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Sample records for underground high explosive

  1. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  2. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  3. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  4. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  5. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  6. Dimensional analysis for the mechanical effects of some underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, Francis [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The influence of the medium properties upon the effects of underground nuclear and high explosive explosions is studied by dimensional analysis methods. A comparison is made with the experimental data from the Hoggar contained nuclear shots, specially with the particle motion data and the cavity radii. Furthermore, for example, crater data from explosions in Nevada have been examined by statistical methods. (author)

  7. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  8. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  9. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  10. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  11. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  12. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  13. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  14. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  15. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal tools for monitoring compliance with a comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, are seismic networks and surveillance satellites. On-site inspections might also be required to resolve ambiguous events. The critical element of the monitoring system is the network of seismic stations, and in particular the in-country station. Internal stations provide much more useful data than do stations outside the borders of testing nations. For large events that are not eliminated by depth or location, one of the most useful discriminants is based on the ratio of surface-wave to body-wave magnitudes (M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ ). If an explosion and an earthquake have the same body-wave magnitude, the surface-wave magnitude for the earthquake is generally larger. It has yet to be proven that M /sub s/ :m /sub b/ is useful at low magnitudes, expecially when explosions are set off in long tunnels or odd-shaped cavities. A number of other promising regional discriminants have been suggested. Evasion opportunities and cavity decoupling are discussed

  16. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  17. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  18. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  19. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  20. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  1. Analysis of slifer data from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, M.

    1979-01-01

    A formula describing the distance--time relationship of a shock wave moving outward from an underground explosion is derived. Calculated results are compared with those computed using the LASL and BOTE formulas and with slifer data obtained from field experiments. For many of the field events, the derived curve provides a better fit than do the LASL or BOTE formulas. Methods are presented for the determination of the detonation energy W under three conditions: (a) where time and distance are known accurately; (b) where there is an unknown offset of time and distance; and (c) where there is an unknown offset of both time and distance. These methods are applied with moderate success to a set of (t,r) data supplied by Goldwire

  2. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  3. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  4. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  5. Subsidence caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, W W [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    An underground nuclear detonation creates a cavity, which may be followed by the formation of a rubble chimney and possibly by a surface subsidence crater. A knowledge of the mechanisms of surface and subsurface subsidence is valuable not only because of the potential engineering uses of the chimneys and craters that may form, but also for the prevention of surface damage. Some of the parameters that are of interest in the subsidence phenomenon are the height and volume of the chimney, the porosity of the chimney, the crater size (depth and radius) and shape, and the time required after detonation for formation of the chimney or crater. The influence of the properties of the subsidence medium on the geometry of the subsidence crater must be considered. The conditions under which partial or complete subsidence is prevented must also be studied. The applicability of the relations that have been developed for the flow of bulk solids for relatively small masses and low pressures to the subsidence problem associated with nuclear explosions is examined. Rational modifications are made to describe the subsidence problem. Sensitivity of the subsidence parameters to material properties and the prevailing geometry is shown. Comparison with observed results at the Nevada Test Site is made and the variations encountered are found to be within reasonable limits. The chimney size and subsidence crater dimensions are found to be a function of the bulking characteristics of the medium, the strength parameters, the dimensions of the subsurface cavity, and the depth of the cavity. The great influence of the strength parameters on the collapse times is shown. For a given medium, the prevention of subsidence is dependent on the cavity size. (author)

  6. Surface Signatures of an Underground Explosion as Captured by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Swanson, E.; Coppersmith, R.; Cooley, J.; Rougier, E.; Larmat, C. S.; Norskog, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study employed high-resolution photogrammetric modeling to quantify cm-scale surface topographic changes resulting from a 5000kg underground chemical explosion. The test occurred in April 2016 at a depth of 76m within a quartz monzonite intrusion in southern Nevada. The field area was a 210m x 150m polygon broadly centered on the explosion's emplacement hole. A grid of ground control points (GCPs) installed in the field area established control within the collection boundaries and ensured high-resolution digital model parameterization. Using RTK GPS techniques, GCP targets were surveyed in the days before and then again immediately after the underground explosion. A quadcopter UAS with a 12MP camera payload captured overlapping imagery at two flight altitudes (10m and 30m AGL) along automated flight courses for consistency and repeatability. The overlapping imagery was used to generate two digital elevation models, pre-shot and post-shot, for each of the flight altitudes. Spatial analyses of the DEMs and orthoimagery show uplift on the order of 1 to 18cm in the immediate area near ground zero. Other features such as alluvial fracturing appear in the photogrammetric and topographic datasets. Portions of the nearby granite outcrop experienced rock fall and rock rotation. The study detected erosional and depositional features on the test bed and adjacent to it. In addition to vertical change, pre-shot and post-shot surveys of the GCPs suggest evidence for lateral motion on the test bed surface, with movement away from surface ground zero on the order of 1 to 3cm. Results demonstrate that UAS photogrammetry method provides an efficient, high-fidelity, non-invasive method to quantify surface deformation. The photogrammetry data allow quantification of permanent surface deformation and of the spatial extent of damage. These constraints are necessary to develop hydrodynamic and seismic models of explosions that can be verified against recorded seismic data.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system checked weekly to detect any failures which may constitute an electrical hazard. A certification record which... powered by the truck's electrical system, shall be prohibited. (g) Explosives and blasting agents shall be...

  8. Ground model and computer complex for designing underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashurov, V.V.; Vakhrameev, Yu.S.; Dem' yanovskii, S.V.; Ignatenko, V.V.; Simonova, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a ground model that accounts for large deformations, their irreversibility, loose rock, breakdown, resistance to internal friction, and other factors. Calculations from the American Sulky explosion and camouflage detonations of two spaced explosive charges are cited as examples illustrating the possibility of design methods and the suitability of ground state equations for describing underground detonations.

  9. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  10. Close-in airblast from underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vortman, L J [Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Air overpressures as a function of time have been measured from surface zero to about 170 ft/lb{sup 1/3} along the ground from nuclear and chemical explosions. Charge depths varied from the surface to depths below which explosion gases are contained. A ground-shock-induced air pressure pulse is clearly distinguishable from the pulse caused by venting gases. Measured peak overpressures show reasonable agreement with the theoretical treatment by Monta. In a given medium the suppression of blast with explosion burial depth is a function of the relative distance at which the blast is observed. Rates of suppression of peak overpressure with charge burial are different for the two pulses. Rates are determined for each pulse over the range of distances at which measurements have been made of air overpressure from chemical explosions in several media. Nuclear data are available from too few shots for similar dependence on burial depth and distance to be developed, but it is clear that the gas venting peak overpressure from nuclear explosions is much more dependent on medium than that from chemical explosions. For above-ground explosions, experiment has shown that airblast from a I-kiloton nuclear explosion is equal to that from a 0.5-kiloton TNT explosion. Data on ground-shock-induced airblast is now sufficient to show that a similar relationship may exist for buried explosions. Because of medium dependence of the gas venting pulse from nuclear explosions, data from additional nuclear events will be required before a chemical/nuclear airblast equivalence can be determined for the gas-venting pulse. (author)

  11. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  12. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

  13. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  14. Multi-scale fracture damage associated with underground chemical explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, E. M.; Sussman, A. J.; Wilson, J. E.; Townsend, M. J.; Prothro, L. B.; Gang, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding rock damage induced by explosions is critical for a number of applications including the monitoring and verification of underground nuclear explosions, mine safety issues, and modeling fluid flow through fractured rock. We use core observations, televiewer logs, and thin section observations to investigate fracture damage associated with two successive underground chemical explosions (SPE2 and SPE3) in granitic rock at both the mesoscale and microscale. We compare the frequency and orientations of core-scale fractures, and the frequency of microfractures, between a pre-experiment core and three post-experiment cores. Natural fault zones and explosion-induced fractures in the vicinity of the explosive source are readily apparent in recovered core and in thin sections. Damage from faults and explosions is not always apparent in fracture frequency plots from televiewer logs, although orientation data from these logs suggests explosion-induced fracturing may not align with the pre-existing fracture sets. Core-scale observations indicate the extent of explosion-induced damage is 10.0 m after SPE2 and 6.8 m after SPE3, despite both a similar size and location for both explosions. At the microscale, damage is observed to a range distance of 10.2 ± 0.9 m after SPE2, and 16.6 ± 0.9 and 11.2 ± 0.6 in two different cores collected after SPE3. Additional explosion-induced damage, interpreted to be the result of spalling, is readily apparent near the surface, but only in the microfracture data. This depth extent and intensity of damage in the near-surface region also increased after an additional explosion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating structural damage at multiple scales for a more complete characterization of the damage, and particularly shows the importance of microscale observations for identifying spallation-induced damage.

  15. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  16. Surface and body waves from surface and underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusubov, A.S.

    1976-06-01

    The characteristics of surface and ground waves were recorded for surface and underground explosions up to 100 tons and 40 kt in magnitude, respectively, and a preliminary analysis of these results is presented. The experiments were conducted at NTS in the Yucca Flats, Nevada. Ground motions were detected with triaxial geophones along seismic lines extending up to 16 miles from the point of explosions. A comparison of Rayleigh waves generated by surface and underground explosions in the same lake bed is presented indicating a very different behavior of surface and ground waves from the two types of explosions. The magnitude of the transverse wave for surface shots was smaller by a factor of two than its longitudinal counterpart. The dependence of apparent periods on the blast energy was not apparent at a fixed distance from the explosions. Changes in the apparent period with distance for both types of explosion are compared indicating a strong layering effect of the lake bed. The ground motion study was complimented by excavation of cavities generated by the explosions

  17. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.

    1970-01-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained

  18. Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I G; Scorgie, G C [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained.

  19. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  20. Finite-difference numerical simulations of underground explosion cavity decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Preston, L. A.; Jensen, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Earth models containing a significant portion of ideal fluid (e.g., air and/or water) are of increasing interest in seismic wave propagation simulations. Examples include a marine model with a thick water layer, and a land model with air overlying a rugged topographic surface. The atmospheric infrasound community is currently interested in coupled seismic-acoustic propagation of low-frequency signals over long ranges (~tens to ~hundreds of kilometers). Also, accurate and efficient numerical treatment of models containing underground air-filled voids (caves, caverns, tunnels, subterranean man-made facilities) is essential. In support of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), we are developing a numerical algorithm for simulating coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation in mixed solid/fluid media. Solution methodology involves explicit, time-domain, finite-differencing of the elastodynamic velocity-stress partial differential system on a three-dimensional staggered spatial grid. Conditional logic is used to avoid shear stress updating within the fluid zones; this approach leads to computational efficiency gains for models containing a significant proportion of ideal fluid. Numerical stability and accuracy are maintained at air/rock interfaces (where the contrast in mass density is on the order of 1 to 2000) via a finite-difference operator "order switching" formalism. The fourth-order spatial FD operator used throughout the bulk of the earth model is reduced to second-order in the immediate vicinity of a high-contrast interface. Current modeling efforts are oriented toward quantifying the amount of atmospheric infrasound energy generated by various underground seismic sources (explosions and earthquakes). Source depth and orientation, and surface topography play obvious roles. The cavity decoupling problem, where an explosion is detonated within an air-filled void, is of special interest. A point explosion

  1. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1970-01-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  2. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  3. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etude de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  4. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  5. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  6. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  7. Two Sources of Nonisotropic Radiation From Underground Explosions in Granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiev, O. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Significant tangential ground motion observed during underground explosions makes it difficult to distinguish them from natural earthquakes. Such motion can be generated by the source geometry and emplacement conditions, by the heterogeneous nature of the rock mass (mechanical properties may vary in space due to the presence of cracks, joints, faults, and various geologic layers) and also by the nonuniform in situ stress state. The last mechanism is increasingly important with depth when the difference in main principal stresses becomes significant. This paper is focused on the role of material strength of the rock mass in generation of nonradial motion during explosions in prestressed media. Numerical modeling of underground chemical explosions in granite at various depths has been conducted to compare two possible mechanisms of shear wave generation. The first, caused by rock mass anisotropy, is important at shallow depth. The second is related to elastic-plastic relaxation around the cavity created by the explosion. As a result, tangential motions for these two mechanisms have different signatures.

  8. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  9. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations

  10. 30 CFR 75.1312 - Explosives and detonators in underground magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... magazines. 75.1312 Section 75.1312 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Blasting § 75.1312 Explosives and detonators in underground magazines. (a) The quantity of explosives kept..., explosives and detonators taken underground shall be kept in— (1) Separate, closed magazines at least 5 feet...

  11. Calculations on seismic coupling of underground explosions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report details the results of a theoretical study of seismic coupling and decoupling of underground explosions in a salt medium. A series of chemical and nuclear explosions was carried out years ago in salt domes for the Cowboy and the Dribble programs to provide experimental data on seismic coupling for both tamped explosions and explosions in cavities. The Cowboy program consisted of a series of chemical explosions, and the Dribble program consisted of the tamped nuclear Salmon event, the Sterling nuclear event in the Salmon cavity, and an associated site calibration effort. This report presents the results of extensive computer calculations, which are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The calculations were extended to give general results on seismic coupling in salt. The measure of seismic coupling for most of this work was the residual reduced displacement potential (residual RDP). The decoupling associated with a shot in a cavity was expressed as the ratio of the resulting residual RDP to that of an equal-sized tamped shot

  12. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J T; Petersen, F L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  13. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  14. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  15. A new system for seismic yield estimation of underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Research conducted over the past decade has led to the development of a number of innovative procedures for estimating the yields of underground nuclear explosions based on systematic analyses of digital seismic data recorded from these tests. In addition, a wide variety of new data regarding the geophysical environments at Soviet test locations have now become available as a result of the Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) and associated data exchanges. The system described in this paper represents an attempt to integrate all these new capabilities and data into a comprehensive operational prototype which can be used to obtain optimum seismic estimates of explosion yield together with quantitative measures of the uncertainty in those estimates. The implementation of this system has involved a wide variety of technical tasks, including the development of a comprehensive seismic database and related database access software, formulation of a graphical test site information interface for accessing available information on explosion source conditions, design of an interactive seismic analyst station for use in processing the observed data to extract the required magnitude measures and the incorporation of formal statistical analysis modules for use in yield estimation and assessment

  16. The 20th nuclear explosion test of the Peoples' Republic of China (underground nuclear test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    (1) The New China News Agency and the Radio Peking announced that China conducted the underground nuclear explosion test on 17 October, 1976. However, no exact data concerning the data, the place and the scale of this test was stated in above announcement. (2) However, relatively high radioactivity than that of normal level was detected in the rain and dry fallout samples collected from several prefectures. (author)

  17. Discrimination between underground explosions and earthquakes using discriminant functions: Examples for Eurasia and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowroozi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Discriminant functions are extensively used as a technical tool in educational and psychological research as well as in some branches of geological sciences. The application of this technique to the problem of discrimination between underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes has been reported. Here we apply this technique to a known population of underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes for the determination of various statistical parameters needed for setting up the discriminant function equations for discrimination between unknown population of earthquakes, anomalous events, and underground explosions, then we classify earthquakes, explosions and anomalous events in Eurasia and North America

  18. Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground nuclear explosions were analyzed. The cone of more intense radiation is defined by the ratio of sound speeds in the ground and air. The pressure history of the radiated pulse is a function of the vertical ground-motion history, the range, the burial depth, and the velocity of longitudinal seismic waves. The analysis of short-pulse propagation employed an N-wave model with and without enegy conservation. Short pulses with initial wave lengths less than 100 m are severely attenuated by the energy loss in shocks and viscous losses in the wave interior. The methods developed in this study should be useful for system analysis

  19. Medium properties and total energy coupling in underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A phenomenological model is presented that allows the direct calculation of the effects of variations in medium properties on the total energy coupling between the medium and an underground explosion. The model presented is based upon the assumption that the shock wave generated in the medium can be described as a spherical blast wave at early times. The total energy coupled to the medium is then simply the sum of the kinetic and internal energies of this blast wave. Results obtained by use of this model indicate that the energy coupling is more strongly affected by the medium's porosity than by its water content. These results agree well with those obtained by summing the energy deposited by the blast wave as a function of range

  20. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of 39 Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of 39 Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with 37 Ar and 85 Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish 39 Ar from the fission product 85 Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of 85 Kr can be mistaken for that of 39 Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of 37 Ar. Measured values for the 39 Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  2. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  3. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  4. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  5. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  6. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D L; Jackson, E C; Miller, A B [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  7. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Jackson, E.C.; Miller, A.B.

    1970-01-01

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  8. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository

  9. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  10. Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Bowyer, T.W.; Haas, D.A.; Hayes, J.C.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases radioxenon and radioargon constitute the primary smoking gun of an underground nuclear explosion. The aim of subsurface sampling of soil gas as part of an on-site inspection (OSI) is to search for evidence of a suspected underground nuclear event. It has been hypothesized that atmospheric gas can disturb soil gas concentrations and therefore potentially add to problems in civilian source discrimination verifying treaty compliance under the comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty. This work describes a study of intrusion of atmospheric air into the subsurface and its potential impact on an OSI using results of simulations from the underground transport of environmental xenon (UTEX) model. (author)

  11. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  12. Novel high explosive compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  13. Analysis, comparison, and modeling of radar interferometry, date of surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Phase I: underground explosions, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxall, W; Vincent, P; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    We have previously presented simple elastic deformation modeling results for three classes of seismic events of concern in monitoring the CTBT-underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Those results explored the theoretical detectability of each event type using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) based on commercially available satellite data. In those studies we identified and compared the characteristics of synthetic interferograms that distinguish each event type, as well the ability of the interferograms to constrain source parameters. These idealized modeling results, together with preliminary analysis of InSAR data for the 1995 mb 5.2 Solvay mine collapse in southwestern Wyoming, suggested that InSAR data used in conjunction with regional seismic monitoring holds great potential for CTBT discrimination and seismic source analysis, as well as providing accurate ground truth parameters for regional calibration events. In this paper we further examine the detectability and ''discriminating'' power of InSAR by presenting results from InSAR data processing, analysis and modeling of the surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions. Specifically, we present results of a detailed study of coseismic and postseismic surface deformation signals associated with underground nuclear and chemical explosion tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Several interferograms were formed from raw ERS-1/2 radar data covering different time spans and epochs beginning just prior to the last U.S. nuclear tests in 1992 and ending in 1996. These interferograms have yielded information about the nature and duration of the source processes that produced the surface deformations associated with these events. A critical result of this study is that significant post-event surface deformation associated with underground nuclear explosions detonated at depths in excess of 600 meters can be detected using differential radar interferometry. An

  14. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J; Levret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  15. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  16. The acoustic field in the ionosphere caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnov, Valerij Michailovič; Drobzheva, Yana Viktorovna

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2005), s. 913-920 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Underground explosion * Acoustic wave * Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.309, year: 2005

  17. Seismic Wave Propagation from Underground Chemical Explosions: Sensitivity to Velocity and Thickness of a Weathered Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, E. T.; Ezzedine, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recorded motions from underground chemical explosions are complicated by long duration seismic coda as well as motion in the tangential direction. The inability to distinguish the origins of these complexities as either source or path effects comprises a limitation to effective monitoring of underground chemical explosions. With numerical models, it is possible to conduct rigorous sensitivity analyses for chemical explosive sources and their resulting ground motions under the influence of many attributes, including but not limited to complex velocity structure, topography, and non-linear source characteristics. Previously we found that topography can cause significant scattering in the direct wave but leads to relatively little motion in the coda. Here, we aim to investigate the contribution from the low-velocity weathered layer that exists in the shallow subsurface apart from and in combination with surface topography. We use SW4, an anelastic anisotropic fourth order finite difference code to simulate chemical explosive source in a 1D velocity structure consisting of a single weathered layer over a half space. A range of velocity magnitudes are used for the upper weathered layer with the velocities always being lower than that of the granitic underlaying layer. We find that for lower weathered layer velocities, the wave train is highly dispersed and causes a large percentage of energy to be contained in the coda in relation to the entire time series. The percentage of energy contained in the coda grows with distance from the source but saturates at a certain distance that depends on weathered layer velocity and thickness. The saturation onset distance increases with decreasing layer thickness and increasing velocity of the upper layer. Measurements of relative coda energy and coda saturation onset distance from real recordings can provide an additional constraint on the properties of the weathered layer in remote sites as well as test sites like the Nevada

  18. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions.

  19. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions

  20. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-09-04

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.

  1. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/

  2. Characteristics of seismic sources of some Asian earthquakes and Soviet underground explosions from Gauribidanur array records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, T.K.; Arora, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Among one hundred sixty-five shallow-focus earthquakes which occurred over a six-year period (1980-1985) in thirty-five different Asian provinces, Gauribidanur array (GBA) P-wave seismograms of all of them and P c P seismograms of thirty-one of them from fourteen regions were processed to deduce temporal and spectral characteristics of their sources. These were compared with the corresponding features deduced earlier (Basu and Arora ; 1985, 1986) from eighty-eight known and presumed Soviet underground explosions. The identifiers that yielded wider separation between earthquakes and explosions included among others: (i) cube root of signal complexity per unit TMF (third moment of frequency: CTMF parameter), (ii) spectral energy ratio of P c P in two distinct frequency passbands (SENR Parameters), and (iii) normalized time-window energy ratio (NTENR parameter) and normalized spectral energy ratio (NSENR parameter) of P and P c P signals. The last two of these particularly helped to accentuate the main phase and the relative high-frequency content in the P c P record, which considerably increased the efficacy of the P c P discriminant. 5 refs., 10 figures, 6 tables. (author)

  3. Remote detection of weak aftershocks of the DPRK underground explosions using waveform cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, R.; Rozhkov, M.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Sanina, I.

    2017-12-01

    Association of weak seismic signals generated by low-magnitude aftershocks of the DPRK underground tests into event hypotheses represent a challenge for routine automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, due to the relatively low station density of the International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network. Since 2011, as an alternative, the IDC has been testing various prototype techniques of signal detection and event creation based on waveform cross correlation. Using signals measured by seismic stations of the IMS from DPRK explosions as waveform templates, the IDC detected several small (estimated mb between 2.2 and 3.6) seismic events after two DPRK tests conducted on September 9, 2016 and September 3, 2017. The obtained detections were associated with reliable event hypothesis and then used to locate these events relative to the epicenters of the DPRK explosions. We observe high similarity of the detected signals with the corresponding waveform templates. The newly found signals also correlate well between themselves. In addition, the values of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimated using the traces of cross correlation coefficients, increase with template length (from 5 s to 150 s), providing strong evidence in favour of their spatial closeness, which allows interpreting them as explosion aftershocks. We estimated the relative magnitudes of all aftershocks using the ratio of RMS amplitudes of the master and slave signal in the cross correlation windows characterized by the highest SNR. Additional waveform data from regional non-IMS stations MDJ and SEHB provide independent validation of these aftershock hypotheses. Since waveform templates from any single master event may be sub-efficient at some stations, we have also developed a method of joint usage of the DPRK and the biggest aftershocks templates to build more robust event hypotheses.

  4. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  5. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  6. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  7. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  8. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45 0 dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3

  9. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics

    2015-04-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  10. To the issue about negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions in the salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. From 1970 to 1984, 26 underground explosions were conducted at Azgir test site salt domes and Karachaganak gas-condensate deposit (KGKD) of Kazakhstan. Consequence, 9 and 6, relatively, underground cavities were created. At Azgir test site 5 cavities were filled by water and brines. Some of them were destroyed with surface spotting formation. It is noticed the spreading of radionuclides out of cavities bounds. At the KGKD gas-condensate is loaded into 4 cavities, another 2 cavities are in the accident condition, the last one (5TK) was filled by brine. There are characters of radioecological situation degradation above the last cavity. Radioactive logging in the cavity shown that the γ-activity of rock was increased more then 8 times in the distance of depths 0-64 m for 3 years. Apparently, outbreak of radioactive brines takes place along the zones of fissuring on the bound of casing tubes into the 5TK borehole and along enclosing rocks with sorption of radioactive isotopes in clay rocks. 2. There are examples of negative evolution of events at the Astrakhan gas-condensate deposit, where 15 nuclear cavities were created from 1980 to 1984 years. In 1986 year, 13 of them stopped to exist because of tectonic shearing, triggering by underground nuclear explosion in the salt dome. Many of them are flooded and they throw out the radioactive brines, reaching the surface. 3. Negative development of radioecological situation is occurred because of depressurization of cavities, their flooding, displacement of radionuclides with salt into the brines, destroying of cavities, extrusion of radioactive brines along the permeable zones, more often along the militant and observation boreholes. It is possible to spread of radioactive contamination along horizontal at the distance for l,5-3 km. In 2 years after the underground nuclear explosion at the Grachev oil deposit of Bashkiria radioactive tritium was detected in underground water and in the ground more then 3 km far from

  11. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  12. The destabilizing influence of heat flow on the geological environment during underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politikov, M.I.; Kamberov, I.M.; Krivchenko, V.F.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    The study has determined the fact that the processes of gas-radioactive ectoplasm intrusion from nuclear cavities in the geological environment bring the significant contribution in bosom destabilizing besides the mechanical rock destruction as affected by underground nuclear explosions. Not only heat field forming that reduces the rock resistance and increases its porosity is related to it, but also the forming, on the way, of man-caused contamination aureoles of the geological environment, including the underground water bearing horizon. Unfortunately, this problem is hardly studied, mainly for the lack of reliable apparatus and methods. Judging by the results of information search, the best way to solve the problem is not yet known. (author)

  13. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  14. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    determined by the ratios of radioactive isotopes in the samples collected in places of the venting. Using known venting times for the radioactive products...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...76  2.2.4 Ground material/ soil  parameters in the laboratory model

  15. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  16. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60 Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60 Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations

  17. Deep underground measurements of {sup 60}Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Mikael E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure {sup 60}Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure {sup 60}Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  18. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jean

    1970-01-01

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  19. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  20. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Jean [Commissariat a I' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  1. Source characterization of underground explosions from hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Pitarka, A.; Ford, S. R.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.

    2017-12-01

    A major improvement in ground motion simulation capabilities for underground explosion monitoring during the first phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is the development of a wave propagation solver that can propagate explosion generated non-linear near field ground motions to the far-field. The calculation is done using a hybrid modeling approach with a one-way hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling in three dimensions where near-field motions are computed using GEODYN-L, a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and then passed to WPP, an elastic finite-difference code for seismic waveform modeling. The advancement in ground motion simulation capabilities gives us the opportunity to assess moment tensor inversion of a realistic volumetric source with near-field effects in a controlled setting, where we can evaluate the recovered source properties as a function of modeling parameters (i.e. velocity model) and can provide insights into previous source studies on SPE Phase I chemical shots and other historical nuclear explosions. For example the moment tensor inversion of far-field SPE seismic data demonstrated while vertical motions are well-modeled using existing velocity models large misfits still persist in predicting tangential shear wave motions from explosions. One possible explanation we can explore is errors and uncertainties from the underlying Earth model. Here we investigate the recovered moment tensor solution, particularly on the non-volumetric component, by inverting far-field ground motions simulated from physics-based explosion source models in fractured material, where the physics-based source models are based on the modeling of SPE-4P, SPE-5 and SPE-6 near-field data. The hybrid modeling approach provides new prospects in modeling explosion source and understanding the uncertainties associated with it.

  2. Simulations of Si-PIN photodiode based detectors for underground explosives enhanced by ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mete; Bayrak, Ahmet; Yücel, Esra Barlas; Ozben, Cenap S.

    2018-02-01

    Massive Ammonium Nitrate (NH4-NO3) based explosives buried underground are commonly used in terror attacks. These explosives can be detected using neutron scattering method with some limitations. Simulations are very useful tools for designing a possible detection system for these kind of explosives. Geant4 simulations were used for generating neutrons at 14 MeV energy and tracking them through the scattering off the explosive embedded in soil. Si-PIN photodiodes were used as detector elements in the design for their low costs and simplicity for signal readout electronics. Various neutron-charge particle converters were applied on to the surface of the photodiodes to increase the detection efficiency. Si-PIN photodiodes coated with 6LiF provided the best result for a certain energy interval. Energy depositions in silicon detector from all secondary particles generated including photons were taken into account to generate a realistic background. Humidity of soil, one of the most important parameter for limiting the detection, was also studied.

  3. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  4. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  5. High Explosives Research and Development (HERD) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to provide high explosive formulation, chemical analysis, safety and performance testing, processing, X-ray, quality control and loading support for...

  6. Effect of underground explosions on the migration of elements and characteristics of water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Lunin, S.E.; Zhdanov, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    During the analysis process of nuclear explosions effect to the earth' crust condition, among the others results it was extracted the changes of chemical staff of underground water at the testing place. For the control of this suggestion logging potentiometric measurement of chemical containment of water environment took place before and after calibrate explosions of non nuclear nature. The investigations were conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site for September to October 1997 year. The observations for hydrochemical parameters changes before and after seismic event were carried out in the 4103 hydrogeological hole, during 700 hours. 2 measurement in a week after the seismic event were conducted also on the ruins of the 1349 structural hole (55 m depth). As measuring equipment the potentiometric tester PT-64 was used, developed by the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy (patent 1681643, 6.07.93) and allowed to record the changes of pressure (P, abs), temperature (T, C), p H, Eh and concentrations of Na (p Na), Cl (p CI), S (p S). Conducted measurements verify the supposition about influence of explosions on the chemical water structure for the distance to 1 -5 km from epicenter. At the moment of explosions discontinuity all measured parameters and pres-sure to 20 abs were noted. By preliminary data's all the temporal range momentary and more smooth long-term changes measuring equipment are picked out. Pronounced first kind of changes were noted in one day (twenty-four hours) and in ten days after explosion (Table). In the first case, value p H is decreased sharply, concentrations of CI and Na are increased . In 10 days after explosion values p H appears to be increased, so as values Cl and Na. Long-time changes are manifested themselves in the smooth increasing of value p H and containing Cl during 5 days, but Na has smooth tendency to decrease. Then these processes changed their behavior: concentration of Na smooth increases and concentrations of CI and p H

  7. Capability of space-spectral analysis used for studying underground nuclear explosions effect on ground surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melent'ev, M.I.; Velikanov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the results of the work of study of the influence underground nucleus blasts (UNB) on condition of the day surface of the site Balapan on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site using materials of remote space sensing. The estimation of the cosmic spectral analysis information density is given for revealing the post-explosive geo- dynamic processes. (author)

  8. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  9. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  10. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  11. Study of chemical reactions in the nuclear underground explosion - Incidence on radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, Jean Maurice

    1970-01-01

    In order to find out and state the theoretical or semi-empirical laws governing the reaction of radioactivity in contained nuclear explosion, we are studying the chemical reactions during the different stages of the cavity and chimney formation, as well as thermal transfers. At the same time, we are carrying an experimental study on melted rock and gas samples taken from the French underground explosions. The results of which can be found in this paper are derived from our present experiments at the plant (have been obtained from partial studies). During the French underground explosions, we took gaseous samples. The gas analysis, without taking water vapour into consideration, showed that those samples were composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide with small quantities of hydrocarbons (chiefly methane - about one per cent). The total amount of gas being quite large and proportional to the burst power, we came to the conclusion that those gases were produced by rock reactions (that rock was granite). We considered the following reagents because they were found in sufficient quantities to alter the balance between the different components: ferrous ions contained in mica, biotite, carbon dioxide from carbonates and water, either free or in a component state, contained in the rock. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results led us to notice among other things: the temperature of rock re-solidification; pressure nearing lithostatic pressure. Since the components of the environment, water not included, is quite homogeneous, the gas volume produced by '1 kiloton' is quite constant. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the gases undergoes a few changes, particularly the ratio CO/CO 2 which normally depends on the quantity of water contained in the environment. This statement is verified by the calculation of thermodynamic equilibriums. In order to calculate the simultaneous chemical equilibrium we have first selected five reactions. We

  12. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  13. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  14. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  15. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  16. Spatial selection of focal of underground nuclear explosion by means of directed investigation and a method of vibroseismic oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikova, G.M.; Sedukhina, G.F.; Khajretdinov, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to task solving on parameters localization and determination within focal area of underground nuclear explosion (UNE) by scanning the inspected area by vibroseismic translucent field is considered. For the method, which application has been justified for task solving on On-Site Inspection (OSI), results of numerical modeling of seismic antenna orientation specifications are given, results of experiments on directed method of vibroseismic oscillation is described, questions on practical application of On-Site Inspection tasks are discussed. (author)

  17. UNDERGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-11-15

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  18. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  19. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  20. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  1. Numerical investigation and Uncertainty Quantification of the Impact of the geological and geomechanical properties on the seismo-acoustic responses of underground chemical explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Pitarka, A.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L.; Antoun, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have performed three-dimensional high resolution simulations of underground chemical explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) being conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The main goal of the current study is to investigate the effects of the structural and geomechanical properties on the spall phenomena due to underground chemical explosions and its subsequent effect on the seismo-acoustic signature at far distances. Two parametric studies have been undertaken to assess the impact of different 1) conceptual geological models including a single layer and two layers model, with and without joints and with and without varying geomechanical properties, and 2) depth of bursts of the chemical explosions and explosion yields. Through these investigations we have explored not only the near-field response of the chemical explosions but also the far-field responses of the seismic and the acoustic signatures. The near-field simulations were conducted using the Eulerian and Lagrangian codes, GEODYN and GEODYN -L, respectively, while the far-field seismic simulations were conducted using the elastic wave propagation code, WPP, and the acoustic response using the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz-Rayleigh time-dependent approximation code, KHR. Though a series of simulations we have recorded the velocity field histories a) at the ground surface on an acoustic-source-patch for the acoustic simulations, and 2) on a seismic-source-box for the seismic simulations. We first analyzed the SPE3 experimental data and simulated results, then simulated SPE4-prime, SPE5, and SPE6 to anticipate their seismo-acoustic responses given conditions of uncertainties. SPE experiments were conducted in a granitic formation; we have extended the parametric study to include other geological settings such dolomite and alluvial formations. These parametric studies enabled us 1) investigating the geotechnical and geophysical key parameters

  2. Behavior and evaluation of an existing underground structure subjected to impulsive loads from an internal explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.D.; Khan, P.K.

    1997-12-01

    An explosion is the result of a rapid chemical reaction which generates transient air pressure waves called blast waves. There has been much research on the processes of blast wave formation, propagation of blast waves, and quantification of the incident and reflected blast overpressures. The magnitude of blast overpressure, in a partially vented environment, is mainly a function of the type and quantity of detonating material, the amount of available venting, and the orientation and configuration of the reflecting surfaces. In addition to blast overpressure, an explosion can also generate high energy missiles (such as fragments), shock loads, and rapid rise of temperature in the confined space. This study concentrates on the effects of blast overpressure on a 40 feet diameter reinforced concrete cylinder with a hemispherical dome roof, supported on a 3 feet thick reinforced concrete pad, and buried under a minimum of 15 feet of soil used for radiation shielding at the top of the dome. The scope of this study is to determine whether the structure can withstand the blast overpressure generated by the postulated explosion without exceeding allowable design criteria

  3. Radioecological zoning of territories of carrying out of underground nuclear explosions in conditions of Yakutia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, V.D.; Stepanov, V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In territory of Yakutia on period 1974 - 1987 years in the industrial purposes 12 peace underground nuclear explosions (UNE) have been made seven from which is carried out on Average-Botuobinsk a deposit with the purpose of an intensification of an oil recovery and inflow of gas (a chink No. 42, 43, 47, 66, 61, 68) and one (No. 101) - for creation of underground capacity - storehouses of the oil, four explosions - for seismic sounding an earth's crust ('Kimberlit', 'Horizon - 4', 'Kraton-4', 'Kraton-3'), and one 'Crystal' - for creation of a dam by loosening of breeds. From them 'Crystal' and 'Kraton-3' are emergency where the dead woods forming impact zones were formed. Impact zones are the sites dated for places with attributes of changes of an environment from influence of radiation. Differently, impact zone can be characterized as a zone of shock influence of the radiating factor on an environment allocated on the basis of seen damages of a vegetative cover. On Average-Botuobinsk 'air-blast cleaning' a deposit are available local radioactive a stain, formed (educated) at 'air-blast cleaning' chinks 42, 43, 47, 68 after end of chisel works and opening potted component which is taking place under the cement bridge. As a result of it has taken place teknogen change of a radiating background as a local stain the area approximately from 4 up to 25 m 2 , adjoining to mouth blowing lines (in approximately 100 m from a mouth of chinks). As a result of radioecological researches on vicinities of objects UNE conclusions which further can be a basis of the concept are received. 1. radioactive pollution of objects UNE have spotty character, are found out: on emergency UNE - a) cesium - 137, americium - 241, cobalt - 60; 6) cesium - 134, antimony - 125, europium - 155; a) objects kamuflet cesium - 137 and americium -241. 2. Definition impact zones on objects UNE is based on attributes- a) the vegetative cover is damaged; the level of a scale - background is

  4. Relative source comparison of the NPE to underground nuclear explosions at local distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provides an opportunity to compare broadband characteristics of chemical to nuclear explosions at a group of local stations (4 to 40 km distant). The locations for these stations were established on bedrock to record a small partially decoupled nuclear explosion and two nearby nuclear experiments, all shots within {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} Tunnel on Rainier Mesa, Area 12. These sites were also occupied to record aftershocks from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and chemical explosions from the USGS Sierra Experiment. To minimize calibration errors during this period, redundant instrumentation were used for each event. THe analysis emphasizes the source characteristics of the different explosions. The 300-lb chemical calibration explosion allows removal of path effects from each explosion. The NPE and nearby experiments produce very similar waveforms. The decoupled nuclear explosion and the 300-lb chemical calibration explosion show higher frequency content consistent with a higher corner frequency for the sources.

  5. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  6. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  7. A Study on distinguishing seismic waves caused by natural earthquakes and underground nuclear explosion within North Korean Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premlet, B.; Sabu, S.; Kamarudheen, R.; Subair, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first nuclear test on 15 July 1945 , there have been over 2,051 other weapon tests around the world . The waveforms of a natural earthquake which generates strong S waves and an underground explosion which is dominated by P waves were distinguished from the analysis of data corresponding to a 2005 M5.0 Earthquake and a 2016 North Korean nuclear test , both at similar distances from seismometer . Further differences between the seismograms were evaluated and successfully distinguished between the origins of the elastic waves through the data using Moment Tensor Solution using stations BJT , HIA and INCN . North Korea has developed a nuclear fuel cycle capability and has both plutonium and enriched uranium programs at Pyongyang . Seismic recordings of vertical ground motion at Global Seismographic Network station IC.MDJ of the 4 seismic events at Punggye-ri , North Korea , which occurred on the 9th of October 2006 , 25th of May 2009, 12th of February 2013 and on the 6th of January and 9th of September , 2016 were examined and the P waves of these seismic waves , which show very similar wave form , were inspected and compared to the seismic data of the latest underground nuclear test on the 3rd of September 2017 at 03:30 UTC at the same site which is many times more powerful than the previous tests . The country , which is the only nation to have tested nuclear weapons in this millennium , has successfully prevented the release of radioactive isotopes and hampered data collection but further studies were done using acoustic data which was analysed from sonograms of the 4 North Korean tests at station MDJ. The latest explosion data from 3rd September was also compared to 42 presumed underground explosions which occurred in China , India , the U.S.S.R , Iran , Turkey and recorded at Arkansas Seismic Network.

  8. Estimating the size of the cavity and surrounding failed region for underground nuclear explosions from scaling rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Leo A [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The fundamental physical principles involved in the formation of an underground cavity by a nuclear explosion and breakage of the rock surrounding the cavity are examined from the point of view of making preliminary estimates of their sizes where there is a limited understanding of the rock characteristics. Scaling equations for cavity formation based on adiabatic expansion are reviewed and further developed to include the strength of the material surrounding the shot point as well as the overburden above the shot point. The region of rock breakage or permanent distortion surround ing the explosion generated cavity is estimated using both the Von Mises and Coulomb-Mohr failure criteria. It is found that the ratio of the rock failure radius to the cavity radius for these two criteria becomes independent of yield and dependent only on the failure mechanics of the rock. The analytical solutions developed for the Coulomb-Mohr and Von Mises criteria are presented in graphical form. (author)

  9. Investigation into the potential for dust and gas explosions in underground coal mines with reference to pick tip geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Albert D.

    2011-01-01

    In underground coal mines, methane gas, if present in sufficient concentration, may be ignited by sparks from hot spots on the picks of coal cutting machines striking hard bands of rock. During the coal cutting, wear-flat areas develop on the trailing side of the tips of picks. As pick wear progresses, the generation of frictional heat and coal dust increases and the development of hot spots at the cutting tips may lead to an explosion of methane gas. Field experience and research work over the last few years have facilitated excellent cutting performance for certain picks through the optimisation of the cutting parameters. Such performance improvements show great promise in preventing the incidence of gas or dust explosions occurring at the coal face area. This study sets out some of the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the methods which have been employed to achieve improvements in reducing the hazards of gas or dust explosions. It is based on the comparative trial results of two types of picks with different designs and on a range of available research information on the subject. My investigation looked at the fundamentals of pick geometry and cutting parameters and the current suppression techniques in place to control the dust and gas explosions on the coal operating face.

  10. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  11. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  12. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  13. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, H.L.; Kansa, E.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress report on our work toward detecting explosion-related SP signals at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in understanding the physics of these anomalies that persist and continue changing over periods of time that range from months to years. As background, we also include a brief description of how SP signals arise, and we mention their use in other areas such as exploring for geothermal resources and locating seepage through dams. Between the years 1988 and 1991, we surveyed the areas around seven underground nuclear tests for persistent SP anomalies. We not only detected anomalies, but we also found that various phenomena could be contributing to them and that we did not know which of these were actually occurring. We analyzed our new data with existing steady state codes and with a newly developed time-dependent thermal modeling code. Our results with the new code showed that the conductive decay of the thermal pulse from an underground nuclear test could produce many of the observed signals, and that others are probably caused by movement of fluid induced by the explosion. 25 refs

  14. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were present in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7x10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve. (author)

  16. Review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were presented in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7 x 10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl, and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve

  17. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  18. Simulation of Local Seismic Ground Motions from the FLASK Underground Nuclear Explosion near the Source Physics Experiment Dry Alluvium Geology Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The FLASK underground nuclear explosion (UNE) was conducted in Area 2 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 26, 1970. The yield was 105 kilotons (DOE/NV-209-Rev 16) and the working point was 529 m below the surface. This test was detonated in faulted Tertiary volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat. Coincidently, the FLASK UNE ground zero (GZ) is close (earth structure, including surface topography. SW4 includes vertical mesh refinement which greatly reduces the computational resources needed to run a specific problem. Simulations are performed on high-performance computers with grid spacing as small as 10 meters and resolution to 6 Hz. We are testing various subsurface models to identify the role of 3D structure on path propagation effects from the source. We are also testing 3D models to constrain structure for the upcoming DAG experiments in 2018.

  19. OCENER, a one-dimensional computer code for the numerical simulation of the mechanical effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of a one-dimensional spherical symmetric computer code for the numerical simulation of the effects of peaceful underground nuclear explosions in rocks (OCENER). In the code, the nature of the stress field and response of the medium to this field are modelled numerically by finite difference form of the laws of continuum mechanics and the constitutive relations of the rock medium in which the detonation occurs. It enables to approximate well the cavity growth and fracturing of the surrounding rock for contained explosions and the events upto the time the spherical symmetry is valid for cratering-type explosions. (auth.)

  20. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhova, O.N.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Larionova, N.V.; Tur, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on “Degelen” site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere, vegetation–atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area “Degelen”. - Highlights: ► The basic mechanisms for tritium distribution in the air of nuclear testing sites were examined. ► We researched the distribution of tritium in the systems such as water–atmosphere, tunnel air–atmosphere, soil water–atmosphere and vegetation–atmosphere. ► An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere was performed. ► We experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in

  1. The density jump at the inner core boundary using underground nuclear explosion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoshchekov, D.N.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the estimation of the minimum jump value using experimental wave forms reflected from the boundary between the Earth core and mantle (PcP) and the one between the inner and outer core (PKiKP) at a distance of 6 deg. Digital seismic records of underground nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site in 70s by Zerenda-Vostochny-Chkalovo seismic array have been used. (author)

  2. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  3. Underground Milling of High-Grade Uranium Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C., E-mail: chuck.edwards@amec.com [AMEC Americas Limited, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    There are many safety and technical issues involved in the mining and progressing of high grade uranium ores such as those exploited in Northern Canada at present. With more of this type of mine due to commence production in the near future, operators have been looking at ways to better manage the situation. The paper describes underground milling of high-grade uranium ore as a means of optimising production costs and managing safety issues. In addition the paper presents some examples of possible process flowsheets and plant layouts that could be applicable to such operations. Finally an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling from a variety of viewpoints is provided. (author)

  4. Ionospheric disturbances due to underground nuclear explosions and other sources: an elementary discussion, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effect of verticle ground surface motion on the ionosphere, as a consequence of acoustic propagation, is discussed. Estimates of R. F. phase path perturbations are developed for several representative sources and several propagative modes (both terrestrial and atmospheric). In particular, amplitude models for ionospheric density perturbations are used. The discrimination of earth quakes and nuclear explosive disturbances is considered and some detailed properties of the extended atmosphere are described. A list of references is provided. (U.S.)

  5. High energy materials. Propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Jai Prakash

    2010-07-01

    Authored by an insider with over 40 years of high energy materials (HEMs) experience in academia, industry and defence organizations, this handbook and ready reference covers all important HEMs from the 1950s to the present with their respective properties and intended purposes. Written at an attainable level for professionals, engineers and technicians alike, the book provides a comprehensive view of the current status and suggests further directions for research and development. An introductory chapter on the chemical and thermodynamic basics allows the reader to become acquainted with the fundamental features of explosives, before moving on to the important safety aspects in processing, handling, transportation and storage of high energy materials. With its collation of results and formulation strategies hitherto scattered in the literature, this should be on the shelf of every HEM researcher and developer. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  7. Modern radionuclide content of the underground water and soils near the epicentral zone of cratering explosion at the Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.K.; Kvasnikova, E.V. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation wells for a control of the underground water contamination were bored after the cratering explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, now they are restored partially. The analysis of the retrospective information of the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology (Moscow, Russia) give a possibility to choose wells and terrains for the successful study of radionuclide migration with the underground water. The epicentral zone, the crater and the territory with radius 1,5 km around the underground cratering explosion '1003' were investigated under the ISTC project K-810. Underground water and soil samples were taken at the two expeditions of 2003. The chemical extraction methods taking into account the water mineral composition, gamma-spectrum methods, methods of the liquid scintillation spectrometry and methods of alpha-spectrometry were used. The modern radionuclide content ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) of the underground water will be presented and compare with a radionuclide content of soils around crater. The retrospective information will be added by these modern data. The vertical radionuclide distribution in soils will be presented. (author)

  8. Modern radionuclide content of the underground water and soils near the epicentral zone of cratering explosion at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.K.; Kvasnikova, E.V.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation wells for a control of the underground water contamination were bored after the cratering explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, now they are restored partially. The analysis of the retrospective information of the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology (Moscow, Russia) give a possibility to choose wells and terrains for the successful study of radionuclide migration with the underground water. The epicentral zone, the crater and the territory with radius 1,5 km around the underground cratering explosion '1003' were investigated under the ISTC project K-810. Underground water and soil samples were taken at the two expeditions of 2003. The chemical extraction methods taking into account the water mineral composition, gamma-spectrum methods, methods of the liquid scintillation spectrometry and methods of alpha-spectrometry were used. The modern radionuclide content ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am) of the underground water will be presented and compare with a radionuclide content of soils around crater. The retrospective information will be added by these modern data. The vertical radionuclide distribution in soils will be presented. (author)

  9. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N 2 and H 2 O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N 2 and H 2 O productions

  10. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ∼10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  11. Modeling a High Explosive Cylinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Marvin A.

    2017-06-01

    Cylindrical assemblies constructed from high explosives encased in an inert confining material are often used in experiments aimed at calibrating and validating continuum level models for the so-called equation of state (constitutive model for the spherical part of the Cauchy tensor). Such is the case in the work to be discussed here. In particular, work will be described involving the modeling of a series of experiments involving PBX-9501 encased in a copper cylinder. The objective of the work is to test and perhaps refine a set of phenomenological parameters for the Wescott-Stewart-Davis reactive burn model. The focus of this talk will be on modeling the experiments, which turned out to be non-trivial. The modeling is conducted using ALE methodology.

  12. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  13. Comparative study of large scale simulation of underground explosions inalluvium and in fractured granite using stochastic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology used for large scale modeling of wave propagation fromunderground explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in two different geological settings:fractured granitic rock mass and in alluvium deposition. We show that the discrete nature of rockmasses as well as the spatial variability of the fabric of alluvium is very important to understand groundmotions induced by underground explosions. In order to build a credible conceptual model of thesubsurface we integrated the geological, geomechanical and geophysical characterizations conductedduring recent test at the NTS as well as historical data from the characterization during the undergroundnuclear test conducted at the NTS. Because detailed site characterization is limited, expensive and, insome instances, impossible we have numerically investigated the effects of the characterization gaps onthe overall response of the system. We performed several computational studies to identify the keyimportant geologic features specific to fractured media mainly the joints; and those specific foralluvium porous media mainly the spatial variability of geological alluvium facies characterized bytheir variances and their integral scales. We have also explored common key features to both geologicalenvironments such as saturation and topography and assess which characteristics affect the most theground motion in the near-field and in the far-field. Stochastic representation of these features based onthe field characterizations have been implemented in Geodyn and GeodynL hydrocodes. Both codeswere used to guide site characterization efforts in order to provide the essential data to the modelingcommunity. We validate our computational results by comparing the measured and computed groundmotion at various ranges. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    cable models, perform highly accurate field measurements for validating the model and identifying possible disadvantages of the cable model. Furthermore the project suggests and implements improvements and validates them against several field measurements. It is shown in this paper how a new method...

  15. Underground disposal of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering aspects relating to the deep burial of high active waste in stable geological formations. The design of a repository depends upon a number of factors not least of which is the type of rock in which it is to be constructed. High level wastes must be isolated from man's environment for such periods that subsequent release will not result in an unacceptable hazard to human population. Design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual design are present in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Over long time periods the most probable mode of release of radionuclides is through groundwater contacting the waste. The proposed concepts therefore include the use of engineered and natural barriers to delay the eventual release of waterborne radionuclides into mans environment. In all cases the ultimate barrier will be the geological formation. Nevertheless, depending upon the type of host rock, use will be made of various additional engineered barriers to delay water contacting the high level waste for several hundreds of years. During this time the level of radiation and associated heat emitted by the waste, will fall by several orders of magnitude and the rock temperatures within a repository will be returning to ambient. Thereafter the residual activity will mainly arise from the actinides. Containment may be enhanced by surrounding the canisters with materials having high sorption capabilities for many of the radionuclides involved. The depth at which a repository is excavated must be sufficient to ensure that the overburden will withstand changes in environmental conditions. The depth of cover required in different rock types may vary. In clay excavating at depth of up to -250 m appears feasible, while in hard rocks and salts working at depth of up to -1000 m is entirely practicable. (orig./RW)

  16. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This papent describes a method for suppressing the tendency of a porous solid high explosive to ignite and detonate. It comprises: filling substantially all the press of the solid high explosive material with a predetermined pore radius of at least 10μm with a relatively inert, stable, pore filling material in liquid form, the pore filling being selected from gallium, rubidium-potassium eutectic, and Wood's metal; and solidifying the pore filling material in the pores of the explosive material

  17. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  18. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage equipment supplying power to such equipment receiving power from resistance grounded systems shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage...

  19. 75 FR 17529 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... of high-voltage continuous mining machines in underground coal mines. It also revises MSHA's design...-- Underground Coal Mines III. Section-by-Section Analysis A. Part 18--Electric Motor-Driven Mine Equipment and...

  20. High explosive driven plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Goforth, J.H.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental effort is underway to understand and improve upon the performance of high explosive driven plasma opening switches such as those first described by Pavlovskii et al. We have modeled these switches in both planar and cylindrical geometry using a one dimensional Lagrangian MHD code. This one-dimensional analysis is now essentially complete. It has shown that simple, one-dimensional, compression of the current-carrying channel can explain the observed resistance increases during the time of flight of the HE detonation products. Our calculations imply that ionization plays an important role as an energy sink and the performance of these switches might be improved by a judicious choice of gases. We also predict improved performance by lowering the pressure in the plasma channel. The bulk of our experimental effort to date has been with planar switches. We have worked with current densities of 0.25 to 0.4 MA/cm and have observed resistance increases of 40 to 60 mΩ. Significant resistance increases are observed later than the time of flight of the HE detonation products. We suggest that these resistance increases are due to mixing between the hot plasma and the relatively cooler detonation products. Such mixing is not included in the 1-D, Lagrangian code. We are presently beginning a computational effort with a 2-D Eulerian code. The status of this effort is discussed. Experimentally we have designed an apparatus that will permit us to test the role of different gases and pressures. This system is also in a planar geometry, but the plasma channel is doughnut shaped, permitting us to avoid edge effects associated with the planar rectangular geometry. The first experiments with this design are quite encouraging and the status of this effort is also discussed

  1. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report

  2. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  3. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Heinz, W.; Hofmann, A.; Koefler, H.J.; Komarek, P.; Maurer, W.; Nahar, A.

    1975-09-01

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF 6 -cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.) [de

  4. Study methods for the drillings around the underground nuclear explosions in the Sahara. Part 1. study of rock samples; Methodes d'etude des forages realises autour des explosions nucleaires souterraines au Sahara. Premiere partie: etude des echantillons de roche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyers-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An examination of the mechanical effects produced on rocks by an underground nuclear explosion calls for the use of particular means of exploration which are described in this report, special attention being paid to the equipment used in connection with the French nuclear tests in the Sahara. The drilling methods used (rotary and turbo-drilling) are adapted to the particular conditions of the sampling programme, to the radioactivity and to the temperature in the region of the explosion. A study of the samples makes it possible to obtain the new characteristics of the rock and to assess the chemical and mechanical transformations which it has undergone. An examination of the core obtained from the drilling, together with a knowledge of the drilling parameters (depth of the probe, sample recovery, etc...), makes it possible to study the extent and the characteristics of the zones which have been damaged to different degrees according to their distance from the zero point: cavity, strongly powdered zone, fractured zone, chimney, zones containing high stresses leading to a particular type of fracture of the cores. The problems connected with the interpretation of the results are also presented. (author) [French] L'examen des effets mecaniques provoques par une explosion nucleaire souterraine sur la roche necessite la mise en oeuvre de moyens d'exploration particuliers dont l'expose fait l'objet de ce rapport, essentiellement pour les moyens utilises autour des essais nucleaires francais au Sahara. Les methodes de forage (rotary et turboforage) sont adaptees aux conditions particulieres dues au programme d'echantillonnage, a la radioactivite et a la temperature regnant a proximite du point de tir. L'etude des echantillons permet la determination des nouveaux caracteres de la roche et de ses transformations chimique et mecanique. L'examen des carottes et l'utilisation des parametres de forage (cotes sondeurs, recuperation des echantillons, etc...) permettent d'etudier l

  5. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  6. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  7. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from the Magnetic Bubble Source as a Discriminator of Underground Nuclear Explosions, Including Cavity Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    planned shock physics experiments (SPE) 4. Design/develop a very low frequency (VLF)/ELF pulsar to serve as an underground calibration source 5...Carry out underground (in tunnels, etc.) pulsar calibration experiments  A-1 APPENDIX A. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS CORRTEX Continuous Reflectometry...Site Office P.O. Box 98521 M/S NLV 101 Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 ATTN: Ping Lee 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545

  8. High explosive programmed burn in the FLAG code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, D.; Burton, D.; Lund, C.

    1998-02-01

    The models used to calculate the programmed burn high-explosive lighting times for two- and three-dimensions in the FLAG code are described. FLAG uses an unstructured polyhedra grid. The calculations were compared to exact solutions for a square in two dimensions and for a cube in three dimensions. The maximum error was 3.95 percent in two dimensions and 4.84 percent in three dimensions. The high explosive lighting time model described has the advantage that only one cell at a time needs to be considered.

  9. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  10. Underground excavation methods for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshel, J.; Gupta, D.; Nataraja, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on rock excavation methods for a High-Level Waste repository that should be selected to limit the potential for creating preferential pathways for groundwater to travel to the waste packages or for radionuclides to migrate to the accessible environment. The use of water and other foreign substances should be controlled so that the repository performance is not compromised. The excavated openings should remain stable so that operations can be carried out safely and the retrievability option maintained. As per the current conceptual designs presented by the Department of Energy, the exploratory shaft facility becomes a part of the repository if the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for repository development. Therefore, the methods of constructing the underground openings should be compatible with the performance requirements for the repository. Also, the degree of damage to the rock surrounding the openings and the extent of the damage zone should not preclude adequate site characterization. The ESf construction and operation should be compatible with the site data gathering activities, such as geological, thermomechanical, hydrological and geochemical testing

  11. Plan of deep underground construction for investigations on high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayanovskij, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The program of studies of the Japanese PNC corporation on construction of deep underground storage for high-level radioactive wastes is presented. The program is intended for 20 years. The total construction costs equal about 20 billion yen. The total cost of the project is equal to 60 billion yen. The underground part is planned to reach 1000 m depth

  12. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  13. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    environment for several decades. Much has been learned about the impact of high in situ stress and its influence on rock bursts (violent rock ...is the possibility of evasive nuclear testing in deep mine environments where the release of high stress fields by an explosion can resemble a rock ... burst or natural earthquake. This paper provides background information on previous research in and around the deep mines of South Africa and lays

  14. Large-Scale Experimental and Numerical Study of Blast Acceleration Created by Close-In Buried Explosion on Underground Tunnel Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Soheyli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing demands for structures in water transportation tunnels, underground installations, subsurface dams, and subterranean channels, there is limited field knowledge about the dynamic behavior of these structures in the face of near-fault earthquakes or impulse excitations. This study conducted a large-scale test on underground tunnel excited by two close-in subsurface explosions. The horizontal and vertical acceleration were recorded on the vertical wall of the tunnel and the free field data including the acceleration on the ground surface at 11-meter distance from the tunnel. The frequency domain analysis of recorded results determined the frequency 961 Hz and 968 Hz for 1.69 kg and 2.76 kg equivalent T.N.T., respectively. Then, finite element analysis results were compared with the test data. The comparisons demonstrated a good correlation and satisfied the field data. Finally, based on numerical modeling, a parametric study was applied to determine the effects of shear wave velocity distance of the crater with respect to the tunnel on impulse response of the tunnel.

  15. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  16. Design of a spheromak compressor driven by high explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henins, I.; Fernandez, J.C.; Jarboe, T.R.; Marsh, S.P.; Marklin, G.J.; Mayo, R.M.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    High energy density spheromaks can be used to accelerate a thin section of the flux conserver wall to high velocities. The energy density of a spheromak, formed by conventional helicity injection into a flux conserver, can be increased by reducing the flux conserver volume after the spheromak is formed. A method of accomplishing this is by imploding one wall of the flux conserver with high explosives. The authors have embarked on a program to demonstrate that a spheromak can be used as an energy transfer medium, and that a velocity gain over high-explosive driven plate velocities can be achieved. To do this, a plasma gun helicity source that will inject a spheromak with suitable initial energy density and lifetime is needed. Also, an implodable flux conserver that remains intact and clean during the implosion must be developed. The flux conserver problem is probably the more challenging one, because very little experimental work has been done in the past on explosively driven metal plates into a high vacuum, with sizes and travel distances appropriate for their application. There are two necessary practical requirements for an explosive compression of a flux conserver. The first is that the imploding wall does not rupture. The second is that gasses or other debri are not ejected which could penetrate and poison the spheromak plasma, and thus reduce the spheromak lifetime below what is necessary to carry out the spheromak compression and the subsequent acceleration of the flyer plate. The authors have designed and fabricated a plasma gun to be used for injecting the initial spheromak plasma into the collapsible flux conserver

  17. A Scaling Analysis of Frequency Dependent Energy Partition for Local and Regional Seismic Phases from Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site (STS). Labeled stations are those for which high resolution digital data are available. 12 8...characteristics of regional phase observations from underground nuclear explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites , the...various regional phases observed from underground nuclear explosions at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site (STS). Labeled stations are those for

  18. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  19. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20)

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Pelin; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steve; Sidhoum, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the...

  20. RMS Lg Studies of Underground Nuclear Explosions in the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-19

    releva=c in the context of on-site inspections that might be associated with monitorig a;Oso A A 01est73-0. Section five desrMbes analog data from...conspicuous failure, was an effort to find adequate documentation of the CLOUD GAP project carried out principally at NTS during the 1960s and early 1970s... CLOUD GAP included a major VELA-UNIFORM study of a variety of technologies pertinent to on-site inspection of the vicinity of a suspected underground

  1. Possible strategies in development of highly productive underground coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djoric, M

    1980-01-01

    This paper explains the basic strategies which may be applied in the exploitation of coal deposits by underground mining. It outlines the importance of combinations of extensive (non-mechanized) and intensive (mechanized) exploitation and their dependence on coal demand, available financial means, requirements concerning the protection of environment, unemployment of the population, availability of mechanical and electrical equipment, technical staff, etc. It is suggested that the applied strategy be revised and adapted to the current situation. Postponement of exploitation until the future when the demand and price of coal may be higher is criticized. The possibility of applying extensive underground mining in areas where unemployment and lack of capital speak against the application of fully mechanized working methods is also dealt with. (In Serbo-Croatian)

  2. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  3. High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions: applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Gaudin, Damien; Capponi, Antonio; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel-Angel; Moroni, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Explosive eruptions, being by definition highly dynamic over short time scales, necessarily call for observational systems capable of relatively high sampling rates. "Traditional" tools, like as seismic and acoustic networks, have recently been joined by Doppler radar and electric sensors. Recent developments in high-speed camera systems now allow direct visual information of eruptions to be obtained with a spatial and temporal resolution suitable for the analysis of several key eruption processes. Here we summarize the methods employed to gather and process high-speed videos of explosive eruptions, and provide an overview of the several applications of these new type of data in understanding different aspects of explosive volcanism. Our most recent set up for high-speed imaging of explosive eruptions (FAMoUS - FAst, MUltiparametric Set-up,) includes: 1) a monochrome high speed camera, capable of 500 frames per second (fps) at high-definition (1280x1024 pixel) resolution and up to 200000 fps at reduced resolution; 2) a thermal camera capable of 50-200 fps at 480-120x640 pixel resolution; and 3) two acoustic to infrasonic sensors. All instruments are time-synchronized via a data logging system, a hand- or software-operated trigger, and via GPS, allowing signals from other instruments or networks to be directly recorded by the same logging unit or to be readily synchronized for comparison. FAMoUS weights less than 20 kg, easily fits into four, hand-luggage-sized backpacks, and can be deployed in less than 20' (and removed in less than 2', if needed). So far, explosive eruptions have been recorded in high-speed at several active volcanoes, including Fuego and Santiaguito (Guatemala), Stromboli (Italy), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Eyjafiallajokull (Iceland). Image processing and analysis from these eruptions helped illuminate several eruptive processes, including: 1) Pyroclasts ejection. High-speed videos reveal multiple, discrete ejection pulses within a single Strombolian

  4. Study of high energy physics underground. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector consists of 140 tons of liquid scintillator in a hollow 8 m x 8 m x 16 m box surrounding the Brookhaven 37 Cl solar neutrino detector. The experiment is located at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine. Half of the detector is currently running; the full detector will be taking data by the fall of 1984. An extensive air shower array is also currently under construction on the earth's surface above the underground detector, consisting of 100 scintillators, each 3 m 2 , covering approximately 0.8 km 2 ; the first portion of the surface array will also be providing data this fall. Together, the new Homestake detectors will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. The underground device and its capabilities as a monopole detector are described, followed by the surface array and the cosmic ray studies

  5. High explosive characterization for the dice throw event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, F.; Finger, M.; Hayes, B.; Lee, E.; Cheung, H.; Walton, J.

    1976-06-16

    An equation of state for detonation products was developed to describe the detonation of large charges of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). The equation of state will be used to predict air-blast and ground-motion effects in the Dice Throw Event. The explosive performance of ANFO is highly dependent on charge size. The equation developed from this work is applicable to heavily confined detonations 101.6 mm in diameter or larger. The equation of state is based on results from experiments in cylinders and hemispheres, and a large field test. The report contains a detailed discussion of the diagnostic and initiation techniques used in these experiments.

  6. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with AC Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  7. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with Ac Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  8. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  9. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  10. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@list.ru; Shuktomova, Ida I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya 28 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that {sup 90}Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures.

  11. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  12. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  13. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  14. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  15. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  16. An integral model of plume rise from high explosive detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughton, B.A.; De Laurentis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed which provides a complete description of the time evolution of both the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud formed when a high explosive is detonated. This simulation employs the integral technique. The model equations are derived by integrating the three-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy over the plume cross section. Assumptions are made regarding (a) plume symmetry; (b) the shape of profiles of velocity, temperature, etc. across the plume; and (c) the methodology for simulating entrainment and the effects of the crossflow induced pressure drag force on the plume. With these assumptions, the integral equations can be reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations on the plume centerline variables. Only the macroscopic plume characteristics, e.g., plume radius, centerline height, temperature and density, are predicted; details of the plume intrastructure are ignored. The model explicitly takes into account existing meteorology and has been expanded to consider the alterations in plume behavior which occur when aqueous foam is used as a dispersal mitigating material. The simulation was tested by comparison with field measurements of cloud top height and diameter. Predictions were within 25% of field observations over a wide range of explosive yield and atmospheric stability

  17. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  18. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits extending... which shall be grounded through a suitable resistor at the source transformers, and a grounding circuit...

  19. Potentially lethal effects of astrophysical high energy explosive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarauza, Dario; Martin, Osmel; Rolando Cardenas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we compare the biological extinction risks posed by different types of high energy explosive events, if they occur at distances close enough to inhabited planets. These events are several kinds of supernovae and gamma ray bursts. We mainly consider the ozone depletion, leaving other effects, as photon retransmission and muon showers, for future work. In order to estimate the damage on ozonosphere, we use a simple analytical model for ozone depletion. We also mention some hints to look for the signatures of these events on Earth biogeochemical record, and evaluate the possibility of applying these results to the astrobiologically interesting sample of stars gathered by Porto de Mello, del Peloso and Ghezzi. (Author)

  20. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...... electric field stress and other parameters of EHV underground cables with given boundary conditions using 2-D electric field analysis software package (IES-ELECTRO module) which is based on the finite element method (FEM).......Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...

  1. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  2. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  3. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyichev, Vyacheslav; Nikiforova, Nadezhda; Konnov, Artem

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by "Moscow method" is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts) and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method) are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  4. Construction of high-rise building with underground parking in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyichev Vyacheslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of scientific support to construction of unique residential building 108 m high with one storey underground part under high-rise section and 3-storey underground parking connected by underground passage. On-site soils included anthropogenic soil, clayey soils soft-stiff, saturated sands of varied grain coarseness. Design of retaining structure and support system for high-rise part excavation was developed. It suggested installation of steel pipes and struts. Construction of adjacent 3-storey underground parking by “Moscow method” is described in the paper. This method involves implementation of retaining wall consisted of prefabricated panels, truss structures (used as struts and reinforced concrete slabs. Also design and construction technology is provided for foundations consisted of bored piles 800 MM in diameter joined by slab with base widening diameter of 1500 MM. Experiment results of static and dynamic load testing (ELDY method are considered. Geotechnical monitoring data of adjacent building and utility systems settlement caused by construction of presented high-rise building were compared to numerical modelling results, predicted and permissible values.

  5. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  6. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday, April 6, 2010, make the following correction...

  7. Explosive underground: vehicles and concepts for transport and charging; Sprengstoff Untertage: Fahrzeuge und Konzepte fuer den Transport und das Laden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plagemann, D.; Schroeder, W. [Hermann Paus Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Emsbueren (Germany)

    2005-01-27

    For about 30 years Hermann Paus Maschinenfabrik GmbH has been in continuous and direct contact with mines throughout the world and during this period has developed a number of specific solutions, which offer mines a potential for performance of the respective tasks. The essential feature of each development is high individualisation of the equipment or high universality of the machine platforms used for this purpose to ensure that the costs are clear also in the case of special equipment. In particular for transport and the handling of Anfo concepts were already developed and tested jointly with the users at an early stage. (orig.)

  8. Safety explosives in coal mining. Explosivos de seguridad en la mineria de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (Union Espanola de Explosivos y Rio Blast, S.A., Madrid (Spain))

    1990-06-01

    The use of explosives in underground coal mining is essential for two reasons. The first is the highly resistant nature of the rock surrounding coal which requires explosives to remove it during development work. The second is that certain types of coal need to be blasted in order to achieve a higher output in coal winning operations. This article examines the characteristics, the types and the conditions under which safety or ion exchange explosives are used in underground coal mines where explosive atmospheres are sometimes encountered. 3 tabs. 2 pts.

  9. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  10. The ionization effects from nuclear explosions in high-altitude and their effect to radio propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rongsheng; Li Qin

    1997-01-01

    A high-altitude nuclear explosions releases large quantities of energetic particles and electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionization in the atmosphere. These particles and rays radiation character in the atmosphere are discussed. Ionizations due to explosion X rays, γ rays, neutrons and β particles are considered separately. The time-space distribution of additional electron density is computed and its nature is analyzed. The effects of explosion-induced ionization on the absorption of radio wave is considered and the dependence of the absorption on explosion characteristics, distance from the earth's atmosphere, and frequency of the radio wave is determined

  11. Understanding the shock and detonation response of high explosives at the continuum and meso scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, C. A.; Lambourn, B. D.; Whitworth, N. J.; James, H. R.; Belfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock and detonation response of high explosives has been an active research topic for more than a century. In recent years, high quality data from experiments using embedded gauges and other diagnostic techniques have inspired the development of a range of new high-fidelity computer models for explosives. The experiments and models have led to new insights, both at the continuum scale applicable to most shock and detonation experiments, and at the mesoscale relevant to hotspots and burning within explosive microstructures. This article reviews the continuum and mesoscale models, and their application to explosive phenomena, gaining insights to aid future model development and improved understanding of the physics of shock initiation and detonation propagation. In particular, it is argued that "desensitization" and the effect of porosity on high explosives can both be explained by the combined effect of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, rather than the traditional hotspot-based explanations linked to pressure-dependent reaction rates.

  12. Prediction of Ignition of High Explosive When Submitted To Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, Didier; Delmaire-Sizes, Franck; Gruau, Cyril; Trumel, Herve

    2009-06-01

    High explosive structures may unintentionally ignite and transit to deflagration or detonation, when subjected to mechanical loadings, such as low velocity impact. We focus our attention on ignition. The Browning and Scammon [1] criterion has been adapted. A concrete like constitutive law is derived, with an up-to-date experimental characterization. These models have been implemented in Abaqus/Explicit [2]. Numerical simulations are used to calibrate the ignition threshold. The presentation or the poster will detail the main assumptions, the models (Browning et al, mechanical behavior) and the calibration procedure. Comparisons between numerical results and experiments [3] will show the interest of this method but also its limitations (numerical artifacts, lack of mechanical data, misinterpretation of reactive tests). [1] R. Browning and R. Scammon, Shock compression of condensed matter, pp. 987-990, (2001). [2] C. Gruau, D. Picart et al., 17^th Dymat technical meeting, Cambridge, UK, (2007). [3] F. Delmaire-Sizes et al., 3^rd International symposium on energetic materials, Tokyo, Japan, (2008).

  13. Biodegradation of the High Explosive Hexanitrohexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Nicolich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic biodegradability of the high explosive CL-20 by activated sludge and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been investigated. Although activated sludge is not effective in degrading CL-20 directly, it can mineralize the alkaline hydrolysis products. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades CL-20 in the presence of supplementary carbon and nitrogen sources. Biodegradation studies were conducted using various nutrient media under diverse conditions. Variables included the CL-20 concentration; levels of carbon (as glycerol and ammonium sulfate and yeast extract as sources of nitrogen. Cultures that received CL-20 at the time of inoculation transformed CL-20 completely under all nutrient conditions studied. When CL-20 was added to pre-grown cultures, degradation was limited. The extent of mineralization was monitored by the 14CO2 time evolution; up to 51% mineralization was achieved when the fungus was incubated with [14C]-CL-20. The kinetics of CL-20 biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium follows the logistic kinetic growth model.

  14. Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J.; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2007-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (Fe 0 , ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe 0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl - and Br - was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br - was present in solution. - The addition of halide ions promotes the degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

  15. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, V.; Golikov, V.; Mishine, A.; Kaduka, M.; Burtcev, I.; Gedeonov, A.; Bulatenkov, Y.U.; Strand, P.; Brown, J.

    2004-01-01

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km 2 . Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137 Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90 Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240 Pu 44(25-72); 60 Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90 Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137 Cs were found to

  16. Ideas for peaceful nuclear explosions in USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Three papers prepared in USSR have been made available to the Agency for circulation among Member States. One examines radioactive contamination and methods for predicting it, of natural environments during underground explosions. Another deals with the mechanical effect of underground explosions. The third, which forms the basis of this article, reviews possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the Soviet economy. (author)

  17. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad: A Drama Workshop for Junior High and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Carmine; Albrecht, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Claims drama in the classroom offers teachers an opportunity to "bring to life" the challenges and triumphs of African Americans. Describes a drama workshop based on the story of Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad. (NH)

  19. iVCJ: A tool for Interactive Visualization of high explosives CJ states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Hasani Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aslam, Tariq Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-12

    A graphical user interface (GUI) tool has been developed that facilitates the visualization and analysis of the Chapman-Jouguet state for high explosives gaseous products using the Jones- Wilkins-Lee equation of state.

  20. The ion mobility spectrometer for high explosive vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.J.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Phemto-Chem /SUP R/ Model 100 Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) operates in air and measures a number of explosive vapors at levels as low as partsper-trillion in seconds. The theory and operation of this instrument is discussed. The IMS inhales the vapor sample in a current of air and generates characteristic ions which are separated by time-of -ion drift in the atmospheric pressure gas. Quantitative results, using a dilution tunnel and standard signal generator with TNT, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclohexanone, methylamine, octafluoronaphthalene and hexafluorobenzene, are given. Rapid sample treatment with sample concentrations, microprocessor signal readout and chemical identification, offer a realistic opportunity of rapid explosive vapor detection at levels down to 10 -14 parts by volume in air

  1. High Explosive Radiological Dispersion Device: Time and Distance Multiscale Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Sattinger, I.; Halevy, D.; Banaim, P.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of explosion tests imitates different explosive RDD scenarios were conducted and aimed at increasing the preparedness for possible terrorism events, where radioactive (RA) materials disperse via an explosive charge. About 20 atmospheric dispersion tests were conducted using6-8 Ci of 99mTc which were coupled to TNT charges within the range of 0.2525 kg. Tests performed above different typical urban ground surfaces (in order to study the surface effect on the activity ground deposition pattern due to different in particles size distribution). We have used an efficient aerosolizing devices, means that most of the RA particles were initially created within the size of fine aerosols, mostly respirable. Ground activity measurements were performed both, around the dispersion point and up to few hundred meters downwind. Micrometeorology parameters (wind intensity and direction, potential temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric stability) were collected allowing comparisons topredictions of existing atmospheric dispersion models’1. Based on the experimental results, new model parameterizations were performed. Improvements in the models’ predictions were achieved and a set of thumb rules for first responders was formulated. This paper describes the project objectives, some of the experimental setups and results obtained. Post detonation nuclear forensic considerations can be made based upon results achieved

  2. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  3. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  4. High-temperature reactors for underground liquid-fuels production with direct carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The world faces two major challenges: (1) reducing dependence on oil from unstable parts of the world and (2) minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Oil provides 39% of the energy needs of the United States, and oil refineries consume over 7% of the total energy. The world is running out of light crude oil and is increasingly using heavier fossil feedstocks such as heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). With heavier feedstocks, more energy is needed to convert the feedstocks into liquid fuels. In the extreme case of coal liquefaction, the energy consumed in the liquefaction process is almost twice the energy value of the liquid fuel. This trend implies large increases in carbon dioxide releases per liter of liquid transport fuel that is produced. It is proposed that high-temperature nuclear heat be used to refine hydrocarbon feedstocks (heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale, and coal) 'in situ ', i.e., underground. Using these resources for liquid fuel production would potentially enable the United States to become an exporter of oil while sequestering carbon from the refining process underground as carbon. This option has become potentially viable because of three technical developments: precision drilling, underground isolation of geological formations with freeze walls, and the understanding that the slow heating of heavy hydrocarbons (versus fast heating) increases the yield of light oils while producing a high-carbon solid residue. Required peak reactor temperatures are near 700 deg. C-temperatures within the current capabilities of high-temperature reactors. (authors)

  5. High level radioactive waste repositories. Task 3. Review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository appropriate to the U.K. context, with particular reference to waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development.

  6. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  7. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion

  8. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthurajan, H.; Sivabalan, R.; Pon Saravanan, N.; Talawar, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-a-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (ΔH e ) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.9721 with a linear equation y = 0.9262x + 101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials

  9. Research of explosives in an environment of high pressure and temperature using a new test stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the test stand for determining the blast abilities of explosives in high pressure and temperature conditions as well as the initial results of the research are presented. Explosives are used in rock burst and methane prevention to destroy precisely defined fragments of the rock mass where energy and methane are accumulated. Using this preventive method for fracturing the structure of the rocks which accumulate the energy or coal of the methane seam very often does not bring the anticipated results. It is because of the short range of destructive action of the post-blast gases around the blast hole. Evaluation of the blast dynamics of explosives in a test chamber, i.e. in the pressure and temperature conditions comparable to those found “in situ”, will enable evaluation of their real usefulness in commonly used mining hazard preventive methods. At the same time, it will enable the development of new designs of the explosive charges used for precisely determined mining hazards. In order to test the explosives for their use in difficult environmental conditions and to determine the characteristics of their explosion, a test chamber has been built. It is equipped with a system of sensors and a high-frequency recording system of pressure and temperature during a controlled explosion of an explosive charge. The results of the research will enable the development of new technologies for rock burst and methane prevention which will significantly increase workplace health and safety level. This paper presented results constitute the initial phase of research started in the middle of 2014.

  10. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollier, A.; Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  11. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Explosive mixture of high power and high total energy content, and process for its manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, M.A.; Udy, L.L.

    1973-05-10

    This explosive consists of a viscous suspension of an inorganic oxidizer, finely divided aluminum, water, and a liquid organic material miscible with water; a thickener may also be added. The mixture contains 45 to 55% of a strong inorganic oxidizer, of which at least two-thirds is ammonium nitrate; 32 to 43% aluminum powder; 11 to 18% or liquid, mostly water with an organic water-soluble liquid such as ethylene glycol; and a high temperature resistant, gel-forming thickener made of crosslinked guar gum and not crosslinked xanthane gum made from a polysaccharide through bacterial action.

  13. Numerical simulation of the ionization effects of low- and high-altitude nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhengyu; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Low-altitude and high-altitude nuclear explosions are sources of intensive additional ionization in ionosphere. In this paper, in terms of the ionization equilibrium equation system and the equation of energy deposition of radiation in atmosphere, and considering the influence of atmosphere, the temporal and spatial distribution of ionization effects caused by atmospheric nuclear detonation are investigated. The calculated results show that the maximum of additional free electron density produced by low-altitude nuclear explosion is greater than that by the high-altitude nuclear burst. As to the influence of instant nuclear radiation, there is obvious difference between the low-altitude and the high-altitude explosions. The influence range and the continuance time caused by delayed nuclear radiation is less for the low-altitude nuclear detonation than that for the high-altitude one. (authors)

  14. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  15. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  16. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This detailed report on Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is funcioning effectively

  17. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's beryllium control program for high-explosive test firing bunkers and tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    This report on the control program to minimize beryllium levels in Laboratory workplaces includes an outline of beryllium surface, soil, and air levels and an 11-y summary of sampling results from two high-use, high-explosive test firing bunkers. These sampling data and other studies demonstrate that the beryllium control program is functioning effectively

  18. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  19. An underground research tunnel for the validation of high-level radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Park, S. I.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this study, minimum requirements and the conceptual design for an efficient construction of a small scale URL, which is named URT, were derived based on a literature review. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design for construction at KAERI, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, electronic resistivity survey, borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Based on the results, it was possible to design URT effectively with a consideration of the site characterization. The construction of URT was started in May 2005 and the first stage of the construction of the access tunnel could be successfully completed in Aug. 2005

  20. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  1. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study on Formation of High Concentration of H2 Generated by Gas Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Baiwei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84 which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

  2. Development of a high efficient conventional type cold neutron source using a non-explosive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Satoh, S.

    1999-01-01

    An efficient cold moderator that can be used easily at a small neutron source would be useful for neutron radiography, prompt gamma ray analysis and so on. Non-explosive materials are chosen for a cold moderator since explosive materials such as hydrogen and methane require a safety system. Neutronic performances of coupled moderators of various non-explosive materials are studied so as to develop such a cold moderator since the coupled moderator system is the best to obtain high intensity of cold neutrons. Effect of premoderator is studied and neutron spectra from methanol, ethanol, benzene, mesitylene and benzene methanol are measured around 20 K. The premoderator increased the cold neutron intensity by about 50∼70%. Methanol and mesitylene gave the highest cold neutron intensity. Effect of Be filter-reflector is also studied and a intensity gain of about 20% was obtained below about 5 MeV. (author)

  3. Emission spectroscopy of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, organic and high-explosive targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Day, J.P.R.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Loiseau, J.; Huneault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Devir, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, nylon and high-explosive targets are presented. Spectral measurements of the impact flash are recorded, together with radiometric measurements to derive the temperature of the flash. Such experiments aim at demonstrating that the impact

  4. Nanotwin Formation in High-Manganese Austenitic Steels Under Explosive Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, D.; Uzer, B.; Elmadagli, M.; Guner, F.

    2018-04-01

    The micro-deformation mechanisms active in a high-manganese austenitic steel were investigated upon explosive shock loading. Single system of nanotwins forming within primary twins were shown to govern the deformation despite the elevated temperatures attained during testing. The benefits of nanotwin formation for potential armor materials were demonstrated.

  5. High-Speed Imaging of Explosive Droplet Boiling at the Superheat Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, F. Robert; Hermanson, Jim; Asadollahi, Arash; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2017-11-01

    The explosive boiling processes of droplets of diethyl ether (1-2 mm in diameter) at the superheat limit were examined both experimentally and computationally. Experimentally, droplet explosion was studied using a heated bubble column to bring the test droplet to the superheat limit. The droplet fluid was diethyl ether (superheat limit 147 C at 1 bar) with immiscible glycerol employed as the heated host fluid. Tests were carried out at pressures between 0.5 and 4 bar absolute. The pressure rise associated with the explosive boiling event was captured using a piezoelectric quartz pressure transducer with a 1 MHz DAQ system. High-speed imaging of the interfacial behavior during explosive boiling was performed using a Phantom v12.1 camera at a frame rate of up to one million frames per second with the droplets illuminated by diffuse back-lighting. The imaging reveals features of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the vapor-liquid interface resulting from the unstable boiling process. Computationally, Direct Numerical Simulations are performed at Southern Illinois University Carbondale to compliment the experimental tests. NSF Award Number 1511152.

  6. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-29

    high thermal stability [29]. Unlike the blue copper(II) nitrotetrazole octahedral complex reported by Huynh [30], DBX-1 is the copper(I) salt that...II) nitrotetrazole octahedral complex reported by Huynh [30], DBX-1 is the copper(I) salt that manifests as orange-red crystals and adopts the...detonation velocity; i ΔfH0 = molar enthalpy of formation; j ΔexU0 = total energy of detonation. 3.3.3. Nitryl Cyanide (NCNO2) Though a simple

  7. Managing the explosion of high resolution topography in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Phan, Minh; Gross, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Centimeter to decimeter-scale 2.5 to 3D sampling of the Earth surface topography coupled with the potential for photorealistic coloring of point clouds and texture mapping of meshes enables a wide range of science applications. Not only is the configuration and state of the surface as imaged valuable, but repeat surveys enable quantification of topographic change (erosion, deposition, and displacement) caused by various geologic processes. We are in an era of ubiquitous point clouds that come from both active sources such as laser scanners and radar as well as passive scene reconstruction via structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry. With the decreasing costs of high-resolution topography (HRT) data collection, via methods such as SfM and UAS-based laser scanning, the number of researchers collecting these data is increasing. These "long-tail" topographic data are of modest size but great value, and challenges exist to making them widely discoverable, shared, annotated, cited, managed and archived. Presently, there are no central repositories or services to support storage and curation of these datasets. The U.S. National Science Foundation funded OpenTopography (OT) Facility employs cyberinfrastructure including large-scale data management, high-performance computing, and service-oriented architectures, to provide efficient online access to large HRT (mostly lidar) datasets, metadata, and processing tools. With over 225 datasets and 15,000 registered users, OT is well positioned to provide curation for community collected high-resolution topographic data. OT has developed a "Community DataSpace", a service built on a low cost storage cloud (e.g. AWS S3) to make it easy for researchers to upload, curate, annotate and distribute their datasets. The system's ingestion workflow will extract metadata from data uploaded; validate it; assign a digital object identifier (DOI); and create a searchable catalog entry, before publishing via the OT portal. The OT Community

  8. Highly Sensitive Filter Paper Substrate for SERS Trace Explosives Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Fierro-Mercado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel and extremely low-cost surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate fabricated depositing gold nanoparticles on common lab filter paper using thermal inkjet technology. The paper-based substrate combines all advantages of other plasmonic structures fabricated by more elaborate techniques with the dynamic flexibility given by the inherent nature of the paper for an efficient sample collection, robustness, and stability. We describe the fabrication, characterization, and SERS activity of our substrate using 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as analytes. The paper-based SERS substrates presented a high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility for analytes employed, demonstrating a direct application in forensic science and homeland security.

  9. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechanical insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaugh, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  10. Possibilities and limitations in the use of bulk explosives for undergound blasting work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thum, W.

    1982-06-01

    Conditions for the use of bulk explosives - Characterization of the explosives - ANFO - Water gel blasting agents - Underground application of bulk explosives - Comparison of application criteria - Dead-pressing effects - Modifications of application technology - Loading systems.

  11. Detonation of high explosives in Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes using the programmed burn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.E.

    1975-09-01

    Two initiation methods were developed for improving the programmed burn technique for detonation of high explosives in smeared-shock Lagrangian hydrodynamic codes. The methods are verified by comparing the improved programmed burn with existing solutions in one-dimensional plane, converging, and diverging geometries. Deficiencies in the standard programmed burn are described. One of the initiation methods has been determined to be better for inclusion in production hydrodynamic codes

  12. Automated detection of cavities present in the high explosive filler of artillery shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.P.; Janney, D.H.; Breedlove, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Initial research has been conducted into the use of digital image analysis techniques for automated detection and characterization of piping cavities present in the high explosive (HE) filler region of 105-mm artillery shells. Experimental work utilizing scene segmentation techniques followed by a sequential similarity detection algorithm for cavitation detection have yielded promising initial results. This work is described with examples of computer-detected defects

  13. Novel high-fidelity realistic explosion damage simulation for urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob; Zhu, Youding; Raju, Chaitanya; Bhagavathula, Jaya

    2010-04-01

    Realistic building damage simulation has a significant impact in modern modeling and simulation systems especially in diverse panoply of military and civil applications where these simulation systems are widely used for personnel training, critical mission planning, disaster management, etc. Realistic building damage simulation should incorporate accurate physics-based explosion models, rubble generation, rubble flyout, and interactions between flying rubble and their surrounding entities. However, none of the existing building damage simulation systems sufficiently faithfully realize the criteria of realism required for effective military applications. In this paper, we present a novel physics-based high-fidelity and runtime efficient explosion simulation system to realistically simulate destruction to buildings. In the proposed system, a family of novel blast models is applied to accurately and realistically simulate explosions based on static and/or dynamic detonation conditions. The system also takes account of rubble pile formation and applies a generic and scalable multi-component based object representation to describe scene entities and highly scalable agent-subsumption architecture and scheduler to schedule clusters of sequential and parallel events. The proposed system utilizes a highly efficient and scalable tetrahedral decomposition approach to realistically simulate rubble formation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically simulate rubble generation, rubble flyout and their primary and secondary impacts on surrounding objects including buildings, constructions, vehicles and pedestrians in clusters of sequential and parallel damage events.

  14. The underground retrievable storage (URS) high-level waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    This papers presents the concept of long-term underground retrievable storage (URS) of spent reactor fuel in unsaturated rock. Emplacement would be incremental and the system is planned to be experimental and flexible. The rationale for retrievability is examined, and a technical basis for 300-year retrievability is presented. Maximum isolation is the rationale for underground as opposed to surface storage. Although the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain Nevada would be suitable for a URS, alternate sites are discussed. The technical issues involved in licensing a URS for 300 years are simpler than licensing a 10,000 year repository. 16 refs

  15. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, J.; Miralles, L.; Tarrasa, F.; Pueyo, J.J.; Cuevas, C. de las

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC-2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 deg. C and 90 deg. C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h -1 and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60 Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction ( 80 μm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fractions can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon. (author)

  16. Analysis of the stability of underground high-level nuclear waste repository in discontinuous rock mass using 3DEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Ki; Park, Jeong Hwa; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-03-01

    For the safe design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in deep location, it is necessary to confirm the stability of the underground excavations under the high overburden pressure and also to investigate the influence of discontinuities such as fault, fracture zone, and joints. In this study, computer simulations using 3DEC, which is a Distince Element (DEM) code, were carried out for determining important parameters on the stability of the disposal tunnel and deposition holes excavated in 500 m deep granite body. The development of plastic zone and stress and strain distributions were analyzed with various modelling conditions with variation on the parameters including joint numbers, tunnel size, joint properties, rock properties, and stress ratio. Furthermore, the influence of fracture zone, which is located around the underground excavations, on the stability of the excavation was investigated. In this study, the variation of stress and strain distribution due to the variation of fracture zone location, dip, and width was analyzed

  17. A method for analyzing low statistics high resolution spectra from 210Pb in underground coal miners from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Spitz, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    A survey conducted by the IRD-CNEN determined that some workers from an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil were exposed to elevated airborne concentrations of 222 Rn. Because inhalation of high airborne concentrations of 222 Rn can lead to an increase of 210 Pb in bone, in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the skeleton were performed in selected underground workers from this mine. Measurements were performed using an array of high-resolution germanium detectors positioned around the head and knee to detect the low abundant 46.5 keV photon emitted by 210 Pb. The gamma-ray spectra were analyzed using a moving median smoothing function to detect the presence of a photopeak at 46.5 keV. The minimum detectable activity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was 50 Bq. (author)

  18. Electron stereodynamics in coulomb explosion of molecules by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Atsushi; Ohyama-Yamaguchi, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    The three-center Coulombic over-the-barrier model is developed for Coulomb explosion of a homonuclear diatomic molecule in collisions with a slow (∼10 eV/amu) highly charged ion. A conventional two-step picture of multiple electron transfer followed by Coulomb explosion is far from appropriate because the molecule sets out to dissociate before the incident ion approaches the closest distance. We treat the formation of a quasi-molecule and its decay into the three moving atomic ions. Charge-asymmetric population between fragment ions observed in a triple-coincidence measurement is suggested to reflect the bond elongation during a collision. Collisions of Kr 8+ + N 2 are analyzed. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of formation of trace decomposition products in complex high explosive mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodyard, J.D.; Burgess, C.E. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1999-03-01

    A significant concern in the nation`s stockpile surveillance program in prediction of the lifetimes of the high explosives (HE) and their components as the weapons age. The Department of Energy`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target issues of degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. These material science topics are being addressed at the DOE national laboratories and production plants, including Pantex. The principal goal of this project is to identify the mechanisms of decomposition of HE, plasticizers, plastic polymer binders, and radical stabilizers resulting from exposures to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The following reports the work completed for 1998, including a comprehensive literature review about some of the materials examined and the laboratory work completed to date. The materials focused on in the laboratory are TATB, Estane 5301, and Irganox 1010.

  20. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J R; Lightstone, J M; Piecuch, S; Koch, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science

  1. Determining the Coalescence of Hotspots into Uniform Detonation Fronts in High Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Mays, R. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Converse, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baluyot, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, J. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Microwave Interferometry (MI) offers the advantage of a continuous time measurement of detonation front velocity from detonation initiation to disassembly, which is an important step to assure the quality of stockpile high explosives. However, the method is currently characterized by areas of poor signal strength, which lead to low confidence measurements. Experiments in inert materials were conducted to determine if reflective hot spots, pockets of plasma that form during detonation, are responsible due to varying hot spot concentrations. Instead, it was found that the copper tube used in a range of standard HE test configurations is the cause of the poor signal reception. Hot spots were represented by microwave reflective aluminum particles. The aluminum was mixed with Titanium Dioxide, a material electrically similar to the insensitive high explosive, triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), in volume percent fractions (VPFs) between 0 and 100% aluminum, in increments of 10%. Reflectivity was measured based on input and reflection received from a test apparatus with a layer representing undetonated explosive and another representing an approaching shockwave. The results showed no correlation between VPF and measured reflectivity test cases while enclosed in the standard copper tube. Upon further testing, each sample’s measured reflectivity independent of the copper enclosure did correlate with VPF. This revealed that the test enclosure currently used for MI measurements is causing poor MI signal reception, and new methods must be developed to account for this aberration in MI measurements.

  2. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, Bruce F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  3. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} and 1.5 {mu}Ci/ft{sup 3} respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  4. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, F.

    1969-01-01

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 μCi/ft 3 and 1.5 μCi/ft 3 respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  5. Underground engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  6. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1969-01-01

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  7. Probing Very High Energy Prompt Muon and Neutrino fluxes and the cosmic ray knee via Underground Muons

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Raj; Panda, Sukanta

    2005-01-01

    We calculate event rate and demonstrate the observational feasibility of very high energy muons (1-1000 TeV) in a large mass underground detector operating as a pair-meter. This energy range corresponds to surface muon energies of $\\sim$(5 TeV - 5000 TeV) and primary cosmic ray energies of $\\sim$ (50 TeV - 5 $\\times 10^4$ TeV). Such measurements would significantly assist in an improved understanding of the prompt contribution to $\

  8. High-order shock-fitted detonation propagation in high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romick, Christopher M.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2017-03-01

    A highly accurate numerical shock and material interface fitting scheme composed of fifth-order spatial and third- or fifth-order temporal discretizations is applied to the two-dimensional reactive Euler equations in both slab and axisymmetric geometries. High rates of convergence are not typically possible with shock-capturing methods as the Taylor series analysis breaks down in the vicinity of discontinuities. Furthermore, for typical high explosive (HE) simulations, the effects of material interfaces at the charge boundary can also cause significant computational errors. Fitting a computational boundary to both the shock front and material interface (i.e. streamline) alleviates the computational errors associated with captured shocks and thus opens up the possibility of high rates of convergence for multi-dimensional shock and detonation flows. Several verification tests, including a Sedov blast wave, a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring (ZND) detonation wave, and Taylor-Maccoll supersonic flow over a cone, are utilized to demonstrate high rates of convergence to nontrivial shock and reaction flows. Comparisons to previously published shock-capturing multi-dimensional detonations in a polytropic fluid with a constant adiabatic exponent (PF-CAE) are made, demonstrating significantly lower computational error for the present shock and material interface fitting method. For an error on the order of 10 m /s, which is similar to that observed in experiments, shock-fitting offers a computational savings on the order of 1000. In addition, the behavior of the detonation phase speed is examined for several slab widths to evaluate the detonation performance of PBX 9501 while utilizing the Wescott-Stewart-Davis (WSD) model, which is commonly used in HE modeling. It is found that the thickness effect curve resulting from this equation of state and reaction model using published values is dramatically more steep than observed in recent experiments. Utilizing the present fitting

  9. Impulsive shock induced single drop steam explosion visualized by high-speed x-ray radiography and photography - metallic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Hansson, R. C.; Sehgal, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental investigation of fine fragmentation process during vapor explosion was conducted in a small-scale single drop system employing continuous high-speed X-ray radiography and photography. A molten tin drop of about 0.7 g at approximately 1000 .deg. C was dropped into a water pool, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 .deg. C, and the explosion was triggered by an external shock pulse of about 1 MPa. X-ray radiographs show that finely fragmented melt particles accelerates to the vapor bubble boundary and forms a particle shell during the period of vapor bubble expansion due to vapor explosions. From the photographs, it was possible to observe a number of counter-jets on the vapor boundary. For tests with highly subcooled coolant, local explosion due to external impulsive shock trigger initiates the stratified mode of explosion along the entire melt surface. For tests with lower subcooled coolant local explosions were initiated by an external impulsive shock trigger and by collapse of vapor/gas pocket attached on the top of the melt drop. Transient spatial distribution map of melt fragments during vapor explosion was obtained by a series of image processing and calibration tests

  10. A survey of high explosive-induced damage and spall in selected metals using proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Clark, D.A.; Ferm, E.N.; Gallegos, R.A.; Hammon, D.; Hemsing, W.F.; Hogan, G.E.; Holmes, V.H.; King, N.S.P.; Lopez, R.P.; Merrill, F.E.; Morris, C.L.; Morley, K.B.; Murray, M.M.; Pazuchanics, P.D.; Prestridge, K.P.; Quintana, J.P.; Saunders, A.; Shinas, M.A.; Stacy, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple spall and damage layers can be created in metal when the free surface reflects a Taylor wave generated by high explosives. These phenomena have been explored in different thicknesses of several metals (tantalum, copper, 6061 T6-aluminum, and tin) using high-energy proton radiography. Multiple images (up to 21) can be produced of the dynamic evolution of damaged material on the microsecond time scale with a <50 ns 'shutter' time. Movies and multiframe still images of areal and (Abel inverted) volume densities are presented. An example of material that is likely melted on release (tin) is also presented

  11. Effect of type of explosives and physical-mechanical properties of explosive rock on formation of toxic gases in atmosphere of shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindeli, E. O.; Khudyakov, M. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The quality of toxic gases formed during explosive work in underground shafts depends upon the type of explosives and the conditions of explosion. Several types of explosives and rocks were examined. All remaining conditions were maintained the same (sandy-argillaceous stemming, electrical method of explosions, diameter of blast holes, and the direct triggering of charges).

  12. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  13. High water level installation of monitoring wells for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treadway, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper briefly describes a common monitoring well installation design for shallow ground water contamination resulting from leaky underground storage tanks. The paper describes drilling techniques used in unconsolidated Florida aquifers using hollow-stem augers. It describes methods for the prevention of heaving sands and sand-locking problems. It then goes on to describe the proper well casing placement and sealing techniques using neat cements. The proper sell screen level is also discussed to maximize the detection of floating hydrocarbons

  14. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  15. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The

  16. Dynamics of the formation of the condensed phase particles at detonation of high explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Evdokov, O V; Kulipanov, G N; Luckjanchikov, L A; Lyakhov, N Z; Mishnev, S I; Sharafutdinov, M R; Sheromov, M A; Ten, K A; Titov, V M; Tolochko, B P; Zubkov, P I

    2001-01-01

    The article presents the results of the experimental study SAXS on condensed carbon particles that appear at the detonation of a high explosive. It was shown that the SAXS signal rises for 1.5-4 mu s after the detonation front passing. The SAXS signal in trotyl and its alloys with hexogen starts just after the compression of the material in the detonation wave. In octogen, hexogen and PETN, the SAXS signal appears in 0.5 mu s and is much smaller than the signal at the detonation of trotyl and its alloys with hexogen.

  17. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  18. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  19. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  20. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  1. Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team

    Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P., E-mail: philippe.hebert@cea.fr; Doucet, M. [CEA, DAM, Le RIPAULT, F-37620 Monts (France); Resseguier, T. de [Institut P' , UPR CNRS 3346, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, F-86961 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France)

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  3. Problems of natural lighting for deepened buildings and underground premises under screen effect of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionova Kira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main rationale and objective of the submitted research work is to create a quality lighting environment in the premises of deepened buildings and below-ground structures under screen effect of high-rise construction (high-rise buildings. It is noted, that in modern megapolises, a deficiency of vacant urban territories leads to the increased density of urban development with increased amount of high-rise construction and tendency to increase efficiency in the use of underground space. The natural lighting of premises in underground buildings and structures is the most efficient way, but it can be implemented only under use of roof lighting system in the form of roof monitors or skylights. In this case the levels of indoor natural lighting will be affected with serious screening effect of high-rise buildings in surrounding development. Such an situation is not regulated, or even considered by the contemporary building Codes and Regulations on natural lighting of interiors. The authors offered a new formula for a daylight factor calculation with roof lighting system in the described cases. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental studies showed very similar values. This proved the truth of the offered formula and elaborated method of calculation on the basis of an offered hypothesis. It prooves, that it is possible to use some factor and guide points in the daylight factors design under system of side natural lighting in the same design for a system of roof lighting.

  4. Problems of natural lighting for deepened buildings and underground premises under screen effect of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, Kira; Stetsky, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The main rationale and objective of the submitted research work is to create a quality lighting environment in the premises of deepened buildings and below-ground structures under screen effect of high-rise construction (high-rise buildings). It is noted, that in modern megapolises, a deficiency of vacant urban territories leads to the increased density of urban development with increased amount of high-rise construction and tendency to increase efficiency in the use of underground space. The natural lighting of premises in underground buildings and structures is the most efficient way, but it can be implemented only under use of roof lighting system in the form of roof monitors or skylights. In this case the levels of indoor natural lighting will be affected with serious screening effect of high-rise buildings in surrounding development. Such an situation is not regulated, or even considered by the contemporary building Codes and Regulations on natural lighting of interiors. The authors offered a new formula for a daylight factor calculation with roof lighting system in the described cases. The results of theoretical calculations and experimental studies showed very similar values. This proved the truth of the offered formula and elaborated method of calculation on the basis of an offered hypothesis. It prooves, that it is possible to use some factor and guide points in the daylight factors design under system of side natural lighting in the same design for a system of roof lighting.

  5. Deeper underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brearley, D. [Pantek Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The paper describes how efficient data gathering has led to production and uptime improvements in UK Coal's Daw Mill colliery in Warwickshire. Software called FactorySuite A{sup 2} from Wonderware is being used to control and monitor all underground production and conveying. 3 photos.

  6. Research topics in explosives - a look at explosives behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of explosives under many conditions - e.g., sensitivity to inadvertent reactions, explosion, detonation - are controlled by the chemical and physical properties of the explosive materials. Several properties are considered for a range of improvised and conventional explosives. Here I compare these properties across a wide range of explosives to develop an understanding of explosive behaviors. For improvised explosives, which are generally heterogeneous mixtures of ingredients, a range of studies is identified as needed to more fully understand their behavior and properties. For conventional explosives, which are generally comprised of crystalline explosive molecules held together with a binder, I identify key material properties that determine overall sensitivity, including the extremely safe behavior of Insensitive High Explosives, and discuss an approach to predicting the sensitivity or insensitivity of an explosive.

  7. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  8. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project

  9. Effects of Explosions in Underground Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Kayenta sandstone near Grand Junction, CO. Core samples indicated a relatively uniform rock with thin, horizontal, irregularly spaced, clay seams (Swift...Mechanical Properties of a Kayenta Sandstone from the Mixed Company Site," DNA 3683F, July 1975, Physics International Company, San Leandro, CA. 33

  10. System for remote control of underground device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics

  11. System for remote control of underground device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  12. Preliminary experiments using light-initiated high explosive for driving thin flyer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    Light-initiated high explosive, silver acelytide - silver-nitrate (SASN), has been used to produce simulated x ray blow-off impulse loading on reentry vehicles to study the system structural response. SASN can be used to accelerate thin flyer plates to high terminal velocities which, in turn, can deliver a pressure pulse that can be tailored to the target material. This process is important for impulse tests where both structural and material response is desired. The theories used to calculate the dynamic state of the flyer plate prior to impact are summarized. Data from several experiments are presented which indicate that thin flyer plates can be properly accelerated and that there are predictive techniques available which are adequate to calculate the motion of the flyer plate. Recommendations are made for future study that must be undertaken to make the SASN flyer plate technique usable

  13. Application of high-frame-rate neutron radiography to steam explosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Sugimoto, J.; Moriyama, K.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the behavior of dispersed molten metal particles dropped into water during the premixing process of steam explosion, experiments were performed by using heated stainless-steel particles simulating dispersed molten metal particles. High-frame-rate neutron radiography was successfully employed for visualization and void fraction measurement. Visualization was conducted by dropping heated stainless-steel particle into heavy water filled in a rectangular tank with the particle diameter (6, 9, and 12 mm) and temperature (600 deg. C, 700 deg. C, 800 deg. C, and 1000 deg. C) as parameters. Steam generation due to direct contact of heated particle and heavy water was successfully visualized by the high-frame-rate neutron radiography at the recording speed of 500 frames/s. From void fraction measurement it was revealed that the amount of generated steam was in proportion to the particle size and temperature. It is suggested that the ambient liquid might be superheated by the particle-liquid contact

  14. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  15. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  16. Swissmetro - high speed underground transportation system propulsion, levitation and guiding system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jufer, M [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cassat, A [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Macabrey, N [Lab. of Electromechanical and Electrical Machines, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The idea behind Swissmetro is to move travelers underground between the main cities of Switzerland at a speed of up to 500 km/h in a tube under partial vacuum. The train, carrying 800 passengers, would travel without contact to the infrastructure through an application of linear motor technology and magnetic levitation. The energy consumption of the system will be low, due to the reduced air resistance and the absence of wheel-rail contact. This publication describes the electromechanical and electromagnetic specific devices such as: The linear, short stator motors; the levitation system with electromagnets; the guidance system with electromagnets; the energy transmission system to the vehicle by induction, using a linear transformer. After a preliminary study, the Swissmetro project started an industrial study of 4 years in order to obtain the concession license from the Swiss government. (orig.)

  17. Behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel due to repeated impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Akira; Miyagawa, Hideaki

    1985-01-01

    Explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel is being tried for rail crossing recently. From the previous studies, it became clear that high tensile residual stress was generated in the hardened surface layer by explosion and microcracks were observed. In this study, therefore, the behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel due to repeated impact loads was examined and compared with those of the original and shot peened steels. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the initial stage of the repetition of impact, high tensile surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel decreased rapidly with the repetition of impact, while those of the original and shot peened steels increased rapidly. This difference was attributed to the difference in depth of the work hardened layer in three testing materials. (2) Beyond 20 impacts the residual stress of three test specimens decreased gradually, and at more than 2000 impacts the compressive stress of about 500 MPa was produced regardless of the histories of working of testing materials. (3) The linear law in the second stage of residual stress fading was applicable to this case, and the range of the linear relationship was related to the depth of the work hardened layer of testing material. (4) From the changes in half-value breadth and peak intensity of diffraction X-ray, it was supposed that a peculiar microscopic strain exists in explosion hardened steel. (author)

  18. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  19. Enhanced mass removal due to phase explosion during high irradiance nanosecond laser ablation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jong Hyun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The morphology of craters resulting from high irradiance laser ablation of silicon was measured using a white light interferometry microscope. The craters show a dramatic increase in their depth and volume at a certain irradiance, indicating a change in the primary mechanism for mass removal. Laser shadowgraph imaging was used to characterize and differentiate the mass ejection processes for laser irradiances above and below the threshold value. Time-resolved images show distinct features of the mass ejected at irradiances above the threshold value including the presence of micron-sized particulates; this begins at approximately 300 ~ 400 ns after the start of laser heating. The analysis of the phenomena was carried out by using two models: a thermal evaporation model and a phase explosion model. Estimation of the crater depth due to the thermally evaporated mass led to a large underestimation of the crater depth for irradiances above the threshold. Above the threshold irradiance, the possibility of phase explosion was analyzed. Two important results are the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature and the time for vapor bubbles that are generated in the superheated liquid to achieve a critical size. After reaching the critical size, vapor bubbles can grow spontaneously resulting in a violent ejection of liquid droplets from the superheated volume. The effects of an induced transparency, i.e. of liquid silicon turning into an optically transparent liquid dielectric medium, are also introduced. The estimated time for a bubble to reach the critical size is in agreement with the delay time measured for the initiation of large mass ejection. Also, the thickness of the superheated liquid layer that is close to the critical temperature at the time of the beginning of the large mass ejection is representative of the crater depth at the threshold irradiance. These results suggest that phase explosion is a plausible thermal

  20. Underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, A., E-mail: Bettini@pd.infn.i [Padua University and INFN Section, Dipartimento di Fisca G. Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Plaza Ayuntamiento n1 2piso, Canfranc (Huesca) (Spain)

    2011-01-21

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to frontier experiments in particle and nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines, geology and biology, that can profit of their unique characteristics. The cosmic silence allows to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators by searching for extremely rare phenomena. I will briefly review the facilities that are operational or in an advanced status of approval around the world.

  1. Fine Tuning the CJ Detonation Speed of a High Explosive products Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    For high explosive (HE) simulations, inaccuracies of a per cent or two in the detonation wave speed can result from not suficiently resolving the reaction zone width or from small inaccuracies in calibrating the products equation of state (EOS) or from variation of HE lots. More accurate detonation speeds can be obtained by ne tuning the equation of state to compensate. Here we show that two simple EOS transformations can be used to adjust the CJ detonation speed by a couple of per cent with minimal effect on the CJ release isentrope. The two transformations are (1) a shift in the energy origin and (2) a linear scaling of the speci c volume. The effectiveness of the transformations is demonstrated with simulations of the cylinder test for PBX 9502 starting with a products EOS for which the CJ detonation speed is 1 per cent too low.

  2. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  3. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Intensive evaporation and boiling of a heterogeneous liquid droplet with an explosive disintegration in high-temperature gas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The using of the high-speed (not less than 105 frames per second video recording tools (“Phantom” and the software package ("TEMA Automotive" allowed carrying out an experimental research of laws of intensive vaporization with an explosive disintegration of heterogeneous (with a single solid nontransparent inclusion liquid droplet (by the example of water in high-temperature (500-800 K gases (combustion products. Times of the processes under consideration and stages (liquid heat-up, evaporation from an external surface, bubble boiling at internal interfaces, growth of bubble sizes, explosive droplet breakup were established. Necessary conditions of an explosive vaporization of a heterogeneous droplet were found out. Mechanisms of this process and an influence of properties of liquid and inclusion material on them were determined.

  5. On beyond the standard model for high explosives: challenges & obstacles to surmount

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph Ds [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) are heterogeneous materials. Nevertheless, current explosive models treat them as homogeneous materials. To compensate, an empirically determined effective burn rate is used in place of a chemical reaction rate. A significant limitation of these models is that different burn parameters are needed for applications in different regimes; for example, shock initiation of a PBX at different initial temperatures or different initial densities. This is due to temperature fluctuations generated when a heterogeneous material is shock compressed. Localized regions of high temperatures are called hot spots. They dominate the reaction for shock initiation. The understanding of hot spot generation and their subsequent evolution has been limited by the inability to measure transients on small spatial ({approx} 1 {micro}m) and small temporal ({approx} 1 ns) scales in the harsh environment of a detonation. With the advances in computing power, it is natural to try and gain an understanding of hot-spot initiation with numerical experiments based on meso-scale simulations that resolve material heterogeneities and utilize realistic chemical reaction rates. However, to capture the underlying physics correctly, such high resolution simulations will require more than fast computers with a large amount of memory. Here we discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed. These include dissipative mechanisms that generate hot spots, accurate thermal propceties for the equations of state of the reactants and products, and controlling numerical entropy error from shock impedance mismatches at material interfaces. The later can generate artificial hot spots and lead to premature reaction. Eliminating numerical hot spots is critical for shock initiation simulations due to the positive feedback between the energy release from reaction and the hydrodynamic flow.

  6. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  7. Character and levels of radioactive contamination of underground waters at Semipalatinsk test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, S.; Lukashenko, S.; Turchenko, Y. [Institute of radiation safety and ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of RK government commission, 470 explosions have been set off at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), inclusive of 26 surface, 90 in the air and 354 underground nuclear explosions (UNE), 103 of those have been conducted in tunnels and 251 - in boreholes. Underground nuclear explosions have been conducted at STS in horizontal mines, called - 'tunnels' ('Degelen' test site) and vertical mines called 'boreholes' ('Balapan' and 'Sary-Uzen' test sites). Gopher cavities of boreholes and tunnels are in different geotechnical conditions, that eventually specify migration of radioactive products with underground waters. Central cavities of UNE in holes are located significantly below the level of distribution of underground water. High temperature remains for a long time due to presence of overlying rock mass. High temperatures contribute to formation of thermal convection. When reaching the cavity, the water heat up, dissolve chemical elements and radionuclides and return with them to the water bearing formation. In the major part of 'Balapan' site for underground water of regional basin is characterized by low concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in underground water have been found only in immediate vicinity to 'warfare' boreholes. Formation of radiation situation in the 'Balapan' test site area is also affected by local area of underground water discharge. It is located in the valley of Shagan creek, where the concentration of {sup 3}H reaches 700 kBq/l. Enter of underground water contaminated with tritium into surface water well continue. In this case it is expected that tritium concentration in discharge zone can significantly change, because this migration process depends on hydro geological factors and the amount of atmospheric precipitation. Central cavities of nuclear explosions, made in tunnels, are above the level of underground

  8. Underground transmission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibka, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several underground tomographic transmission surveys have been carried out. Targets were cavities, ore veins and fault zones. Examples from measurements in a german heavy/fluor spar mine a lead/zinc mine and a rock laboratory of the Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive waste are presented. Measurements were carried out between boreholes and road ways. The recording equipment was the intrinsically safe SEAMEX85 system built and sold by WBK. Receivers were mounted in a chain of 6 two-component probes. Sources were an inhole hammer a sledge hammer a sparker and explosives from a single detonator to 180 g depending on the distance and absorption of the rock material. Cavities showed very distinct velocity reductions between 30 and 50%. Different vein material showed velocity reduction as well as velocity increase relative to the surrounding rock

  9. Investigation of the stable combustion of initiating explosives at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelzang, A.E.; Egorshev, V.IU.; Pimenov, A.IU.; Sinditskii, V.P.; Saklantii, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The combustion of typical initiating explosives - tetrazene, tricycloacetone peroxide, diazodinitrophenol, hexamethylene triperoxide diamine, and cyanur triazide - was studied experimentally in the 0.1-40 MPa pressure range. The dependence of combustion rate on pressure was studied for these explosives. 8 references.

  10. Analysis and modeling of flow blockage-induced steam explosion events in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Lestor, C.W.; Gat, U.; Lepard, B.L.; Cook, D.H.; Freels, J.; Chang, S.J.; Luttrell, C.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a perspective overview of the analysis and modeling work done to evaluate the threat from steam explosion loads in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor during flow blockage events. The overall workscope included modeling and analysis of core melt initiation, melt propagation, bounding and best-estimate steam explosion energetics, vessel failure from fracture, bolts failure from exceedance of elastic limits, and finally, missile evolution and transport. Aluminum ignition was neglected. Evaluations indicated that a thermally driven steam explosion with more than 65 MJ of energy insertion in the core region over several miliseconds would be needed to cause a sufficiently energetic missile with a capacity to cause early confinement failure. This amounts to about 65% of the HFIR core mass melting and participating in a steam explosion. Conservative melt propagation analyses have indicated that at most only 24% of the HFIR core mass could melt during flow blockage events under full-power conditions. Therefore, it is judged that the HFIR vessel and top head structure will be able to withstand loads generated from thermally driven steam explosions initiated by any credible flow blockage event. A substantial margin to safety was demonstrated

  11. Underground neutrino astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium

  12. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  13. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  14. Simulation of changes in temperature and pressure fields during high speed projectiles forming by explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miloš D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Research in this paper considered the temperatures fields as the consequently influenced effects appeared by plastic deformation, in the explosively forming process aimed to design Explosively Formed Projectiles (henceforth EFP. As the special payloads of the missiles, used projectiles are packaged as the metal liners, joined with explosive charges, to design explosive propulsion effect. Their final form and velocity during shaping depend on distributed temperatures in explosively driven plastic deformation process. Developed simulation model consider forming process without metal cover of explosive charge, in aim to discover liner’s dynamical correlations of effective plastic strains and temperatures in the unconstrained detonation environment made by payload construction. The temperature fields of the liner’s copper material are considered in time, as the consequence of strain/stress displacements driven by explosion environmental thermodynamically fields of pressures and temperatures. Achieved final velocities and mass loses as the expected EFP performances are estimated regarding their dynamical shaping and thermal gradients behavior vs. effective plastic strains. Performances and parameters are presented vs. process time, numerically simulated by the Autodyne software package. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47029

  15. Study of nanometric thin pyrolytic carbon films for explosive electron emission cathode in high-voltage planar diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir; Belous, Nikolai; Gurinovich, Alexandra; Gurnevich, Evgeny [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kuzhir, Polina, E-mail: polina.kuzhir@gmail.com [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Maksimenko, Sergey [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Molchanov, Pavel; Shuba, Mikhail [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Roddatis, Vladimir [CIC energiGUNE, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava (Spain); Institut für Materialphysik of Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Kaplas, Tommi; Svirko, Yuri [Institute of Photonics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu FI-80101 (Finland)

    2015-04-30

    We report on an experimental study of explosive electron emission properties of cathode made by nanometric thin pyrolytic carbon (PyC) films (2–150 nm) deposited on Cu substrate via methane-based chemical vapor deposition. High current density at level of 300 A/cm{sup 2} in 5 · 10{sup −5} Pa vacuum has been observed together with very stable explosive emission from the planar cathode. The Raman spectroscopy investigation proves that the PyC films remain the same after seven shots. According to the optical image analysis of the cathode before and after one and seven shots, we conclude that the most unusual and interesting feature of using the PyC films/Cu cathode for explosive emission is that the PyC layer on the top of the copper target prevents its evaporation and oxidation, which leads to higher emission stability compared to conventional graphitic/Cu cathodes, and therefore results in longer working life. - Highlights: • Explosive electron emission from pyrolytic carbon (PyC) cathode is reported. • We observe high current density, 300 A/cm{sup 2}, and stable emission parameters. • PyC integrity ensures a high application potential for high current electronics.

  16. Extraction panel guidelines for high production underground auger mining in Australian conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Buddery; David Hill [Strata Engineering (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The project involved monitoring ground behaviour during augering, with the intention of monitoring several sites with varying geotechnical environments and developing guidelines from these to assist in future layout design. This approach is appropriate where the mining layout involves the complex interaction of several components that cannot be readily simplified to the extent necessary for numerical or physical models to play the primary role. Only one site was secured within the project time frame. Consequently, the project has utilised the results from a Southern Colliery augering trial, coupled to the outcomes of numerical and physical modelling tests. The auger mining operations themselves were carried out by a Joint Venture (Coal Recovery Australia Pty Ltd) between Cutting Edge Technology Pty Ltd and SBD Services Pty Ltd. The underground trial indicated that empirical design methodologies involving pillar strength equations coupled to abutment angle models can be used to design stable augering layouts. Although the designed hole configuration was not fully achieved, there is, a suggestion that a layout so determined will be conservative, holding out the possibility of future optimisation on the basis of actual performance. Monitoring and re-appraisal in the context of a formal strata management process are critical to the success of any such approach, particularly in terms of optimisation. The two-dimensional UDEC numerical modelling code was used to model augering webs, but seemed to underestimate the stability of an auger mining panel, while over -estimating the strength of individual auger webs. Physical tests appeared to give a realistic quantification of the size effect. The tests suggest that determining the strength of an hourglass web by increasing the strength of an equivalent rectangular web by 25% would be a justifiable step at this stage.

  17. Equations of state for detonation products of high energy PBX explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. L.; Helm, F. H.; Finger, M.; Walton, J. R.

    1977-08-01

    It has become apparent that the accumulated changes in the analysis of cylinder test data, in the material specifications, and in the hydrodynamic code simulation of the cylinder test necessitated an update of the detonation product EOS description for explosives in common use at LLL. The explosives reviewed are PBX-9404-3, LX-04-1, LX-10-1, LX-14-0 and LX-09-1. In order to maintain the proper relation of predicted performance of these standard explosives, they have been revised as a single set.

  18. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.; Greenwood, D.W.; Vandersall, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios

  19. High-temperature acquifer thermal storage and underground heat storage; IEA ECES Annex 12: Hochtemperatur-Erdwaermesonden- und Aquiferwaermespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Koch, M.; Adinolfi, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete und Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-12-31

    Heat storage is essential for the reconciliation of heat supply and demand. The earth has already proved to be an excellent medium for storing large amounts of heat over longer periods of time, for instance during the cold and hot season. The efficiency of the storage is the better the lower storage losses are at high temperature levels. Unfortunately this can not be easily achieved. While thermal underground stores, which are widely used for cold storage, have proved to perform quite well at temperatures between 10 C - 40 C, it has been rather difficult to achieve similar results at higher temperatures up to 150 C as test and demonstration plants of the 1980s proved. This issue has again attracted so much interest that the IEA launched a project on high temperature underground storage in December 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waermespeicherung ist von entscheidender Bedeutung, wenn es darum geht, ein Waermeangebot mit einer Waermenachfrage zeitlich zur Deckung zu bringen. Der Untergrund hat sich schon seit vielen Jahren als ein geeignetes Medium erwiesen, groessere Waermepumpen ueber laengere Zeitraeume wie etwa die kalten und warmen Jahreszeiten zu speichern. Die Effizienz eines solchen Speichers steigt mit der Hoehe des erreichten Temperaturniveaus und mit sinkenden Speicherverlusten, was leider eher gegenlaeufige Erscheinungen sind. Waehrend thermische Untergrundspeicher im Temperaturbereich von 10-40 C inzwischen erfolgreich demonstriert wurden und vor allem zur Kaeltespeicherung auch bereits vielfach eingesetzt werden, haben hoehere Temperaturen bis etwa 150 C in den Versuchs- und Demonstrationsanlagen der 80er Jahre vielfaeltige Probleme bereitet. Im Gefolge eines erneuten Interesses an unterirdischer thermischer Energiespeicherung wurde im Dezember 1997 ein Vorhaben des IEA Energiespeicherprogramms zu Untergrund-Waermespeichern hoeherer Temperatur eingerichtet. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of laser-induced plasmas as a complement to high-explosive large-scale detonations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kimblin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations into the characteristics of laser-induced plasmas indicate that LIBS provides a relatively inexpensive and easily replicable laboratory technique to isolate and measure reactions germane to understanding aspects of high-explosive detonations under controlled conditions. Spectral signatures and derived physical parameters following laser ablation of aluminum, graphite and laser-sparked air are examined as they relate to those observed following detonation of high explosives and as they relate to shocked air. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS reliably correlates reactions involving atomic Al and aluminum monoxide (AlO with respect to both emission spectra and temperatures, as compared to small- and large-scale high-explosive detonations. Atomic Al and AlO resulting from laser ablation and a cited small-scale study, decay within ∼10-5 s, roughly 100 times faster than the Al and AlO decay rates (∼10-3 s observed following the large-scale detonation of an Al-encased explosive. Temperatures and species produced in laser-sparked air are compared to those produced with laser ablated graphite in air. With graphite present, CN is dominant relative to N2+. In studies where the height of the ablating laser’s focus was altered relative to the surface of the graphite substrate, CN concentration was found to decrease with laser focus below the graphite surface, indicating that laser intensity is a critical factor in the production of CN, via reactive nitrogen.

  1. Dependence of hotspot initiation on void distribution in high explosive crystals simulated with molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Stuart Davis

    Microscopic defects may dramatically affect the susceptibility of high explosives to shock initiation. Such defects redirect the shock's energy and become hotspots (concentrations of stress and heat) that can initiate chemical reactions. Sufficiently large or numerous defects may produce a self-sustaining deflagration or even detonation from a shock notably too weak to detonate defect-free samples. The effects of circular or spherical voids on the shock sensitivity of a model (two- or three-dimensional) high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. In both dimensionalities, the probability of initiating chemical reactions rises more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void of even 10 nm radius (˜39 interatomic spacings) reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4 (8 in 3D). The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in micron-long samples with a single void (and its periodic images). Reactions during the shock traversal increase rapidly with velocity, then become a reliable detonation. In 2D, a void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal; a Pop plot of the detonation delays at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence. 3D samples are more likely to react but less to detonate. In square lattices of voids, reducing the (common) void radius or increasing the porosity without changing the other parameter causes the hotspots to consume the material faster and detonation to occur sooner and at lower velocities. Early behavior is seen to follow a very simple ignition and growth model; the pressure exponents are more realistic than with single voids. The hotspots collectively develop a broad pressure wave (a sonic, diffuse deflagration front

  2. Coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of high explosives under different rubbing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y Q; Chaudhri, M Munawar

    2013-01-01

    The coefficients of sliding friction of single crystals of commonly used high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and beta-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) under several rubbing configurations and at a relative sliding speed of 0.22 mm s -1 were measured. The sliding configurations were (1) crystal-polished steel pairs, (2) like-crystal pairs and (3) unlike-crystal pairs. For every rubbing configuration the friction force showed oscillations, which are thought to be caused by the formation and shearing of the adhesive junctions formed at the surface of the rubbing crystals. This shearing of the adhesive junctions led to the formation of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles, which were confirmed by an environmental scanning electron microscope study. For every rubbing configuration and for relatively high normal loads pressing the rubbing crystals together, the coefficient of friction was generally in the range 0.2-0.25 and it has been concluded that the coefficient of friction is controlled by the adhesion with almost negligible contribution from the ploughing component. From a knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the uniaxial yield stress values of single crystals of RDX and β-HMX, the shear strength of these crystals were determined to be ∼13.4 MPa and ∼16.8 MPa, respectively.

  3. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated High-Speed Video Detection of Small-Scale Explosives Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert; Guymon, Clint

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale explosives sensitivity test data is used to evaluate hazards of processing, handling, transportation, and storage of energetic materials. Accurate test data is critical to implementation of engineering and administrative controls for personnel safety and asset protection. Operator mischaracterization of reactions during testing contributes to either excessive or inadequate safety protocols. Use of equipment and associated algorithms to aid the operator in reaction determination can significantly reduce operator error. Safety Management Services, Inc. has developed an algorithm to evaluate high-speed video images of sparks from an ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) machine to automatically determine whether or not a reaction has taken place. The algorithm with the high-speed camera is termed GoDetect (patent pending). An operator assisted version for friction and impact testing has also been developed where software is used to quickly process and store video of sensitivity testing. We have used this method for sensitivity testing with multiple pieces of equipment. We present the fundamentals of GoDetect and compare it to other methods used for reaction detection.

  5. Explosive vaporization induced by high-power CO2-laser target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    1976-01-01

    The interactions of high-power laser pulses with targets such as metals or dielectric materials causes a series of optical, thermal, and mechanical processes. Thereby, heating, melting, and vaporization can take place in a short time. At power densities of about 10 7 to several 10 8 W/cm 2 this can even be produced explosively. As compared to continuous ablation, this type of interaction can remove greater masses from the bulk of material. The investigations are performed by using an electron-beam preionized CO 2 -laser acting on different target materials. The energy of the laser pulses is about 30 J, the pulse-half-widths of the long-tail pulses 4 to 6 μs. Optical measurements yield some information on threshold values for these processes, for the formation and expansion of plasmas, and for the ejection of material in form of greater particles. High speed photographic techniques include a rotating mirror- and an image converter camera. Starting from shock-wave theory, gas dynamic equations (in unidimensional approximation) allow for a quantitative determination of the specific internal energies and pressures in the case of optical detonation. (orig.) [de

  6. High-power explosive magnetic energy sources for thermonuclear and physical applications (overview)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, V K [All-Russian Scientific Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    High-power energy sources unavailable up to now are needed to carry out any one project on inertially confined controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF). Considerable advances have been made in the area of explosive magnetic generators (EGG) as for their output characteristics (high power combined with high energy content). To develop the concept of magnetic cumulation proposed by A.D. Sakharov in 1951, two new approaches to increasing EMC fast operation by two orders (from tens of microseconds to tenths of microseconds) and increasing at the same time the current pulse amplitude by more than one order, were proposed at VNIIEF in the early sixties. The concept aimed at solving the CTF problem by target magnetic compression (MACO) under the effect of an fast-increasing field was proposed (1972) based on VNIIEF achievements, discussed (1976) at the USSR Academy of Sciences and published (1979). The key physical questions are analyzed, the problems to be solved are posed and the results achieved in the experiments with fast-operating high-power EMGs, fast-opening switches, transmitting lines and insulation systems are discussed here. The results obtained in experiments on liner acceleration as well as those on preliminary plasma magnetization and heating, carried out at the constructed EMGs, are discussed briefly. The conclusion is reached that the MACO system is the most suitable one to provide the ignition because the designing of high-power energy sources to be used in this system is practically complete and the concept itself does not need any intermediate transformations of one type of energy into another always accompanied by a decrease in total efficiency. (author). 4 tabs., 14 figs., 21 refs.

  7. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area

  8. Ecological surveys of the proposed high explosives wastewater treatment facility region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.

    1995-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) proposes to improve its treatment of wastewater from high explosives (HE) research and development activities. The proposed project would focus on a concerted waste minimization effort to greatly reduce the amount of wastewater needing treatment. The result would be a 99% decrease in the HE wastewater volume, from the current level of 6,760,000 L/mo (1,786,000 gal./mo) to 41,200 L/mo (11,000 gal./mo). This reduction would entail closure of HE wastewater outfalls, affecting some wetland areas that depend on HE wastewater effluents. The outfalls also provide drinking water for many wildlife species. Terminating the flow of effluents at outfalls would represent an improvement in water quality in the LANL region but locally could have a negative effect on some wetlands and wildlife species. None of the affected species are protected by any state or federal endangered species laws. The purpose of this report is to briefly discuss the different biological studies that have been done in the region of the project area. This report is written to give biological information and baseline data and the biota of the project area.

  9. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  10. An X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier with an annular explosive cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Danni; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang; Qi, Zumin [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The feasibility of employing an annular beam instead of a solid one in the X-band high-impedance relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) is investigated in theory and simulation. Small-signal theory analysis indicates that the optimum bunching distance, fundamental current modulation depth, beam-coupling coefficient, and beam-loaded quality factor of annular beams are all larger than the corresponding parameters of solid beams at the same beam voltage and current. An annular beam RKA and a solid beam RKA with almost the same geometric parameters are compared in particle-in-cell simulation. Output microwave power of 100 MW, gain of 50 dB, and power conversion efficiency of 42% are obtained in an annular beam RKA. The annular beam needs a 15% lower uniform guiding magnetic field than the solid beam. Our investigations demonstrate that we are able to use a simple annular explosive cathode immersed in a lower uniform magnetic field instead of a solid thermionic cathode in a complicated partially shielding magnetic field for designing high-impedance RKA, which avoids high temperature requirement, complicated electron-optical system, large area convergence, high current density, and emission uniformity for the solid beam. An equivalent method for the annular beam and the solid beam on bunching features is proposed and agrees with the simulation. The annular beam has the primary advantages over the solid beam that it can employ the immersing uniform magnetic field avoiding the complicated shielding magnetic field system and needs a lower optimum guiding field due to the smaller space charge effect.

  11. Explosive material treatment in particular the explosive compaction of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemmer, R.

    1985-01-01

    The constructive use of explosives in the last decades has led to new procedures in manufacturing techniques. The most important of these are explosive forming and cladding, the latter especially for the production of compound materials. The method of explosive compaction has the highest potential for further innovation. Almost theoretical densities are achievable in the green compacts as the pressure released by detonating explosives are very high. Also, the production of new conditions of materials (metastable high pressure phases) is possible. (orig.) [de

  12. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  13. Analysis and modeling of flow-blockage-induced steam explosion events in the high-flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Nestor, C.W.; Gat, U.; Lepard, B.L.; Cook, D.H.; Freels, J.; Chang, S.J.; Luttrell, C.; Gwaltney, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a perspective overview of the analysis and modeling work done to evaluate the threat from steam explosion loads in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) during flow blockage events. The overall work scope included modeling and analysis of core-melt initiation, melt propagation, bounding and best-estimate steam explosion energetics, vessel failure from fracture, bolts failure from exceedance of elastic limits, and, finally, missile evolution and transport. Aluminum ignition was neglected. Evaluations indicated that a thermally driven steam explosion with more than 65 MJ of energy insertion in the core region over several milliseconds would be needed to cause a sufficiently energetic missile with a capacity to cause early confinement failure. This amounts to about 65% of the HFIR core mass melting and participating in a steam explosion. Conservative melt propagation analyses have indicated that at most only 24% of the HFIR core mass could melt during flow blockage events under full-power conditions. 19 refs., 11 figs

  14. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  15. THE HIGH-METALLICITY EXPLOSION ENVIRONMENT OF THE RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVA 2009bb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, E. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Berger, E.; Torres, M. A. P.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Copete, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Ray, A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chandra, P.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Chevalier, R. A.; Fox, O.; Chugai, N.; Fransson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the environment of the nearby (d ∼ 40 Mpc) broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb. This event was observed to produce a relativistic outflow likely powered by a central accreting compact object. While such a phenomenon was previously observed only in long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), no LGRB was detected in association with SN 2009bb. Using an optical spectrum of the SN 2009bb explosion site, we determine a variety of interstellar medium properties for the host environment, including metallicity, young stellar population age, and star formation rate. We compare the SN explosion site properties to observations of LGRB and broad-lined SN Ic host environments on optical emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. Based on these analyses, we find that the SN 2009bb explosion site has a metallicity between 1.7 Z sun and 3.5 Z sun , in agreement with other broad-lined SN Ic host environments and at odds with the low-redshift LGRB host environments and recently proposed maximum metallicity limits for relativistic explosions. We consider the implications of these findings and the impact that SN 2009bb's unusual explosive properties and environment have on our understanding of the key physical ingredient that enables some SNe to produce a relativistic outflow.

  16. Magnetic fields and childhood cancer: an epidemiological investigation of the effects of high-voltage underground cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, K J; Vincent, T J; Murphy, M F G; Swanson, J

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of increased risks for childhood leukaemia from magnetic fields has implicated, as one source of such fields, high-voltage overhead lines. Magnetic fields are not the only factor that varies in their vicinity, complicating interpretation of any associations. Underground cables (UGCs), however, produce magnetic fields but have no other discernible effects in their vicinity. We report here the largest ever epidemiological study of high voltage UGCs, based on 52 525 cases occurring from 1962–2008, with matched birth controls. We calculated the distance of the mother’s address at child’s birth to the closest 275 or 400 kV ac or high-voltage dc UGC in England and Wales and the resulting magnetic fields. Few people are exposed to magnetic fields from UGCs limiting the statistical power. We found no indications of an association of risk with distance or of trend in risk with increasing magnetic field for leukaemia, and no convincing pattern of risks for any other cancer. Trend estimates for leukaemia as shown by the odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) per unit increase in exposure were: reciprocal of distance 0.99 (0.95–1.03), magnetic field 1.01 (0.76–1.33). The absence of risk detected in relation to UGCs tends to add to the argument that any risks from overhead lines may not be caused by magnetic fields. (paper)

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship Between Poverty and Underground economy in the Highly developed, Transition and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah, Obayelu Abiodun; Uffort, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken with the goal of analyzing the relationship between poverty rates and size of underground economy in the developed and developing countries and exploring whether there is a link between them. There are technical problems in linking them in that getting information from those who have undertaken underground activities are difficult. Secondary data were used to established hypothetical relationship and primary data for the empirical analysis. The results of th...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship Between Poverty and Underground economy in the Highly developed, Transition and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah, Obayelu Abiodun; Uffort, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken with the goal of analyzing the relationship between poverty rates and size of underground economy in the developed and developing countries and exploring whether there is a link between them. There are technical problems in linking them in that getting information from those who have undertaken underground activities are difficult. Secondary data were used to established hypothetical relationship and primary data for the empirical analysis. ...

  19. High-temperature explosive development for geothermal well stimulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.W.; Mars, J.E.; Wang, C.

    1978-03-31

    A two-component, temperature-resistant liquid explosive called HITEX has been developed which is capable of withstanding 561/sup 0/K (550/sup 0/F) for 24 hours in a geothermal environment. The explosive is intended for the stimulation of nonproducing or marginally producing geothermal (hot dry rock, vapor-dominated or hydrothermal) reservoirs by fracturing the strata in the vicinity of a borehole. The explosive is inherently safe because it is mixed below ground downhole from two nondetonable liquid components. Development and safety tests included differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability, minerals compatibility, drop-weight sensitivity, adiabatic compression, electrostatic discharge sensitivity, friction sensitivity, detonation arrest capability, cook-off tests, detonability at ambient and elevated pressure, detonation velocity and thin film propagation in a wedge.

  20. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  2. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, G H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  3. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.H.

    1969-01-01

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  4. Explosive Breakup of a Water Droplet with a Nontransparent Solid Inclusion Heated in a High-Temperature Gaseous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the evaporation of a water droplet with a comparably sized solid nontransparent inclusion in a high-temperature (500–800 K gas medium. Water evaporates from the free surface of the inclusion. During this process, intensive vapor formation occurs on the inner interface “water droplet – solid inclusion” with the subsequent explosive decay of the droplet. Experiments have been conducted using high-speed (up to 105 fps video cameras “Phantom” and software “Phantom Camera Control”. The conditions of the explosive vapor formation of the heterogeneous water droplet were found. The typical phase change mechanisms of the heterogeneous water droplet under the conditions of intensive heat exchange were determined.

  5. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  6. Reliable discrimination of high explosive and chemical/biological artillery using acoustic UGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohil, Myron E.; Desai, Sachi

    2005-10-01

    discrimination between conventional and simulated chemical/biological artillery rounds using acoustic signals produced during detonation. Distinct characteristics arise within the different airburst signatures because high explosive warheads emphasize concussive and shrapnel effects, while chemical/biological warheads are designed to disperse their contents over large areas, therefore employing a slower burning, less intense explosive to mix and spread their contents. The ensuing blast waves are readily characterized by variations in the corresponding peak pressure and rise time of the blast, differences in the ratio of positive pressure amplitude to the negative amplitude, and variations in the overall duration of the resulting waveform. We show that, highly reliable discrimination (> 98%) between conventional and potentially chemical/biological artillery is achieved at ranges exceeding 3km. A feedforward neural network classifier, trained on a feature space derived from the distribution of wavelet coefficients found within different levels of the multiresolution decomposition yields.

  7. Toward an Empirically-based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.; Ruppert, S.; Matzel, E.; Hauk, T. F.; Gok, R.

    2010-12-01

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases (Pn, Pg, and Lg) that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. These parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. There is a correlation of high gas-porosity (low strength) with increased spectral slope. However, there are trade-offs between the slope and corner-frequency, which we try to independently constrain using Mueller-Murphy relations and coda-ratio techniques. The relationship between the parametric equation and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source, and aid in the prediction of observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing.

  8. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Gerard; Roudot, Marie; Genetier, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Composite HMX and NTO based high explosives (HE) are widely used in ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside HE. Comparing to a pressed HE, a composite HE is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain - binder interface leading to a different behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. An investigation of how shock-to-detonation transition occurs inside composite HE containing RDX and NTO is proposed in this lecture. Two composite HE have been studied. The first one is HMX - HTPB 82:18. The second one is HMX - NTO - HTPB 12:72:16. These HE have been submitted to plane sustained shock waves at different pressure levels using a laboratory powder gun. Pressure signals are measured using manganin gauges inserted at several distances inside HE. The corresponding run-distances to detonation are determined using wedge test experiments where the plate impact is performed using a powder gun. Both HE exhibit a single detonation buildup curve in the distance - time diagram of shock-to-detonation transition. This feature seems a common shock-to-detonation behavior for composite HE without porosity. This behavior is also confirmed for a RDX - HTPB 85:15 based composite HE. Such a behavior is exploited to determine the heterogeneous reaction rate versus the shock pressure using a method based on the Cauchy-Riemann problem inversion. The reaction rate laws obtained allow to compute both run-distance to detonation and pressure signals.

  9. The Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the forthcoming enlargement of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) which will allow to host new international Astroparticle Physics experiments and therefore to broaden the European underground research area. The new Canfranc Underground Laboratory will operate in coordination (through the ILIAS Project) with the Gran Sasso (Italy), Modane (France) and Boulby (UK) underground laboratories

  10. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  11. Xsense: using nanotechnology to combine detection methods for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to produce a handheld explosives sensor the Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners. Using micro- and nano technological approaches it will be attempted to integrate four detection principles into a single de...

  12. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  13. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  14. Study on manufacturing technique of synthetic shock-absorbers for underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takashi; Onodera, Yoshio; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Ebina, Takeo; Nagase, Takako; Torii, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    On the cse of underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes, natural bentonite is planned to be used for artificial barrier shock-absorber. This is due to expectation of sealing water or adsorbing nuclear materials using swelling and ion-exchanging capacities of smectite, which is a main component of bentonite. In this study, some swelling laminar compounds with various compositions and structures are synthesized to investigate their water sealing and nuclear adsorbing properties. And, according to their results, an optimum material is selected to develop its economic manufacturing method and investigate its alternative possibility for natural bentonite. From such reason, following two titled studies have been executed; 1) Synthesis of the swelling laminar compounds, and 2) Development of manufacturing technique of artificial shock-absorber. In 1995 FY, 1) Detail investigation on synthetic condition of double octahedral type smectite and 2) modeling of the smectite and stability of same type displacement for base of inducing the computer simulation for estimating creation process of optimum materials, were conducted. (G.K.)

  15. Engineering studies: high-level radioactive waste repositories task 3 - review of underground handling and emplacement. 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The report reviews proposals for transport, handling and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in an underground repository with particular reference to: waste block size and configuration; self-shielded or partially-shielded block; stages of disposal; transport by road/rail to repository site; handling techniques within repository; emplacement in vertical holes or horizontal tunnels; repository access by adit, incline or shaft; conventional and radiological safety; costs; and major areas of uncertainty requiring research or development. In carrying out this programme due attention was given to work already carried out both in the U.K. and overseas and where appropriate comparisons with this work have been made to substantiate and explain the observations made in this report. The examination and use of this previous work however has been confined to those proposals which were considered capable of meeting the basic design criterion for a U.K. based repository, that the maximum temperature achieved by the host rock should not exceed 100/sup 0/C.

  16. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewes, H A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  17. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewes, H.A.

    1969-01-01

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  18. Analysis of underground concrete pipelines subjected to seismic high-frequency loads

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasiverki, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Buried pipelines are tubular structures that are used for transportation of important liquid materials and gas in order to provide safety for human life. During an earthquake, imposed loads from soil deformations on concrete pipelines may cause severe damages, possibly causing disturbance in vital systems, such as cooling of nuclear power facilities. The high level of safety has caused a demand for reliable seismic analyses, also for structures built in the regions that have not traditionally...

  19. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  20. Underground disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste: a review of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A review has been undertaken of the worldwide status of research and development related to the geological disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The nature and quantities of vitrified high level waste that will arise from nuclear power generation in the UK have been estimated and considered. The safety case for establishing a geological repository would have to be based on predictive models, which could adequately represent the interactions and effects of a wide range of gradual processes and possible sudden events. No detailed repository design has yet been published, but the configuration currently favoured, in the UK and in most other countries, comprises a small number of vertical shafts, from which a network of horizontal tunnels would be excavated. Waste packages would be placed in holes drilled in the floors of the tunnels. The excavation of such a repository in hard crystalline rock, in a thick homogeneous formation of rock salt, or in the less plastic argillaceous formations, appears to be within the scope of present technology. Rock types available in the UK, which are likely to prove suitable for the accommodation of a repository, have been identified. The strategies and programmes for high level waste disposal in other countries have been reviewed. (U.K.)

  1. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  2. Study on explosives and their quality performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, M.; Pingua, B.M.P.; Jagdish Khan, M.; Emranuzzaman [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2005-07-01

    There are about forty suppliers of explosive and blasting accessories in India manufacturing site mixed emulsion, site mixed slurry, ANFO, HANFO, packed products, and blasting accessories of use in surface and underground mines. A field laboratory was set up to measure explosive properties of explosive samples, cast booster, detonating fuse, detonators, cord relay, MS connector, and shock tubes. Density, velocity of detonation, water percentage, water resistance, and energy output were considered as the important properties of explosives. A rating system was designed for selection of good explosive products. The delay interval and delay scattering in cord relay and shock tube was studied to improve blast performance. This paper describes in detail the method of measurement and vender rating system for explosive products as per marking system accepted by Coal India. 12 refs., 4 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Stellar explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraud, E.

    1987-01-01

    What is the energy source and which physical processes are powerful enough to generate this explosion which scatters the star. The knowledge progress of very dense matter allows the scenario reconstitution. An instability in the star core which is developing during milliseconds is the cause of this explosion [fr

  4. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  5. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  6. A Multipathway Model for High Explosives and Barium Transport Using GoldSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, B. D.; Hickmott, D. D.; Keating, E. H.; Robinson, B. A.; Gard, M. O.

    2002-05-01

    Outfalls from High Explosives (HE) production sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) discharged RDX, TNT, HMX, and barium contaminated waters onto a mesa /canyon system on the western edge of the Pajarito Plateau from 1944 to 1996. HE concentrations in surface soils ranged to over 20 wt.%, and HE in waters range to over 800 ug/L. HE in water is present in springs, surface waters, alluvial waters and deep perched (> 700 ft. depth) and possibly regional (> 1200 ft depth) groundwaters. Barium concentrations range to over 4 wt.% in sediments, and to over 5000 ug/L in spring and alluvial waters. Because of the size of contaminant inventories and observations of HE in the perched zone and possibly deeper, there has been concern that there may be a long-term risk at a downgradient drinking water supply well. To address this concern, a GoldSim multipathway model was developed to simulate transport of HE and barium from source areas to the supply well. The objectives of the modeling effort were to generate a preliminary assessment of potential concentrations at the supply well and to identify any model components/parameters that require additional characterization based on model sensitivity and uncertainty. The model evaluates two main source areas, one is controlled by flow through the mesa vadose zone, and the other by flow through the canyon vadose zone. The two vadose zone modules feed into a saturated zone module that terminates at a pumping well (drinking water) module. The hydrogeology of the site is extremely complex and includes a heterogeneous, unfractured/fractured tuff vadose zone geology, ponds, springs, alluvial aquifers, a perennial stream reach, and two deep aquifers. Because of this complexity, and limited characterization and contaminant inventory information, we used a stochastic approach to quantitatively represent model/parameter uncertainties. Model parameters were developed using a variety of information including flow and transport modeling

  7. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment

  8. New high-nitrogen materials based on nitroguanyl-tetrazines: explosive properties, thermal decomposition and combustion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steve F.; Harry, Herbert; Montoya, Dennis; Hagelberg, Stephanie [Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the explosive sensitivity and performance properties of two novel high-nitrogen materials, 3,6-bis-nitroguanyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1, (NQ{sub 2}Tz)) and its corresponding bis-triaminoguanidinium salt (2, (TAG){sub 2}(NQ){sub 2}Tz). These materials exhibit very low pressure dependence in burning rate. Flash pyrolysis/FTIR spectroscopy was performed, and insight into this interesting burning behavior was obtained. Our studies indicate that 1 and 2 exhibit highly promising energetic materials properties. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  10. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1970-01-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  11. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  12. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  13. A brief introduction to high altitude nuclear explosion and a review on high altitude nuclear tests of usa and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    1999-11-01

    The author briefly introduces some knowledge about high altitude nuclear explosion (HANE) and presents a general review on high altitude nuclear tests of USA and former USSR. Physical phenomenon generated by HANE is given. The effects of HANE on space flyer, artificial satellite and communication are discussed. Some aspects of a mechanism of antimissile for HANE are described and the effect and role of HANE for USA and USSR are reviewed

  14. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  15. Application of resistivity-based high-density prospecting to embankments with underground structure; Chika kozobutsu wo yusuru moritsuchi ni okeru hiteiko komitsudo tansa no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T; Park, G [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ueno, N [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Park, K [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    A structure was embedded in an embankment with homogeneous sandy soil. Resistivity was measured using three kinds of arrays, to investigate effects of the array on the underground structure. For a vertical structural model with high resistivity and a horizontal structural model with low resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles by individual arrays. For a transverse structural model with high resistivity, location of the underground structure could be grasped from the apparent resistivity profiles using Wenner array and pole-pole array. However, it could not be grasped from the apparent resistivity profile using dipole-dipole array. Based on the resistivity measurements for individual structural models, the dipole-dipole array was suitable for the vertical structural model, the pole-pole array was suitable for the transverse structural model, and the Wenner array was suitable for the horizontal structural model. Thus, the best apparent resistivity profiles and contrasts were obtained for individual structural models. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  17. CITEQ creates a transformer for underground electric networks: a joint initiative by Hydro-Quebec and ABB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeau, P.

    1997-01-01

    Advances in technology regarding underground transformers was discussed. After more than 3 years of research, CITEQ (Centre d'innovation sur le transport d'energie du Quebec), a new company founded by Hydro-Quebec and ABB, is on the verge of a breakthrough with a new submersible transformer with solid insulation. This transformer was specially designed for use in underground electric networks. The new transformer is a good alternative to conventional oil transformers which have a high risk of pollution mainly due to corrosion, leaks, explosions or fires. Also, the outer shell of the new transformer is composed of composite material which will eliminate the need for maintenance. The service life of the new transformer is expected to be approximately 30 to 40 years. CITEQ is hoping that this new technology will benefit the residential sector which is powered by underground distribution networks. 1 fig

  18. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  19. A Risk Management Framework to Characterize Black Swan Risks: A Case Study of Lightning Effects on Insensitive High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary A.

    Effective and efficient risk management processes include the use of high fidelity modeling and simulation during the concept exploration phase as part of the technology and risk assessment activities, with testing and evaluation tasks occurring in later design development phases. However, some safety requirements and design architectures may be dominated by the low probability/high consequence "Black Swan" vulnerabilities that require very early testing to characterize and efficiently mitigate. Failure to address these unique risks has led to catastrophic systems failures including the space shuttle Challenger, Deepwater Horizon, Fukushima nuclear reactor, and Katrina dike failures. Discovering and addressing these risks later in the design and development process can be very costly or even lead to project cancellation. This paper examines the need for risk management process adoption of early hazard phenomenology testing to inform the technical risk assessment, requirements definition and conceptual design. A case study of the lightning design vulnerability of the insensitive high explosives being used in construction, mining, demolition, and defense industries will be presented to examine the impact of this vulnerability testing during the concept exploration phase of the design effort. While these insensitive high explosives are far less sensitive to accidental initiation by fire, impact, friction or even electrical stimuli, their full range of sensitivities have not been characterized and ensuring safe engineering design and operations during events such as lightning storms requires vulnerability testing during the risk assessment phase.

  20. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  1. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  2. Mid-IR DIAL for high-resolution mapping of explosive precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, V.; Babichenko, S.; Bennes, J.; Borelli, R.; Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.; Fiorani, L.; Hespel, L.; Huet, T.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, A.; Rebane, O.; Sobolev, I.

    2013-10-01

    A DIAL instrument on a moving platform is seen as a valuable remote sensing component in a sensor network for area monitoring, targeting sites involved in unauthorised explosive manufacturing. Such instrument will perform the area mapping of the vapour concentration of key substances, known to be used as precursors in explosive fabrication, such as acetone and nitromethane. The IR spectra of acetone and nitromethane vapours have been defined from available spectroscopy databases and from laboratory measurements as showing optimal spectral band for the DIAL operation in the spectral range of 3.0 μm - 3.5 μm. The DIAL operation has been numerically simulated, with inputs based on the HITRAN database, the U.S. Standard Atmosphere and aerosol simulation software package OPAC. A combination of OPO and OPA has been chosen as a transmitter, where the idler wavelength is used for probing, with wavelength tuning in sequence. A scanner mounted on top of the coaxially aligned laser and receiver, is capable of covering almost 360 degrees horizontally and +/-30 degrees vertically. The detection is performed by a photovoltaic photodiode with 4-stage cooling, with a signal digitalisation having 14 bit amplitude resolution and 125 Ms/s sampling rate. Here we present the development and the first test of the DIAL instrument.

  3. Characterization of ANFO explosive by high accuracy ESI(±)-FTMS with forensic identification on real samples by EASI(-)-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Franco, Marcos Fernado; Santos, Jandyson Machado; Melendez-Perez, Jose J; de Morais, Damila Rodrigues; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Borges, Rodrigo; de Souza, Wanderley; Zacca, Jorge Jardim; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Correa, Deleon Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) is an explosive used in many civil applications. In Brazil, ANFO has unfortunately also been used in criminal attacks, mainly in automated teller machine (ATM) explosions. In this paper, we describe a detailed characterization of the ANFO composition and its two main constituents (diesel and a nitrate explosive) using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry performed on an FT-ICR-mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI(±)-FTMS) in both the positive and negative ion modes. Via ESI(-)-MS, an ion marker for ANFO was characterized. Using a direct and simple ambient desorption/ionization technique, i.e., easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS), in a simpler, lower accuracy but robust single quadrupole mass spectrometer, the ANFO ion marker was directly detected from the surface of banknotes collected from ATM explosion theft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of Underground Muon Flux with Application to Muon Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Lintereur, A.; Kouzes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Muon tomography uses highly energetic muons, produced by cosmic rays interacting within the upper atmosphere, to image dense materials. Like x-rays, an image can be constructed from the negative of the absorbed (or scattered) muons. Unlike x-rays, these muons can penetrate thousands of meters of earth. Muon tomography has been shown to be useful across a wide range of applications (such as imaging of the interior of volcanoes and cargo containers). This work estimates the sensitivity of muon tomography for various underground applications. We use simulations to estimate the change in flux as well as the spatial resolution when imaging static objects, such as mine shafts, and dynamic objects, such as a CO2 reservoir filling over time. We present a framework where we import ground density data from other sources, such as wells, gravity and seismic data, to generate an expected muon flux distribution at specified underground locations. This information can further be fed into a detector simulation to estimate a final experimental sensitivity. There are many applications of this method. We explore its use to image underground nuclear test sites, both the deformation from the explosion as well as the supporting infrastructure (access tunnels and shafts). We also made estimates for imaging a CO2 sequestration site similar to Futuregen 2.0 in Illinois and for imaging magma chambers beneath the Cascade Range volcanoes. This work may also be useful to basic science, such as underground dark matter experiments, where increasing experimental sensitivity requires, amongst other factors, a precise knowledge of the muon background.

  5. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  6. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Explosion confinement system for exploitations by sublevels; Sistema de Confinamiento de Explosiones para Explotaciones por Subniveles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a explosion suppression system capable to confine and extinguish gas explosions of the type produced in sub level caving faces when blasting to the coal pillar. Existing systems, such as triggered barriers, were considered not to be valid because of size, weight, cost, and other operational constraints. The research activities have been focused in the development of a mixed water/air spray system that should be manually activated some second before blasting. Two prototypes have been developed and tested, the first one using nozzle operating at the standard ranges of pressure that are normally available in underground coal mines, and a second one based in high-pressure nozzles. In this case, bottles containing a pressurized air/water mixtures are required. The works carried out included theoretical studies, hydraulic nozzles characterization, and modelling of the explosion phenomena using the AutoReaGas code. Besides, extensive testing of the prototypes has been carried out in an underground explosion test facility that has been set up specially for this project at the Barredo Pit in Mieres (Asturias). The results obtained show that the low-pressure system is not valid for this particular application, whereas the high-pressure yielded a more promising performance. However, further testing is required to confirm these results.

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  10. Shock waves & explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, PL

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the causes and effects of explosions is important to experts in a broad range of disciplines, including the military, industrial and environmental research, aeronautic engineering, and applied mathematics. Offering an introductory review of historic research, Shock Waves and Explosions brings analytic and computational methods to a wide audience in a clear and thorough way. Beginning with an overview of the research on combustion and gas dynamics in the 1970s and 1980s, the author brings you up to date by covering modeling techniques and asymptotic and perturbative methods and ending with a chapter on computational methods.Most of the book deals with the mathematical analysis of explosions, but computational results are also included wherever they are available. Historical perspectives are provided on the advent of nonlinear science, as well as on the mathematical study of the blast wave phenomenon, both when visualized as a point explosion and when simulated as the expansion of a high-pressure ...

  11. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...... glucose release with low formation of by-products. Under these conditions, the cellulose and hemicellulose sugar recovery was 94 % and 70 %, respectively. The efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose under these conditions was 91 %. On the other hand, the release of pentose sugars was higher...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  12. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  13. Sensitivities of ionic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Lane, Pat; Murray, Jane S.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the relevance for ionic explosive sensitivity of three factors that have been demonstrated to be related to the sensitivities of molecular explosives. These are (1) the maximum available heat of detonation, (2) the amount of free space per molecule (or per formula unit) in the crystal lattice and (3) specific features of the electrostatic potential on the molecular or ionic surface. We find that for ionic explosives, just as for molecular ones, there is an overall tendency for impact sensitivity to increase as the maximum detonation heat release is greater. This means that the usual emphasis upon designing explosives with large heats of detonation needs to be tempered somewhat. We also show that a moderate detonation heat release does not preclude a high level of detonation performance for ionic explosives, as was already demonstrated for molecular ones. Relating the free space per formula unit to sensitivity may require a modified procedure for ionic explosives; this will continue to be investigated. Finally, an encouraging start has been made in linking impact sensitivities to the electrostatic potentials on ionic surfaces, although limited so far to ammonium salts.

  14. Mechanisms of large strain, high strain rate plastic flow in the explosively driven collapse of Ni-Al laminate cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olney, K L; Chiu, P H; Nesterenko, V F; Higgins, A; Serge, M; Weihs, T P; Fritz, G; Stover, A; Benson, D J

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Al laminates have shown promise as reactive materials due to their high energy release through intermetallic reaction. In addition to the traditional ignition methods, the reaction may be initiated in hot spots that can be created during mechanical loading. The explosively driven thick walled cylinder (TWC) technique was performed on two Ni-Al laminates composed of thin foil layers with different mesostructues: concentric and corrugated. These experiments were conducted to examine how these materials accommodate large plastic strain under high strain rates. Finite element simulations of these specimens with mesostuctures digitized from the experimental samples were conducted to provide insight into the mesoscale mechanisms of plastic flow. The dependence of dynamic behaviour on mesostructure may be used to tailor the hot spot formation and therefore the reactivity of the material system.

  15. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarath, Chamaka; Caspar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The CASPAR mainly focuses on Stellar Nucleosynthesis, its impact on the production of heavy elements and study the strength of stellar neutron sources that propels the s-process, 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg. Currently, implementation of a 1MV fully refurbished Van de Graaff accelerator that can provide a high intensity Î+/- beam, is being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The accelerator is built among a collaboration of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, University of Notre Dame and Colorado School of Mines. It is understood that cosmic ray neutron background radiation hampers experimental Nucleosynthesis studies, hence the need to go underground in search for a neutron free environment, to study these reactions at low energies is evident. The first beam was produced in the middle of summer 2017. The entire accelerator will be run before the end of this year. A detailed overview of goals of CASPAR will be presented. NFS Grant-1615197.

  16. High-resolution Raman Spectroscopy for the Nanostructural Characterization of Explosive Nanodiamond Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Pichot, Vincent; Spitzer, Denis; Deckert, Volker

    2017-01-18

    The specific attributes of nanodiamonds have attracted increasing interest for electronics or biomedical applications. An efficient synthetic route towards nanodiamonds is via detonation of hexolite (i.e. a mixture of TNT [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene] and RDX [1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine]). In particular, detonation of hexolite crystallized by spray flash evaporation (SFE) yields extremely small diamonds (<4 nm). To unravel the detonation mechanism, a structural characterization of the explosives is required but is challenging due to their thermal instability. We demonstrate a combination of conventional Raman spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for resolving morphological and structural differences of differently prepared hexolite nanocomposites. The experiments allow for the first time a structural differentiation of individual TNT and RDX crystals and 15-20 nm sized core-shell structures, consequently providing a general approach to investigate the actual composition of mixtures on the nanometer scale. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. GAP pre-polymer, as an energetic binder and high performance additive for propellants and explosives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet S. Eroglu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of energetic composite formulations, functionally terminated pre-polymers have been used as binder. After physically mixing the pre-polymers with oxidizing components, metallic fuel, burning rate modifier and other minor ingredients, they are cured with a suitable curing agent to provide physical and chemical stability. These pre-polymers could be functionalized with carboxyl, epoxide or hydroxyl groups at varying average chain functionalities. For carboxyl-terminated pre-polymers, an epoxy functional curing agents could be used. If the pre-polymer possesses hydroxyl groups, isocyanate functional curing agents are the most suitable curing agents in terms of easy and efficient processing. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP is one of the well-known low-molecular weight energetic liquid pre-polymer, which was developed to use as energetic binder, high performance additive and gas generator for high performance smokeless composite propellant and explosive formulations. Linear or branched GAP can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of corresponding poly(epichlorohydrin (PECH with sodium azide through replacement of chloromethyl groups of PECH with pendant energetic azido-methyl groups on the polyether main chain. Positive heat of formation (+957 kJ/kg enables exothermic and rapid decomposition of GAP producing fuel rich gases. Its polyether main chain provides GAP with relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg= - 48 oC and presence of hydroxyl functional groups allows it to have easy processing in curing with isocyanate curing agents to form covalently crosslinked polyurethane structure. These outstanding properties of GAP enable it to be used as energetic polymeric binder and high performance additive in preparation of energetic materials and low vulnerable explosives.

  18. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  19. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  20. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  1. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  2. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    underground nuclear explosion event in a composite media with faults and complex ... faults, in situ stresses and tectonic strains, location of the free surface with respect .... at the elastic radius are the local geological formations, porosity, water con- ... the problem for a longer duration Sommerfeld (1949) radiation boundary ...

  3. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-03

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL`s current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL`s existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified a need to improve the management of wastewater resulting from high explosives (HE) research and development work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LANL's current methods off managing HE-contaminated wastewater cannot ensure that discharged HE wastewater would consistently meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE needs to enhance He wastewater management to e able to meet both present and future regulatory standards for wastewater discharge. The DOE also proposes to incorporate major pollution prevention and waste reduction features into LANL's existing HE production facilities. Currently, wastewater from HE processing buildings at four Technical Areas (TAs) accumulates in sumps where particulate HE settles out and barium is precipitated. Wastewater is then released from the sumps to the environment at 15 permitted outfalls without treatment. The released water may contain suspended and dissolved contaminants, such as HE and solvents. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes two alternatives, the Proposed Action and the Alternative Action, that would meet the purpose and need for agency action. Both alternatives would treat all HE process wastewater using sand filters to remove HE particulates and activated carbon to adsorb organic solvents and dissolved HE. Under either alternative, LANL would burn solvents and flash dried HE particulates and spent carbon following well-established procedures. Burning would produce secondary waste that would be stored, treated, and disposed of at TA-54, Area J. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings for the High Explosives Wastewater Treatment Facility

  5. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  6. Forensic analysis of high explosives residues in post-blast water samples employing solid phase extraction for analyte pro-concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalsom Ahmad; Rajendran, Sumathy; Ling, Lee Woan

    2008-01-01

    Nitro aromatic, nitramine and nitrate ester compounds are a major group of high order explosive or better known as military explosives. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are secondary high explosives classified as most commonly used explosives components. There is an increasing demand for pre-concentration of these compounds in water samples as the sensitivity achieved by instrumental analytical methods for these high explosives residues are the main drawback in the application at trace levels for forensic analysis. Hence, a simple cartridge solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was optimized as the off-line extraction and pre-concentration method to enhance the detection limit of high explosive residues using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) methods. The SPE cartridges utilized LiChrolut EN as the SPE adsorbent. By emplying pre-concentration using SPE, the detection limits of the target analytes in water sample were lowered by more than 1000 times with good percentage recovery (>87%) for MEKC method and lowered by 120 times with more than 2 % percentage recovery for GC-ECD methods. In order to test the feasibility of the developed method to real cases, post-blast water samples were analyzed. The post-blast water samples which were collected from Baling Bom training range, Ulu Kinta, Perak contained RDX and PETN in the range of 0.05 - 0.17 ppm and 0.0124 - 0.0390 ppm respectively. (author)

  7. Sensitivity analysis on mechanical stability of the underground excavations for an high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hwa; Kwon, Sang Ki; Choi, Jong Won; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-01-01

    For the safe design of an underground nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the major parameters on the tunnel stability. In this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out to find the major parameters on the mechanical stability point of view. Fourteen parameters consisted of 10 site parameters and 4 design parameters were included in the FLAC3D. From the numerical analyses employing single parameter variation, it was possible to determine important parameters. In order to investigate the interaction between the parameters, fractional factorial design for the parameters, such as in situ stress ratio, depth, tunnel dimensions, joint spacing, joint stiffness, friction angle, and rock strength, was carried out. And in order to investigate the interaction between design parameters, fractional factorial design for parameters, such as in situ stress, depth, tunnel size, tunnel spacing and borehole spacing, was carried out

  8. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  9. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  10. A review of international underground laboratory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianping; Yue Qian; Wu Shiyong; Shen Manbin

    2011-01-01

    Underground laboratories are essential for various important physics areas such as the search for dark matter, double beta decay, neutrino oscillation, and proton decay. At the same time, they are also a very important location for studying rock mechanics, earth structure evolution,and ecology. It is essential for a nation's basic research capability to construct and develop underground laboratories. In the past, China had no high-quality underground laboratory,in particular no deep underground laboratory,so her scientists could not work independently in major fields such as the search for dark matter,but had to collaborate with foreign scientists and share the space of foreign underground laboratories. In 2009, Tsinghua university collaborated with the Ertan Hydropower Development Company to construct an extremely deep underground laboratory, the first in China and currently the deepest in the world, in the Jinping traffic tunnel which was built to develop hydropower from the Yalong River in Sichuan province. This laboratory is named the China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) and formally opened on December 12, 2010. It is now a major independent platform in China and can host various leading basic research projects. We present a brief review of the development of various international underground laboratories,and especially describe CJPL in detail. (authors)

  11. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Blasting Impact by the Construction of an Underground Research Tunnel in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The underground research tunnel, which is under construction in KAERI for the validation of HLW disposal system, is excavated by drill and blasting method using high-explosives. In order not to disturb the operation at the research facilities such as HANARO reactor, it is critical to develop a blasting design , which will not influence on the facilities, even though several tens of explosives are detonated almost simultaneously. To develop a reasonable blasting design, a test blasting at the site should be performed. A preliminary analysis for predicting the expected vibration and noise by the blasting for the construction of the underground research tunnel was performed using a typical empirical equation. From the study, a blasting design could be developed not to influence on the major research facilities in KAERI. For the validation of the blasting design, a test blasting was carried out at the site and the parameters of vibration equation could be determined using the measured data during the test blasting. Using the equation, it was possible to predict the vibration at different locations at KAERI and to conclude that the blasting design would meet the design criteria at the major facilities in KAERI. The study would verify the applicability of blasting method for the construction of a research tunnel in a rock mass and that would help the design and construction of large scale underground research laboratory, which might be carried out in the future. It is also meaningful to accumulate technical experience for enhancing the reliability and effectiveness of the design and construction of the HLW disposal repository, which will be constructed in deep underground by drill and blasting technique

  13. Kaliski's explosive driven fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment performed by a group in Poland on the production of DD fusion neutrons by purely explosive means is discussed. A method for multiplying shock velocities ordinarily available from high explosives by a factor of ten is described, and its application to DD fusion experiments is discussed

  14. Textural evidence for high-grade ignimbrites formed by low-explosivity eruptions, Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Ana Carolina F.; Gravley, Darren M.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.

    2018-04-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Province is a Lower Cretaceous huge bimodal tholeiitic volcanic province (1 million·km3) that predated the Gondwana breakup. Its silicic portion makes up a total volume of at least 20,000 km3 and in southern Brazil it comprises the Chapecó porphyritic high-Ti trachydacites-dacites and the Palmas microporphyritic-aphyric low-Ti dacites-rhyolites. The widespread silicic sheets are debated in the literature because they bear similarities between lavas and high grade ignimbrites. Here we provide new observations and interpretations for flow units with large, dark, and vesicle-poor lens-shaped blobs surrounded by a light-colored matrix. The textural features (macro- to micro-scale) of these blobs are different from typical pumice and/or fiamme and support a low explosivity pyroclastic origin, possibly low-column fountain eruptions with discharge rates high enough to produce laterally extensive high-grade ignimbrites. Such an interpretation, combined with a conspicuous absence of lithic fragments in the deposits, is aligned with a lack of identified calderas in the Paraná-Etendeka Province. Maximum timescales of crystallization associated with the juvenile blobs and estimated from CSD slopes are on the order of millennia for phenocryst populations and on the order of decades for microphenocryst populations.

  15. Analysis of Nitro-aromatic and Nitramine Explosives by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization / High Performance Liquid Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry / Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.J.; Han, W.; Robben, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This procedure is capable of separating and quantifying twenty-nine high explosives and internal surrogates with a single injection. After the initial preparation step, the sample is introduced to the high performance liquid chromatograph for target separation, ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and the explosives of interest are isolated / quantified by mass spectrometry / mass spectrometry. Concentrations of the target explosives are measured relative to the response of both internal and external standard concentrations. A C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatograph column is used for separation. Ionization is performed using both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization resulting in a molecular ion with little fragmentation. These ions are isolated at the first quadrupole of the mass spectrometer, dissociated by collision with argon in the collision cell and the resulting daughter ions are isolated at the second quadrupole. These daughter ions then reach the detector where they are quantified. To date this procedure represents the most thorough high performance liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry / mass spectrometry explosives analysis available in the environmental chemistry market. (authors)

  16. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  17. Some ecological aspects of the using nucleus explosions in peace purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, A.K.; Krasnov, V.A.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of published data about radioactive contamination of environment after carried out underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes with reason to use the accumulated experience at liquidation consequences after accident on ChNPP.

  18. Solid phase microextraction sampling of high explosive residues in the presence of radionuclides and radionuclide surrogate metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Crump, S.L.; Ray, R.J.; Beals, D.; Cotham, W.E.; Mount, K.; Koons, R.D.; Leggitt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. (author)

  19. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  20. Explosive Pleuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions associated with pneumonia (parapneumonic effusions are one of the most common causes of exudative pleural effusions in the world. Approximately 20 to 40% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia will have an accompanying pleural effusion. The term 'Explosive pleuritis' was originally described by Braman and Donat in 1986 as pleural effusions developing within hours of admission. We report a 38 years old male patient with minimal pleural effusion which progressed rapidly within one day to involve almost whole of the hemithorax. There were multiple loculations on ultrasonography of thorax. Pleural fluid was sero-sanguinous and revealed gram positive diplococcic. The patient improved with antibiotics and pigtail catheter drainage.

  1. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  2. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  3. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.L.

    1969-01-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  4. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P L [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  5. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  6. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  7. High-precision (p,t) reactions to determine reaction rates of explosive stellar processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matić, Andrija

    2007-01-01

    The aim of my study was to investigate the nuclear structure of 22Mg and 26Si. These two nuclei play a significant role in stellar reaction processes at high temperatures. On base of the obtained nuclear structure we calculated the stellar reaction rates for the following reactions: 18Ne(α,p)21Na,

  8. Dynamics of an n = 1 explosive instability and its role in high-β disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, A. Y.; Park, B. H.; In, Y. K.

    2018-01-01

    Some low-n kink-ballooning modes not far from marginal stability are shown to exhibit a bifurcation between two very distinct nonlinear paths that depends sensitively on the background transport levels and linear perturbation amplitudes. The particular instability studied in this work is an n=1 mode dominated by an m/n=2/1 component. It is driven by a large pressure gradient in weak magnetic shear and can appear in various high- \

  9. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  10. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  11. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  12. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  13. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H

    1986-01-01

    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application. Images PMID:3754458

  14. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H

    1986-05-01

    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application.

  15. The Physical Basis of Lg Generation by Explosion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Stevens; G. E. Baker; H. Xu; T. J. Bennett; N. Rimer; S. D. Day

    2004-12-20

    The goal of this project has been to develop a quantitative predictive capability for explosion-generated Lg phases with a sound and unambiguous physical basis. The research program consisted of a theoretical investigation of explosion-generated Lg combined with an observational study. The specific question addressed by this research program is how the Lg phase is generated by underground nuclear explosions. This question is fundamental to how Lg phases are interpreted for use in explosion yield estimation and earthquake/explosion discrimination. To constrain modeling, we have extensively reviewed the existing literature and complemented that work with an examination of several explosion data sets, most notably: (1) Degelen Mountain explosions recorded between 7 and 57 km, with corresponding recordings at Borovoye, at approximately 650 km; (2) recordings from Russian deep seismic sounding experiments; (3) NTS explosion sources including the NPE and nuclear tests covering a range of source depths and media properties. A simple point explosion in an infinite medium generates no shear waves, so the Lg phase is generated entirely by non-spherical components of the source and conversions through reflections and scattering. We find that the most important contributors to the Lg phase are: (1) P to S conversion at the free surface and other near source interfaces, (2) S waves generated directly by a realistically distributed explosion source including nonlinear effects due to the free surface and gravity, and (3) Rg scattering to Lg. Additional effects that contribute significantly to Lg are scattering of converted S phases that traps more of the converted P-to-S in the crust, and randomization of the components of Lg. The pS phase from a spherically symmetric explosion source in media with P-wave velocity less than upper mantle S-wave velocity is trapped in the crust and can explain the observed radial and vertical Lg. The free surface pS converted phase from the same

  16. Prevention and protection against propagation of explosionsin underground coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Пейч

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, the coal mining industry experienced a large number of explosions leading to a considerable loss of life. The objective of this study is preventing the propagation of methane and/or coal dust explosions through the use of passive water barriers and its implementation to the Spanish coal mining industry. Physical and chemical properties, flammability and explosibility parameters of typical Spanish coals are presented. In this paper,   a flexible approach to meet the requirements of the EN-14591-2:2007 standard is presented for the very specific local conditions, characterized by small cross-sections galleries, vertical seem, use of explosives, etc. Authors have proven the viability of standard requirements to the typical roadway from Spanish underground mines, considering realistic roadway lengths as well as available cross-sections taking into account ubiquitous obstacles such as: locomotives, conveyor belt, ventilation ducts, etc.

  17. Explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-04-01

    An explosive composition containing ammonium nitrate consists of (1) from 40 to 75 Pt. by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, (2) from 20 to 35 Pt. by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate; and (3) at least 2 Pt. by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, anhydrous calcium sulfate, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in setting the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  18. Explosive composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slykhouse, T E

    1968-05-09

    An ammonium nitrate explosive composition is characterized in that it contains from 40 to 75 parts by wt of particulate ammonium nitrate, from 20 to 35 parts by wt of a solution selected from the group consisting of aqueous magnesium nitrate, aqueous ammonium nitrate, and aqueous ammoniacal ammonium nitrate. It also contains at least 2 parts by wt of a setting agent selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal oxides, zinc oxide, lead monoxide, calcined dolomitic limestone, substantially anhydrous calcium sulfate, substantially anhydrous magnesium sulfate, substantially anhydrous sodium tetrapyrophosphate and substantially anhydrous sodium thiosulfate. The setting agent is further characterized in that it sets the composition to a solid material which contains solvent used in the liquid phase. (12 claims)

  19. Slurry explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-08-23

    A slurry explosive is comprised of (1) a composition consisting of ammonium nitrate or a mixture of ammonium nitrate and an alkali metal nitrate; or an alkaline earth metal nitrate; or an alkali metal nitrate and an alkaline earth metal nitrate; at least one member selected from the group consisting of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, aluminum, smokeless powder and fuels; and water; (2) 0.1 to 2.0% of guar gum; (3) between 0% and 0.3% of a sodium, potassium, calcium or magnesium borate; and greater than 0% but not more than 20% of hexamethylene tetramine; and (4) 0.02 to 2.0% of antimony potassium tartarate, antimony trioxide, antimony trisulfide or a mixture of these antimony compounds, % by wt.

  20. Methane Explosion Mitigation in Coal Mines by Water Mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Mikheil; Krauthammer, Ted; Mansurov, Zulkhair; Alyiev, Erhan

    2017-12-01

    Statistics shows that the majority of accidents with fatal outcome are caused by methane and/or coal dust explosion. This leads to assume that contemporary counter-explosion systems of various designs cannot be considered effective. Considering the growing threat of methane explosion in the coming years along with the development of deeper levels, the improvement of a system for protecting people in underground opening appears urgent. This paper focuses on technical solutions to be used in designing a protective system for minimizing the consequences of methane explosions in coalmines. The new protective system consists of three main modules: i) a high-speed shock wave suppression section; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action and iii) a system activating device. The shock wave suppressor contains a 200 litre volume water tank with a built-in gas generator and nozzles. It is activated after 12ms from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 40 s. The suppression section with a long-term action contains a 2000 litre volume water tank, a high-pressure pump, a hydraulic accumulator, solenoid valves, and a system of pipes with built-in nozzles. It is activated after 4 s from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 8 min. The activation device includes a detection block containing sensors, an emergency signal generation module, a signal transmission module, a signal receiving module and a power supply module. The system operates in a waiting mode and activates immediately upon the receipt of the start signal generated by the detector. The paper also addresses the preliminary results of the system prototype testing in the tunnel.

  1. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 3; Trench 5 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed Final Status Survey (FSS) of the concrete duct from Trench 5 from Building 801 to the Stack. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goal of (le)15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years has been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to FSS, were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decommissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task for the HFBR Underground Utilities. ORISE, together with DOE, determined that a Type A verification of Trench 5 was appropriate based on recent verification results from Trenches 2, 3, and 4, and the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities is being performed in three stages to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 3 of this project included the removal of at least 200 feet of 36-inch to 42-inch pipe from the west side to the south side of Building 801, and the 14-inch diameter Acid Waste Line that spanned from 801 to the Stack within Trench 5. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the BNL FSP and identified comments for consideration (ORISE 2010). BNL prepared a revised FSP that resolved each ORISE comment adequately (BNL 2010a). ORISE referred to the revised HFBR Underground Utilities FSP FSS data to conduct the Type A verification

  2. An underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1988-05-17

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast- acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor. 5 figs.

  3. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor for generating electricity is disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working flud in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor.

  4. Underground nuclear power station using self-regulating heat-pipe controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a nuclear reactor for generating electricity disposed underground at the bottom of a vertical hole that can be drilled using conventional drilling technology. The primary coolant of the reactor core is the working fluid in a plurality of thermodynamically coupled heat pipes emplaced in the hole between the heat source at the bottom of the hole and heat exchange means near the surface of the earth. Additionally, the primary coolant (consisting of the working fluid in the heat pipes in the reactor core) moderates neutrons and regulates their reactivity, thus keeping the power of the reactor substantially constant. At the end of its useful life, the reactor core may be abandoned in place. Isolation from the atmosphere in case of accident or for abandonment is provided by the operation of explosive closures and mechanical valves emplaced along the hole. This invention combines technology developed and tested for small, highly efficient, space-based nuclear electric power plants with the technology of fast-acting closure mechanisms developed and used for underground testing of nuclear weapons. This invention provides a nuclear power installation which is safe from the worst conceivable reactor accident, namely, the explosion of a nuclear weapon near the ground surface of a nuclear power reactor

  5. Steam explosion pretreatment of softwood: the effect of the explosive decompression on enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielhop, Thomas; Amgarten, Janick; von Rohr, Philipp Rudolf; Studer, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Steam explosion pretreatment has been examined in many studies for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and is currently the most common pretreatment method in commercial biorefineries. The information available about the effect of the explosive decompression on the biochemical conversion is, however, very limited, and no studies prove that the latter is actually enhanced by the explosion. Hence, it is of great value to discern between the effect of the explosion on the one hand and the steaming on the other hand, to identify their particular influences on enzymatic digestibility. The effect of the explosive decompression in the steam explosion pretreatment of spruce wood chips on their enzymatic cellulose digestibility was studied systematically. The explosion had a high influence on digestibility, improving it by up to 90 % compared to a steam pretreatment without explosion. Two factors were identified to be essentially responsible for the effect of the explosion on enzymatic digestibility: pretreatment severity and pressure difference of the explosion. A higher pretreatment severity can soften up and weaken the lignocellulose structure more, so that the explosion can better break up the biomass and decrease its particle size, which enhances its digestibility. In particular, increasing the pressure difference of the explosion leads to more defibration, a smaller particle size and a better digestibility. Though differences were found in the micro- and nanostructure of exploded and non-exploded biomass, the only influence of the explosion on digestibility was found to be the macroscopic particle size reduction. Steam explosion treatments with a high severity and a high pressure difference of the explosion lead to a comparatively high cellulose digestibility of the-typically very recalcitrant-softwood biomass. This is the first study to show that explosion can enhance the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. If the

  6. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting.... Explosive conitrates. Explosive gelatins. Explosive liquids. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing... powder. [[Page 64247

  7. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  8. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  9. Do peaceful nuclear explosions have a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The idea of peaceful uses for nuclear explosive devices arose almost simultaneously with the concept of the nuclear explosion itself. It has been a powerful idea in that it soon generated major study efforts in the United States and the USSR and also captured the interest of many developing nations. But in spite of this considerable interest and much expenditure of funds and effort, the expectation that economically viable uses will be found for peaceful nuclear explosions looks even more distant now that when the first studies were initiated. This, at least, is the conclusion of two recent U.S. studies of the economic feasibility and time scale for application of peaceful nuclear explosions by the United States. The larger of these two studies was prepared by the Gulf Universities Research Consortium, and dealt particularly with possibilities for use in the United States by 1990 of contained, i.e., underground, peaceful nuclear explosions. This paper provides briefer analysis by an ad hoc panel assesses the implications of the Gulf report, considers other uses for peaceful nuclear explosions, and summarizes the reasons why there is only a small possibility that there will be significant use of them by the United States before the year 2000

  10. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  11. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D B [ed.; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  12. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  13. Phenomenological modelling of steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.; Drumheller, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    During a hypothetical core meltdown accident, an important safety issue to be addressed is the potential for steam explosions. This paper presents analysis and modelling of experimental results. There are four observations that can be drawn from the analysis: (1) vapor explosions are suppressed by noncondensible gases generated by fuel oxidation, by high ambient pressure, and by high water temperatures; (2) these effects appear to be trigger-related in that an explosion can again be induced in some cases by increasing the trigger magnitude; (3) direct fuel liquid-coolant liquid contact can explain small scale fuel fragmentation; (4) heat transfer during the expansion phase of the explosion can reduce the work potential

  14. Radioactive and Other Effects of Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of long lasting efforts of international community to definitely ban all test nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 states, including Croatia. The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) which, as an independent state regulatory authority has a responsibility for activities relating to nuclear safety, including the national authority over this Treaty, is actively engaged in CTBTO activities. The nuclear explosion causes a lot of effects (blast, thermal, radioactive, electromagnetic) which differs a lot in its nature, reach, lasting and other. The longest lasting aftermath is from the radioactive effects that cause a radioactive fallout and a lot of radioactive elements in the environment, created by the influence of a primary beam of radiation. Fission and fusion are the main source of radionuclide created by the nuclear explosion, and the longest lasting aftermaths are by the fission products, namely their offspring in natural disintegration chains. This can make contaminated areas inappropriate for life for very long periods. Even in the case of underground nuclear explosion (when underground cavity is formed with no effects on the surface), a leakage of radioactive gases through cracks is possible. A number of radionuclide is created by the neutron activation of elements naturally present in an environment, because a very strong neutron radiation appears in the moment of nuclear explosion. The abundance of particular radionuclide is a very much dependent of a place of performing nuclear explosion and a composition of soil or water in the vicinity.(author)

  15. A Damage Mechanics Source Model for Underground Nuclear Explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    California Institute of Technology Reston, VA 22091 Pasadena, CA 91125 Mr. William J. Best Prof. F. A. Dahlen 907 Westwood Drive Geological and Geophysical...ENSCO, Inc. Department of Geological Sciences 445 Pineda Court . , -7’- 9 Meibcurr..e, F 3940 6 William Kikendall Prof. Amos Nur Teledyne Geotech...Teledyne Geotech Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 3a¢,l Shiloh Road L-205 Garland, TX 75041 P. 0. Box 808 Livermore, CA 94550 Dr. Matthew Sibol

  16. Modeling Regional Seismic Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-15

    source outside the basin, small solid box beneath Ama. Little waveform distortion is observed along the path towsrds Pasadena (upper four trames) while...effects not accounted for in the wed and analytical solutions were derived for soluble interpretations given (Nuttli 1973, 1978, 1981; Herman & special...in a trnition region of COUPLING lengh L. The hybrid method used in the present study allows the the layering. Several types of solutions for models

  17. Caging the Dragon: The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    question has always been a bugaboo for DNA; you’ve got all these variations on the core measurements, but everyone wants to treat the material as...in new cables and do it right." Or you can try to save your investment , which is what we did. Carothers: You obviously wanted to reuse the tunnels

  18. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  19. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  20. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  1. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  2. Simulating intracrater ash recycling during mid-intensity explosive activity: high temperature laboratory experiments on natural basaltic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Pompilio, Massimo; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pichavant, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of mid-intensity eruptions, in which a huge amount of ash is generated, indicate that ash recycling is quite common. The recognition of juvenile vs. recycled fragments is not straightforward, and no unequivocal, widely accepted criteria exist to support this. The presence of recycled glassy fragments can hide primary magmatic information, introducing bias in the interpretations of the ongoing magmatic and volcanic activity. High temperature experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure on natural samples to investigate the effects of reheating on morphology, texture and composition of volcanic ash. Experiments simulate the transformation of juvenile glassy fragments that, falling into the crater or in the upper part of the conduit, are recycled by following explosions. Textural and compositional modifications obtained in laboratory are compared with similar features observed in natural samples in order to identify some main general criteria to be used for the discrimination of recycled material. Experiments were carried out on tephra produced during Strombolian activity, fire fountains and continuous ash emission at Etna, Stromboli and Vesuvius. Coarse glassy clasts were crushed in a nylon mortar in order to create an artificial ash, and then sieved to select the size interval of 1-0.71 mm. Ash shards were put in a sealed or open quartz tube, in order to prevent or to reproduce effects of air oxidation. The tube was suspended in a HT furnace at INGV-Pisa and kept at different temperatures (up to to 1110°C) for increasing time (0.5-12 hours). Preliminary experiments were also performed under gas flux conditions. Optical and electron microscope observations indicate that high temperature and exposure to the air induce large modifications on clast surface, ranging from change in color, to incipient plastic deformation till complete sintering. Significant change in color of clasts is strictly related to the presence of air, irrespective of

  3. Performance calculations on the ANFO explosive RX-HD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P.C.; Larson, D.B.; Tarver, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents the calculation methods utilized in asessing the detonation performance of the ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) utilized in the non-proliferation experiment (NPE) underground explosion at te Nevada Test Site. The composition of the ANFO is discussed.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) When blasting slab rounds off the solid, opener holes shall not be drilled beyond the rib line... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for...; and (2) Shots fired in anthracite mines for battery starting or for blasting coal overhangs. No person...

  5. Degassing vs. eruptive styles at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): Volatile stocking, gas fluxing, and the shift from low-energy to highly-explosive basaltic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Roberto; Métrich, Nicole; Di Renzo, Valeria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; Arienzo, Ilenia

    2017-04-01

    Basaltic magmas can transport and release large amounts of volatiles into the atmosphere, especially in subduction zones, where slab-derived fluids enrich the mantle wedge. Depending on magma volatile content, basaltic volcanoes thus display a wide spectrum of eruptive styles, from common Strombolian-type activity to Plinian events. Mt. Etna in Sicily, is a typical basaltic volcano where the volatile control on such a variable activity can be investigated. Based on a melt inclusion study in products from Strombolian or lava-fountain activity to Plinian eruptions, here we show that for the same initial volatile content, different eruptive styles reflect variable degassing paths throughout the composite Etnean plumbing system. The combined influence of i) crystallization, ii) deep degassing and iii) CO2 gas fluxing can explain the evolution of H2O, CO2, S and Cl in products from such a spectrum of activity. Deep crystallization produces the CO2-rich gas fluxing the upward magma portions, which will become buoyant and easily mobilized in small gas-rich batches stored within the plumbing system. When reaching gas dominated conditions (i.e., a gas/melt mass ratio of 0.3 and CO2,gas/H2Ogas molar ratio 5 ), these will erupt effusively or mildly explosively, whilst in case of the 122 BC Plinian eruption, open-system degassing conditions took place within the plumbing system, such that continuous CO2-fluxing determined gas accumulation on top of the magmatic system. The emission of such a cap in the early eruptive phase triggered the arrival of deep H2O-rich whose fast decompression and bubble nucleation lead to the highly explosive character, enhanced by abundant microlite crystallization and consequent increase of magma effective viscosity. This could explain why open system basaltic systems like Etna may experience highly explosive or even Plinian episodes during eruptions that start with effusive to mildly explosive phases. The proposed mechanism also determines a

  6. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  7. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  8. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  9. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  10. Current trends in development of explosives in world mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobnikar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys development of manufacturing industrial explosives in the 19th and 20th centuries, from first use of black powder, ammonium nitrate and TNT to the use of ANFO, slurries and water gel type explosives. Achievements of explosive producers with worldwide reputation (Ireco Chemicals, Du Pont, Atlas Powder Chemical, Nitro Nobel, Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Thermex Energy Co.) for manufacturing safe, reliable explosives used in surface and underground coal and ore mining (including gassy coal mines) and for quarrying are mentioned. Main characteristics of IREMITE, IREGEL, TOVEX, POURVEX, DRIVEX, Detagel, ANFO (both gel- and emulsion-type), Emulgite and Emulite are presented. A critical opinion about future trends in industrial explosive development is given. 10 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose is to identify the critical conditions that cause malfunctioning for some commonly used explosives. Experiments are described that measure sympathetic detonation, desensitization, and cut-offs for two variables: spacing and delay. Explosive malfunctioning is depicted on a delay spacing chart that has different regions. On the chart, the shape and size of each region can vary from one explosive to another. Results are presented from over 70 blasts, that were conducted in the underground drift at the CANMET Experimental Mine, to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water gel, and dynamite explosives. For each experiment, two parallel blastholes (with diameter of 32 mm and depth of 1.7 m) were drilled downwards, and full coupling was achieved. The results are presented for the three types of explosives tested. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Exploitation study of the ore-body ''Tigre III''. Open-cut design and study of high-recovery underground mining method for the Tigre III ore-body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluszka, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first carries out an analysis for the purpose of determining the limiting sterile/ore ratio for open-cut and underground mining in the specific filling case of Tigre III. In this connection it considers a high-recovery method of underground mining (involving the use of cemented hydropneumatic chambers), a general mine plan covering access, transport, ventilation and removal of ore as well as auxiliary services relating to the Tigre III ore body as a whole. The costs of this method of mining are determined for purposes of comparison with the open-cut method. Similarly, the limiting sterile/ore ratio is taken as the basis for an analysis of different types of pit and a design suited to the limiting ratio is adopted. As a final solution the paper favours a method which combines open-cut and underground mining. It proposes the use of the open-cut method up to the limiting ratio (in accordance with the pit design chosen) and of underground method (by the filling chamber method) for the rest of the area. (author)

  13. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  14. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  15. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  16. Sunset Crater, AZ: Evolution of a highly explosive basaltic eruption as indicated by granulometry and clast componentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, C. M.; Clarke, A. B.; Pioli, L.; Alfano, F.

    2011-12-01

    Basaltic scoria cone volcanoes are the most abundant volcanic edifice on Earth and occur in all tectonic settings. Basaltic magmas have lower viscosities, higher temperatures, and lower volatile contents than silicic magmas, and therefore generally have a lower potential for explosive activity. However, basaltic eruptions display great variability in eruptive style, from mild lava flows to more energetic explosions with large plumes. The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona, active from 6 Ma-present, consists of over 600 volcanoes, mostly alkali basalt scoria cones, and five silicic centers [Wood and Kienle (1990), Cambridge University Press]. The eruption of Sunset Crater in the SFVF during the Holocene was an anomalously large basaltic explosive eruption, consisting of eight tephra-bearing phases and three lava flows [Amos (1986), MS thesis, ASU]. Typical scoria cone-forming eruptions have volumes sorted. Future work will include textural analysis of bubbles and crystals to understand the ascent and cooling history of the different clast types, and also to better interpret differences in abundance as related to variations in eruption or vent dynamics.

  17. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  18. Explosive Leidenfrost droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Pierre; Moreau, Florian; Dorbolo, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    We show that Leidenfrost droplets made of an aqueous solution of surfactant undergo a violent explosion in a wide range of initial volumes and concentrations. This unexpected behavior turns out to be triggered by the formation of a gel-like shell, followed by a sharp temperature increase. Comparing a simple model of the radial surfactant distribution inside a spherical droplet with experiments allows highlighting the existence of a critical surface concentration for the shell to form. The temperature rise (attributed to boiling point elevation with surface concentration) is a key feature leading to the explosion, instead of the implosion (buckling) scenario reported by other authors. Indeed, under some conditions, this temperature increase is shown to be sufficient to trigger nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the highly superheated liquid bulk, stretching the surrounding elastic shell up to its rupture limit. The successive timescales characterizing this explosion sequence are also discussed. Funding sources: F.R.S. - FNRS (ODILE and DITRASOL projects, RD and SRA positions of P. Colinet and S. Dorbolo), BELSPO (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST project).

  19. Wave Pattern Peculiarities of Different Types of Explosions Conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    The historical seismograms of the explosions conducted at the STS in 1949 - 1989 are of great interest for the researchers in the field of monitoring. Large number of air (86), surface (30) and underground nuclear explosions were conducted here in boreholes and tunnels (340). In addition to nuclear explosions, large chemical explosions were conducted at the Test Site. It is known that tectonic earthquakes occur on the Test Site territory and near it. Since 2005 the Institute of Geophysical Researches conducts works on digitizing the historical seismograms of nuclear explosions. Currently, the database contains more than 6000 digitized seismograms of nuclear explosions used for investigative monitoring tasks, major part of them (4000) are events from the STS region. Dynamic parameters of records of air, surface and underground nuclear explosions, as well as large chemical explosions with compact charge laying were investigated for seismic stations located on the territory of Kazakhstan using digitized records of the STS events. In addition, the comparison between salvo wave pattern and single explosions was conducted. The records of permanent and temporary seismic stations (epicentral distances range 100 - 800 km) were used for the investigations. Explosions spectra were analyzed, specific features of each class of events were found. The seismograms analysis shows that the wave pattern depends significantly on the explosion site and on the source type.

  20. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  1. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  2. Search for underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 in the Frejus detector. Cygnus X-3 at high energies: to be or not to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardin, G.

    1987-04-01

    The 900 ton Frejus calorimetric detector is described; it comprises one million detection flash and Geiger tubes. The Cygnus X-3 system is described at low energy, and particularly in the X-ray and radio range where its observation is well established. The analysis realized with the data accumulated by the Frejus detector is presented in order to search for muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3. This negative result is compared to that of the other underground experiments. This result is shown to be clearly in contradiction with the observation reported by the NUSEX experiment, in similar experimental conditions. The widely accepted observations from Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reevaluated in a critical review. It is shown that, in all energy ranges above 1 MeV, the observations cannot be considered as convincing. Concerning the satellite based experiments, the positive result reported by the SAS-2 group can be made compatible with the negative result by the COS-B experiment if the gamma-ray background in the vicinity of Cygnus X-3 is reinterpreted. In the domain of atmospheric Cerenkov experiments, it is shown that none of the observations is convincing and that the agreement between these experiments is only superficial. Air shower experiments appear to present important contradictions. It has been proposed that the emission of Cygnus X-3 could be decreasing with a characteristic time of a few years; a more convincing interpretation is proposed. The fact that the source escapes a totally convincing detection with such a regularity is shown to be highly improbable. Finally, the characteristics of experiments which would allow an inambiguous detection of Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reviewed [fr

  3. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  4. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Arthur M [United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished.

  5. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpenau, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Underground Utilities removal Phase 3; Trench 1 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Survey Group (BSG) has completed removal and performed Final Status Survey (FSS) of the 42-inch duct and 14-inch line in Trench 1 from Building 801 to the Stack. Sample results have been submitted as required to demonstrate that the cleanup goal of (le)15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years has been met. Four rounds of sampling, from pre-excavation to FSS, were performed as specified in the Field Sampling Plan (FSP) (BNL 2010a). It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform independent verifications of decontamination and decommissioning activities conducted at DOE facilities. ORISE has been designated as the organization responsible for this task for the HFBR Underground Utilities. ORISE, together with DOE, determined that a Type A verification of Trench 1 was appropriate based on recent verification results from Trenches 2, 3, 4, and 5, and the minimal potential for residual radioactivity in the area. The removal of underground utilities has been performed in three stages to decommission the HFBR facility and support structures. Phase 3 of this project included the removal of at least 200 feet of 36-inch to 42-inch duct from the west side to the south side of Building 801, and the 14-inch diameter Acid Waste Line that spanned from 801 to the Stack within Trench 1. Based on the pre-excavation sample results of the soil overburden, the potential for contamination of the soil surrounding the pipe is minimal (BNL 2010a). ORISE reviewed the gamma spectroscopy results for 14 FSS soil samples, four core samples, and one duplicate sample collected from Trench 1. Sample results for the radionuclides of concern were below the established cleanup goals. However, in sample PH-3

  6. Use of nuclear explosions to create gas condensate storage in the USSR. LLL Treaty Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Soviet Union has described industrial use of nuclear explosions to produce underground hydrocarbon storage. To examples are in the giant Orenburg gas condensate field. There is good reason to believe that three additional cavities were created in bedded salt in the yet to be fully developed giant Astrakhan gas condensate field in the region of the lower Volga. Although contrary to usual western practice, the cavities are believed to be used to store H 2 S-rich, unstable gas condensate prior to processing in the main gas plants located tens of kilometers from the producing fields. Detonations at Orenburg and Astrakhan preceded plant construction. The use of nuclear explosions at several sites to create underground storage of highly corrosive liquid hydrocarbons suggests that the Soviets consider this time and cost effective. The possible benefits from such a plan include degasification and stabilization of the condensate before final processing, providing storage of condensate during periods of abnormally high natural gas production or during periods when condensate but not gas processing facilities are undergoing maintenance. Judging from information provided by Soviet specialists, the individual cavities have a maximum capacity on the order of 50,000 m 3

  7. A study of small explosions and earthquakes during 1961--1989 near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalturin, V.I.; Rautian, T.G.; Richards, P.G.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1994-03-01

    Several Russian sources have stated that 343 underground nuclear explosions were conducted during 1961--1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. However, only 282 of them appear to have been described, in the openly available technical literature, with well-determined coordinates; and only 272 have both good locations and magnitudes. The authors have used regional data from 52 stations to study 65 seismic sources initially thought to be in or near the Semipalatinsk region, additional to the 272 underground nuclear explosions with known locations and magnitudes. Of these 65 events, the authors believe 8 are not explosions on the test site, namely: two earthquakes close to the test site; three earthquakes or chemical explosions 100--300 km from the test site; and three events at greater distances from Semipalatinsk. Of the remaining 57 events: 10 were known to be underground nuclear explosions with known locations and the authors have supplied magnitudes where none were previously available; one was a chemical explosion at Degelen; they believe 21 were underground nuclear explosions; 13 were chemical explosions at Balapan; 8 were chemical explosions elsewhere on the test site; three were either nuclear or chemical explosions; and one was either a chemical explosion or a cavity collapse. The largest magnitude of their 44 possible underground nuclear explosions is around 5 (February 4, 1965, obscured at many teleseismic stations by a large Aleutian earthquake). Others lie in the magnitude range 3.5--4.5, and clearly most have sub kiloton yields. Their data set of small events is important for purposes of evaluating the detection capability of teleseismic arrays, and the detection and identification capability of regional stations

  8. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  11. The underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This educational booklet is a general presentation of the selected sites for the installation of underground research laboratories devoted to the feasibility studies of deep repositories for long-life radioactive wastes. It describes the different type of wastes and their management, the management of long life radioactive wastes, the site selection and the 4 sites retained, the preliminary research studies, and the other researches carried out in deep disposal facilities worldwide. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  13. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  14. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G; Roudot, M; Genetier, M; Mateille, P; Lefrançois, A

    2014-01-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  15. Shock-to-detonation transition of RDX, HMX and NTO based composite high explosives: experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, G.; Roudot, M.; Genetier, M.; Mateille, P.; Lefrançois, A.

    2014-05-01

    HMX, RDX and NTO based cast-cured plastic bounded explosive (PBX) are widely used in insensitive ammunitions. Designing modern warheads needs robust and reliable models to compute shock ignition and detonation propagation inside PBX. Comparing to a pressed PBX, a cast-cured PBX is not porous and the hot-spots are mainly located at the grain-binder interface leading to a different burning behavior during shock-to-detonation transition. Here, we review the shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) and its modeling for cast-cured PBX containing HMX, RDX and NTO. Future direction is given in conclusion.

  16. Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.

    1981-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release

  17. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  18. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  19. Research and Development of a portable microfocus x-ray system capable of providing ultra-high resolutions images of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkala, G.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray screening has long been a recognized valuable tool as a means to evaluate and identify suspect articles for possible improvised explosive devices. Recent bombings indicate an increase in technical sophistication by the terrorist which demand additional means to further the possibility of detecting these devices before they reach their target or detonate. This paper discusses history of the use of x-ray and the design parameters of a portable micro-focus x-ray system capable of providing ultra high resolution radiographs as well as being able to be used with additional state-of-the-art imaging systems

  20. Thermodynamic properties of fluid mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures. Application to high explosives and to phase diagrams of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittion-Rossillon, Gerard

    1982-01-01

    The free energy for mixtures of about ten species which are chemically reacting is calculated. In order to have accurate results near the freezing line, excess properties are deduced from a modern statistical mechanics theory. Intermolecular potentials for like molecules are fitted to give good agreement with shock experiments in pure liquid samples, and mixture properties come naturally from the theory. The stationary Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave is calculated with a chemical equilibrium computer code and results are in good agreement with experiment for a lot of various explosives. One then study gas-gas equilibria in a binary mixture and show the extreme sensitivity of theoretical phase diagrams to the hypothesis of the model (author) [fr