralph Alewine III Dr. W. H

  10. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    NAME(S) ANDADDRESS(ES) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Attn: L- 451 Livermore, CA 94550 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...partially, into the pores, and that’s a pretty effective cooling mechanism, because the pore water is only seventy degrees Farenheit . Smith: I did...good work." Tunnels and Line-of-Sight Pipes 451 Weart: Well, it’s funny. People did continue to support measurements. We always had active measurement

  11. Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Energy by Rock Fracture During a Buried Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Dr. Robert Raistrick a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT...and P. J. Boyd, 2012, Characterization of Damage In Anisotropic Rock Due to Buried Explosions, In 46th US Rock Mechanics/ Geomechanics Symposium

  12. Inertisation strategies and practices in underground coal mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JJL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available and Safety Executive (UK) LEL Lower Explosion Limit LTR Last Through Road PS Polystyrol PVC Polyvinyl chloride TIC Total Incombustible Content USA United States of America USBM United States Bureau of Mines MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration... DRAFT FINAL REPORT Inertisation strategies and practices in underground coal mines J J L du Plessis D J van Niekerk Research Agency : CSIR Miningtek Project No. : COL 701 (EC 01-0157) Date : January 2002 2 Executive Summary The purpose...

  13. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  14. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  15. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  16. Underground mining operation supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khusid, M.B.; Kozel, A.M.

    1980-12-10

    Underground mining operation supports include the supporting layer surrounded by a cylindrical jacket of cemented rock. To decrease the loss of support material due to the decreasing rock pressure on the supporting layer, the cylindrical jacket of cemented rock has an uncemented layer inside, dividing it into 2 concentric cylindrical parts.

  17. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  18. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluszka, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  19. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  20. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  1. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  2. Chemical profiling of explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brust, G.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop analytical methods for the chemical profiling of explosives. Current methodologies for the forensic analysis of explosives focus on identification of the explosive material. However, chemical profiling of explosives becomes increasingly important, as

  3. The Physical Basis of Lg Generation by Explosion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Stevens; G. E. Baker; H. Xu; T. J. Bennett; N. Rimer; S. D. Day

    2004-12-20

    The goal of this project has been to develop a quantitative predictive capability for explosion-generated Lg phases with a sound and unambiguous physical basis. The research program consisted of a theoretical investigation of explosion-generated Lg combined with an observational study. The specific question addressed by this research program is how the Lg phase is generated by underground nuclear explosions. This question is fundamental to how Lg phases are interpreted for use in explosion yield estimation and earthquake/explosion discrimination. To constrain modeling, we have extensively reviewed the existing literature and complemented that work with an examination of several explosion data sets, most notably: (1) Degelen Mountain explosions recorded between 7 and 57 km, with corresponding recordings at Borovoye, at approximately 650 km; (2) recordings from Russian deep seismic sounding experiments; (3) NTS explosion sources including the NPE and nuclear tests covering a range of source depths and media properties. A simple point explosion in an infinite medium generates no shear waves, so the Lg phase is generated entirely by non-spherical components of the source and conversions through reflections and scattering. We find that the most important contributors to the Lg phase are: (1) P to S conversion at the free surface and other near source interfaces, (2) S waves generated directly by a realistically distributed explosion source including nonlinear effects due to the free surface and gravity, and (3) Rg scattering to Lg. Additional effects that contribute significantly to Lg are scattering of converted S phases that traps more of the converted P-to-S in the crust, and randomization of the components of Lg. The pS phase from a spherically symmetric explosion source in media with P-wave velocity less than upper mantle S-wave velocity is trapped in the crust and can explain the observed radial and vertical Lg. The free surface pS converted phase from the same

  4. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia

    2017-04-01

    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  5. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  6. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  7. Radon in Brazilian underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques; Eston, Sérgio Médici; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; Francisca, Diego Diegues

    2018-02-14

    Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented. The adopted methodology consisted of three main phases. The first was an extensive bibliographical survey of the concentration levels of radon and RDP, and the radiation dose estimates, considering measurements made heretofore by various Brazilian researchers and exhibiting original measurement work undertaken by the one of the authors (mine O). In the second phase, the values obtained were compared with OELs. In the third phase, it was verified whether any control measures were undertaken in the mines with high exposure of workers to radon and its progeny, and if so, the adopted controls were determined. Data of radon concentration obtained from 52 campaigns in 40 underground mines were analyzed. The results showed that the assessment of the exposure of workers to radon and its progeny was undertaken in many mines at least once, and that in 62.5% of the mines, when visited for the first time, the radon levels throughout them were below the Brazilian OELs. As expected, the main control measure adopted or recommended was the improvement of the ventilation system. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Search for underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 in the Frejus detector. Cygnus X-3 at high energies: to be or not to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardin, G.

    1987-04-01

    The 900 ton Frejus calorimetric detector is described; it comprises one million detection flash and Geiger tubes. The Cygnus X-3 system is described at low energy, and particularly in the X-ray and radio range where its observation is well established. The analysis realized with the data accumulated by the Frejus detector is presented in order to search for muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3. This negative result is compared to that of the other underground experiments. This result is shown to be clearly in contradiction with the observation reported by the NUSEX experiment, in similar experimental conditions. The widely accepted observations from Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reevaluated in a critical review. It is shown that, in all energy ranges above 1 MeV, the observations cannot be considered as convincing. Concerning the satellite based experiments, the positive result reported by the SAS-2 group can be made compatible with the negative result by the COS-B experiment if the gamma-ray background in the vicinity of Cygnus X-3 is reinterpreted. In the domain of atmospheric Cerenkov experiments, it is shown that none of the observations is convincing and that the agreement between these experiments is only superficial. Air shower experiments appear to present important contradictions. It has been proposed that the emission of Cygnus X-3 could be decreasing with a characteristic time of a few years; a more convincing interpretation is proposed. The fact that the source escapes a totally convincing detection with such a regularity is shown to be highly improbable. Finally, the characteristics of experiments which would allow an inambiguous detection of Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reviewed [fr

  9. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of a HMX-based pressed explosive: Effects of combined high pressure and strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biessy M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the combined effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the behaviour and microstructure evolutions of a HMX-based explosive. Hopkinson bar compression experiments are carried-out on samples confined with a brass sleeve. The latter is instrumented in order to determine the confining pressure on the explosive sample, directly function of the sleeve thickness and yield strength. A sample confined at 75 MPa and deformed at 250s−1 is recovered, cross-sectioned and studied using optical microscopy. Distributed microplasticity and microcracking appear similar to those induced by confined quasi-static experiments, indicating that stress triaxiality is the most important loading parameter. The sample also displays a large shear macrocrack, resulting from the formation of an adiabatic shear band. Shear banding seems to proceed by strong plastic strain gradients, followed by dynamic re-crystallization. Further strong thermal effects are observed, resulting in local reactive melting.

  10. Mineral resource analysis of the proposed site for underground storage of high-level commercial nuclear waste, Hanford, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaming, G.F.; Davis, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of known and potential mineral resources of the Hanford Site and vicinity, Washington State, was undertaken as part of a larger program being conducted by the United States Department of of Energy to evaluate the suitability of candidate sites for construction of terminal repositories for high-level nuclear waste. Current mining within 100 km of the Hanford Site is limited to surface-mined diatomaceous earth, sand and gravel, and stone. Occurrences of relatively low-unit-value minerals within 100 km of the candidate site consist of peat, diatomaceous earth, pumicite, quarry rock, and sand and gravel. Such resources are surficial in occurrence and are not concentrated within the Pasco Basin relative to the remainder of the Columbia Plateau. A small, low-pressure natural gas field, in production from 1929 to 1941, is present at the southern edge of the Hanford Site. No other commercial production of fossil fuels has occurred in the area. With the exception of small, low grade gold placers along the Columbia River, no high-unit-value mineral resources are known to occur within 100 km of the candidate site. Economic analysis of the area within 100 km of the candidate site indicates that gross value of known mineral resources and potential, undiscovered natural gas within Columbia River basalts is $470.5 million. Subtraction of estimated exploration, development, production, and wholesale marketing costs from gross value leaves a net value of $33.3 million. Projected net value per area and per capita averages $569/km 2 and $62/current inhabitant. For the remainder of the Columbia Plateau, respective values are $1,195/km 2 or $98/inhabitant. For a mineral-rich state such as New Mexico, comparable net value per area is $17,600/km 2

  11. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  12. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  13. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  15. X-Ray Visualisation Of High Speed Phenomena: Application To The Behavior Of Materials Under High Explosives Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauducoeur, A.; Fischer, D.; Guix, R.

    1983-08-01

    Flash Radiography and Cineradiography allow the visualisation of high speed phenomena and the stop motion effect with recording on film of qualitative and quantitative data on the dynamic state of the matter under very intense shock waves. In this paper, we present a set of experimental devices and results obtained with a large range of flash X-ray generators : - small generators made with Marx discharge circuits coupled to void X-ray tubes, working up to 2.5 MV, - a big flash machine, GREC (presented at this conference (ref.1))used with very absor-bing materials. The presented applications illustrate a large field of experiments in the field of shock waves, interaction of 2 shock or detonation waves, flow visualisation of detonation, Taylor instabilities/metal jetting, spalling in iron...

  16. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  17. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  18. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  19. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished

  20. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  1. A study of small explosions and earthquakes during 1961--1989 near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalturin, V.I.; Rautian, T.G.; Richards, P.G.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1994-03-01

    Several Russian sources have stated that 343 underground nuclear explosions were conducted during 1961--1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. However, only 282 of them appear to have been described, in the openly available technical literature, with well-determined coordinates; and only 272 have both good locations and magnitudes. The authors have used regional data from 52 stations to study 65 seismic sources initially thought to be in or near the Semipalatinsk region, additional to the 272 underground nuclear explosions with known locations and magnitudes. Of these 65 events, the authors believe 8 are not explosions on the test site, namely: two earthquakes close to the test site; three earthquakes or chemical explosions 100--300 km from the test site; and three events at greater distances from Semipalatinsk. Of the remaining 57 events: 10 were known to be underground nuclear explosions with known locations and the authors have supplied magnitudes where none were previously available; one was a chemical explosion at Degelen; they believe 21 were underground nuclear explosions; 13 were chemical explosions at Balapan; 8 were chemical explosions elsewhere on the test site; three were either nuclear or chemical explosions; and one was either a chemical explosion or a cavity collapse. The largest magnitude of their 44 possible underground nuclear explosions is around 5 (February 4, 1965, obscured at many teleseismic stations by a large Aleutian earthquake). Others lie in the magnitude range 3.5--4.5, and clearly most have sub kiloton yields. Their data set of small events is important for purposes of evaluating the detection capability of teleseismic arrays, and the detection and identification capability of regional stations

  2. Particulate matter in the underground of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke

    The concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were measured during 2 weeks at an underground station in central Stockholm. The instrument, an automatic TEOM monitor (Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance), was placed on the platform in the centre of the station. During weekdays between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were 470 and 260 μg/ m3, respectively. These levels are a factor 5 and 10 times higher than the corresponding values measured in one of the busiest streets in central Stockholm. The concentrations in the underground followed closely the train traffic intensity. The levels were very similar from one day to the next. During Saturdays and Sundays the levels decreased slightly due to less frequent train passages. Additional measurements were performed right after the tunnel had been washed. Tunnel walls and railway tracks between the platforms of the underground system were washed using water. Only a slight reduction of the PM 10 levels (approximately 13%) could be observed during a few days after the water treatment. For PM 2.5 the reduction was even less, about 10% lower levels could be seen. This might indicate that particles from tunnel walls and tracks make only a minor contribution to the observed levels. These results confirm earlier unpublished measurements showing high levels of PM in the underground of Stockholm. Substantially, elevated particle exposure levels have also been reported in several earlier studies in the underground of London, UK.

  3. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  4. [Analysis on occupational noise-induced hearing loss of different type workers in underground mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q C; Duo, C H; Wang, Z; Yan, K; Zhang, J; Xiong, W; Zhu, M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate hearing loss status of blasters, drillers mechanics and so on in underground mining, and put forward suggestion diagnosis of occupational explosive deafness and occupational deafness. Methods: Underground excavation workers in a metal mine were recruited in this study, those with a history of ear disease and non-occupational deafness were all excluded. Finally, the features of pure tone audiometry of 459 noise-exposed workers were analyzed. Results: High-frequency hearing loss occurred on 351workers and the positive detection rate was 74.29%, workers who had both high-frequency and linguistic frequency hearing loss were 51 and the positive detection rate was 11.11%. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss in right ear (χ(2)=9.427 and P = 0.024) and in left ear (χ(2)=14.375, P =0.002) was significantly different between different exposure age groups. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss of driving group was the highest, followed by blasting group, mining group and machine repair group. The characteristics of the hearing loss caused by drilling noise of the blasting workers with no accident occurred were in line with that of noise-induced hearing loss. Conclusion: The diagnosis grading should be carried out according to the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise-induced deafness for the employees who engaged in the blasting operation with no record of blast accident.

  5. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  6. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  7. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  8. Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.

    1981-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release

  9. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of fluid mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures. Application to high explosives and to phase diagrams of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittion-Rossillon, Gerard

    1982-01-01

    The free energy for mixtures of about ten species which are chemically reacting is calculated. In order to have accurate results near the freezing line, excess properties are deduced from a modern statistical mechanics theory. Intermolecular potentials for like molecules are fitted to give good agreement with shock experiments in pure liquid samples, and mixture properties come naturally from the theory. The stationary Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave is calculated with a chemical equilibrium computer code and results are in good agreement with experiment for a lot of various explosives. One then study gas-gas equilibria in a binary mixture and show the extreme sensitivity of theoretical phase diagrams to the hypothesis of the model (author) [fr

  11. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  12. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  13. Numerical study of wave propagation around an underground cavity: acoustic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Schöberl, Joachim; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. The aim of the CTBTO is to ban all nuclear explosions of any size anywhere, by anyone. Therefore, it is essential to build a powerful strategy to efficiently investigate and detect critical signatures such as gas filled cavities, rubble zones and fracture networks below the surface. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as 'resonance seismometry' - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and there are also only few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in the mathematical understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. Here, we focus our numerical study on the propagation of P-waves in two dimensions. An extension to three dimensions as well as an inclusion of the full elastic wave field is planned in the following. For the numerical simulations of wave propagation we use a high order finite element discretization which has the significant advantage that it can be extended easily from simple toy designs to complex and irregularly shaped geometries without excessive effort. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D tetrahedral mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Using the basic mathematical understanding of the

  14. Application and Development of an Environmentally Friendly Blast Hole Plug for Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling and blasting technology is one of the main methods for pressure relief in deep mining. The traditional method for blasting hole blockage with clay stemming has many problems, which include a large volume of transportation, excess loading time, and high labor intensity. An environmentally friendly blast hole plug was designed and developed. This method is cheap, closely blocks the hole, is quickly loaded, and is convenient for transportation. The impact test on the plug was carried out using an improved split Hopkinson pressure bar test system, and the industrial test was carried out in underground tunnel of coal mine. The tests results showed that, compared with clay stemming, the new method proposed in this paper could prolong the action time of the detonation gas, prevent premature detonation gas emissions, reduce the unit consumption of explosives, improve the utilization ratio, reduce the labor intensity of workers, and improve the effect of rock blasting with low cost of rock breaking.

  15. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  16. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  17. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  18. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  19. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  20. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  1. RP delves underground

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  2. Underground super highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, Cole

    2010-01-01

    Clear communication is key. And quality communications and information equipment is now, more than ever before, integral in mine development as the industry moves towards greater remote control and automation of machinery and mining processes. In an underground mine, access to communications and information equipment has often been limited due to thermal extremes, physical hazards and dangerous chemicals. On top of this, copper conductors that are often used for communication equipment do not operate as efficiently because of the excessive noise generated by mining equipment, and may also puse a safety hazard. However, the design of extremely rugged fibre optic cables is now enabling ten gigabit transmission links in places that were never before thought possible in mining. One place though, has still proved a challenge for the expansion of fibre optic net-works, and that is in an underground coal mine. Until now. Optical Cable Corporation (OCC) has developed the rugged tight buffered breakout fibre optic cables for transmission links in harsh mining environments. Working at depths of over 300 metres below ground, and having seen roof falls actually bury the cable between rocks and still, the cables are able to operate in a myriad of conditions

  3. Are underground coal miners satisfied with their work boots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with work boot design is common in the mining industry. Many underground coal miners believe their work boots contribute to the high incidence of lower limb injuries they experience. Despite this, the most recent research to examine underground coal mining work boot satisfaction was conducted over a decade ago. This present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by assessing current mining work boot satisfaction in relation to the work-related requirements for underground coal mining. 358 underground coal miners (355 men; mean age = 39.1 ± 10.7 years) completed a 54-question survey regarding their job details, work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb and lower back pain history, and work footwear fit and comfort. Results revealed that underground coal miners were not satisfied with their current mining work boots. This was evident in the high incidence of reported foot problems (55.3%), lower back pain (44.5%), knee pain (21.5%), ankle pain (24.9%) and foot pain (42.3%). Over half of the underground coal miners surveyed believed their work boots contributed to their lower limb pain and reported their work boots were uncomfortable. Different working roles and environments resulted in differences in the incidence of foot problems, lower limb pain and comfort scores, confirming that one boot design cannot meet all the work-related requirements of underground coal mining. Further research examining the interaction of a variety of boot designs across the different underground surfaces and the different tasks miners perform is paramount to identify key boot design features that affect the way underground coal miners perform. Enhanced work boot design could improve worker comfort and productivity by reducing the high rates of reported foot problems and pain amongst underground coal miners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E.

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft 2 , and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance

  5. Tritium in the underground waters of the Karazheera coal deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Artamonova, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Karazheera coal deposit is the unique geological object due to it's location on the Balapan site of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear polygon (SNP) with its wide range of underground nuclear tests fulfilled here (more than 130 explosions). That is why some radiological problems may appear with the geological ones which take place in the open mining work of the deposit. The radio-active pollution of SNP has been actively discussed in scientific literature for a long time. The present report evaluates the radio-active tritium pollution ( 3 H) of the deposit's underground waters. That very component of nature is subjected to radiation pollution in large extent after underground nuclear tests. 3 H radio-active isotope with 12-13 year period of half-decay. 3 H is generated in the result of nuclear reactions caused by cosmic radiation and nuclear reactions of explosions. The total number of 3 H on the globe comes to 12 kg. The content of 3 H has been studied in underground waters of self-pouring wells number 76, 82, springs and dipholes of the deposit. It has been fixed that concentration of 3 H in the deposit is fluctuating within 0.4-37.9 tritium units (TU) while the average content 10.3 TU (1 TU - 3.2x10 -12 Curie/liter). The analysis of 3 H decay shows that its maximum concenliaiion has been fixed in the deposit 82 (37.9 TU) and in diphole (32.3 TU). The background content of 3 H in water was evaluated on the level of 1-8 TU till 1945. In the result of nuclear weapon tests the background has been considerably increased and according to First data (1994) it is corresponded to 23 TU. The average content of the 3 H in underground waters of Karazheera is half the size of this index (10.3 TU). It comprises 3.3x10 -11 and it is more lower than quota 4x10 -6 Ci/l. It is considered that the content of more than 10 TU in waters is caused by thermal nuclear test. Precipitations fallen after 1961 are presented in subsoil waters containing of 20 TU or more

  6. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  7. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion......The choice of a suitable pretreatment method and the adjustment of the pretreatment parameters for efficient conversion of biomass are crucial for a successful biorefinery concept. In this study, cocksfoot grass, a suitable lignocellulosic biomass with a potential for large-scale production...... into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...

  8. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  9. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  10. Spectroscopic measurement of high-frequency electric fields in the interaction of explosive debris plasma with magnetized background plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, A. S., E-mail: AntonBondarenko@ymail.com; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The collision-less transfer of momentum and energy from explosive debris plasma to magnetized background plasma is a salient feature of various astrophysical and space environments. While much theoretical and computational work has investigated collision-less coupling mechanisms and relevant parameters, an experimental validation of the results demands the measurement of the complex, collective electric fields associated with debris-background plasma interaction. Emission spectroscopy offers a non-interfering diagnostic of electric fields via the Stark effect. A unique experiment at the University of California, Los Angeles, that combines the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility has investigated the marginally super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via emission spectroscopy. Spectral profiles of the He II 468.6 nm line measured at the maximum extent of the diamagnetic cavity are observed to intensify, broaden, and develop equally spaced modulations in response to the explosive C debris, indicative of an energetic electron population and strong oscillatory electric fields. The profiles are analyzed via time-dependent Stark effect models corresponding to single-mode and multi-mode monochromatic (single frequency) electric fields, yielding temporally resolved magnitudes and frequencies. The proximity of the measured frequencies to the expected electron plasma frequency suggests the development of the electron beam-plasma instability, and a simple saturation model demonstrates that the measured magnitudes are feasible provided that a sufficiently fast electron population is generated during C debris–He background interaction. Potential sources of the fast electrons, which likely correspond to collision-less coupling mechanisms, are briefly considered.

  11. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  12. Radioactive wastes: underground laboratories implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the situation of radioactive waste management, more especially the possible storage in deep laboratories. In front of the reaction of public opinion relative to the nuclear waste question, it was essential to begin by a study on the notions of liability, transparence and democracy. At the beginning, it was a matter of underground researches with a view to doing an eventual storage of high level radioactive wastes. The Parliament had to define, through the law, a behaviour able to come to the fore for anybody. A behaviour which won recognition from authorities, from scientists, from industrial people, which guarantees the rights of populations confronted to a problem whom they were not informed, on which they received only few explanations. (N.C.)

  13. Chapter 1. Isotope fractionation resulted from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Radionuclide composition of aerosol particles and radioactive fallouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric nuclear explosions and underground cratering explosions are considered to be the most dangerous ones from the viewpoint of environment contamination. Analysis of main processes, affecting the character of radioactive contamination after tropospheric nuclear explosions, of the role of temperature and thermodynamic conditions in the fireball, is given. Data on formed radioactive products, their transformations and fractionation are resented. Quantitative assessment of fractionation effects and their peculiarities are given, as fractionation coefficients can vary in a wide range

  14. RESEARCH INTO EVALUATIONS OF UNDERGROUND SPACE ACCORDING TO QOL - CENTERING ON THE NAGOYA UNDERGROUND METRO -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    The present research investigates issues concerning space underground and concerns itself with psychological evaluations of comfort in underground railway premises from the perspective of the users of such premises. The actual psychological evaluation was done on the premises of nine Nagoya City underground stations. Four factors were extracted from the results obtained. The first factor is transmission information, the second factor is the comfort of the environment, the third is sense of insecurity, and the fourth, convenience. A covariance structure analysis was carried out to see if there was any relationship between these factors and the research participants' age and frequency of underground usage. It was found from this that the first element is related to the frequency with which the participants in the research use the underground trains. When the frequency of use is high, transmission of information is high. A relationship was also found between aging and factors one and four. The older the person the worse information transmission is and the more dependent they are on convenience, such as, for example, in terms of elevators and escalators.

  15. Seismic signal simulation and study of underground nuclear sources by moment inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusem, R.

    1986-09-01

    Some problems of underground nuclear explosions are examined from the seismological point of view. In the first part a model is developed for mean seismic propagation through the lagoon of Mururoa atoll and for calculation of synthetic seismograms (in intermediate fields: 5 to 20 km) by summation of discrete wave numbers. In the second part this ground model is used with a linear inversion method of seismic moments for estimation of elastic source terms equivalent to the nuclear source. Only the isotrope part is investigated solution stability is increased by using spectral smoothing and a minimal phase hypothesis. Some examples of applications are presented: total energy estimation of a nuclear explosion, simulation of mechanical effects induced by an underground explosion [fr

  16. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions - OSI research final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s. (author)

  17. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions -- OSI research final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J. J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s.

  18. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  19. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  20. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  1. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassibba, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 10 4 and 10 6 years. (Author) [es

  2. Interference immunity of blasting circuits in underground coal mining; Zur Stoerfestigkeit von Sprengzuendsystemen im untertaegigen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiler, C.

    1995-02-14

    Blasting technique with electric detonators is a standard instrument e.g. for drift heading in underground coal mining. The simultaneous increase of compactness and efficiency of electrical devices especially in underground mining calls for a careful consideration of susceptibility problems. As an interference of an inadmissible high level might cause a hazardous ignition limiting values and technical parameters of interference to electrical blasting circuits are evaluated. The sources of interference are classified into communication and power technique devices. Typical interference field strengths are determined by exemplary measurements and a model of wave propagation in underground galleries. An equivalent circuit of the impedance of typical electro-explosive devices used in German coal mining is evaluated and extended by an electro-thermal part based on the `Rosenthal equation`. By this means it is possible to determine a feasible ignition during a simulation using the calculated bridge wire temperature. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer den untertaegigen Steinkohlenbergbau ist die Sprengtechnik sowohl im Bereich der Streckenauffahrung als auch beim Schachtabteufen heute noch ein wichtiges Arbeitsinstrument. Dabei wird ausschliesslich die elektrische Zuendung eingesetzt. Durch den Trend zu kompakteren elektrischen Systemen bei gleichzeitiger Leistungssteigerung in Verbindung mit den geringen raeumlichen Abstaenden unter Tage gewinnen Phaenomene der elektromagnetischen Beeinflussung auch im Steinkohlenbergbau an Bedeutung. Eine unzulaessig hohe Beeinflussung des elektrischen Zuendsystems kann eine unerwuenschte Fruehzuendung verursachen. Dieses Gefahrenpotential erfordert eine gesonderte Untersuchung der Stoerfestigkeit elektrischer Zuendsysteme, zumal die Normen fuer den uebertaegigen Sprengbetrieb unter Tage aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Randbedingungen der Ausbreitung elektromagnetischer Wellen nicht uneingeschraenkt angewendet werden koennen. Die Stoerquellen der

  3. The fracture of concrete under explosive shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.J.; Sanderson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Concrete fracture close to the point of application of high explosive shock pressures has been studied experimentally by placing an explosive charge on the edge of a concrete slab. The extent of the crushing and cracking produced by a semi cylindrical diverging plane compressive stress pulse has been measured and complementary experiments gave the pressure transmitted at an explosive to concrete interface and the stress-strain relation for concrete at explosive strain rates. (orig.) [de

  4. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Kress, T.

    1997-01-01

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action

  5. Free radical explosive composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  6. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  7. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Ozlem Paltaci

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etio...

  8. Chernobyl explosion bombshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is suggested that the explosion at the Chernobyl-4 reactor in April 1986 was a nuclear explosion. The evidence for this is examined. The sequence of events at Chernobyl is looked at to see if the effects were like those from a nuclear explosion. The question of whether a United Kingdom reactor could go prompt critical is discussed. It is concluded that prompt criticality excursions are possible, but the specific Chernobyl sequence is impossible. (UK)

  9. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Matsuo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated from the metal foil explosion. Secondly, in high energy explosive processing, there are several applications, such as shock compaction, explosive welding, food processing and explosive forming. In these explosive applications, a high sensitive explosive has been mainly used. The high sensitive explosive is so dangerous, since it can lead to explosion suddenly. So, for developing explosives, the safety is the most important thing as well as low manufacturing cost and explosive characteristics. In this work, we have focused on the initiation sensitivity of a solid explosive and performed numerical analysis of sympathetic detonation. The numerical analysis is calculated by LS-DYNA 3D (commercial code. To understand the initiation reaction of an explosive, Lee-Tarver equation was used and impact detonation process was analyzed by ALE code. Configuration of simulation model is a quarter of circular cylinder. The donor type of explosive (SEP was used as initiation explosive. When the donor explosive is exploded, a shock wave is generated and it propagates into PMMA, air and metallic layers in order. During passing through the layers, the shock wave is attenuated and finally, it has influence on the acceptor explosive, Comp. B. Here, we evaluate the initiation of acceptor explosive and discuss about detonation pressure, reactive rate of acceptor explosive and attenuation of impact pressure.

  10. Computing the stresses and deformations of the human eye components due to a high explosive detonation using fluid-structure interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    In spite the fact that a very small human body surface area is comprised by the eye, its wounds due to detonation have recently been dramatically amplified. Although many efforts have been devoted to measure injury of the globe, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury mechanism due to Primary Blast Wave (PBW). The goal of this study was to determine the stresses and deformations of the human eye components, including the cornea, aqueous, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, retina, sclera, optic nerve, and muscles, attributed to PBW induced by trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosion via a Lagrangian-Eulerian computational coupling model. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was employed to establish a Finite Element (FE) model of the human eye according to a normal human eye. The solid components of the eye were modelled as Lagrangian mesh, while an explosive TNT, air domain, and aqueous were modelled using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh. Nonlinear dynamic FE simulations were accomplished using the explicit FE code, namely LS-DYNA. In order to simulate the blast wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the eye, the ALE formulation with Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation defining the explosive material were employed. The results revealed a peak stress of 135.70kPa brought about by detonation upsurge on the cornea at the distance of 25cm. The highest von Mises stresses were observed on the sclera (267.3kPa), whereas the lowest one was seen on the vitreous body (0.002kPa). The results also showed a relatively high resultant displacement for the macula as well as a high variation for the radius of curvature for the cornea and lens, which can result in both macular holes, optic nerve damage and, consequently, vision loss. These results may have implications not only for understanding the value of stresses and strains in the human eye components but also giving an outlook about the process of PBW triggers damage to the eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Dynamics of explosive paroxysms at open andesitic systems: high-resolution mass distribution analyses of 2006 tephra from Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, J.; Eychenne, J.; Ramon, P.; Yepes, H.

    2012-12-01

    Many andesitic volcanoes at subduction plate margins can experience in the course of their evolution periods of sub-continuous eruption during years, decades, or centuries. Such long-lived periods may embrace more or less intense outgassing events, extrusion of viscous lava flows and domes (e.g. Colima in Mexico, Merapi in Indonesia, Arenal in Costa Rica), and explosive activity of uneven intensity (e.g. Semeru in Indonesia, Sakurajima in Japan, Sangay in Ecuador). In addition, strong explosive events of short duration may occur, with potential generation of pyroclastic flows on the flanks and beyond, which can pose significant hazards in populated regions. The origin and dynamics of such violent eruptions remain poorly known and may involve a combination of different factors. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, reawaken in 1999 and is an example of such open-system behaviour that experienced a strong and deadly andesitic pyroclastic flow-forming event in August 2006. Inspection of the deposits suggested that the event could have been triggered by magma mixing (silicic pumices in the tephra), magma-water interaction (presence of xenolithic clasts) or deep andesitic magma reinjection (based on mineral chemistry). Here we investigate these options by performing a high-resolution mass budget analysis of the scoria fall deposit. This is achieved by analysing componentry compositions and their mass distribution pattern in the layer, which allow us to document and integrate exponential and power laws mass decay rates over wide areas. The results yield a total mass for the tephra layer of ~2 x 1010kg. The pumice mass fraction is far too small (paroxysm. Altogether our results support an explosive event fed by a deep gas-rich andesitic reinjection, which would have incorporated a pocket of older differentiated magma and eroded the upper conduit during the sub-plinian event. The high-resolution mass-based approach reveals useful to decipher the origin of the violent 2006 paroxysm

  12. Explosive Technology Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Explosive Technology Group (ETG) provides diverse technical expertise and an agile, integrated approach to solve complex challenges for all classes of energetic...

  13. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Junting Yin; Baohui Yuan; Tao Zhou; Gang Li; Xinlian Ren

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, sho...

  14. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  15. Dynamics of explosive paroxysms at open-vent andesitic systems: High-resolution mass distribution analyses of the 2006 Tungurahua fall deposit (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychenne, Julia; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Ramón, Patricio; Yepes, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting andesitic eruptions sometimes include strong short-lived explosive events, which can pose significant hazards in populated regions. The origin and dynamics of such violent eruptions remain poorly known and may involve a combination of different factors. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, reawakens in 1999 and is an example of such an open-vent system that experienced a strong and deadly andesitic pyroclastic flow-forming event in August 2006. Inspection of the deposits suggested that the event could have been triggered by magma mixing (coexistence of both silicic pumices and andesitic scoria in the tephra), magma-water interaction (presence of xenolithic clasts) or deep andesitic magma reinjection (based on mineral chemistry). Here we investigate these options by performing a high-resolution mass budget analysis of the scoria fall deposit. This is achieved by analysing componentry compositions and their mass distribution pattern in the layer, which allow us to document and integrate exponential and power laws mass decay rates over wide areas. The results yield a total mass for the tephra layer of ˜2×1010 kg. The pumice mass fraction is far too small (paroxysm. Altogether our results support an explosive event fed by a deep gas-rich andesitic reinjection, which would have incorporated a pocket of older differentiated magma and eroded the upper conduit during the sub-plinian event. The high-resolution mass-based approach reveals useful to decipher the origin of the violent 2006 paroxysm and has potential to improve magnitude determinations of ancient eruption by considering componentry mass instead of volume. It is also applicable for monitoring purposes in the context of ongoing crises at andesitic volcanoes worldwide

  16. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  17. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  18. The Effect of Nano-Aluminumpowder on the Characteristic of RDX based Aluminized Explosives Underwater Close-Filed Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of nano-aluminum powder on the characteristic of RDX based aluminized explosives underwater closed-filed explosions, the scanning photographs along the radial of the charges were gained by a high speed scanning camera. The photographs of two different aluminized explosives underwater explosion have been analyzed, the shock wave curves and expand curves of detonation products were obtained, furthermore the change rules of shock waves propagation velocity, shock front pressure and expansion of detonation products of two aluminized explosives were investigated, and also the parameters of two aluminized explosives were contrasted. The results show that the aluminized explosive which with nano-aluminum whose initial shock waves pressure propagation velocity, shock front pressure are smaller than the aluminized explosive without nano-aluminum and has lower decrease rate attenuation of energy.

  19. Techniques of industrial radiology in military explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.E.G.

    1985-01-01

    The use of industrial radiology techniques id very important for military explosive fabrication. The cylindrical-ogive bodies made in forged metal have their interior fulfilled with high melted explosive and they must explode when they reach the target. The granades, as these bodies are called, are thrown by cannons and their interior are submitted to high pressures and accelerations which can cause a premature detonation, in most case, in interior of tube, in case of they have defects in explosive mass. The origins of defects, its localization and classification presenting the techniques used and disposable in Brazil are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Size-effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important problems in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. More and more evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer impact test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in our drop hammer impact test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To further analyze the size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the threshold specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive ignition thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the localization of the impact. The threshold specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the specific mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and trends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  1. Specimen size effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Dai, Kaida; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important issues in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. Various evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in some impact tests such as drop hammer test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To analyse the specimen size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the critical specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive reaction thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the deformation localization of the impact loading. The critical specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the critical mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and tends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  2. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Platform pose (localization and orientation) information is a key requirement for autonomous mobile systems. The severe natural conditions and complex terrain of underground mines diminish the capability of most pose estimation systems, especially...

  3. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  4. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Explosion metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community

  6. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  7. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    .... OSHA-2007-0032 (formerly Docket Nos. OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; termination. SUMMARY: In this notice, OSHA is terminating the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents...

  8. Explosion-proof scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitts, P.; Borkert, R.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that measuring devices used in the research works conducted with the help of radioactive isotopes on the chemical industry installations dangerous from the point of view of explosions, especially on the installations of the petrochemistry industry, must not limit the exploitation safety of these installations. The said especially concerns with the Geiger-Mueller type counters and scintillation detectors, located immediately in the places of measurements on the installations and supplied by high voltage power supply. It has been shown that electronic circuits for the detector's signals processing and obtaining working voltages can be located out of the explosive dangerous premices, for example, in the car trailer. Description is given of the device, with the help of which explosion safety is provided for the serially produced scintillation counter with forced ventilation (counter of the VA-S-50 type). Due to this device application, the exploitation parameters of the counter do not go down and there is no need for any changes in its design. Description is given of the device for external power supply and control of the counter which can swich off the power supply in the case of an accident, dangerous from the point of view of violation of the explosion safety conditions. The device is described for providing service to 10 measuring chanels, mounted on the car trailer [ru

  9. The effects of 450 kg surface explosions at the E layer of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Carlos, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    A network of hf ionospheric sounders consisting of two transmitter and two receiver stations was deployed to detect the effects of acoustic waves generated by surface ground motion following an underground nuclear test (UGT) at the Nevada Test Site. The frequency of the transmissions were chosen so that the hf radio waves were totally reflected in the E layer of the ionosphere at an altitude of approximately 100 km. The transmissions were highly stable cw tones at two frequencies separated by 100 kHz so that two altitudes separated by approximately .5 km could be sensed. The network sampled four geographic locations in the ionosphere ranging from almost directly overhead of the UGT out to a horizontal range of 60 km. The ionospheric sounders detected disturbances on all the paths beginning at approximately 325 s after the UGT which persisted for up to 100 s. These disturbances will be described in detail in a later paper. Shortly after the UGT an extended series of ionospheric disturbances were detected which we ascribe to the arrival of acoustic shock waves at the E layer caused by the surface detonation of ordinance with effective yields of 450 kg of high explosive during an unrelated exercise conducted by the U. S. Air Force at a nearby bombing range. The conjunction of these disturbances produced a direct comparison of the effects of UGT's and surface explosions in the ionosphere. In this paper we describe the effects produced by the surface explosions and interpret the disturbance in terms of diffraction induced by electron density changes accompanying the passage of the acoustic waves from the explosions through the reflection altitudes

  10. A New Paradigm of Injuries From Terrorist Explosions as a Function of Explosion Setting Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Shenhar, Gili; Renert, Liran; Peleg, Kobi

    2016-06-01

    Examine the impact of setting on the magnitude and pattern of civilian injuries from terrorist explosions. This may help surgical staffs anticipate the resources required to treat victims of terrorist attacks. A retrospective study of 823 patients from 65 explosive events of the Second Intifada (2000-2005) in the National Trauma Registry. After verification all the events were divided into 5 categories: explosions inside buildings (CS), explosions near buildings (SO), explosions inside buses (IB), explosions near buses (AB), and explosions in an open space (OS). The categories were then compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources and clinical outcomes. CS and IB scenarios were found to cause the most severe injuries, demanded the most hospital resources and had the worst outcomes, but had several important differences in injury profiles. AB setting proved to be a stand-alone scenario with the lowest severity, possibly due to protection provided to the passengers by the bus. The high volume of blast injuries in SO scenario supports the idea that the explosion wave could be reflected onto the people standing outside a building next to its wall. OS patients had the lowest proportion of blast trauma and burns. The existing taxonomy of terrorist bombings, which distinguishes explosions in open spaces from those occurring in closed environments, does not fully differentiate patterns of injury that follow blasts in intermediate environments. Expanding the framework from 2 categories to 5 appears to provide greater precision and may be clinically useful to health care providers.

  11. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground water quality of Abia state, Nigeria - physico-chemical properties. ... than a mean value of 5.17 ± 0.09 obtained for Umuahia. Underground waters of high population density areas had mean pH value of 4.29 ± 0.16 which differed significantly from 4.88 ± 0.13

  12. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  13. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piltch, M.S.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  14. Application and Prospects of High-strength Lightweight Materials used in Coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pan

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes some high-strength lightweight materials used in coal mine, and if their performance can meet the requirements of underground safety for explosion-proof, anti-static, friction sparks mine; and reviewed the species, characteristic, preparation process of high-strength lightweight materials for having inspired lightweight high-strength performance by modifying or changing the synthesis mode used in coal mine equipment.

  15. September 3rd, 2017 underground nuclear test in North Korea: Results from satellite radar imagery and dislocation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Nikkhoo, M.; Motagh, M.; Wei, S.; Barbot, S.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    On September 3rd 2017, two seismic events were detected in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)'s Punggye-ri nuclear test site. US Geological Survey and China Earthquake Networks Center determined a body wave magnitude of Mb 6.3 for the first and larger event. Underground explosions have been well studied using seismic waveforms, the surface displacement associated with this kind of source is, however, poorly known due to the lack of geodetic measurements. Here, we use satellite observations to determine the first-ever complete (3D) surface displacement characterization associated with North Korea's sixth underground nuclear test. We measure the surface displacement by cross-correlating high-resolution radar images (2.5 m in azimuth and 0.5 m in the range direction) acquired by the German TerraSAR-X satellite. We combine azimuth and range offsets from two ascending and two descending tracks to map the 3D surface displacements. The horizontal motions of up to 3.5 m show a divergent pattern centered at the top of Mt. Mantap with a central zone of subsidence of 0.5 m, indicating the surface projection of the source (epicenter). The horizontal motions are distributed asymmetrically with larger displacements on the west and south flanks than the east and north flanks, suggesting a strong topographic control on the surface displacement pattern. We infer the location, depth and geometry of the deformation sources through applying the compound dislocation model (CDM) and the boundary element method (BEM) to the surface displacements. We show that the significant topographic effect on the near field displacements is due to the shallow depth and large radius of the explosion cavity and the steep slopes of the ground zero. The simulated surface displacements in our model consist of the contributions of two consecutive deformation sources, which are represented by two inflating and contracting finite cavities, respectively. The exposed characteristics of the

  16. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Eunseo; Park, Seongjun; Shin, Jin Soo

    2016-02-17

    Strong ground motions induce large dynamic stress changes that may disturb the magma chamber of a volcano, thus accelerating the volcanic activity. An underground nuclear explosion test near an active volcano constitutes a direct treat to the volcano. This study examined the dynamic stress changes of the magma chamber of Baekdusan (Changbaishan) that can be induced by hypothetical North Korean nuclear explosions. Seismic waveforms for hypothetical underground nuclear explosions at North Korean test site were calculated by using an empirical Green's function approach based on a source-spectral model of a nuclear explosion; such a technique is efficient for regions containing poorly constrained velocity structures. The peak ground motions around the volcano were estimated from empirical strong-motion attenuation curves. A hypothetical M7.0 North Korean underground nuclear explosion may produce peak ground accelerations of 0.1684 m/s(2) in the horizontal direction and 0.0917 m/s(2) in the vertical direction around the volcano, inducing peak dynamic stress change of 67 kPa on the volcano surface and ~120 kPa in the spherical magma chamber. North Korean underground nuclear explosions with magnitudes of 5.0-7.6 may induce overpressure in the magma chamber of several tens to hundreds of kilopascals.

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for an Underground Blowout Scenario in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, M.; Zulqarnain, M.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations, involve the use of some of the cutting edge and challenging technologies of the modern time. These technological complex operations involves the risk of major accidents as well, which have been demonstrated by disasters such as the explosion and fire on the UK production platform piper alpha, the Canadian semi-submersible drilling rig Ocean Ranger and the explosion and capsizing of Deepwater horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico. By conducting Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), safety of various operations as well as their associated risks and significance during the entire life phase of an offshore project can be quantitatively estimated. In an underground blowout, the uncontrolled formation fluids from higher pressure formation may charge up shallower overlying low pressure formations or may migrate to sea floor. Consequences of such underground blowouts range from no visible damage at the surface to the complete loss of well, loss of drilling rig, seafloor subsidence or hydrocarbons discharged to the environment. These blowouts might go unnoticed until the over pressured sands, which are the result of charging from higher pressure reservoir due to an underground blowout. Further, engineering formulas used to estimate the fault permeability and thickness are very simple in nature and may add to uncertainty in the estimated parameters. In this study the potential of a deepwater underground blowout are assessed during drilling life phase of a well in Popeye-Genesis field reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico to estimate the time taken to charge a shallower zone to its leak-off test (LOT) value. Parametric simulation results for selected field case show that for relatively high permeability (k = 40mD) fault connecting a deep over-pressured zone to a shallower low-pressure zone of similar reservoir volumes, the time to recharge the shallower zone up to its threshold LOT value is about 135 years. If the ratio of the

  18. Differences in coupling between chemical and nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The teleseismic amplitude resulting from an underground explosion is proportional to the asymptotic value of the reduced displacement potential (φ∞) or, in physical terms, to the permanent change in volume measured anywhere beyond the range at which the outgoing wave has become elastic. φ∞ decreases with increasing initial cavity size (r o ) until the cavity is large enough to preclude inelastic behavior in the surrounding rock, at which point no further decrease occurs. With nuclear explosions, φ∞ can also be reduced by decreasing the initial cavity size over a certain range. This occurs because, in this range of r 0 W -1/3 (where W is the yield) the thermal pressure in the surrounding medium increases much more slowly than does the thermal energy. With chemical explosions, by contrast, r 0 W -1/3 cannot be decreased below the fully tamped limit because the energy density is bounded above. Moreover, for the most of the cavity expansion period the ratio of specific heats of the chemical explosion products is substantially higher than the equivalent ratio in a nuclear explosion, so that the cavity pressure in the former case is higher as well and this further amplifies the differences between the two. Calculations show that the teleseismic amplitude could be as much as 50% higher for an equivalent tamped chemical explosion in salt than was observed in the SALMON nuclear event

  19. Research on Initiation Sensitivity of Solid Explosive and Planer Initiation System

    OpenAIRE

    N Matsuo; M Otuka; H Hamasima; K Hokamoto; S Itoh

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, recently, there are a lot of techniques being demanded for complex process, various explosive initiation method and highly accurate control of detonation are needed. In this research, the metal foil explosion using high current is focused attention on the method to obtain linear or planate initiation easily, and the main evaluation of metal foil explosion to initiate explosive was conducted. The explosion power was evaluated by observing optically the underwater shock wave generated ...

  20. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2018-03-01

    We propose that massive Thorne-Żytkow objects can explode. A Thorne-Żytkow object is a theoretically predicted star that has a neutron core. When nuclear reactions supporting a massive Thorne-Żytkow object terminate, a strong accretion occurs towards the central neutron core. The accretion rate is large enough to sustain a super-Eddington accretion towards the neutron core. The neutron core may collapse to a black hole after a while. A strong large-scale outflow or a jet can be launched from the super-Eddington accretion disc and the collapsing Thorne-Żytkow object can be turned into an explosion. The ejecta have about 10 M⊙ but the explosion energy depends on when the accretion is suppressed. We presume that the explosion energy could be as low as ˜1047 erg and such a low-energy explosion could be observed like a failed supernova. The maximum possible explosion energy is ˜1052 erg and such a high-energy explosion could be observed as an energetic Type II supernova or a superluminous supernova. Explosions of Thorne-Żytkow objects may provide a new path to spread lithium and other heavy elements produced through the irp process such as molybdenum in the Universe.

  1. RANCHERO explosive pulsed power experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Goforth, J H; Armijo, E V; Atchison, W L; Bartos, Yu; Clark, D A; Day, R D; Deninger, W J; Faehl, R J; Fowler, C M; García, F P; García, O F; Herrera, D H; Herrera, T J; Keinigs, R K; King, J C; Lindemuth, I R; López, E; Martínez, E C; Martínez, D; McGuire, J A; Morgan, D; Oona, H; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Randolph, R B; Reinovsky, R E; Rodríguez, G; Stokes, J L; Sena, F C; Tabaka, L J; Tasker, D G; Taylor, A J; Torres, D T; Anderson, H D; Broste, W B; Johnson, J B; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The authors are developing the RANCHERO high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. Their near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of ~50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. The authors have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper, they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long. (6 refs).

  2. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... the law if it otherwise meets the statutory definitions in 18 U.S.C. 841. Explosives materials are... inorganic salts and hydrocarbons. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and nitro... nitro compounds of aromatic hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash...

  3. Volcano Inflation prior to Gas Explosions at Semeru Volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Kawaguchi, R.; Surono, S.; Hendrasto, M.; Rosadi, U.

    2010-12-01

    Semeru volcano in east Java, Indonesia, is well known to exhibit small vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Such eruptive activity stopped on April 2009, but volcanic earthquakes started to occur in August and a lava dome was found in the summit crater on November. Since then, lava sometimes flows downward on the slope and small explosions emitting steams from active crater frequently occur every a few to a few tens of minutes. Since the explosions repeatedly occur with short intervals and the active crater is located close to the summit with an altitude of 3676m, the explosions are considered to originate from the gas (steams) from magma itself in the conduit and not to be caused by interactions of magma with the underground water. We installed a tiltmeter at the summit on March 2010 to study the volcanic eruption mechanisms. The tiltmeter (Pinnacle hybrid type, accuracy of measurement is 1 nrad ) was set at a depth of about 1 m around the summit about 500 m north from the active crater. The data stored every 1 s in the internal memory was uploaded every 6 hours by a small data logger with GPS time correction function. More than one thousand gas explosion events were observed for about 2 weeks. We analyze the tilt records as well as seismic signals recorded at stations of CVGHM, Indonesia. The tilt records clearly show uplift of the summit about 20 to 30 seconds before each explosion. Uplifts before large explosions reach to about 20 - 30 n rad, which is almost equivalent to the volume increase of about 100 m^3 beneath the crater. To examine the eruption magnitude dependence on the uplift, we classify the eruptions into five groups based on the amplitudes of seismograms associated with explosions. We stack the tilt records for these groups to reduce noises in the signals and to get general characteristics of the volcano inflations. The results show that the amplitudes of uplifts are almost proportional to the amplitudes of explosion earthquakes while the

  4. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  5. Influence of the parameters of a high-frequency acoustic wave on the structure, properties, and plastic flow of metal in the zone of a joint of materials welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, A. P.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Kuz'min, E. V.; Dorodnikov, A. N.

    2017-05-01

    The results of an investigation of the influence of the parameters of high-frequency acoustic wave on the structure and properties of the zone of joint of homogeneous metals bonded by explosive welding under the action of ultrasound have been presented. The influence of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibrations on the structure and properties of the explosively welded joints compared with the samples welded without the application of ultrasound has been established. The action of high-frequency acoustic waves on the metal leads to a reduction in the dynamic yield stress, which changes the properties of the surface layers of the metal and the conditions of the formation of the joint of the colliding plates upon the explosive welding. It has been shown that the changes in the length and amplitude of waves that arise in the weld joint upon the explosive welding with the simultaneous action of ultrasonic vibrations are connected with a decrease in the magnitude of the deforming pulse and time of action of the compressive stresses that exceed the dynamic yield stress beyond the point of contact.

  6. Development of active guidance systems to overcome problems of disorientation and low visibility following severe explosions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phillips, HR

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project was to review methods of overcoming the disorientation of underground mine workers following an explosion or severe fire. The results of this project indicate that different strategies may be required for fires...

  7. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  8. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder have an increased risk of: Impaired interpersonal relationships. They're often perceived by others as ... of control: Stick with your treatment. Attend your therapy sessions, practice your coping skills, and if your ...

  9. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Headache Intermittent explosive disorder Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Assessment of explosion barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, JL

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available This report summarises the test work which has been completed on the comparison of different types of stoop flame propagation of coal dust explosions in a 200 m gallery. The research was conducted at kloppersbos research facility...

  11. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  12. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  13. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and

  14. Efficiency evaluation of agricultural underground dam in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, W.; Song, S. H.; Yong, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has resulted in severe droughts in a rice-planting season (i.e., April to June) in South Korea since 2012. Therefore, all time high-amount water resources in rice-farming seasons (i.e., April to October) were required against natural crises like droughts. The underground dam, which is able to increase groundwater amounts in the alluvium aquifer, has been considered to be an alternative for securing more groundwater resources. In this study, irrigation efficiencies of five pre-existing agricultural underground dams in South Korea were evaluated during the drought periods. A total amount of groundwater storage capacities in alluvial aquifers of these five ones were estimated approximate 15 × 107 m3: above 4 × 106 m3 for two underground dams (Ian, Namsong), 2 3 × 106 m3, for 2 dams (Oksung, Wooil), below 2 × 106 m3 for 1 dam (Gocheon), respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for three underground dams (Ian, Namsong, Gocheon), supplied in rice-farming season are 8.5 × 105 m3/year, 8.3 × 105 m3/year, 6.3 × 105 m3/year, respectively. The total demand of agricultural water in these underground dams is 2.0 × 106 m3/year, 1.9 × 106 m3/year, 2.2 × 106 m3/year, respectively. Irrigating amounts of groundwater accounted for whole of rice-farming area in South Korea is 4.3 × 108 m3/year whereas total demand of agricultural water is 9.4 × 109 m3/year. Groundwater were pumped from the radial collector wells located in the upstream from the underground dams. Oksung underground dam, one representative underground dam located in Chungnam province in South Korea, irrigated approximate 3 × 105 m3 during a dried rice-planting season (between April to June) in 2017. It was three times more than usual (9 × 104 m3). Groundwater levels during the same period maintained above 5.55 m, which was slightly lower than usual (6.00 m). Results of Oksung underground dam demonstrated that underground dams in South Korea were effectively operated against

  15. Thermodynamics of explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Neergaard, Gregers; Bondorf, Jakob P.; Mishustin, Igor N.

    2000-01-01

    We present our first attempts to formulate a thermodynamics-like description of explosions. The motivation is partly a fundamental interest in non-equilibrium statistical physics, partly the resemblance of an explosion to the late stages of a heavy-ion collision. We perform numerical simulations on a microscopic model of interacting billiard-ball like particles, and we analyse the results of such simulations trying to identify collective variables describing the degree of equilibrium during t...

  16. Overview of Explosive Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    crystals) spherical morphology. The SLA has higher explosive performance than dextrinated lead azide (DLA) or RD1333/special purpose lead azide (SPLA...electric bridgewires for commercial electric detonators. It is known to be extremely sensitive to ESD.  Dextrinated lead azide (DLA) (refs. 4 through...incorporation of dextrin (a short-chained, starch-based polysaccharide), which helps to desensitize the explosive by preventing the formation of large

  17. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  18. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  19. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  20. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models