WorldWideScience

Sample records for underground disposal facility

  1. Deep underground disposal facility and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, V.

    1997-01-01

    Factors arousing public anxiety in relation to the deep burial of radioactive wastes are highlighted based on Czech and foreign analyses, and guidelines are presented to minimize public opposition when planning a geologic disposal site in the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  2. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  3. A design concept of underground facilities for the deep geologic disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants can be disposed in the underground repository. In this paper, a concept of Korean Reference HLW disposal System (KRS-1) design is presented. Though no site for the underground repository has been specified in Korea, but a generic site with granitic rock is considered for reference spent fuel repository design. To implement the concept, design requirements such as spent fuel characteristics and capacity of the repository and design principles were established. Then, based on these requirements and principles, a concept of the disposal process, the facilities and the layout of the repository was developed

  4. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  5. Current status of the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the underground cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and for certain transuranic (TRU) waste, mainly from spent fuel reprocessing, are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50-100 m underground and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) made of bentonite and cement materials. To advance a disposal feasibility study, the Japanese government commissioned the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities in fiscal year (FY) 2005. Construction of a full-scale mock-up test facility in an actual subsurface environment started in FY 2007. The main test objective is to establish the construction methodology and procedures that ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. A portion of the facility was constructed by 2010, and the test has demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of quality standards: low permeability of less than 5x10 -13 m/s and low-diffusion of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the completion of construction. This paper covers the test results from the construction of certain parts using bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  6. KAERI Underground Research Facility (KURF) for the Demonstration of HLW Disposal Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, P. S.; Cho, W. J.; Kwon, S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this paper, the current status of the conceptual design and the construction of a small scale URL, which is named as KURF, were described. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design of the underground facility, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, an electronic resistivity survey, a borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests had been carried out. Based on the site characterization results, it was possible to effectively design the KURF. The construction of the KURF was started in May 2005 and the access tunnel was successfully completed in March 2006. Now the construction of the research modules is under way

  7. Radioactive waste storage facility and underground disposal method for radioactive wastes using the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A sealed container storage chamber is formed in underground rocks. A container storage pool is formed on the inner bottom of the sealed vessel storage chamber. A heat exchanger for cooling water and a recycling pump are disposed on an operation floor of the sealed vessel storage chamber. Radioactive wastes sealed vessels in which radioactive wastes are sealed are transferred from the ground to the sealed vessel storage chamber through a sealed vessel transferring shaft, and immersed in cooling water stored in the vessel storage pool. When after heat of the radioactive wastes is removed by the cooling water, the cooling water in the vessel storage pool is sucked up to the ground surface. After dismantling equipments, bentonite-type fillers are filled in the inside of the sealed vessel storage chamber, sealed vessel transferring shaft, air supplying shaft and air exhaustion shaft, and the radioactive waste-sealed vessels can be subjected stably to into underground disposal. (I.N.)

  8. Demonstration test of underground cavern-type disposal facilities, fiscal 2010 status - 59180

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    A test to demonstrate practical construction technology for underground cavern-type disposal facilities is currently underway. Cavern-type disposal facilities are a radioactive waste repository excavated to a depth of 50 to 100 m below ground and constructed with an engineered barrier system (EBS) that is a combination of low-permeable bentonite material and low-diffusive cementitious material. The disposed materials are low-level radioactive waste with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and certain transuranic wastes that are mainly generated from spent fuel reprocessing. The project started in fiscal 2005*, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up of a disposal facility has been constructed in an actual sub-surface environment. The main objective of the demonstration test is to establish construction procedures and methods which ensure the required quality of an EBS on-site. Certain component parts of the facility had been constructed in an underground cavern by fiscal 2010, and tests so far have demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of the required quality. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of certain EBS components. The following results were obtained from the construction test of EBS in the test cavern: 1) The dry density of bentonite buffer at the lower layer constructed by vibratory compaction shows that 95% of core samples have densities within the target range. 2) The specified mix for the low-diffusion layer has uniform density and crack-control properties, and meets the requirements for diffusion performance. 3) The specified mix of the concrete pit has sufficient passing ability through congested reinforcement and meets the requirements of strength performance. 4) The dry density of the bentonite buffer at the lateral layer constructed by the spraying method shows that 65% of the core samples are within the

  9. Study of the retrievability of radioactive waste from a deep underground disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gaag, J. van der; Kleyn, P.H. van der; Prij, J.

    1993-11-01

    In the reporting period the main activities have been the detailed set-up of a planning for the underground facilities. This planning has been produced in such a manner that modification in the underground facilities can easily be incorporated. The basic planning has been set up as a series of computer spread sheets which break down the construction of the mine into elementary cost- and activity centres. The principles, assumptions and models which underlay these planning are given, and a selection and evaluation of the retrieval method has been performed. (orig.)

  10. Geological aspects of a deep underground disposal facility in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopovy, J.; Woller, F.

    1997-01-01

    The basic requirements for the geological situation at a deep underground radioactive waste disposal site are highlighted, a survey of candidate host sites worldwide is presented, and the situation in the Czech Republic is analyzed. A 'General Project of Geological Activities Related to the Development of a Deep Underground Disposal Site for Radioactive Wastes and Spent Fuel in the Czech Republic' has been developed by the Nuclear Research Institute and approved and financed by the authorities. The Project encompasses the following stages: (i) preliminary study and research; (ii) examination of the seismicity, neotectonics, and geodynamics; (iii) search and critical assessment of archived geological information; (iv) non-destructive survey; and (v) destructive survey. The Project should take about 30 years and its scope will be updated from time to time. (P.A.)

  11. Operational safety assessment of underground test facilities for mined geologic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the operational safety assessment for the underground facilities for the exploratory studies facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Project. The systematic identification and evaluation of hazards related to the ESF is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach based on the analysis of potential accidents was used since radiological safety analysis was not required. The risk assessment summarized credible accident scenarios and the design provides mitigation of the risks to a level that the facility can be constructed and operated with an adequate level of safety. The risk assessment also provides reasonable assurance that all identifiable major accident scenarios have been reviewed and design mitigation features provided to ensure an adequate level of safety

  12. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  13. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  14. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  15. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10 16 Bq (7.5 x 10 5 Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation of the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant 90 Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations. The facility also falls under the provisions of part 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act pertaining to corrective actions. Nationally, there is an uncertain outlook for the disposal of wastes by underground injection. All wells used for the injection of hazardous wastes (Class I wells) are being reviewed. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Status of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory new hydrofracture facility: Implications for the disposal of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) disposed of approximately 2.8 x 10/sup 16/ Bq (7.5 x 10/sup 5/ Ci) of liquid low-level radioactive wastes by underground injection at its new hydrofracture facility. This paper summarizes the regulatory and operational status of that ORNL facility and discusses its future outlook. Operational developments and regulatory changes that have raised major questions about the continued operation and the new hydrofracture facility include: (1) significant /sup 90/Sr contamination of some groundwater in the injection formation; (2) questions about the design of the injection well, completed prior to the application of the underground injection control (UIC) regulations to the ORNL facility; (3) questions about the integrity of the reconfigured injection well put into service following the loss of the initial injection well; and (4) implementation of UIC regulations. Ultimately, consideration of the regulatory and operational factors led to the decision in early 1986 not to proceed with a UIC permit application for the ORNL facility. There are no plans to reactivate the hydrofracture process. Subsequent to the decision not to proceed with a UIC permit application, closure activities were initiated for the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Closure of the facility will occur under both state of Tennessee and federal UIC regulations and under provision 3004(u) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  17. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  18. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  19. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  20. Ultrasonic testing of a sealing construction made of salt concrete in an underground disposal facility for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Martin; Effner, Ute Antonie; Milmann, Boris; Voelker, Christoph; Wiggenhauser, Herbert [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Mauke, Ralf [The Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the closure of radioactive waste disposal facilities engineered barriers- so called ''drift seals'' are used. The purpose of these barriers is to constrain the possible infiltration of brine and to prevent the migration of radionuclides into the biosphere. In a rock salt mine a large scale in-situ experiment of a sealing construction made of salt concrete was set up to prove the technical feasibility and operability of such barriers. In order to investigate the integrity of this structure, non-destructive ultrasonic measurements were carried out. Therefore two different methods were applied at the front side of the test-barrier: 1 Reflection measurements from boreholes 2 Ultrasonic imaging by means of scanning ultrasonic echo methods This extended abstract is a short version of an article to be published in a special edition of ASCE Journal that will briefly describe the sealing construction, the application of the non-destructive ultrasonic measurement methods and their adaptation to the onsite conditions -as well as parts of the obtained results. From this a concept for the systematic investigation of possible contribution of ultrasonic methods for quality assurance of sealing structures may be deduced.

  1. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  2. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, Antti; Ylae-Mella, Mia; Aeikaes, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  3. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutt, N M [Morwijk Enterprises Ltd., (Canada); Morin, K A [Normar Enterprises, (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs.

  4. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, N.M.; Morin, K.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  5. Regulatory aspects on underground disposal of radioactive waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    The underground disposal of radioactive waste in Sweden is primarily governed by the Atomic Energy Act, the Radiation Protection Act, and to some extent by the Nuclear Liability Act. The regulatory authorities in question are the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, and the Radiation protection Institute. Application for a licence relating to waste management facilities are examined by the Inspectorate which presents its recommendations to the Government for decision. The Inspectorate is also called upon to impose conditions for the operation of the installation. The choice of site for the proposed nuclear waste facility is subject to the approval of the local authorities concerned. (NEA) [fr

  6. Deep underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, J.

    1995-01-01

    The UK Government's radioactive waste disposal policy is for intermediate-level waste, and low-level waste as necessary, to be buried in a deep underground repository, and Nirex is the company, owned by the nuclear industry, charged with developing that deep facility. The Company's current focus is on surface-based geological investigations to determine the suitability of a potential repository site near Sellafield, Cumbria, in north-west England. Nirex's next step is to construct a deep underground laboratory (rock characterization facility, or RCF). Subject to a successful outcome from these investigations, Nirex will submit a planning application for the 650m deep repository at the end of this decade; this will be the subject of a further public inquiry. The timetable for the project assumes that a deep repository, capable of taking 400,000m 3 of waste, will be available by about 2010. In 1994, the UK Government began reviewing the future of the nuclear power industry and, as a separate exercise, radioactive waste management and disposal policy. Both reviews involved widespread consultations. The radwaste review has concentrated on three aspects: general policies; legal aspects of disposal (including safety requirements); and the principles of site selection and the protection of human health. Preliminary conclusions of the main radwaste review were published in August 1994. These confirmed that government continued to favor disposal rather than extended surface storage of waste. The final outcome of the review, including institutional aspects, is expected in the Spring of 1995

  7. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Ikonen, A.; Keto, P.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J.; Raiko, H.

    2013-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  8. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  9. Spent fuel disposal: is the underground the sole solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachmilner, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following 4 major approaches to spent fuel disposal are discussed: permanent storage in an underground repository, reprocessing, partitioning and transmutation, and accelerator driven transmutation. It is concluded that underground disposal will remain the basic option for the near future, although pursuing the other methods is certainly worth while. (P.A.)

  10. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  11. Underground disposal of hazardous waste - state of the art and R and D projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitterich, H.; Brueckner, C.

    1998-01-01

    The project management group Entsorgung (PTE) coordinates R and D activities on deep geological disposal of hazardous waste besides other activities in the field of nuclear disposal. R and D projects aim at the improvement of tools used to predict the long-term behaviour of underground disposal facilities and the threat for man and environment associated with these facilities. The current German situation on deep geological disposal of hazardous waste is described and some results from the fields waste-anaylsis, geochemical modelling and geotechnical barriers for the sealing of waste disposal sites are presented. (orig.)

  12. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  13. The role of underground laboratories in nuclear waste disposal programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Underground research laboratories (URLs) are essential to provide the scientific and technical information and practical experience that are needed for the design and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities, as well as for the development of the safety case that must be presented at various stages of repository development. This report provides an overview of the purpose of URLs within repository development programmes; the range of URLs that have been developed, or are planned, in NEA Member countries to date; the various contributions that such facilities can make to repository development programmes and the development of a safety case; considerations on the timing of developing a URL within a national programme; and the opportunities and benefits of international co-operation in relation to URLs. (author)

  14. Regulatory aspects of underground radioactive waste disposal in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    In Belgium, the underground disposal of radioactive waste is subject to two sets of regulations. The licensing system for the construction and operation of a mine includes, notably, consultation with the local authorities involved. Nuclear installations are governed by a Regulation of 28 February 1963 and, in particular, waste management facilities require a licence from either the provincial authorities or the Crown, as appropriate. Applications must be accompanied by detailed plans, and a licence will be granted only if all safety and other regulations have been complied with. Inspections are provided for to ensure continued compliance. Under a law of 5 August 1978, the Government is enabled to take a preponderant part in the management of radioactive waste and to undertake, alone, its storage. (NEA) [fr

  15. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  16. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  17. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  18. The arrangement of the seismic design method of the underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji; Horita, Masakuni; Dewa, Katsuyuki; Gouke, Mitsuo

    2002-03-01

    Earthquake resistance for the underground structure is higher than the ground structure. Therefore, the case of examining the earthquake resistance of underground structure was little. However, it carries out the research on the aseismic designing method of underground structure, since the tunnel was struck by Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, and it has obtained a much knowledge. However, an object of the most study was behavior at earthquake of the comparatively shallow underground structure in the alluvial plain board, and it not carry out the examination on behavior at earthquake of underground structure in the deep rock mass. In the meantime, underground disposal facility of the high level radioactive waste constructs in the deep underground, and it carries out the operation in these tunnels. In addition, it has made almost the general process of including from the construction start to the backfilling to be about 60 years (Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute, 1999). During these periods, it is necessary to also consider the earthquake resistance as underground structure from the viewpoint of the safety of facilities. Then, it extracted future problem as one of the improvement of the basis information for the decision of the safety standard and guideline of the country on earthquake-resistant design of the underground disposal facility, while it carried out investigation and arrangement of earthquake-resistant design cases, guidelines and analysis method on existing underground structure, etc. And, the research items for the earthquake resistance assessment of underground structure as case study of the underground research laboratory. (author)

  19. Study of physical resistance of the disposal facility for accidental artificial event in LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Suihei; Irie, Masaaki; Uchida, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    This report refer to results of examine what follows for structural stability evaluation for the LLW disposal facility in depth over general human activity in underground. Study of physically resistance on the facility for accidental artificial event, namely tunneling an operation facing the disposal facility in future. Physically resistance to excavation of tunneling etc. in disposal facility is studied based on supposing of Tunnel Boring Machine as an excavator, paying attention to reinforcement bar in concrete and steel plate of waste package, as feature of strength in these material differs from rock strength. And it is examined not only resistibility on excavation but also about hard situations of excavation in tunneling works, and namely give thorough consideration to critical quantity of cutting to reinforcement bar and steel plate that could keep resistibility on excavation based on tunneling velocity and limits time furthermore. It requests necessity of evaluation in consider with metal corrosion that status alteration on disposal facility is considered with on timescale. Period of keep on the physically resistance is estimated by velocity of metal corrosion consequently. The physically resistance is kept until metal corrosion reach remaining its material, giving a limits of the physically resistance on inside of facility. Main point of physically resistance in the report will be made the good use of a practice to physically resistance evaluation of in safety assessment. (author)

  20. Regulatory mechanisms for underground waste disposal in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, National Guidelines on Waste Disposal through Underground ... dead, domestic waste and, excrement in this manner. The soil and geological formations that are the waste ... waste water daily is presently seeking partnerships with the ... role in ground water quality protection from.

  1. Underground waste disposal; the time to go ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1979-01-01

    The findings and status of several national and international research programmes were recently reported at an International Symposium on the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. A brief review is presented of the situation. Attention is drawn to the flexibility in design emerging to allow for differences in fuel cycle policy, and to the bias of countries towards research into geologic host formations available within their own borders. International co-operation in this field is good. Collaborative work in the nine Community countries is divided between them by geologic type. Disposal of low and medium active waste is discussed. Research into salt domes, crystalline rods, and argillaceous sediments is briefly summarised. Aspects of underground disposal of high-level waste and radionuclide migration are also considered. (U.K.)

  2. Facility Description 2012. Summary report of the encapsulation plant and disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomaeki, J.; Ristimaeki, L.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the facility description is to be a specific summary report of the scope of Posiva's nuclear facilities (encapsulation plant and disposal facility) in Olkiluoto. This facility description is based on the 2012 designs and completing Posiva working reports. The facility description depicts the nuclear facilities and their operation as the disposal of spent nuclear fuel starts in Olkiluoto in about 2020. According to the decisions-in-principle of the government, the spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in operation and in future cumulative spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa 1 and 2, Olkiluoto 1, 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is permitted to be disposed of in Olkiluoto bedrock. The design of the disposal facility is based on the KBS-3V concept (vertical disposal). Long-term safety concept is based on the multi-barrier principle i.e. several release barriers, which ensure one another so that insufficiency in the performance of one barrier doesn't jeopardize long-term safety of the disposal. The release barriers are the following: canister, bentonite buffer and deposition tunnel backfill, and the host rock around the repository. The canisters are installed into the deposition holes, which are bored to the floor of the deposition tunnels. The canisters are enveloped with compacted bentonite blocks, which swell after absorbing water. The surrounding bedrock and the central and access tunnel backfill provide additional retardation, retention, and dilution. The nuclear facilities consist of an encapsulation plant and of underground final disposal facility including other aboveground buildings and surface structures serving the facility. The access tunnel and ventilation shafts to the underground disposal facility and some auxiliary rooms are constructed as a part of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility during years 2004-2014. The construction works needed for the repository start after obtaining the construction

  3. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. An approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, R.A.; Martin, C.D.; Thompson, P.M.

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation. (author). 35 refs., 12 tabs., 49 figs

  5. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  6. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability

  7. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  8. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability. (paper)

  9. Acceptability criteria for final underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Specialists now generally agree that the underground disposal of suitably immobilized radioactive waste offers a means of attaining the basic objective of ensuring the immediate and long-term protection of man and the environment throughout the requisite period of time and in all foreseeable circumstances. Criteria of a more general as well as a more specific nature are practical means through which this basic protection objective can be reached. These criteria, which need not necessarily be quantified, enable the authorities to gauge the acceptability of a given project and provide those responsible for waste management with a basis for making decisions. In short, these principles constitute the framework of a suitably safety-oriented waste management policy. The more general criteria correspond to the protection objectives established by the national authorities on the basis of principles and recommendations formulated by international organizations, in particular the ICRP and the IAEA. They apply to any underground disposal system considered as a whole. The more specific criteria provide a means of evaluating the degree to which the various components of the disposal system meet the general criteria. They must also take account of the interaction between these components. As the ultimate aim is the overall safety of the disposal system, individual components can be adjusted to compensate for the performance of others with respect to the criteria. This is the approach adopted by the international bodies and national authorities in developing acceptability criteria for the final underground radioactive disposal systems to be used during the operational and post-operational phases respectively. The main criteria are reviewed and an attempt is made to assess the importance of the specific criteria according to the different types of disposal systems. (author)

  10. Underground large scale test facility for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    This brief note discusses two advantages of locating the facility for testing rock specimens of large dimensions in an underground space. Such an environment can be made to contribute part of the enormous axial load and stiffness requirements needed to get complete stress-strain behavior. The high pressure vessel may also be located below the floor level since the lateral confinement afforded by the rock mass may help to reduce the thickness of the vessel

  11. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.; Orrell, John L.

    2018-03-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discovery of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.

  12. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  13. Development of a numerical code for the prediction of the long-term behavior of the underground facilities for the high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji; Hasegawa, Takuma

    2006-01-01

    Complicated phenomena originated by thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling behavior will occur in the near-field of geological disposal of nuclear waste. Development of a numerical evaluation method for such phenomena is important in order to make a reasonable repository design and a safety assessment. In order to achieve the objective above, a numerical model using the equations which can evaluate the swelling characteristics of buffer materials based on the diffusive double layer theory is proposed, and a numerical scheme for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled analysis including the swelling model is constructed. The proposed swelling model can reproduce the behavior observed during both swelling pressure tests and swelling deformation tests. When the developed numerical code is applied to the laboratory heater test using a bentonite specimen, it can reproduce the thermal gradient, the distribution of saturation rate and the variation of porosity. The developed numerical code will be applied to well-controlled laboratory tests and full-scale in-situ tests in the future work. In order to apply to the various geochemical conditions around the engineered barrier, chemical component will be coupled to the present numerical code. (author)

  14. Pilot research projects for underground disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.; Collyer, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Disposal of commercial radioactive waste in the United States of America in a deep underground formation will ensure permanent isolation from the biosphere with minimal post-closure surveillance and maintenance. The siting, design and development, performance assessment, operation, licensing, certification and decommissioning of an underground repository have stimulated the development of several pilot research projects throughout the country. These pilot tests and projects, along with their resulting data base, are viewed as important steps in the overall location and construction of a repository. Beginning in the 1960s, research at pilot facilities has progressed from underground spent fuel tests in an abandoned salt mine to the production of vitrified nuclear waste in complex borosilicate glass logs. Simulated underground repository experiments have been performed in the dense basalts of Washington State, the volcanic tuffaceous rock of Nevada and both domal and bedded salts of Louisiana and Kansas. In addition to underground pilot in situ tests, other facilities have been constructed or modified to monitor the performance of spent fuel in dry storage wells and self-shielded concrete casks. As the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) programme advances to the next stage of underground site characterization for each of three different geological sites, additional pilot facilities are under consideration. These include a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) for site verification and equipment performance and testing, as well as a salt testing facility for verification of in situ simulation equipment. Although not associated with the NWTS programme, the construction of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salts of New Mexico is well under way for deep testing and experimentation with the defence programme's transuranic nuclear waste. (author)

  15. Present state on research and development of underground disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In September, 1996, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) arranged her old research and development (R and D) results to issue as a shape of `Technical report on R and D of high level radioactive waste underground disposal`. On the other hand, Radioactive waste special party in Committee of Atomic Energy at that time evaluated that technical possibility for safety establishment of underground disposal in Japan was elucidated and showed future problems in the technical development. Therefore, PNC proceeded further R and D for the second arrangement under consideration of such comments. As a result, in investigation of geological environment condition, main points were laid at study on rear-field feature and its long-term stability. In development of disposal technique, main points were laid at elucidation of design requirements confirmable to the near-field evaluation, main points were laid at upgrading validity of evaluation model to analytically evaluate the near-field feature using data with high reliability. (G.K.)

  16. Present state on research and development of underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In September, 1996, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) arranged her old research and development (R and D) results to issue as a shape of 'Technical report on R and D of high level radioactive waste underground disposal'. On the other hand, Radioactive waste special party in Committee of Atomic Energy at that time evaluated that technical possibility for safety establishment of underground disposal in Japan was elucidated and showed future problems in the technical development. Therefore, PNC proceeded further R and D for the second arrangement under consideration of such comments. As a result, in investigation of geological environment condition, main points were laid at study on rear-field feature and its long-term stability. In development of disposal technique, main points were laid at elucidation of design requirements confirmable to the near-field evaluation, main points were laid at upgrading validity of evaluation model to analytically evaluate the near-field feature using data with high reliability. (G.K.)

  17. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal

  18. Refilling material for underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Tatsuya; Kato, Hiroyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Generally, the underground circumstance where radioactive wastes are to be processed is in high pH and highly ionized state due to ingredients leached out of cement of a concrete pit and solidifying products. A refilling material for underground disposal are demanded to adsorb radioactive nuclides such as 137 Cs even in such a state. As the refilling material, a mixture of bentonite and sintered vermiculite, preferably, comprising 10 to 40wt% of vermiculite is used. The refilling material has a high water hold out barrier performance of bentonite and a high radioactive nuclide adsorbing performance of vermiculite. In a state of highly ionized state when the adsorbing performance of bentonite is reduced, the nuclide-absorbing performance is improved by vermiculite and since the content of the vermiculite is not more than 40wt%, the water hold out barrier performance of the bentonite is not deteriorated. (N.H.)

  19. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal.

  20. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Plans of investigations during shaft and drift excavation (Construction of underground facilities: Phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned for over 20 years to establish the scientific and technical basis for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The investigations are conducted by JNC in three phases, from the surface (Phase I), during the construction of the underground facilities (Phase II), and using the facilities (Phase III). This report concerns the investigation plans for Phase II. During excavation of shafts and drifts, detailed geological and borehole investigation will be conducted and the geological model constructed in Phase I is evaluated and revised by newly acquired data of geophysical and geological environment. Detailed in-situ experiments, as well as the effects of shaft excavation, are also done to study long-term changes, rock properties, groundwater flow and chemistry to ensure the reliability of repository technology and establish safety assessment methodology. (S. Ohno)

  1. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has become an important problem in Switzerland, and work has now begun on technical investigations and the preparation of a regulatory framework for deep-underground disposal. The law currently in force is the Federal Law on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energyy and Radiation Protection, under which two licences are required, one for construction and one for operation. An amendment to this Law is envisaged whereby the licensing system will be modified, in particular by requiring an additional licence which will be granted by the Federal Government, with the consent of Parliament, if the safe disposal of waste can be guaranteed. The producers of radioactive waste are primarily responsible for the management thereof, but the National Co-operative Society for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) has the task of planning, constructing and operating repositories. The licensing authority in Switzerland is the Federal department of Communications and Energy. (NEA) [fr

  2. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  3. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  4. Guidance for regulation of underground repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological formations are favoured for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle: varying depths of emplacement, including shallow land disposal, with or without engineered barriers may be foreseen for low and intermediate level wastes. Most countries will regulate such disposal through licensing actions by a regulatory body whose purpose is to review and analyse the safety of all stages of the disposal programme. This regulatory function may be performed either by a single national authority or a system of authorities. It is the intent of the IAEA that this publication will be used as a guide to develop regulatory requirements for licensing waste disposal facilities. This report updates IAEA Safety Series No. 51. Development of the regulatory process is maturing rapidly in Member States, hence there is a clear need to revise the nearly ten year old text of that publication. The purpose of this report is to provide general guidance for the regulation of underground disposal of low, intermediate and high level radioactive wastes once a fundamental decision to pursue this option has been made. It is intended to reflect the experience of those countries with mature regulatory programmes and to provide some guidance to those countries that wish to develop regulatory programmes. Guidance is given on what issues should be addressed in the licensing review, what decision points are important, and what guidance should be given to the applicant by the regulatory system in the course of the licensing actions. The orientation of the report is on technical factors rather than the social and political aspects that need to be taken into account when regulating the underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The financing aspects are not discussed

  5. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  6. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  7. On the estimation of bias in post-closure performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Gralewski, Z.A.; Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method for recording and evaluating bias in performance assessments for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. The bias estimation approach comprises three principal components: (1) creation of a relational database containing historical assumptions and decisions made during the assessment, (2) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of internal bias through alternative assessment calculations, and (3) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of external bias by estimating degrees of belief probability. Bias corrections may help avoid unnecessary concerns by explaining and scoping the impacts of principal differences without the need to undertake additional site investigation, research, and performance analysis

  8. French regulation regarding the underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Act of 15 July 1975 fixed the requirements for waste disposal and set up a National Agency for Waste Recovery and Disposal. The legislative decree of 4 August 1975 established an International Committee for Nuclear Safety. This has the task, among other things, of co-ordinating action taken to ensure the protection of persons and property against the hazards of nuclear facilities. An order of 2 November 1976 concentrated all responsibility for studies and research on nuclear safety and radioactive waste within an Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection. Installations designed for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste are considered to be ''basic nuclear facilities'' and come under the legislative decree of 11 December 1963, as modified by the decree of 27 March 1973. The procedure for licensing basic nuclear facilities is conducted by the Ministry of Industry: this procedure includes a safety study, a public enquiry, consultations with other interested ministries and authorization by the Ministry of Health and Social Security. Finally, nuclear facilities are subject to a specific twofold surveillance by the public authorities: surveillance carried out by basic nuclear facility inspectors; surveillance carried out by agents of the Central Service for Protection Against Ionizing Radiations (SCPRI) under the Ministry of Health and Social Security. (author)

  9. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  10. Waste disposal in underground mines -- A technology partnership to protect the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally compatible disposal sites must be found despite all efforts to avoid and reduce the generation of dangerous waste. Deep geologic disposal provides the logical solution as ever more categories of waste are barred from long-term disposal in near-surface sites through regulation and litigation. Past mining in the US has left in its wake large volumes of suitable underground space. EPA studies and foreign practice have demonstrated deep geologic disposal in mines to be rational and viable. In the US, where much of the mined underground space is located on public lands, disposal in mines would also serve the goal of multiple use. It is only logical to return the residues of materials mined from the underground to their origin. Therefore, disposal of dangerous wastes in mined underground openings constitutes a perfect match between mining and the protection and enhancement of the environment

  11. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the design of a geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in argilite formations. Content: 1 - approach of the study: goal, main steps of the design study, iterative approach, content; 2 - general description: high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, purposes of a reversible disposal, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site - the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, design principles of the disposal facility architecture, role of the different disposal components; 3 - high-level and long-lived wastes: production scenarios, description of primary containers, inventory model, hypotheses about receipt fluxes of primary containers; 4- disposal containers: B-type waste containers, C-type waste containers, spent fuel disposal containers; 5 - disposal modules: B-type waste disposal modules, C-type waste disposal modules, spent-fuel disposal modules; 6 - overall underground architecture: main safety questions, overall design, dimensioning factors, construction logic and overall exploitation of the facility, dimensioning of galleries, underground architecture adaptation to different scenarios; 7 - boreholes and galleries: general needs, design principles retained, boreholes description, galleries description, building up of boreholes and galleries, durability of facilities, backfilling and sealing up of boreholes and galleries; 8 - surface facilities: general organization, nuclear area, industrial and administrative area, tailings area; 9 - nuclear exploitation means of the facility: receipt of primary containers and preparation of disposal containers, transfer of disposal containers from the surface to the disposal alveoles, setting up of containers inside alveoles; 10 - reversible management of the disposal: step by step disposal process, mastery of disposal behaviour and action capacity, observation and

  12. Advantages of co-located spent fuel reprocessing, repository and underground reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, James M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Wes Myers, Carl; Loveland, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend the discussion of potential advantages of the underground nuclear park (UNP) concept by making specific concept design and cost estimate comparisons for both present Generation III types of reactors and for some of the modular Gen IV or the GNEP modular concept. For the present Gen III types, we propose co-locating reprocessing and (re)fabrication facilities along with disposal facilities in the underground park. The goal is to determine the site costs and facility construction costs of such a complex which incorporates the advantages of a closed fuel cycle, nuclear waste repository, and ultimate decommissioning activities all within the UNP. Modular power generation units are also well-suited for placement underground and have the added advantage of construction using current and future tunnel boring machine technology. (authors)

  13. Approach to underground characterization of a disposal vault in granite; Methode de caracterisation souterraine d`une enceinte de stockage dans la roche granitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everitt, R A; Martin, C D; Thompson, P M

    1994-12-01

    The concept of disposing of nuclear fuel waste by sealing it in a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield is being investigated as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Engineered and natural barriers would isolate the waste from the biosphere. Underground characterization and testing have been under way since 1983 at the Underground Research Laboratory in support of this program. This report draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization to obtain information to optimize the design of the excavation and the engineered barriers, and to provide a baseline against which to monitor the performance of the facility during and following its operation.

  14. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmersen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in Denmark is a matter to be decided by the Government and the Parliament. Disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle has become a decesive part of the issue. The licensing of future nuclear facilities, facilities for storage and disposal of radioactive waste originating from the nuclear fuel cycle, will be regulated by Act of May 12, 1976 ''on the safety and environmental conditions applicable to nuclear installations''. The 1976-act will not come into force until the Danish Parliament passes an implementing act, following a positive decision on a nuclear power programme for Denmark. The Minister for the Environment will be responsible for the administration of the 1976-Act. The Agency of Environmental Protection and the National Health Service deal with the nuclear safety and health aspects of applications and submit recommendations on these matters to the Minister. According to the law the Minister for the Environment can issue a site approval, only if the application has been approved by a parliamentary resolution following a proposal from the Minister. Before such a proposal is made the regional and municipal authorities concerned shall submit statements and the Minister for the Environment must consult the Minister for Commerce. Before the granting of construction and operation permits the Minister shall consult the relevant parliamentary Committee. (author)

  15. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  16. Warranty obligations for the management and underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauho, P.; Silvennoinen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The need for financial assurances and institutional arrangements for waste management and disposal is discussed from the viewpoint of public interest. The basic principles stated in the paper include the requirement of accumulating funds for future contingencies during the active lifetime of the reactors and the fuel cycle facilities. A governmental role is seen as indispensable in assuming responsibility over at least the surveillance of underground repositories. The stage at which the operational responsibility is transferred from the plant operator to the government is determined in general by the status of the waste conditioning and disposal technology. A brief survey is presented of the current situation and technical issues.The need for special funds is discussed as well. For the part of waste management and disposal that will be taken over by the government an escrow fund should be established. Parallel to this public fund the plant operator would be obliged to reserve funds and provide guarantees within the company to cover liabilities for the remaining part of waste management and disposal obligations. A case study is presented in the paper covering the estimation of the escrow charges for spent fuel or high-level waste. (author)

  17. No nuclear power. No disposal facility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinhals, J. [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Countries with a nuclear power programme are making strong efforts to guarantee the safe disposal of radioactive waste. The solutions in those countries are large disposal facilities near surface or in deep geological layers depending on the activity and half-life of the nuclides in the waste. But what will happen with the radioactive waste in countries that do not have NPPs but have only low amounts of radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities as well as from research reactors? Countries producing only low amounts of radioactive waste need convincing solutions for the safe and affordable disposal of their radioactive waste. As they do not have a fund by an operator of nuclear power plants, those countries need an appropriate and commensurate solution for the disposal of their waste. In a first overview five solutions seem to be appropriate: (i) the development of multinational disposal facilities by using the existing international knowhow; (ii) common disposal with hazardous waste; (iii) permanent storage; (iv) use of an existing mine or tunnel; (v) extension of the borehole disposal concept for all the categories of radioactive wastes.

  18. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  19. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  20. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 5. Decommissioning of underground facilities. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, M.S.; Plum, R.L.; Koplik, C.M.; Talbot, R.

    1979-03-01

    This report is Volume 5 of a seven volume document on nuclear waste repository design issues. This report discusses the requirements for decommissioning a deep underground facility for the disposal of radioactive waste. The techniques for sealing the mined excavations are presented and an information base on potential backfill materials is provided. Possible requirements for monitoring the site are discussed. The performance requirements for backfill materials are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of each sealing method are stated

  1. Cost estimate of Olkiluoto disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.; Saanio, T.

    2005-03-01

    The cost estimate covers the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO, the investment and the operating costs of the above and underground facilities, the decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and the closure costs of the repository. The above ground facility is a once-investment; a re-investment takes place after 37 years operation. The repository is extended stepwise thus also the investment take place in stages. Annual operating costs are calculated with different operating efficiencies. The total investment costs of the disposal facility are estimated to be 503 M euro (Million Euros), the total operating costs are 1,923 M euro and the decommissioning and the closure costs are 116 M euro totaling 2,542 M euro. The investment costs of the above ground facility are 142 M euro, the operating costs are 1,678 M euro. The repository investment costs are 360 M euro and the operating costs are 245 M euro. The decommissioning costs are 7 M euro and the closure costs are 109 M euro. The costs are calculated by using the price level of December 2003. The cost estimate is based on a plan, where the spent fuel is encapsulated and the disposal canisters are disposed into the bedrock at a depth of about 420 meters in one storey. In the encapsulation process, the fuel assemblies are closed into composite canisters, in which the inner part of the canister is made of nodular cast iron and the outer wall of copper having a thickness of 50 mm. The inner canister is closed gas-tight by a bolted steel lid, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the outer copper lid. The encapsulation plant is independent and located above the deep repository spaces. The disposal canisters are transported to the repository by the lift. The disposal tunnels are constructed and closed in stages according the disposal canisters disposal. The operating time of the Loviisa nuclear power plant units is assumed to be 50 years and the operating time of the Olkiluoto nuclear power

  2. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  3. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  4. The French underground research laboratory program, contribution to the feasibility and safety studies of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Niezborala, J.M.; Ben Slimane, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the content of the research program to be performed during the construction and the operation of the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management's (ANDRA) underground laboratory, located in the east of France. The general architecture of the program is presented. Emphasis is put on an iterative process, the purpose of which is mainly to: Prepare site behavior models before starting each phase of the field work (bore hole drilling, shaft sinking, construction of underground galleries, specific experiments); Test and check each model through actual observations and measurements; Adjust the models to take into account the results of the former phase and predict the results expected during the following one. All these models, after validation, will be exploited during the assessment of the safety related performance of the components of the potential repository as well as the whole facility; Obtain necessary data related to the feasibility study of the disposal facility (mechanical design, thermal design, etc.,) and its safety assessment. The relationship between the experimental program, the conceptual design program and the safety evaluation program is explained in order to reach the project objectives which is the final document set to be provided to French authorities in 2006 according to the French law of December 1991. (author)

  5. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  6. The final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, S.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today the most serious problem in the area of nuclear power engineering is the management of spent nuclear fuel. Due to its very high radioactivity the nuclear waste must be isolated from the environment. The perspective solution of nuclear fuel cycle is the final disposal into geological formations. Today there is no disposal facility all over the world. There are only underground research laboratories in the well developed countries like the USA, France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Belgium. From the economical point of view the most suitable appears to build a few international repositories. According to the political and social aspect each of the country prepare his own project of the deep repository. The status of those programmes in different countries is described. The development of methods for the long-term management of radioactive waste is necessity in all countries that have had nuclear programmes. (authors)

  7. Design study of the underground facilities, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on the deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at the Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU consisted of surface and underground facilities excavated to a depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program, includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed in 1998, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  8. Design study of underground facility of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Mineo; Noda, Masaru; Shiogama, Yukihiro; Adachi, Tetsuya

    1999-02-01

    Geoscientific research on deep geological environment has been performed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). This research is supported by the 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is planned to be constructed at Shobasama-bora site belonging to JNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously performed in and around the Tono mine is planned to be expanded in the laboratory. The MIU is consisted of surface and underground facilities down to the depth of about 1,000 meters. In this design study, the overall layout and basic design of the underground facility and the composition of the overall research program which includes the construction of the underground facility are studied. Based on the concept of the underground facility which have been developed last year, the research activities which will be performed in the MIU are selected and the overall research program is revised in this year. The basic construction method and the construction equipment are also estimated. (author)

  9. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1982-01-01

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  10. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  11. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase 1 investigation 2001-2005, Volume 'geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Ota, Kunio; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Hama, Katsuhiro; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Tanai, Kenji; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the project as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  12. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'Geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tanai, Kenji; Nishimura, Mayuka; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Nakano, Katsushi; Seo, Toshihiro; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (HOR), of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the surface-based investigations in HOR as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  13. Development of the program for underground disposal of radioactive wastes in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, D.; Loose, A.; Mele, I.

    1995-01-01

    In Slovenia, three of four steps of surface low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW) repository site selection have already been completed . Since the fourth step is stopped due to the strong public opposition, an option of underground disposal is now being considered. In 1994, Agency for Rad waste Management started with preparation of basic guidelines for site selection of an underground LILW repository in Slovenia. The guidelines consist of general and geological criteria. General criteria are similar to those used for surface repository site selection, while geological criteria, based strongly on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations, include some changes. Mainly they are less rigorous and more qualitative. A set of basic geological recommendations and guidelines for an underground disposal of radioactive wastes is presented in this paper. A comparison between proposed geological criteria for underground repository site selection and geological criteria used for surface repository site selection is given as well. (author)

  14. A numerical study on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Choi, Kyu Sup; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Dae Hong

    1991-01-01

    In order to design safe and economical underground disposal structures for radioactive wastes, understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. This study includes discussions about the computational model for discontinuous rock masses and the structural analysis method for underground storage structures. Then, based on an engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made in order to analyze and understand the structural behavior of the rock cavern with discontinuities

  15. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

  16. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  17. Ground penetrating radar for fracture mapping in underground hazardous waste disposal sites: A case study from an underground research tunnel, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Um, Evan Schankee

    2017-06-01

    Secure disposal or storage of nuclear waste within stable geologic environments hinges on the effectiveness of artificial and natural radiation barriers. Fractures in the bedrock are viewed as the most likely passage for the transport of radioactive waste away from a disposal site. We utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map fractures in the tunnel walls of an underground research tunnel at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). GPR experiments within the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) were carried out by using 200 MHz, 500 MHz, and 1000 MHz antennas. By using the high-frequency antennas, we were able to identify small-scale fractures, which were previously unidentified during the tunnel excavation process. Then, through 3-D visualization of the grid survey data, we reconstructed the spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the multi-scale fractures within the wall. We found that a multi-frequency GPR approach provided more details of the complex fracture network, including deep structures. Furthermore, temporal changes in reflection polarity between the GPR surveys enabled us to infer the hydraulic characteristics of the discrete fracture network developed behind the surveyed wall. We hypothesized that the fractures exhibiting polarity change may be due to a combination of air-filled and mineralogical boundaries. Simulated GPR scans for the considered case were consistent with the observed GPR data. If our assumption is correct, the groundwater flow into these near-surface fractures may form the water-filled fractures along the existing air-filled ones and hence cause the changes in reflection polarity over the given time interval (i.e., 7 days). Our results show that the GPR survey is an efficient tool to determine fractures at various scales. Time-lapse GPR data may be essential to characterize the hydraulic behavior of discrete fracture networks in underground disposal facilities.

  18. Modeling of radionuclide migration and a temperature dynamics in underground disposal of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, V.K.; Zubkov, A.A.; Balakhonov, V.G.; Sukhorukov, V.A.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical model of radionuclide migration and temperature field dynamics during underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes is presented. The model involves the description of filtration, convective-dispersion mass transfer, sorption and desorption of radionuclides, radioactive decay, convective heat transport and hear transfer. Software making possible to conduct prognosis calculations of changing state of stratum-collector of radioactive wastes was made. Results of the simulation of temperature field dynamics and behaviour of radionuclides on underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes of the Siberian chemical plant are performed [ru

  19. Underground disposal of radioactive waste regulations in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The only method of final disposal of radioactive waste currently envisaged in the Netherlands is disposal in rock-salt. This question is at present being studied by governmental authorities, and a public discussion is foreseen for the near future. Various Ministries, as well as local authorities at both provincial and municipal levels, are involved in the licensing and control of waste disposal. The principal stages are site selection (including that for test-drilling), construction of the mine, and supervision of the repository. These activities are governed by the legislation on mining as well as by nuclear regulations. One matter still to be decided is the nature of the body to be responsible for conducting the disposal operations. (NEA) [fr

  20. Present status of research and development on underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation published the technical report 'Research and development of the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste' 1991 in 1992, summarizing the results of the research and development of the formation disposal which have been advanced by dividing into three parts, that is, the investigation and research of geological environment conditions, the research and development of disposal technologies, and the research on the performance evaluation. Based on the subjects pointed out during the process of making the technical report, the results of evaluation by the state, and the opinions of those concerned, the efforts are exerted toward the second summarization expected in about 2000. By informing the present state of the research and development, in order to accept the criticism and advice, this book was published. The way of thinking and the method of advancing of the research and development of formation disposal, the present state of the research on geological environment conditions, disposal technologies and the performance evaluation are described. Also the present state of the research on stratum science in Tono and Kamaishi mines and others is reported. (K.I.)

  1. Present status of research and development on underground disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation published the technical report `Research and development of the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste` 1991 in 1992, summarizing the results of the research and development of the formation disposal which have been advanced by dividing into three parts, that is, the investigation and research of geological environment conditions, the research and development of disposal technologies, and the research on the performance evaluation. Based on the subjects pointed out during the process of making the technical report, the results of evaluation by the state, and the opinions of those concerned, the efforts are exerted toward the second summarization expected in about 2000. By informing the present state of the research and development, in order to accept the criticism and advice, this book was published. The way of thinking and the method of advancing of the research and development of formation disposal, the present state of the research on geological environment conditions, disposal technologies and the performance evaluation are described. Also the present state of the research on stratum science in Tono and Kamaishi mines and others is reported. (K.I.).

  2. Effects of earthquakes on underground facilities. Literature review and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Chung, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    A review of literature concerning effects of ground motion on underground facilities has been completed, and an annotated bibliography has been prepared. This information provides useful background for the science and engineering of underground nuclear waste management facility development. While some conflicts are evident in the literature reviewed, the following tentative conclusions may be drawn from the available information: (1) damage is expectable if fault displacement occurs through a site, but damage from shaking alone is generally confined to facilities located within the epicentral region and may be less than to surface facilities at the same site. (2) Seismic data are mixed, but favors reduction of amplitude with depth; observations appear quite dependent upon station characteristics. (3) The frequency content of earthquake mitions is important to the stability of underground openings and the applicability of attenuation relationships developed in areas where geologic and tectonic characteristics favor high attenuation rates to mid-continental sites is questionable. (4) Model studies indicate problems for shafts and the potential for problems with waste-handling equipment in shafts. The results of the review indicate the need to assure that site-specific response spectra and attenuation relationships are developed for proposed sites, and that detailed assessments of seismic aspects of shaft designs, hoists and in-shaft waste-handling equipment are required

  3. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  4. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  5. Developing a LLW disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to site and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The firm identified three sites for detailed characterization work in February, 1987. Ecological and archaeological studies and related environmental assessments were undertaken to obtain land use permits from the Bureau of Land Management, which holds title to the sites. Geophysics investigations, exploratory borings, well drilling and weather station installation followed. Local Committees were established for each site to assist US Ecology in evaluating socio-economic impacts, and Native Americans were consulted regarding cultural resources. The project's Citizens Advisory Committee assisted in evaluating the three candidate sites. US Ecology systematically integrated citizen involvement into the technical studies leading to selection of the two site finalists. This approach furthered two objectives. Community leaders and the public received accurate information on the nature of low-level radioactive waste and the environmental conditions appropriate for its disposal

  6. Situation on regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactivity wastes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, T.; Asano, T.; Matsubara, N.

    1978-01-01

    At present, in Japan, there exists no law specifically regulating the underground disposal of radioactive wastes although various regulations deal with disposal safety measures in a general way. For the moment, apart from the need to gain public acceptance of such disposal, the problem is essentially one of technical feasibility, and a geological study is currently being undertaken by the Science and Technology Agency. This same Agency is also looking at the problem of a long-term waste management system, but it is the Nuclear Safety Commission, created in 1978, which will be primarily responsible for all regulatory aspects of safety. (NEA) [fr

  7. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  8. Test plan: Gas-threshold-pressure testing of the Salado Formation in the WIPP underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    Performance assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste from the United States defense program in the WIPP underground facility must assess the role of post-closure was generation by waste degradation and the subsequent pressurization of the facility. be assimilated by the host formation will Whether or not the generated gas can be assimilated by the host formation will determine the ability of the gas to reach or exceed lithostatic pressure within the repository. The purpose of this test plan is (1) to present a test design to obtain realistic estimates of gas-threshold pressure for the Salado Formation WIPP underground facility including parts of the formation disturbed by the underground of the Salado, and (2) to provide a excavations and in the far-field or undisturbed part framework for changes and amendments to test objectives, practices, and procedures. Because in situ determinations of gas-threshold pressure in low-permeability media are not standard practice, the methods recommended in this testplan are adapted from permeability-testing and hydrofracture procedures. Therefore, as the gas-threshold-pressure testing program progresses, personnel assigned to the program and outside observers and reviewers will be asked for comments regarding the testing procedures. New and/or improved test procedures will be documented as amendments to this test plan, and subject to similar review procedures

  9. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  10. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste - Danish notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    In Denmark, provisions regulating nuclear installations (their licensing, and the disposal of radioactive waste amongst other matters) are contained in an Act of 12 May 1976. This act, however, will only come into force if Denmark decides to implement a nuclear power programme. Under the provisions of this Act, the Minister of the Environment is the licensing authority. He receives recommendations from various bodies, including the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations, and may impose any conditions thought necessary. Three permits are required - site approval, construction permit, and operation permit - and applications must be accompanied by documentation relevant to environmental and nuclear safety and health aspects. Operation of a nuclear installation may be suspended in cases of urgency. As yet, no detailed safety regulations or guidelines on the disposal of nuclear waste have been issued, but a working party, established by the Environmental Protection Agency, is currently studying the problem. (NEA) [fr

  11. Bio-corrosion for underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libert, M.; Esnault, L.; Esnault, L.; Feron, D.

    2011-01-01

    The safety disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLNW) is the major breakthrough allowing socially acceptable development of nuclear energy over the coming decades. The French concept for geological disposal of HLNW is based on a multi-barrier system made by metallic containers confined in natural clay. The main alteration parameter is water arriving on waste after the corrosion of metallic components. The anoxic aqueous corrosion phenomena are studied in order to evaluate the confinement capacity of metallic barriers. The discover of active micro-organisms in deep clayey environments raises the question of the impact of micro-organisms on corrosion parameters due to processes such as 'biologically induced corrosion'. Despite of extreme conditions in deep nuclear geological disposal (redox conditions, high pressure and temperature, irradiation), bacterial activity will adapt and survive in these environments. Anoxic corrosion of nuclear waste containers and radiolysis will produce H 2 , which represents a new energetic source for bacterial development, especially in this environment that contains a low amount of biodegradable organic matter. Besides, the formation of Fe(III)-bearing minerals such as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as corrosion products will provide electron acceptors favouring the development of bacteria. Bio-corrosion studies of nuclear waste disposal need to investigate the activity of hydrogenotrophic bacteria able to reduce iron oxides (passivation layer) or sulfates (iron reducing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria) in order to evaluate their impact on the long-term stability of metallic compounds involved in multi-barrier system for high-level nuclear waste containment. (authors)

  12. Feasibility of underground storage/disposal of noble gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winar, R.M.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-08-01

    The quantities of 85 Kr that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the 85 Kr released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of 85 Kr by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of 85 Kr as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of 85 Kr injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces. 9 figures, 5 tables

  13. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  14. Communication strategy for final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo; Kurki, Osmo

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999, Posiva filed an application for a policy decision to the Council of State on the construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. The decision to be made by the Council of State must be ratified by the Parliament. The precondition for a positive decision is that the preliminary statement on safety to be provided by STLTK by the end of the year 1999 is in favour of Posiva. continuing with its repository development programme, and that the Eurajoki municipality approves the project in its statement by the 28th of January 2000. The policy decision by the Council of State is expected to be made in March followed by the ratification of the Parliament before the summer. In a poll-carried out among 350 decision-makers, less than 10 % of those who answered 134 persons) found Internet as the most important source of Posiva's information on final disposal. On the other hand, over 80 % of those who answered found the information folder as the most significant source of information. When considering all the information available on final disposal (TV, radio, newspapers, authorities, environmental organisations, etc.) Posiva was found to be the most significant source of information while newspapers and periodicals came second. In this case the environmental organisations seemed to have a minor role, as a result of not being too active in confrontation. As a conclusive remark it can be assumed that because it is not only Posiva's information that is relevant to decision-makers, but the media also plays a significant role, the impression that decision-makers have of final disposal is based on a mixture of messages coming from Posiva and from the media. That is why the communication related to decision-makers is also communication with media, in order to ensure that the messages produced by the media support the information produced by Posiva

  15. Safety assessment for deep underground disposal vault-pathways analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The concept verification phase of the Canadian programme for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste encompasses a period of about three years before the start of site selection. During this time, the methodology for Environmental and Safety Assessment studies is being developed by focusing on a model site. Pathways analysis is an important component of these studies. It involves the prediction of the rate at which radionuclides might be released from a disposal vault and travel through the geosphere and biosphere to reach man. The pathways analysis studies cover three major topics: geosphere pathways analysis, biosphere pathways analysis and potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis. Geosphere pathways analysis includes a total systems analysis, using the computer program GARD2, vault analysis, which considers container failure and waste leaching, hydrogeological modelling and geochemical modelling. Biosphere pathways analysis incorporates a compartmental modelling approach using the computer program RAMM, and a food chain analysis using the computer program FOOD II. Potentially-disruptive-phenomena analysis involves the estimation of the probability and consequences of events such as earthquakes which might reduce the effectiveness of the barriers preventing the release of radionuclides. The current stage of development of the required methodology and data is discussed in each of the three areas and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  16. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  17. Long-term storage of radioactive solid waste within disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Edmunds, J.

    1986-05-01

    A study of the feasibility and implications of operating potential disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste in a retrievable storage mode for extended periods of up to 200 years has been carried out. The arisings of conditioned UK radioactive waste up to the year 2030 have been examined. Assignments of these wastes to different types of underground disposal facilities have been made on the basis of their present activity and that which they will have in 200 years time. Five illustrative disposal concepts proposed both in the UK and overseas have been examined with a view to their suitability for adaption for storage/disposal duty. Two concepts have been judged unsuitable because either the waste form or the repository structure were considered unlikely to last the storage phase. Three of the concepts would be feasible from a construction and operational viewpoint. This suggests that with appropriate allowance for geological aspects and good repository and waste form design that storage/disposal within the same facility is achievable. The overall cost of the storage/disposal concepts is in general less than that for separate surface storage followed by land disposal, but more than that for direct disposal. (author)

  18. Deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes: Near field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews the important near-field effects of the disposal of wastes in deep rock formations. The basic characteristics of waste form, container and package, buffer and backfill materials and potential host-rock types are discussed from the perspective of the performance requirements of the total repository system. Effects of waste emplacement on the separate system components and on the system as a whole are discussed. The effects include interactions between groundwater and brines and the other system components, thermal and thermo-mechanical effects, and chemical and geochemical reactions. Special consideration is given to the radiation field that exists in proximity to the waste containers and also to the coupled effects of different phenomena

  19. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  20. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  1. The industrial facility for Grouping, Storage and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Patrice

    2013-07-01

    The industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (called Cires in French), in the Aube district, is run by Andra. The facility is licensed to dispose of very-low-level waste, to collect non-nuclear-power radioactive waste and to provide storage for some of the waste for which a final management solution has not yet been found. The Cires facility is located a few kilometers from the Aube disposal facility (CSA), another of Andra's waste disposal facilities, currently dealing with low- and intermediate-level, short-lived waste. Contents: Andra in the Aube district, an exemplary industrial operator - The industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (Cires); Disposal of very-low-level waste (VLLW); The journey taken by VLL waste; Grouping of non-nuclear-power waste; Storage of non-nuclear-power waste; The journey taken by non-nuclear-power waste; Protecting present and future generations

  2. Radwaste characteristics and Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Suk Hyun; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ki Hong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of Radioactive Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) is to verify a radioactive waste compliance with radioactive disposal facility requirements in order to maintain a disposal facility's performance objectives and to ensure its safety. To develop WAC which is conformable with domestic disposal site conditions, we furthermore analysed the WAC of foreign disposal sites similar to the Kyung-Ju disposal site and the characteristics of various wastes which are being generated from Korea nuclear facilities. Radioactive WAC was developed in the technical cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in consideration of characteristics of the wastes which are being generated from various facilities, waste generators' opinions and other conditions. The established criteria was also discussed and verified at an advisory committee which was comprised of some experts from universities, institutes and the industry. So radioactive WAC was developed to accept all wastes which are being generated from various nuclear facilities as much as possible, ensuring the safety of a disposal facility. But this developed waste acceptance criteria is not a criteria to accept all the present wastes generated from various nuclear facilities, so waste generators must seek an alternative treatment method for wastes which were not worth disposing of, and then they must treat the wastes more to be acceptable at a disposal site. The radioactive disposal facility WAC will continuously complement certain criteria related to a disposal concentration limit for individual radionuclide in order to ensure a long-term safety.

  3. Siting of near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The Safety Standards are supplemented by a number of Safety Guides and Safety Practices. This Safety Guide defines the site selection process and criteria for identifying suitable near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid wastes. Management of the siting process and data needed to apply the criteria are also specified. 4 refs

  4. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalousis, L N; Guarnaccia, E; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ∼ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC

  5. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Yuan Baixiang; Xu Lechang

    2012-01-01

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  6. Workshop on Seismic Performance of Underground Facilities: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    A workshop entitled Seismic Performance of Underground Facilities was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981. The Workshop was organized and conducted by The Savannah River Laboratory of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. and was sponsored by The Department of Energy and The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation of Battelle. The objective of the Workshop was to review and assess the state of the science of determining and predicting damage to underground facilities from earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the ultimate goal of developing criteria for siting and design of mined geologic nuclear waste repositories. The Workshop consisted of a day of presentations in the categories of Introduction, Data Collection and Analysis, Modeling, and Design. The second day consisted of assessments of the science by subgroups in the subjects of Seismology; Rock Mechanics and Hydrology; Modeling; Licensing, Siting, and Tectonics; and Design. Most Scientists in attendance believed that enough was known of the subsurface effects of earthquakes to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. There was, however, recognition of several items of research that would enhance the understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity

  7. Construction of an underground facility for ''in-situ'' experimentation in the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Manfroy, P.; Van Haelewijn, R.; Heremans, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Belgian R and D Programme concerning the disposal of high-level and alpha-bearing radioactive waste in continental geological formations was launched by SCK/CEN, Mol in 1974. The programme is characterised by its site and formation specific approach, i.e. Mol and Boom clay. In the framework of site confirmation, an important issue is the ''in situ'' experimentation which should allow to determine with a higher degree of confidence the numerical value of the data needed for the evaluations, assessments and designs. The present report deals with the construction of an underground experimental facility, which was scheduled to be fully completed in mid 1984. Initially, the completion was scheduled for the end of 1983, but supplementary experiments related to geomechanics and mining capabilities and to be performed during the construction phase of the experimental facility delayed the completion of the underground facility. During the construction, a continuous observation was made of the behaviour of the clay mass and the structures. In this final contract-report, only the as-built structure, the time schedule and the ''in situ'' experiments launched or performed during the construction phase are dealt with

  8. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  9. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  10. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  11. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckles, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria

  12. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  13. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  14. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments

  15. Safety distance between underground natural gas and water pipeline facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Yusof, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    A leaking water pipe bursting high pressure water jet in the soil will create slurry erosion which will eventually erode the adjacent natural gas pipe, thus causing its failure. The standard 300 mm safety distance used to place natural gas pipe away from water pipeline facilities needs to be reviewed to consider accidental damage and provide safety cushion to the natural gas pipe. This paper presents a study on underground natural gas pipeline safety distance via experimental and numerical approaches. The pressure–distance characteristic curve obtained from this experimental study showed that the pressure was inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. Experimental testing using water-to-water pipeline system environment was used to represent the worst case environment, and could be used as a guide to estimate appropriate safety distance. Dynamic pressures obtained from the experimental measurement and simulation prediction mutually agreed along the high-pressure water jetting path. From the experimental and simulation exercises, zero effect distance for water-to-water medium was obtained at an estimated horizontal distance at a minimum of 1500 mm, while for the water-to-sand medium, the distance was estimated at a minimum of 1200 mm. - Highlights: • Safe separation distance of underground natural gas pipes was determined. • Pressure curve is inversely proportional to separation distance. • Water-to-water system represents the worst case environment. • Measured dynamic pressures mutually agreed with simulation results. • Safe separation distance of more than 1200 mm should be applied

  16. The use of scientific and technical results from underground research laboratory investigations for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the report is to provide information on the use of results obtained from underground research laboratory investigations for the development of a deep geological repository system for long lived and/or high level radioactive waste including spent fuel. Specifically, it should provide Member States that intend to start development of a geological disposal system with an overview of existing facilities and of the sorts and quality of results that have already been acquired. The report is structured into six main themes: rock characterization methodologies and testing; assessment of the geological barrier; assessment of the engineered barrier system; respository construction techniques; demonstration of repository operations; confidence building and international co-operation

  17. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  18. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  19. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, Mark C.; Russell, Glenn P.; Perry, Frank V.; Kelley, Richard E.; Champenois, Sean T.

    2017-01-01

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  20. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  1. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  2. Underground disposal of hazardous waste in the Federal Republic of Germany - principles and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Brasser, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the final disposal of radioactive waste and the permanent enclosure of defined types of toxic wastes in deep geological formations are being pursued with a view towards preventing hazardous material from reaching the biosphere. A detailed site- and waste-specific safety analysis will be required to substantiate the effiency of underground repositories. In this respect the longterm behaviour of wastes and possible interactions need to be evaluated, taking into consideration the geochemical-hydrogeological conditions such as groundwater movement and solution potentials. (au)

  3. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  4. An underground research tunnel for the validation of high-level radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Park, S. I.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this study, minimum requirements and the conceptual design for an efficient construction of a small scale URL, which is named URT, were derived based on a literature review. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design for construction at KAERI, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, electronic resistivity survey, borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Based on the results, it was possible to design URT effectively with a consideration of the site characterization. The construction of URT was started in May 2005 and the first stage of the construction of the access tunnel could be successfully completed in Aug. 2005

  5. The international STRIPA project. Experimental research on the underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The International Stripa Project is a joint undertaking by a number of countries, carried out under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It concerns research into the feasibility and safety of disposal of highly radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation, deep underground in crystalline rock. The Project is managed by the Division KBS of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company (SKBF), under the direction of representatives from each participating country. This report summarizes the objectives and preliminary results of experimental work performed within the framework of the Stripa Project and that undertaken prior to the establishment of the Project at the Stripa Mine in Sweden. It also describes the part played by the Project in the development of national policies for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes

  6. Atmospheric Pathway Screening Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Facility Vault 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOK, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A sequential screening process using a methodology developed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, professional judgment and process knowledge has been used to produce a list of radionuclides requiring detailed analysis to derive disposal limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on the atmospheric pathway

  7. Disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. Environmental impact assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The report presents the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the high level radioactive waste disposal in Finland. In EIA different alternatives concerning site selection, construction, operation and sealing of the disposal facility as well as waste transportation and encapsulation of the waste are considered

  8. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  9. The waste disposal facility in the Aube District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Patrice

    2013-06-01

    The waste disposal facility in the Aube district is the second surface waste disposal facility built in France. It is located in the Aube district, and has been operated by Andra since 1992. With a footprint of 95 hectares, it is licensed for the disposal of 1 million cubic meters of low- and intermediate-level, short-lived waste packages. The CSA is located a few kilometers away another Andra facility, currently in operation for very-low-level waste, and collection and storage of non-nuclear power waste (the Cires). Contents: Andra in the Aube district, an exemplary industrial operator - The waste disposal facility in the Aube district (CSA); Low- and intermediate-level, short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL); The LILW-SL circuit; Protecting present and future generations

  10. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  11. Heat generation and heating limits for the IRUS LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Caron, F.

    1995-10-01

    Heat generation from radioactive decay and chemical degradation must be considered when implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal. This is particularly important when considering the management of spent radioisotope sources. Heating considerations and temperature calculations for the proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface disposal facility are presented. Heat transfer calculations were performed using a finite element code with realistic but somewhat conservative heat transfer parameters and environmental boundary conditions. The softening-temperature of the bitumen waste-form (38 deg C) was found to be the factor that limits the heat generation rate in the facility. This limits the IRUS heat rate, assuming a uniform source term, to 0.34 W/m 3 . If a reduced general heat-limit is considered, then some higher-heat packages can be accepted with restrictions placed on their location within the facility. For most LLRW, heat generation from radioactive decay and degradation are a small fraction of the IRUS heating limits. However, heating restrictions will impact on the disposal of higher-activity radioactive sources. High activity 60 Co sources will require decay-storage periods of about 70 years, and some 137 Cs will need to bed disposed of in facilities designed for higher-heat waste. (author). 21 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Sodium cleaning and disposal methods in experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, M.; Kale, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, major sodium facilities are designed and operated at Engineering Development Group as a part of development programme towards experimental and Prototype Fast Reactor. After the test programme many equipment and components were removed from the sodium facilities and sodium removal and disposal was carried out. The experience gained in different cleaning methods and waste sodium disposal are discussed. (author)

  13. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive waste must be managed safely, consistent with internationally agreed safety standards. The disposal method chosen for the waste should be commensurate with the hazard and longevity of the waste. Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides and low concentrations of long lived radionuclides. The term 'near surface disposal' encompasses a wide range of design options, including disposal in engineered structures at or just below ground level, disposal in simple earthen trenches a few metres deep, disposal in engineered concrete vaults, and disposal in rock caverns several tens of metres below the surface. The use of a near surface disposal option requires design and operational measures to provide for the protection of human health and the environment, both during operation of the disposal facility and following its closure. To ensure the safety of both workers and the public (both in the short term and the long term), the operator is required to design a comprehensive waste management system for the safe operation and closure of a near surface disposal facility. Part of such a system is to establish criteria for accepting waste for disposal at the facility. The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures and in addition, to prevent or limit hazards, which could arise from non-radiological causes. Waste acceptance criteria include limits on radionuclide content concentration in waste materials, and radionuclide amounts in packages and in the repository as a whole. They also include limits on quantity of free liquids, requirements for exclusion of chelating agents and pyrophoric materials, and specifications of the characteristics of the waste containers. Largely as a result of problems encountered at some disposal facilities operated in the past, in 1985 the IAEA published guidance on generic acceptance

  14. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  15. Principles and guidelines for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Four basic principles relevant to radioactive waste disposal identified. These principles cover the justification of the activity giving rise to the waste, the consideration of risk to present and future generations, the minimization of the need for intervention in the future, and the financial obligations of the licensee. The use of risk limits as opposed to dose limits associated with disposal is discussed, as are the concepts of critical group, de minimis, and ALARA, in the context of a waste disposal facility. Guidance is given on the selection of the preferred waste disposal concept from among several alternatives, and for judging proposed design improvements to the chosen concept

  16. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  17. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  18. Conceptual design report for Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The permanent facilities are defined, and cost estimates are provided for the disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) at the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF). The waste designated for the Central Waste Disposal Facility will be generated by the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility will be operated by ORNL for the Office of Defense Waste and By-Products Management of the Deparment of Energy. The CWDF will be located on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, west of Highway 95 and south of Bear Creek Road. The body of this Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the permanent facilities required for the operation of the CWDF. Initial facilities, trenches, and minimal operating equipment will be provided in earlier projects. The disposal of LLW will be by shallow land burial in engineered trenches. DOE Order 5820 was used as the performance standard for the proper disposal of radioactive waste. The permanent facilities are intended for beneficial occupancy during the first quarter of fiscal year 1989. 3 references, 9 figures, 7 tables

  19. Proposed integrated hazardous waste disposal facility. Public environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Public Environmental Report describes a proposal by the Health Department of Western Australia to establish a disposal facility for certain hazardous wastes and seeks comments from governments agencies and the public that will assist the EPA to make its recommendations to. The facility would only be used for wastes generated in Western Australia.The proposal specifically includes: a high temperature incinerator for the disposal of organo-chlorines (including agricultural chemicals and PCBs), and other intractable wastes for which this is the optimum disposal method; an area for the burial (after any appropriate conditioning) of low level radioactive intractable wastes arising from the processing of mineral sands (including monazite, ilmenite and zircon) and phosphate rock. Detailed information is presented on those wastes which are currently identified as requiring disposal at the facility.The proposed facility will also be suitable for the disposal of other intractable wastes including radioactive wastes (from industry, medicine and research) and other solid intractable wastes of a chemical nature including spent catalysts etc. Proposals to dispose of these other wastes at this facility in the future will be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority for separate assessment

  20. The AGP-Project conceptual design for a Spanish HLW final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Huertas, F.; Ulibarri, A.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the AGP Project a Conceptual Design for a HLW Final Disposal Facility to be eventually built in an underground salt formation in Spain has been developed. The AGP Project has the character of a system analysis. In the current project phase I several alternatives has been considered for different subsystems and/or components of the repository. The system variants, developed to such extent as to allow a comparison of their advantages and disadvantages, will allow the selection of a reference concept, which will be further developed to technical maturity in subsequent project phases. (author)

  1. Traces of the future. Learning from the nature for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2007-04-01

    In view of the long term safety of an underground storage facility for radioactive waste, some observations from the nature can be helpful by judging laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Some examples which are described in this report (so-called natural analogues) show that in the nature geological systems, materials and processes are found the stability of which can be studied over long time intervals of the past. A natural analogue presents an example that is valid for the actual geological conditions and so can give highly useful remarks. However, such an example should not be over estimated. The examples shown in this report are limited to natural analogues which concern the total storage system, the technical barriers or the host rock of a geological underground repository for highly radioactive wastes as they are produced in a nuclear reactor. (author)

  2. Preliminary studies of tunnel interface response modeling using test data from underground storage facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Bartel, Lewis Clark

    2010-11-01

    In attempting to detect and map out underground facilities, whether they be large-scale hardened deeply-buried targets (HDBT's) or small-scale tunnels for clandestine border or perimeter crossing, seismic imaging using reflections from the tunnel interface has been seen as one of the better ways to both detect and delineate tunnels from the surface. The large seismic impedance contrast at the tunnel/rock boundary should provide a strong, distinguishable seismic response, but in practice, such strong indicators are often lacking. One explanation for the lack of a good seismic reflection at such a strong contrast boundary is that the damage caused by the tunneling itself creates a zone of altered seismic properties that significantly changes the nature of this boundary. This report examines existing geomechanical data that define the extent of an excavation damage zone around underground tunnels, and the potential impact on rock properties such as P-wave and S-wave velocities. The data presented from this report are associated with sites used for the development of underground repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste; these sites have been excavated in volcanic tuff (Yucca Mountain) and granite (HRL in Sweden, URL in Canada). Using the data from Yucca Mountain, a numerical simulation effort was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the damage zone on seismic responses. Calculations were performed using the parallelized version of the time-domain finitedifference seismic wave propagation code developed in the Geophysics Department at Sandia National Laboratories. From these numerical simulations, the damage zone does not have a significant effect upon the tunnel response, either for a purely elastic case or an anelastic case. However, what was discovered is that the largest responses are not true reflections, but rather reradiated Stoneley waves generated as the air/earth interface of the tunnel. Because of this, data processed in the usual way may not

  3. Assessment of the radiological risks of underground disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1988-12-01

    One of the general principles for assessing proposals for operating a landbased facility for solid radioactive waste disposal is that the site should be chosen and the facility should be designed so that the risk or probability of fatal cancer, to any member of the public, from any movement of radioactivity from the facility, is not greater than 1 in a million in any one year. This report provides advice to the Department of the Environment as to how this risk may be defined and gives a prescription for how it can be calculated. (author)

  4. Source term analysis for a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, D.L.; Blandford, T.N.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo transport scheme was used to estimate the source strength resulting from potential releases from a mixed waste disposal facility. Infiltration rates were estimated using the HELP code, and transport through the facility was modeled using the DUST code, linked to a Monte Carlo driver

  5. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  6. Present issues for centre de la Manche disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Vervialle, J.P.; Charton, P.

    2006-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility officially entered its institutional control period in January 2003. Andra performs monitoring of the environment and of the capping system in order to prepare further phases that should become more and more passive. A detailed 'long term memory' has been established in order to provide future generations with the relevant information about the facility. (author)

  7. UNDERGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-11-15

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  8. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  9. The cost of engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Razor, J.E.; Mills, D.

    1987-01-01

    An improved disposal trench was designed, constructed and placed into operation at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site during the period April 1985 through July 1986. With the improved trench design, the waste packages are placed in clusters and the surrounding space is filled with gravel and grouted with a sand/cement mixture to form walls and cells that surround the waste package. The walls provide structural support for a poly-ethylene reinforced soil beam which in turn supports a multi-layer protective cap. About 2,700 drums of waste (20,250 CF) were placed into the trench. The total cost of the improved trench was $193,500 and the unit cost was $9.56 per cubic foot not including the placement of the waste. The engineered features of the trench (i.e., sidewall infiltration barrier, grout backfill and the soil beam) cost $82,600 for a unit cost of $4.08 per cubic foot of waste. This is compared to the cost of concrete cannisters used for radioactive waste disposal. On a production basis the cannisters are estimated to cost about $1,260. Depending upon the type waste, the cost of the cannisters will range from $2 to $12 per cubic foot of waste. The slightly higher cost of the concrete cannisters is offset by certain performance advantages

  10. On barrier performance of high compaction bentonite in facilities of disposing high level radioactive wastes in formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hidefumi; Komada, Hiroya

    1989-01-01

    As for the method of disposing high level radioactive wastes generated in the reprocessing of spent fuel, at present formation disposal is regarded as most promising. The most important point in this formation disposal is to prevent the leak of radioactive nuclides within the disposal facilities into bedrocks and their move to the zone of human life. As the method of formation disposal, the canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are placed in the horizontal or vertical holes for disposal dug from horizontal tunnels which are several hundreds m underground, and the tunnels and disposal holes are filled again. For this filling material, the barrier performance to prevent and retard the leak of radioactive nuclides out of the disposal facilities is expected, and the characteristics of low water permeability, the adsorption of nuclides and long term stability are required. However, due to the decay heat of wastes just after the disposal, high temperature and drying condition arises, and this must be taken in consideration. The characteristics required for filling materials and the selection of the materials, the features and classification of bentonite, the properties of high compaction bentonite, and the move of water, heat and nuclides in high compaction bentonite are reported.(Kako, I.)

  11. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  12. An assessment study of septic tank based sewage disposal system on quality of underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.A.; Lisa, M.; Boustani, M.; Jaffar, M.; Masud, K.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of septic tank based sewage disposal system made on the basis of quality of underground water is presented. Machrala village is selected as the case study area where an ever-increasing number of septic tanks are posing great health threat to the inhabitants. Both hand pump and tube well water samples are analyzed for toxic trace metals (Mn, Fe, Cd and Co), physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductance, total dissolved salts, Ca, Mg, Cl/sup-/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/) and micro-organism population in terms of total viable count, coliform count, MPN coliform. The metals were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption method using standard procedure. The study shows that the local underground water of the village is being adversely affected by toxic metals and coliform bacteria. In most cases, the latter parameter exceeds 240 counts/ml. Besides, tube well water were found to have higher Pb concentration (0.200 mg/ml) and the overall assessment renders more than 50% of the water samples as unsatisfactory for human consumption. (author)

  13. Method of disposing of earth contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehl, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for disposing of earth contaminated with petroleum products from a leaking underground storage tank wherein the earth contains a significant amount of material comprised primarily of a mixture of one part Al 2 O 3 and two to three parts SiO 2 , the process comprising: digging up a leaking underground storage tank and the surrounding contaminated earth; separating the excavated earth into a Al 2 O 3 +SiO 2 material and a non-Al 2 O 3 + SiO 2 material; mixing the Al 2 O 3 + SiO 2 material and other cement precursor raw materials together to form a mixture, and grinding the mixture to form a feed mix; introducing the feed mix into a rotary cement kiln causing any remaining petroleum product contained therein to be volatilized and burned within the kiln as cement clinker is being produced; and grinding the cement clinker together to form cement which is free of petroleum product

  14. Eves government invests $9.3 million to establish new facility for underground science in Sudbury

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Institute (SNO), in co-operation with a number of private and public sector partners, will establish the International Facility for Underground Science at Creighton Mine in Sudbury (1 page)

  15. Radioactive waste processing facility and underground processing method for radioactive wastes using the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuyuki

    1998-01-01

    There are disposed a communication pit laterally extended in an underground base rock, an access pit extended from the ground surface to the communication pit, discarding pits laterally extended at a plurality of longitudinal positions of the communication pit and layered buffer materials for keeping a radioactive waste-sealing container at substantially the center of the discarding pit. The layered buffer material comprises fan-shaped buffer blocks divided so that the axial end faces of inner and outer layers are displaced with each other in the axial direction of the discarding pit and so that the circumferential end faces of the inner and the outer layers are circumferentially displaced with each other. Even if the base lock should move, the layered buffer material reduces the propagation of the movement to the radioactive waste-sealing vessel thereby enabling to enhance supporting strength. (N.H.)

  16. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  17. Low and intermediate level disposal in Spain (El Cabril Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1997-01-01

    El Cabril disposal facility is located in Southern Spain and was commissioned in October 1992. The main objective of this facility is the disposal of all low- and intermediate-level waste produced in Spain in a disposal system (Figure 1) consisting of concrete overpacks placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. The facility also includes : 1) A treatment and conditioning shop (with incineration, non-NPP wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection) 2) A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive tests on the waste forms (specimens extractions, unskinning of drums, mechanical strength, leaching tests on specimens and full size packages) 3) A fabrication shop for overpacks construction 4) Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practice and the reception and transport of the wastes from the producers to facilities. (author). 11 figs

  18. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  19. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  20. Application of GIS in site selection for nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Luginaah, I.N.; Sorrell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Whether designing a new facility or investigating, potential contaminant migration at an existing site, proper characterization of the subsurface conditions and their interaction with surface features is critical to the process. The Atomic Energy Control Board, states in its regulatory document R-104 that, open-quotes For the long-term management of radioactive wastes, the preferred approach is disposal, a permanent method of management in which there is no intention of retrieval and which, ideally uses techniques and designs that do not rely for their success on long-term institutional control beyond a reasonable period of timeclose quotes. Thus although storage is safe, eventually disposal is necessary to avoid long-term reliance on continuing care and attention, such as monitoring and maintenance. In Canada, the concept being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) involves disposal in deep underground repositories in intrusive igneous rock. The aim of this concept as a disposal method is to build multiple barriers that would protect humans and the natural environment from contaminants in the radioactive waste. The multiple barriers include the geosphere, which consists of the rock, any sediments overlying the rock, and the groundwater. Nevertheless, immediate, as well as long-term, consequences, including, risk involved with technological systems and the inherent uncertainty of any forecast, make the prediction and analysis tasks of increasing importance. This uncertainty in the area of nuclear waste disposal is leading to growing concerns about nuclear waste site selection

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10 5 m 3 of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10 14 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99 Tc (t 1/2 = 2.1 x 10 5 ), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  2. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  3. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  4. Proceedings of the establishment conference of Professional Committee on Waste Underground Disposal of Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering and the first academic seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Approved by the China Association for Science and Technology, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering newly established 'Professional Committee on Waste Underground Disposal'. The committee will organise the national and international academic exchange, and provide advice on discipline development, sustainable industrial development, environmental protection, etc.. This is the establishing conference of the professional committee, as well as the first academic seminar. The following topics on waste underground disposal are discussed: the theory, practice and exploration, project examples, new technologies and new methods. The contents include: waste disposal technology in the new century, the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, LLW and ILW underground waste disposal, urban and industrial waste underground disposal, and etc.

  5. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators

  6. Information base for waste repository design. Volume 5. Decommissioning of underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiffre, M.S.; Plum, R.L.; Koplick, C.M.; Talbot, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the requirements for decommissioning a deep underground facilitiy for the disposal of radioactive waste. The techniques for sealing the mined excavations are presented and an information base on potential backfill materials is provided. Possible requirements for monitoring the site are discussed. The performance requirements for backfill materials are outlined. The advantages and disadvantages of each sealing method are stated

  7. Alternative disposal technologies for new low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Waste Management Activities for groundwater protection has been prepared for the Savannah River Plant. Support documentation for the DEIS included an Environmental Information Document on new radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities in which possible alternative disposal technologies were examined in depth. Six technologies that would meet the needs of the Savannah River Plant that selected for description and analysis include near surface disposal, near surface disposal with exceptions, engineered storage, engineered disposal, vault disposal of untreated waste, and a combination of near surface disposal, engineered disposal, and engineered storage. 2 refs

  8. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  9. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  10. Very Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Recently Commissioned as an Extension of El Cabril LILW Disposal Facility in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Navarro, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Very Low Activity Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal facility, designed, built and operated by ENRESA as a part of El Cabril LILW disposal facility. El Cabril facility was commissioned in 1992 and has 28 concrete vaults with an internal volume of 100,000 m 3 , as well as waste treatment systems and waste characterization laboratories. The total needs identified in Spain for LILW disposal are of some 176,000 m 3 , of which around 120,000 m3 might be classified as VLLW This project was launched in 2003 and the major licensing steps have been town planning license (2003), construction authorization (after Environmental Impact Statement and report from Nuclear Safety Council-CSN, 2006), and Operations Authorization (after report from CSN, July 2008). The new VLLW disposal facility has a capacity for 130,000 meters cube in four disposal cells of approximately the same size. Only the first cell has been built. The design of the barriers is based on the European Directive for elimination of dangerous waste and consists of a clay layer 1 m, 3 cm geo-bentonite films, and 4 mm HDPE film. In order to minimize leachate volumes collected and help a good monitoring of the site, each cell is divided into different sections, which are protected during operation -before placing a provisional HDPE capping- by a light shelter and where leachate collection is segregated from other sections. (authors)

  11. Molding method of buffer material for underground disposal of radiation-contaminated material, and molded buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Hidenari; Shimura, Satoshi; Kawakami, Susumu; Ninomiya, Nobuo; Yamagata, Junji; Asano, Eiichi

    1995-01-01

    Upon molding of a buffer material to be used upon burying a vessel containing radiation-contaminated materials in a sealed state, a powdery buffer material to be molded such as bentonite is disposed at the periphery of a mandrel having a cylindrical portion somewhat larger than contaminate container to be subjected to underground disposal. In addition, it is subjected to integration-molding such as cold isotropic press with a plastic film being disposed therearound, to form a molding product at high density. The molding product is released and taken out with the plastic film being disposed thereon. Releasability from an elastic mold is improved by the presence of the plastic film. In addition, if it is stored or transported while having the plastic film being disposed thereon, swelling of the buffer material due to water absorption or moisture absorption can be suppressed. (T.M.)

  12. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). Geological Waste Disposal Unit

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  13. Information collection regarding geoscientific monitoring techniques during closure of underground facility in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Shinichi; Yamashita, Tadashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Ishibashi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline host rock (granite) at Mizunami City in Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. On the occasion of the reform of the entire JAEA organization in 2014, JAEA identified the critical issues on the geoscientific research program: “Development of modelling technologies for mass transport”, “Development of drift backfilling technologies” and “Development of technologies for reducing groundwater inflow”, based on the latest results of the synthesizing R and D. The purposes of the “Development of drift backfilling technologies” are to develop closure methodology and technology, and long-term monitoring technology, and to evaluate resilience of geological environment. In order to achieve the purposes, previous information from the case example of underground facility constructed in crystalline rock in Europe has been collected in this study. In particular, the boundary conditions for the closure, geological characteristics, technical specifications, and method of monitoring have been focused. The information on the international project regarding drift closure test and development of monitoring technologies has also been collected. In addition, interviews were conducted to Finnish and Swedish specialists who have experiences involving planning, construction management, monitoring, and safety assessment for the closure to obtain the technical knowledge. Based on the collected information, concept and point of attention, which are regarding drift closure testing, and planning, execution management and monitoring on the closure of MIU, have been specified. (author)

  14. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  15. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  16. Acceptance test procedure: RMW Land Disposal Facility Project W-025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This ATP establishes field testing procedures to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation system functions as intended by design for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility. Procedures are outlined for the field testing of the following: electrical heat trace system; transducers and meter/controllers; pumps; leachate storage tank; and building power and lighting

  17. Low-level radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility -- Permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Jasen, W.G.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive mixed waste (RMW) disposal at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). Westinghouse Hanford Company, in Richland, Washington, has completed the design of a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility, which is based on the best available technology compliant with RCRA. When completed, this facility will provide permanent disposal of solid RMW, after treatment, in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The facility includes a double clay and geosynthetic liner with a leachate collection system to minimize potential leakage of radioactive or hazardous constituents from the landfill. The two clay liners will be capable of achieving a permeability of less than 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. The two clay liners, along with the two high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners and the leachate collection and removal system, provide a more than conservative, physical containment of any potential radioactive and/or hazardous contamination

  18. Radiological Operational Safety Verification for LILW Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The successful implementation of radioactive waste repository program depends on scientific and technical aspects of excellent safety strategy as well as on societal aspects such as stakeholder acceptance and confidence. Monitoring is considered as key element in serving both ends. It covers all stages of the disposal process from site selection to institutional monitoring after the repository is closed. Basically, the purpose of the monitoring of radioactive waste disposal facility is not to reveal any increase of radioactivity due to the repository, but to provide reassurance and confirmation that the repository is fulfilling its passive safety purpose as an initial disposal concept and that long-term safety driven by regulatory requirements is ensured throughout the entire lifetime of disposal facility including post-closure phase. Five principal objectives of monitoring of geological disposal are summarized by IAEA-TECDOC-1208 as follows 1) Supporting management decisions in a staged programme of repository development: 2) Strengthening understanding of system behavior: 3) Societal decision making: 4) Accumulating an environmental database: 5) Nuclear safeguards (if repository contains fissile material, i.e., spent fuel or plutonium-rich waste) Based on the results of detailed studies of the above objectives and related phenomena, 6 categories of potential monitoring parameters are determined as follows: (1) degradation of repository structures, (2) behavior of the waste package and its associated buffer material, (3) near field chemical interactions between introduced materials, groundwater and host rock, (4) chemical and physical changes to the surrounding geosphere, (5) provision of an environmental database, and (6) nuclear safeguards. Typical monitoring parameters include temperature (heat), water level, pore-water and moisture content (groundwater), rock pressure, fractures, displacement and deformation (stress), water quality chemistry and dissolved

  19. Co-ordinated management of two underground gas facilities in aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Haussy, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Coordinated management of two underground natural gas storage facilities which are approximately 10 km apart is described. The essential part of service installations allowing their operation is provided at a single location and is common to both facilities, which contributes to ensuring safety gas supply in France

  20. Practical evaluations of low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1989-01-01

    In general, there have been about four main tools that have been used to assist in selecting a disposal technology and in evaluating that technology: Legislative direction; Operator selection; Multiattribute utility estimation; and Risk assessment and cost benefit evaluation. The first technique, legislative direction, is an important factor in determining the range of disposal technologies that may be considered. Some host state entities have chosen not to participate in the disposal technology selection, but will let the facility operator propose and defend his preferred facility concept in the license application. Multiattribute utility estimation is a widely used tool for evaluating technologies, particularly in the preliminary stages of selecting a disposal technology when significant technical and institutional information is missing. Many factors, including a range of technical, safety, environmental, societal, political, and economic concerns must be considered in the selection process. Many of these are hard to quantify and not all are of equal importance. Multiattrubute utility estimation allows for these factors to be considered in selecting a technology with incomplete information. This chapter provides description of two analysis techniques: multiattribute utility estimation and cost benefit evaluation. Both can be used to help profile disposal alternatives in relation to specific factors or criteria

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krogstad, Eirik J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bjornstad, Bruce N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  2. License application approach for the California LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology, Inc. is the State of California's license designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility to serve member states of the Southwestern Compact. US Ecology identified a proposed site in the Ward Valley of southeastern California in March 1988. Following proposed site selection, US Ecology undertook studies required to prepare a license application. US Ecology's license application for this desert site was deemed complete for detailed regulatory review by the California Department of Health Services (DHS) in December 1989. By mutual agreement, disposal of mixed waste is not proposed pending the State of California's decision on appropriate management of this small LLRW subset

  3. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Fractured Rocks around the In-DEBS Test Borehole at the Underground Research Facility (KURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nak-Youl; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2016-04-01

    In the concept of the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes, canisters including high-level wastes are surrounded by engineered barrier, mainly composed of bentonite, and emplaced in disposal holes drilled in deep intact rocks. The heat from the high-level radioactive wastes and groundwater inflow can influence on the robustness of the canister and engineered barrier, and will be possible to fail the canister. Therefore, thermal-hydrological-mechanical (T-H-M) modeling for the condition of the disposal holes is necessary to secure the safety of the deep geological disposal. In order to understand the T-H-M coupling phenomena at the subsurface field condition, "In-DEBS (In-Situ Demonstration of Engineered Barrier System)" has been designed and implemented in the underground research facility, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) in Korea. For selecting a suitable position of In-DEBS test and obtaining hydrological data to be used in T-H-M modeling as well as groundwater flow simulation around the test site, the fractured rock aquifer including the research modules of KURT was investigated through the in-situ tests at six boreholes. From the measured data and results of hydraulic tests, the range of hydraulic conductivity of each interval in the boreholes is about 10-7-10-8 m/s and that of influx is about 10-4-10-1 L/min for NX boreholes, which is expected to be equal to about 0.1-40 L/min for the In-DEBS test borehole (diameter of 860 mm). The test position was determined by the data and availability of some equipment for installing In-DEBS in the test borehole. The mapping for the wall of test borehole and the measurements of groundwater influx at the leaking locations was carried out. These hydrological data in the test site will be used as input of the T-H-M modeling for simulating In-DEBS test.

  4. Lessons learned from international siting experiences of LLW Disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States can gain insight into successfully siting low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities by studying the process in other nations. Siting experiences in France and Sweden are compared to experiences in the United States. Three factors appear to making siting of LLW disposal facilities easier in France and Sweden than in the United States. First, the level of public trust in the government and the entities responsible for siting, developing, and operating a LLW disposal facility is much greater in France and Sweden than in the United States. Second, France and Sweden are much more dependent on nuclear power than is the United States. Third, French and Swedish citizens do not have the same access to the siting process (i.e., legal means to intervene) as do U.S. citizens. To compensate for these three factors, public officials responsible for siting a facility may need to better listen to the concerns of public interest groups and citizen advisory committees and amend their siting process accordingly and better share power and control with the public. If these two techniques are implemented earnestly by the states, siting efforts may be increasingly more successful in the United States

  5. Overview of low level waste disposal facility costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverot, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Economics and uncertainty go hand-in-hand and it is too soon to have conclusive data on the life cycle costs of a disposal facility. While LLW volumes from are decreasing year after year, the effect of the projected LLW volumes from decommissioning may have a significant impact on the final unit costs. This overview recognizes that countries see LLW disposal costs differently depending on the scale of their programs and on the geographical, political and economic frameworks within which they operate. The reasons for the cost differences arise from a number of factors: differences in designs and in technologies (near surface engineered vault, enhanced shallow land burial, silo type caverns,...), disposal capacities, programmatic and regulatory requirements, organizational, managerial and institutional frameworks, contractual arrangements, etc. Comparison of actual project costs, if done incorrectly, can lead to invalid conclusions and little purpose would be served by so doing since cost variations reflect the reality faced by each country

  6. Rock fracture dynamics research at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory: applications to geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.P. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Haycox, J.R. [Applied Seismology Consultants Limited, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Martino, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Studies of rock fracture dynamics at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) have helped to provide a fundamental understanding of how crystalline rock responds to stresses induced from excavation, pressurization and temperature changes. The data acquired continue to provide insights into how a facility for the future geological disposal of radioactive waste could be engineered. Research into microseismic (MS), acoustic emission (AE), and ultrasonic velocity measurements has been performed on the full-scale sealed, pressurized, and heated horizontal elliptical tunnel at the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX). The continuous monitoring of the experiment for 8 years provides a unique dataset for the understanding of the medium-term performance of an engineered disposal facility. This paper summarizes the results, interpretations and key findings of the experiment paying particular focus to the heating and cooling/depressurization of the chamber. Initial drilling of the tunnel and bulkheads causes microfracturing around the tunnel, mapped by MS and AEs, and is used as a benchmark for fracturing representing the excavated damaged zone (EDZ). There is no further extension to the volume during pressurization or heating of the tunnel suggesting an increase in crack density and coalescence of cracks rather than extension into unfractured rock. The dominant structure within the seismic cloud has been investigated using a statistical approach applying the three-point method. MS events in the roof exhibit a dominant pattern of sub-horizontal and shallow-dipping well defined planar features, but during cooling and depressurization a 45 degree dip normal to the tunnel axis is observed, which may be caused by movement in the rock-concrete interface due to differential cooling of the bulkhead and host rock. Cooling and depressurization of the TSX have not led to a significant increase in the number of MS or AE events. Ultrasonic results suggest the rock gets even stiffer

  7. Staff Technical Position on geological repository operations area underground facility design: Thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraja, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) with a methodology acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 60.133(i). The NRC staff's position is that DOE should develop and use a defensible methodology to demonstrate the acceptability of a geologic repository operations area (GROA) underground facility design. The staff anticipates that this methodology will include evaluation and development of appropriately coupled models, to account for the thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are induced by repository-generated thermal loads. With respect to 10 CFR 60.133(i), the GROA underground facility design: (1) should satisfy design goals/criteria initially selected, by considering the performance objectives; and (2) must satisfy the performance objectives 10 CFR 60.111, 60.112, and 60.113. The methodology in this STP suggests an iterative approach suitable for the underground facility design

  8. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  9. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  10. Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Corrective Action Facility Polygons, Region 9, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal facilities (TSDs) are facilities that have treated, stored or disposed of hazardous wastes. They are required to clean up...

  11. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  12. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Today principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot waste treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200 liter concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey, in 1990. The PRESTO - II (Prediction of Radiation Effects From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code was applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is non-site specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this codes takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  13. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  14. Disposal of liquid wastes by injection underground--Neither myth nor millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Arthur M.

    1969-01-01

    Injecting liquid wastes deep underground is an attractive but not necessarily practical means for disposing of them. For decades, impressive volumes of unwanted oil-field brine have been injected, currently about 10,000 acre-feet yearly. Recently, liquid industrial wastes are being injected in ever-increasing quantity. Dimensions of industrial injection wells range widely but the approximate medians are: depth, 2,660 feet; thickness of injection zone, 185 feet; injection rate, 135 gallons per minute; wellhead injection pressure, 185 pounds per square inch. Effects of deep injection are complex and not all are understood clearly. In a responsible society, injection cannot be allowed to put wastes out of mind. Injection is no more than storage--for all time in the case of the most intractable wastes--in underground space of which little is attainable in some areas and which is exhaustible in most areas. Liquid wastes range widely in character and concentration-some are incompatible one with another or with materials of the prospective injection zone; some which are reactive or chemically unstable would require pretreatment or could not be injected. Standards by which to categorize the wastes are urgently desirable. To the end that injection may be planned effectively and administered in orderly fashion, there is proposed an immediate and comprehensive canvass of all the United States to outline injection provinces and zones according to their capacities to accept waste. Much of the information needed to this end is at hand. Such a canvass would consider (1) natural zone, of groundwater circulation, from rapid to stagnant, (2) regional hydrodynamics, (3) safe injection pressures, and (4) geochemical aspects. In regard to safe pressure, definitive criteria would be sought by which to avoid recurrence of earthquake swarms such as seem to have been triggered by injection at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well near Denver, Colo. Three of the 50 States--Missouri, .Ohio, and

  15. Pore pressure measurement plan of near field rock used on three dimensional groundwater flow analysis in demonstration test of cavern type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki

    2008-01-01

    Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)

  16. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2007-01-01

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  17. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  18. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  19. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. 76 FR 55255 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction AGENCY: Internal..., on the definition of solid waste disposal facilities for purposes of the rules applicable to tax... governments that issue tax-exempt bonds to finance solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use...

  1. 76 FR 55256 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction AGENCY: Internal..., 2011, on the definition of solid waste disposal facilities for purposes of the rules applicable to tax... governments that issue tax-exempt bonds to finance solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use...

  2. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  3. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Facility for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, R.B.; van Hoesen, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    This disposal concept is based on the Tumulus design developed by the French at the La Manche facility. Waste units are stacked above-grade on a concrete pad. The facility currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves sealing waste in concrete vaults, placing the vaults on a grade level concrete pad, and covering the pad and vaults with a soil cover after vault emplacement is complete. Emplacement is expected to continue until the facility exhausts its approximate 800 m 3 (28,000 ft 3 ) capacity. The facility incorporates engineered barriers to radionuclide migration; a monitoring system to ensure barrier performance; and a newly developed set of Demonstration Waste Acceptance Criteria to reduce the likelihood of groundwater contamination

  4. Evaluation on construction quality of pit filler material of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Shimbo, Hiroshi; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    The pit filler material of the underground cavern-type radioactive waste disposal facility, which is poured directly around the radioactive waste packages where high temperature environment is assumed by their decay heat, is concerned to be adversely affected on the filling behavior and its hardened properties. There also are specific issues that required quality of construction must be achieved by unmanned construction with remote operation, because the pit filler construction shall be done under radiation environment. In this paper, the mix proportion of filler material is deliberated with filling experiments simulating high temperature environment, and also the effect of temperature on hardened properties are confirmed with high temperature curing test. Subsequently, the feasibility of unmanned construction method of filler material by pumping, and by movable bucket, are comparatively discussed through a real size demonstration. (author)

  5. Information requirements for the probabilistic risk assessment of underground disposal of low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Thompson, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The UK Department of the Environment (DoE) will perform independent post-closure safety assessment of proposals for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in engineered facilities in shallow ground. In this paper, the DoE assessment criteria, methodology and modelling capabilities are outlined; the general characteristics of the information required are discussed; and the specific information needs, as presently perceived, are identified. It is concluded that: most of the data that can be obtained by direct means is provided by site investigations and research now in hand, although there may be uncertainty due to sparse regional data; some parameters can only be obtained by, or with the assistance of subjective judgment; the process of data reduction is not straight forward and adequate time must be allowed for this if a comprehensive and defensible assessment is to be constructed

  6. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C D; Chandler, N A; Brown, Anton

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m{sup 2}) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to {sigma}{sub 3} and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because {sigma}{sub 3} is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs.

  7. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.; Brown, Anton.

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m 2 ) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to σ 3 and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because σ 3 is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs

  8. Analysis of local acceptance of a radioactive waste disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji Bum; Kim, Hong-Kew; Rho, Sam Kew

    2008-08-01

    Like many other countries in the world, Korea has struggled to site a facility for radioactive waste for almost 30 years because of the strong opposition from local residents. Finally, in 2005, Gyeongju was established as the first Korean site for a radioactive waste facility. The objectives of this research are to verify Gyeongju citizens' average level of risk perception of a radioactive waste disposal facility as compared to other risks, and to explore the best model for predicting respondents' acceptance level using variables related to cost-benefit, risk perception, and political process. For this purpose, a survey is conducted among Gyeongju residents, the results of which are as follows. First, the local residents' risk perception of an accident in a radioactive waste disposal facility is ranked seventh among a total of 13 risks, which implies that nuclear-related risk is not perceived very highly by Gyeongju residents; however, its characteristics are still somewhat negative. Second, the comparative regression analyses show that the cost-benefit and political process models are more suitable for explaining the respondents' level of acceptance than the risk perception model. This may be the result of the current economic depression in Gyeongju, residents' familiarity with the nuclear industry, or cultural characteristics of risk tolerance.

  9. Republic of Korea. Closure concept development for LILW disposal facility in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is developing near surface disposal concepts for both a rock cavern type disposal facility, and a vault type facility; two types of facility are being considered to provide more options for LILW repository siting. The conceptual design for the vault type facility will be completed in 1999. As a part of conceptual design effort, a preliminary concept for the disposal facility closure has been identified

  10. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. Longterm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, J. M.; Yum, M. O.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1997-03-01

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured

  12. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  13. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas; construction and safety precautions. 75.1903 Section 75.1903 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...; construction and safety precautions. (a) Permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities must be— (1... with at least 240 pounds of rock dust and provided with two portable multipurpose dry chemical type...

  14. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific site conditions identified through in situ monitoring, testing, or excavation. (c) Retrieval of... maintained. (2) Openings in the underground facility shall be designed to reduce the potential for... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration to...

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 A - 105 m 3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 A - 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 A - 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by (1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  16. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  17. Simulation of hydraulic disturbances caused by the underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.; Ferenc, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in a repository to be excavated in crystalline bedrock at a depth of 400-700 metres in Olkiluoto. The extensive site investigations carried out since the early 1980's will next focus on the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) in 2004-2010. The open tunnel system will constitute a major hydraulic disturbance for the site's groundwater conditions for hundreds of years. Especially, inflow of groundwater into the tunnels results in a drawdown of groundwater table and upcoming of deep saline groundwater, which the present study aimed to assess by means of a 3D finite element simulation. The modelled bedrock volume, which horizontally covered the whole Olkiluoto island, was conceptually divided into hydraulic units, planar fracture zones and sparsely fractured rock between the zones, which were both separately treated as porous media. The geometry of the fracture zones was based on the geological bedrock model. Simulations showed that without engineering measures (e.g. grouting) taken to limit inflow of groundwater into the open tunnels, the hydraulic disturbances could be drastic. The tunnels draw groundwater from all directions in the bedrock. A major part of inflow comes from the well-conductive subhorizontal fracture zones intersected by the access tunnel and the shaft. The simulations show that the resulting drawdown of groundwater table may be from tens to hundreds of metres and the depressed area may extend over the area of the island. The results also indicate that the salinity of groundwater is gradually rising around and below the tunnel system, and locally concentration (TDS) may rise rather high in the vicinity of the tunnels. However, the disturbances can significantly be reduced by the grouting of rock. (orig.)

  18. Creation and Plan of an Underground Geologic Radioactive Waste Isolation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T A; Kudinov, K G; Jardine, L J; Williams, J

    2004-01-01

    important facility and to extend the use of the underground models developed there to other future sites such as for low-level waste, near-surface disposal of solid wastes

  19. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures

  3. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  4. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  5. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  6. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S. [Harvard School Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  7. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. The Potential for Criticality Following Disposal of Uranium at Low-Level-Waste Facilities. Containerized Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colten-Bradley, V.A.; Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.; Toran, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop and test some reasonable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM) and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team's approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some possible scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increase in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to 235 U in the present scope of work. The work documented in this report indicates that the potential for a criticality safety concern to arise in an LLW facility is extremely remote, but not impossible. Theoretically, conditions that lead to a potential criticality safety concern might arise. However, study of the hydrogeochemical mechanisms, the associated time frames, and the factors required for an actual criticality event indicate that proper emplacement of the SNM at the site can eliminate practical concerns relative to the occurrence and possible consequences of a criticality event

  10. Experiments, conceptual design, preliminary cost estimates and schedules for an underground research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbin, G.; Wollenberg, H.; Wilson, C.; Strisower, B.; Chan, T.; Wedge, D.

    1981-09-01

    Plans for an underground research facility are presented, incorporating techniques to assess the hydrological and thermomechanical response of a rock mass to the introduction and long-term isolation of radioactive waste, and to assess the effects of excavation on the hydrologic integrity of a repository and its subsequent backfill, plugging, and sealing. The project is designed to utilize existing mine or civil works for access to experimental areas and is estimated to last 8 years at a total cost for contruction and operation of $39.0 million (1981 dollars). Performing the same experiments in an existing underground research facility would reduce the duration to 7-1/2 years and cost $27.7 million as a lower-bound estimate. These preliminary plans and estimates should be revised after specific sites are identified which would accommodate the facility

  11. Suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative of underground repository for HLW geological disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing; Fu Bingjun; Fan Xianhua; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2006-01-01

    Site selection for the underground repository is a vital problem with respect to the HLW geological disposal. Over the past decades, we have been focusing our attention on granite as a priority in China. However, there are some problems have to be discussed on this matter. In this paper, both experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community regarding the site selection are described. And then, after analyzing a lot of some key factors affecting the site selection, some comments and suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative before final decision making in China are presented. (authors)

  12. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits and Approval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  13. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  14. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  15. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  16. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austad, Stephanie Lee

    2015-01-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  17. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O' Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  18. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock

  19. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  20. Low background germanium detectors: From environmental laboratory to underground counting facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuppens, M [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium); [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States); Verplancke, J [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium); [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States); Tench, O [Canberra Semiconductor N.V., Geel (Belgium); [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Presentation and overview of different Low Level measuring systems ranging from the environmental lab to low-background detection systems and to the deep underground counting facility. Examples and performances for each of these will be given. Attention will be given to the standardised ultra low-background detectors and shields which provide excellent performance without the high cost in time and money associated with custom designed systems. (orig./DG)

  1. Low background germanium detectors: From environmental laboratory to underground counting facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuppens, M.; Verplancke, J.; Tench, O.

    1997-01-01

    Presentation and overview of different Low Level measuring systems ranging from the environmental lab to low-background detection systems and to the deep underground counting facility. Examples and performances for each of these will be given. Attention will be given to the standardised ultra low-background detectors and shields which provide excellent performance without the high cost in time and money associated with custom designed systems. (orig./DG)

  2. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Underground Radioactive Waste Isolation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-01-01

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization

  3. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  4. Review on chemical processes around the facilities in deep underground and study on numerical approach to evaluate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    The facilities for radioactive waste repositories are constructed in deep underground. Various chemical reactions including microbial activities may affect the long-term performance of the barrier system. An advancement of the evaluation method for the long-term behavior of barrier materials is desired. One of the efficient approaches is numerical simulation based on modeling of chemical processes. In the first part of this report, chemical processes and microbial reactions that can affect the performance of facilities in deep underground are reviewed. For example, dissolution and precipitation of minerals composing bentonite and rock are caused by highly alkaline water from cementitious materials. Numerical approaches to the chemical processes are also studied. Most chemical processes are reactions between groundwater (or solutes in it) and minerals composing barrier materials. So they can be simulated by coupled reaction rate transport analyses. Some analysis codes are developed and applied to problems in radioactive waste disposal. Microbial reaction rate can be modeled using the growth equation of microorganisms. In order to evaluate the performance of the barrier system after altered by chemical processes, not only the change in composition but also properties of altered materials is required to be obtained as output of numerical simulation. If the relationships between reaction rate and material properties are obtained, time history and spatial distribution of material properties can also be obtained by the coupled reaction rate transport analysis. At present, modeling study on the relationships between them is not sufficient, and obtaining such relationships using both theoretical and experimental approaches are also an important research target. (author)

  5. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  6. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility waste acceptance criteria. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriveau, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is designed to be an isolation structure for low-level radioactive remediation waste, chemically contaminated remediation waste, and remediation waste that contains both chemical and radioactive constituents (i.e., mixed remediation waste) produced during environmental remediation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) past-practice units at the Hanford Site. Remedial action wastes, which will become a structural component of the ERDF, include bulk soil, demolition debris, and miscellaneous wastes from burial grounds. These wastes may originate from CERCLA past-practice sites (i.e., operable units) in the 100 Areas, the 200 Areas, and the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  7. Update on the Federal Facilities Compliance Act disposal workgroup disposal site evaluation - what has worked and what has not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Waters, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a planning process for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal in conjunction with the affected states for over two years and has screened the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. A radiological performance evaluation was conducted on these fifteen sites to further identify their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. Technical analyses are on-going. The disposal evaluation process has sufficiently satisfied the affected states' concerns to the point that disposal has not been a major issue in the consent order process for site treatment plans. Additionally, a large amount of technical and institutional information on several DOE sites has been summarized. The relative technical capabilities of the remaining fifteen sites have been demonstrated, and the benefits of waste form and disposal facility performance have been quantified. However, the final disposal configuration has not yet been determined. Additionally, the MLLW disposal planning efforts will need to integrate more closely with the low-level waste disposal activities before a final MLLW disposal configuration can be determined. Recent Environmental Protection Agency efforts related to the definition of hazardous wastes may also affect the process

  8. Making nuclear waste governable. Deep underground disposal and the challenge of reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Aparicio, Luis; Cezanne-Bert, Pierrick; Chateauraynaud, Francis

    2010-12-01

    This book is the result of a collaboration that began over two years ago between researchers from the social sciences and ANDRA engineers and natural scientists. Contributions to the various chapters have been discussed and enhanced, especially during the workshop and the interdisciplinary conference both held by ANDRA in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The French approach to reversibility will also once again be developed and open to debate during the international conference organised under the aegis of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in Reims from December 14 to 17, 2010. Devoted to the application of the reversibility principle to radioactive waste management, this work is divided into three chapters. The discussion throughout the chapters deals mainly with the issue of how to implement the 'definitive securing' of the waste, as stated by the French Planning Act dated June 28 2006, while providing a flexible management programme that keeps options open over time to make radioactive waste governable. The originality of this work is, precisely, to focus on the specific operational provisions being considered today to allow present and future generations to ensuring the protection of persons and the environment sustainably. The first chapter was written by Yannick Barthe, researcher at the CNRS and member of the Centre for the Sociology of Innovation at the Mines ParisTech School. He examines the political qualities of technology, analysing the action modes related to the various management solutions being suggested. According to the author, different decision-making models - as well as specific approaches to safety - are inscribed within technical devices. In this regard, the introduction of the reversibility principle appears to be a radical innovation, both in technical and in political terms. The second chapter reports on Andra's current positioning with respect to the project of a reversible deep disposal facility. It presents a recursive definition for

  9. Making nuclear waste governable. Deep underground disposal and the challenge of reversibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Aparicio, Luis (ed.) [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Barthe, Yannick [Centre de Sociologie de l' Innovation, Mines Paris Tech, 60, Boulevard Saint-Michel 75272 Paris cedex 06 (France); Cezanne-Bert, Pierrick; Chateauraynaud, Francis [Groupe de Sociologie Pragmatique et Reflexive - GSPR, Ecole des hautes etudes en sciences sociales - EHESS, 105 bd Raspail 75006 Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    This book is the result of a collaboration that began over two years ago between researchers from the social sciences and ANDRA engineers and natural scientists. Contributions to the various chapters have been discussed and enhanced, especially during the workshop and the interdisciplinary conference both held by ANDRA in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The French approach to reversibility will also once again be developed and open to debate during the international conference organised under the aegis of the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in Reims from December 14 to 17, 2010. Devoted to the application of the reversibility principle to radioactive waste management, this work is divided into three chapters. The discussion throughout the chapters deals mainly with the issue of how to implement the 'definitive securing' of the waste, as stated by the French Planning Act dated June 28 2006, while providing a flexible management programme that keeps options open over time to make radioactive waste governable. The originality of this work is, precisely, to focus on the specific operational provisions being considered today to allow present and future generations to ensuring the protection of persons and the environment sustainably. The first chapter was written by Yannick Barthe, researcher at the CNRS and member of the Centre for the Sociology of Innovation at the Mines ParisTech School. He examines the political qualities of technology, analysing the action modes related to the various management solutions being suggested. According to the author, different decision-making models - as well as specific approaches to safety - are inscribed within technical devices. In this regard, the introduction of the reversibility principle appears to be a radical innovation, both in technical and in political terms. The second chapter reports on Andra's current positioning with respect to the project of a reversible deep disposal facility. It presents a recursive

  10. Underground disposal of UK heat-generating wastes: repository design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The report discusses the likely differences in design between a deep repository for disposal of UK heat-generating radioactive wastes and that of the planned Nirex ILW/LLW repository at Sellafield, based on a review of international published information. The main differences arise from the greater heat and radiation outputs of the waste, and in the case of intact PWR spent fuel elements, the greater length and weight of the disposal packages. Published cost estimates for other OECD countries for disposal of heat-generating wastes are considerably lower than that for the UK, partly because in most cases they are for co-disposal with a larger quantity of ILW. (author)

  11. Current status of geoscientific studies being conducted by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute in regard to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Pt. 2. Horonobe Underground Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting two Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Projects. 'The Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Atomic Energy (Atomic Energy Commission, 2000)' states their technical and social importance for the Japan's program for the Geological Disposal (GD) of HLW and shows an expectation of earlier execution of the projects. One of the URL projects is Neogene argillaceous sedimentary formation hosted Horonobe URL Project. The aims of the Horonobe URL project are; Presenting concrete geological environment as an example of sedimentary formation, Confirming reliability of technologies for geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) by applying them to actual geological condition of sedimentary formation, Providing opportunities to experience the actual deep underground circumstance for the general public. The project is composed of six subjects; 1) development of site characterization methodology, 2) development of monitoring techniques, 3) development of engineering techniques for underground development, 4) neotectonic characterization of the area, 5) development of engineering techniques for designing, construction and operation of a repository, 6) development of safety assessment methodology. The project consists of three phases: investigations form the surface (Phase 1), investigations during construction of the underground facility (Phase 2) and researches using the facility (Phase 3). The total duration is about 20 years. From 2000, surface-based site investigations are going on. In course of the investigations, a series of geophysical surveys has been employed. Along with the town-wide investigation, an area for site-scale investigation was selected, a land for facilities construction was acquired in the area and the land preparation has started in 2003. Geological information gave more detailed and concrete figure of URL, which is composed of three shafts down to

  12. Evaluation of the effects of underground water usage and spillage in the Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, E.; Sobolik, S.R.

    1993-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Analyses reported herein were performed to support the design of site characterization activities so that these activities will have a minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste and a minimal impact on underground tests performed as part of the characterization process. These analyses examine the effect of water to be used in the underground construction and testing activities for the Exploratory Studies Facility on in situ conditions. Underground activities and events where water will be used include construction, expected but unplanned spills, and fire protection. The models used predict that, if the current requirements in the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements are observed, water that is imbibed into the tunnel wall rock in the Topopah Springs welded tuff can be removed over the preclosure time period by routine or corrective ventilation, and also that water imbibed into the Paintbrush Tuff nonwelded tuff will not reach the potential waste storage area

  13. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility permit reopener run plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is authorized to discharge treated effluent to the Columbia River by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit WA-002591-7. The letter accompanying the final permit noted the following: EPA recognizes that the TEDF is a new waste treatment facility for which full scale operation and effluent data has not been generated. The permit being issued by EPA contains discharge limits that are intended to force DOE's treatment technology to the limit of its capability.'' Because of the excessively tight limits the permit contains a reopener clause which may allow limits to be renegotiated after at least one year of operation. The restrictions for reopening the permit are as follows: (1) The permittee has properly operated and maintained the TEDF for a sufficient period to stabilize treatment plant operations, but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the limitation specified in the permit. (2) Effluent data submitted by the permittee supports the effluent limitation modifications(s). (3) The permittee has submitted a formal request for the effluent limitation modification(s) to the Director. The purpose of this document is to guide plant operations for approximately one year to ensure appropriate data is collected for reopener negotiations

  14. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  15. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  16. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, J.

    2007-11-06

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.

  17. Radiation dose evaluation based on exposure scenario during the operation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim Chang Lak; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Joo Wan

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dose to worker in disposal facility was calculated by using point kernel MICROSHIELD V5.02 computer code based on exposure scenarios. An conceptual design model for disposal vaults in disposal facility was used for object of shielding calculation model. Selected radionuclides and their activities among radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants were assumed as radiation sources for the exposure calculation. Annual radiation doses to crane workers and to people working on disposal vaults were calculated according to exposure time and distance from the sources with conservative operation scenarios. The scenarios used for this study were based on assumption for representing disposal activities in a future Korean near surface disposal facility. Calculated exposure rates to worker during normal disposal work were very low comparing with annual allowable limit for radiation worker

  18. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota

  19. Hanford facility RCRA permit condition II.U.1 report: mapping of underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to fulfill Condition Il.U.1. of the Hanford Facility (HF) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit. The HF RCRA Permit, Number WA7890008967, became effective on September 28, 1994 (Ecology 1994). Permit Conditions Il.U. (mapping) and II.V. (marking) of the HF RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste (OW) Portion, require the mapping and marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines subject to the provisions of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-303. Permit Condition Il.U.I. requires the submittal of a report describing the methodology used to generate pipeline maps and to assure their quality. Though not required by the Permit, this report also documents the approach used for the field marking of dangerous waste underground pipelines.

  20. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  1. The underground research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This educational booklet is a general presentation of the selected sites for the installation of underground research laboratories devoted to the feasibility studies of deep repositories for long-life radioactive wastes. It describes the different type of wastes and their management, the management of long life radioactive wastes, the site selection and the 4 sites retained, the preliminary research studies, and the other researches carried out in deep disposal facilities worldwide. (J.S.)

  2. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  3. Study on the leach mechanism of 90-19/U glass form in underground water of disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Luo Shanggeng; Tang Baolong

    1996-01-01

    The leach behavior of 90-19/U glass form in underground water (UW) of disposal site and in the deionized water (DIW) is studied. The total mass losses of glass form and the normalized element mass losses of B, Li and Si in UW are presented and compared to DIW. It is found that the ions in UW affect the leach behavior of 90-19/U glass. At the beginning of the reaction the reaction rate of the glass is smaller in UW than in DIW due to the low glass dissolution affinity in UW which is defined as (1-c/K). The rate determining step of leach reaction of 90-19/U glass in UW during the entire reaction period is the ion-exchange reaction. The apparent activation energy of glass reaction in UW is 51.6 kJ/mol

  4. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  5. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  6. Some geotechnical problems related to underground waste disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berest, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in deep salt formations is an option considered by several countries. Rock salt is a very impervious medium, but can be easily leached; selection of an appropriate disposal formation must account for natural protections of the formation as regards water movements. It must be checked that such initially favourable characteristics will not be affected by the existence of shafts and galleries, or by the important heat output generated by vitrified wastes. The discussion is uneasy, for a comprehensive rheological model for rock salt is difficult to set and to be extrapolated to large time scales; some methodological problems are raised by use of numerical computations. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  7. Control and prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper constitutes an analysis of the technologies which are available for the prevention of movement of waste waters out of uranium mill waste disposal facilities via sub-surface routes. Hydrogeologic criteria for potential uranium mill waste disposal sites and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in ground water are presented. Methods for prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities are investigated: liners, clay seals, synthetic polymeric membranes (PVC, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, hypalon, butyl rubber, neoprene, elasticized polyolefin)

  8. Recent progress of the waste processing and disposal projects within the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Remediation has created the Office of Technology Development (OTD) to provide new and improved remediation technologies for the 1 x 10 8 gal of radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five DOE sites. The OTD established and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) to perform demonstrations, tests, and evaluations on these new technologies before these processes are transferred to the tank sites for use in full-scale remediation of the USTs. The UST-ID projects are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). During FY 1994, the WPDP is funding 12 projects in the areas of supernate processing, sludge processing, nitrate destruction, and final waste forms. The supernate projects are primarily concerned with cesium removal. A mobile evaporator and concentrator for cesium-free supernate is also being demonstrated. The sludge projects are emphasizing sludge dissolution and the evaluation of the TRUEX and diamide solvent extraction processes for transuranic waste streams. One WPDP project is examining both supernate and sludge processes in an effort to develop a system-level plan for handling all UST waste. The other WPDP studies are concerned with nitrate and organic destruction as well as subsequent waste forms. The current status of these WPDP projects is presented

  9. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study

  11. An updated overview of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Uemura, George; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Malta, Ricardo Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. Some countries already have these facilities and others are planning theirs. Information about disposal facilities around the world is useful and necessary; however, data on this matter are usually scattered in official reports per country. In order to allow an easier access to this information, this paper aims to provide an overview of disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste around the world, as updated as possible. Also, characteristics of the facilities are provided, when possible. Considering that the main source of radioactive waste are the activities of nuclear reactors in research or power generation, the paper will also provide a summarized overview of these reactors around the world, updated until April, 2011. This data collection may be an important tool for researchers, and other professionals in this field. Also, it might provide an overview about the final disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  12. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  13. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  14. Improvement of safety approach for accident during operation of LILW disposal facility: Application for operational safety assessment of the near-surface LILW disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate radiological impact from the operation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility, a logical presentation and explanation of expected accidental scenarios is essential to the stakeholders of the disposal facility. The logical assessment platform and procedure, including analysis of the safety function of disposal components, operational hazard analysis, operational risk analysis, and preparedness of remedial measures for operational safety, are improved in this study. In the operational risk analysis, both design measures and management measures are suggested to make it possible to connect among design, operation, and safety assessment within the same assessment platform. For the preparedness of logical assessment procedure, classifcation logic of an operational accident is suggested based on the probability of occurrence and consequences of assessment results. The improved assessment platform and procedure are applied to an operational accident analysis of the Korean low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility and partly presented in this paper.

  15. Improvement of safety approach for accident during operation of LILW disposal facility: Application for operational safety assessment of the near-surface LILW disposal facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Jin Beak

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiological impact from the operation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility, a logical presentation and explanation of expected accidental scenarios is essential to the stakeholders of the disposal facility. The logical assessment platform and procedure, including analysis of the safety function of disposal components, operational hazard analysis, operational risk analysis, and preparedness of remedial measures for operational safety, are improved in this study. In the operational risk analysis, both design measures and management measures are suggested to make it possible to connect among design, operation, and safety assessment within the same assessment platform. For the preparedness of logical assessment procedure, classifcation logic of an operational accident is suggested based on the probability of occurrence and consequences of assessment results. The improved assessment platform and procedure are applied to an operational accident analysis of the Korean low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility and partly presented in this paper

  16. Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability

  17. Underground coal mine air quality in mines using disposable diesel exhaust filter control devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.H.; Johnson, J.H.; Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-07-01

    As part of a collaborative study with the US Bureau of Mines, in-mine studies have been conducted to assess the effects of a low temperature disposable diesel exhaust filter. The mines have been designed as mines R and S in US Bureau of Mines publications. Each mine operated three to four Jeffrey 4110 ramcar haulage vehicles in the test section. The ramcars were equipped with MWM D916-6 diesel engines, rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp), and were operated for 3 days with the disposal diesel exhaust filter and 2 days without in both mines. Average diesel particulate matter control efficiencies, as measured by samplers located on the coal haulage vehicle, were 80% in mine R and 76% in mine S. Diesel particulate matter average control efficiencies, as measured in the diesel engine tailpipe, were 52% for mine R (for two ramcar vehicles) and 86% for mine S (for four ramcar vehicles). The air quality index control efficiencies, as measured by samplers located on the coal haulage vehicle were 48% in mine R and 51% in mine S. The exhaust quality index control efficiencies from tailpipe measurements were 45% for mine R and 63% for mine S. As measured by a high volume sampler in mine S, diesel particulate matter and associated organics and mutagenic activity were reduced approximately 50% with the use of the disposal diesel exhaust filter. Similar results were found with modified personal samplers in mine R. Little effect was found on relative removal of semivolatile organics. The disposal diesel exhaust filter resulted in about a 50% reduction in the most volatile polynuclear hydrocarbons; however, there appeared to be little effect on the less volatile polynuclear hydrocarbons. The disposable diesel exhaust filter appears to be very effective in reducing the levels of all the diesel exhaust particulate components, while having minor effects on the relative breakdown of the individual components of the particulate. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  19. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  20. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W.M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  1. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  2. First Results from the LUX Dark Matter Experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Clark, K.; Coffey, T.; Currie, A.; Curioni, A.; Dazeley, S.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J.; Dragowsky, E. M.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Flores, C.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C.; Hanhardt, M.; Hertel, S. A.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kastens, L.; Kazkaz, K.; Knoche, R.; Kyre, S.; Lander, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lyashenko, A.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J.; Morii, M.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H.; Neves, F.; Nikkel, J. A.; Ott, R. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Parker, P. D.; Pease, E. K.; Pech, K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Shutt, T.; Silva, C.; Skulski, W.; Sofka, C. J.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stiegler, T.; O'Sullivan, K.; Sumner, T. J.; Svoboda, R.; Sweany, M.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D.; Tennyson, B.; Tiedt, D. R.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; White, D.; Witherell, M. S.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota). The LUX cryostat was filled for the first time in the underground laboratory in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search data set, taken during the period from April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of 7.6×10-46 cm2 at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c2. We find that the LUX data are in disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  3. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford underground research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Coffey, T; Currie, A; Curioni, A; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Dragowsky, E M; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Morii, M; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Sofka, C J; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stiegler, T; O'Sullivan, K; Sumner, T J; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; White, D; Witherell, M S; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-03-07

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota). The LUX cryostat was filled for the first time in the underground laboratory in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search data set, taken during the period from April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of 7.6 × 10(-46) cm(2) at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c(2). We find that the LUX data are in disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  4. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  5. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  6. Appraisal of the physical and dynamic state of the Mayak operations geological environment with a view to underground radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, V.I.; Petrov, V.A.; Tarasov, N.N.; Poluektov, V.V.; Kochkin, B.T.; Asadulin, A.A.; Volkov, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the research into geological structure, geomorphology, paleotectonics, mineralogy and petrography, petrophysics and petrochemistry of the site occupied by the Mayak radiochemical operations are presented. The research was aimed at the identification of the site for underground disposal of solidified high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). Geotectonic position of the district in the regional structures is shown, and paragenesis of fold and fault structures formed at the various stages and under various conditions of strains in the geological environment are described. The internal structure, nature and rates of the development of the processes of metamorphic and hydrothermal-metasomatic transformation of the geological environment, as well as basic petrogeochemical features of the strata were brought out. Stress-strained state of the strata at the stage of Cenozoic deformations that is retained nowadays was simulated. Basic petrophysical characteristics of adjoining strata were identified. Non-uniformity of the development of fissure-pore systems in the profile of strata of volcanic and sedimentary origin and peculiarities of deformations were revealed. The given comprehensive research was recommended for the identification of geological blocks suitable in varying degrees for the HLW disposal to the district

  7. Underground disposal techniques of radioactive wastes and wind power generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The 25th business report on foreign survey of electric power civil engineering technology. On the 25th foreign survey held by the Society of Electric Power Civil Engineering, Technology, disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLRWs) in Switzerland and Sweden, and wind power generation in Spain and Denmark were focused. As a result, it was found that opalinas clay and calcite under survey and investigation of host rock candidates for disposal of HLRWs are stable rock stratum with extremely low water permeability and without groundwater stream. At present, basic research and concrete disposing method are under advancement through actual scale tests. To obtain peoples' understanding on necessity, safety, cost-sharing, and so on of this business, it is essential to easily and precisely technical contents with high level generation specialty. And, on wind power generation, it is necessary to install wind wheels at a position enough to become maximum in wind energy usable from wind observation data and to maintain the wheel mechanically and electrically. Here were described outlines on the survey with its members and schedules. (G.K.)

  8. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  9. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  10. Hungary. Closure issues for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The facility was commissioned in 1976. At the time that its mission was formulated, the facility was designed to collect, transport, treat as necessary and dispose all radioactive waste originating from institutional use of radioactivity. The facility is government owned and presently operated by the Budapest branch of the State Public Health and Medical Officer Services. The disposal site is located on the ridge of a hill near Puspokszilagy village approximately 40 km Northeast of Budapest. The disposal units are located in Quaternary layers of silt and clay sequences. Annual average precipitation is approximately 650-700 mm. The facility is a typical shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. There are concrete trenches and shallow wells for waste disposal purposes

  11. Iron-nickel alloys as canister material for radioactive waste disposal in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Canisters containing high-level radioactive waste must retain their integrity in an underground waste repository for at least one thousand years after burial (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1981). Since no direct means of verifying canister integrity is plausible over such a long period, indirect methods must be chosen. A persuasive approach is to examine the natural environment and find a suitable material which is thermodynamically compatible with the host rock under the environmental conditions with the host rock under the environmental conditions expected in a waste repository. Several candidates have been proposed, among them being iron-nickel alloys that are known to occur naturally in altered ultramafic rocks. The following review of stability relations among iron-nickel alloys below 350 0 C is the initial phase of a more detailed evaluation of these alloys as suitable canister materials

  12. Application of quality assurance to radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear power generation and the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry produce radioactive wastes. In order to assure that wastes are managed safely, the implementation of appropriate management control is necessary. This IAEA publication deals with quality assurance principles for safe disposal. This report may assist managers responsible for safe disposal of radioactive waste in achieving quality in their work; and to regulatory bodies to provide guidance for their licensee waste disposal programmes. 17 refs.

  13. Application of quality assurance to radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear power generation and the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry produce radioactive wastes. In order to assure that wastes are managed safely, the implementation of appropriate management control is necessary. This IAEA publication deals with quality assurance principles for safe disposal. This report may assist managers responsible for safe disposal of radioactive waste in achieving quality in their work; and to regulatory bodies to provide guidance for their licensee waste disposal programmes. 17 refs

  14. Principal provisions of engineering and geological survey methodology in designing and construction of underground laboratory as a part of facility of RW underground isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopova, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    The most critical moment is the choice of a site for radioactive waste geological repository. Here the role of engineering and geological prospecting as a basis for the construction of a facility for underground isolation appears especially important; it is followed by finding a suitable area and subsequent allocation of the site and facility construction sites. The decision on the selection of construction site for the underground repository is taken by the principle 'descent from the general to the particular', which is a continuous process with the observance of stages in research for the design and exploration work. Each stage of research is typified by specific scale and methods of geological and geophysical studies and scientific research to be fulfilled in scopes sufficient for solution of basic problems for the designing. (author)

  15. ''DIANA'' - A New, Deep-Underground Accelerator Facility for Astrophysics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, M.; Leitner, D.; Lemut, A.; Vetter, P.; Wiescher, M.

    2009-01-01

    The DIANA project (Dakota Ion Accelerators for Nuclear Astrophysics) is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame, University of North Carolina, Western Michigan University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility 1.4 km below ground. DIANA is part of the US proposal DUSEL (Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory) to establish a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory in the former gold mine of Homestake in South Dakota, USA. DIANA would consist of two high-current accelerators, a 30 to 400 kV variable, high-voltage platform, and a second, dynamitron accelerator with a voltage range of 350 kV to 3 MV. As a unique feature, both accelerators are planned to be equipped with either high-current microwave ion sources or multi-charged ECR ion sources producing ions from protons to oxygen. Electrostatic quadrupole transport elements will be incorporated in the dynamitron high voltage column. Compared to current astrophysics facilities, DIANA could increase the available beam densities on target by magnitudes: up to 100 mA on the low energy accelerator and several mA on the high energy accelerator. An integral part of the DIANA project is the development of a high-density super-sonic gas-jet target which can handle these anticipated beam powers. The paper will explain the main components of the DIANA accelerators and their beam transport lines and will discuss related technical challenges

  16. Draft Underground Test Plan for site characterization and testing in an exploratory shaft facility in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) at the Deaf Smith County, Texas is a potential candidate repository site in salt. This program of underground testing constitutes part of the effort to determine site suitability, provide data for repository design and performance assessment, and prepare licensing documentation. This program was developed by defining the information needs, as derived from the governing regulatory requirements and associated performance issues; evaluating the efficacy of available tests in satisfying the information needs; and selecting the suite of underground tests that are most cost-effective and timely, considering the other surface-based, surface borehole, and laboratory test programs. Tests are described conceptually, categorized in terms of geology, geomechanics, thermomechanics, geohydrology, or geochemistry, and range in scope from site characterization to site/engineered system interactions. The testing involves construction testing, conducted in the shafts during construction, and in situ testing at depth, conducted in the shafts and in the at-depth test facility at the repository horizon after shaft connection. 41 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs

  17. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  18. Are underground clay disposal conditions favorable for microbial activity and bio-corrosion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M.; Kerber-Schuetz, M.; Bildstein, O. [CEA, DEN/DTN/SMTM/LMTE, bat. 307, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Esnault, L. [ECOGEOSAFE, Technopole de l' Environnement Arbois- Mediterranee, BP 90027 Aix en Provence (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French concept for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is based on a multi-barrier system including metallic containers confined in a clay-stone layer. The main alteration vector is water coming from the host rock and triggering corrosion of metallic components. Despite extreme conditions, microorganisms can adapt and survive in these environments. Anoxic corrosion of metallic containers and water radiolysis produce H{sub 2}, which potentially represents an abundant energetic source for microbial development, especially in this type of environment containing low amounts of biodegradable organic matter. Moreover, formation of Fe(III)-bearing corrosion products such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) can provide electron acceptors for microbial development. Therefore, bio-corrosion studies are needed in order to investigate the activity of hydrogenotrophic bacteria able to reduce sulphates or Fe(III) from iron oxides (passive layer). These studies help in evaluating such microbial impacts on the long-term stability of metallic components involved in radioactive waste disposal. (authors)

  19. Underground disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste: a review of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A review has been undertaken of the worldwide status of research and development related to the geological disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The nature and quantities of vitrified high level waste that will arise from nuclear power generation in the UK have been estimated and considered. The safety case for establishing a geological repository would have to be based on predictive models, which could adequately represent the interactions and effects of a wide range of gradual processes and possible sudden events. No detailed repository design has yet been published, but the configuration currently favoured, in the UK and in most other countries, comprises a small number of vertical shafts, from which a network of horizontal tunnels would be excavated. Waste packages would be placed in holes drilled in the floors of the tunnels. The excavation of such a repository in hard crystalline rock, in a thick homogeneous formation of rock salt, or in the less plastic argillaceous formations, appears to be within the scope of present technology. Rock types available in the UK, which are likely to prove suitable for the accommodation of a repository, have been identified. The strategies and programmes for high level waste disposal in other countries have been reviewed. (U.K.)

  20. Natural analogue study on engineered barriers for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, K.; Motegi, M.; Emoto, Y.; Kaji, Y.; Ikari, S.; Nada, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1989-01-01

    This is a report to develop the natural analogue methodology for the assessment of the life of the engineered barriers beyond the time period of normal experiments, 1000 years, for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes with activity levels greater than those of wastes acceptable for shallow land burial in Japan. Geological and archeological events and objects available for the assessment of the possible life of each engineered barrier are surveyed. Taking heavy precipitation into account in Japan, a long-term, zero-release engineered barrier system using long-term durable materials based on the natural analogue events and objects is proposed along with the conventional type of water permeable engineered barrier system. The combination of the material quality and the environment that could be achieved within the repository is important for the long-term durability of the engineered barrier material. It is proposed that for the natural analogue study a physico-chemical methodology, which may be referred to as the physico-chemical natural history, is necessary to get parameters from the natural analogue events for the long-term assessment of the disposal system

  1. Stress-corrosion cracks behavior under underground disposal environment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Seto, Masahiro; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Utagawa, Manabu; Kosugi, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    This study is composed by two sub-theme of study on stress-corrosion cracking under an environment of disposal on radioactive wastes and control technique on microscopic crack around the disposal cavity, and aims at experimental elucidation on forming mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking phenomenon on rocks and establishment of its control technique. In 1998 fiscal year, together with an investigation on effect of temperature on fracture toughness and on stress-corrosion cracks performance of sedimentary rocks (sandy rocks), an investigation on limit of the stress-corrosion cracking by addition of chemicals and on crack growth in a rock by in-situ observation using SEM were carried out. As a result, it was formed that fracture toughness of rocks reduced at more than 100 centigrade of temperature, that a region showing an equilibrium between water supply to crack end and crack speed appeared definitely, that a limit of stress-corrosion cracking appeared by addition of chemicals, and that as a result of observing crack advancement of saturated rock by in-situ observation of crack growth using SEM, a process zone was formed at the front of main crack due to grain boundary fracture. (G.K.)

  2. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    It is a basic principle of radioactive waste management in the U.K. to comply with the system of dose limitations laid down by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The Radioactive Substances Act, 1960, prohibits the disposal of radioactive waste on or from all premises (except those belonging to the Crown) unless authorised by the appropriate authority. Consultation, as necessary, with local and public authorities is provided for. Under the Nuclear Installations Act, 1965, nuclear installations, with some exceptions, require to be licensed by the Health and safety executive. Installations for the disposal of radioactive waste are not, as such, prescribed as nuclear installations under the Nuclear Installations Act, 1965 (and thereby governed by the licensing procedure under the Act), but they may be, if they involve the storage of bulk quantities of radioactive waste. The Secretary of State for the Environment, together with the Secretaries of State for Scotland and Wales are responsible for the development of a nuclear waste management policy, helped in this task by the newly-formed Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee. (NEA) [fr

  3. Environmental monitoring of subsurface low-level waste disposal facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generates low-level waste (LLW) as part of its research and isotope production activities. This waste is managed in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Solid LLW management includes disposal in above-ground, tumulus-type facilities as well as in various types of subsurface facilities. Since 1986, subsurface disposal has been conducted using various designs employing greater-confinement-disposal (GCD) techniques. The purpose of this paper is to present monitoring results that document the short-term performance of these GCD facilities

  4. 49 CFR 599.401 - Requirements and limitations for disposal facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. 599.401 Section 599.401 Transportation... SAVE ACT PROGRAM Disposal of Trade-in Vehicle § 599.401 Requirements and limitations for disposal facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. (a) The disposal facility must: (1) Not...

  5. Archaeological evidence on the occurrence of dewdrop in the underground space for LLRW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunio; Sutani, Yoshinao; Osawa, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW) will be finally stored in many underground drifts. Water in these drift may increase the corrosion of steel drums in which LLRW was contained and decreases the long term performance of the drums. Groundwater seeping into the drifts can be drained by using a drainage system in the drift. However, dewdrop created on the walls is much difficult to be drained without any contact with drums. The measurement of the dewdrop rate and the estimation of the dewdrop depth over a long period of time must be needed to make a proper technique to prevent the influence of the dewdrop on the long term performance of the drums. As the first trial of the study, the dewdrop and the evaporation distribution were measured using the sensor newly developed in an inner space of an old mound that was constructed at about 1400 years ago in Japan. Then the total dewdrop rate during about 1500 years was roughly estimated from an archaeological data of a mound. It was found that the maximum dewdrop rate measured in an old mound was about 3mg/m 2 /s. The total amount of the dewdrop was essentially equal to the total evaporation amount in the inner space. Evaporation and dewdrop distributions were strongly influenced by the air flow and the temperature distribution in the space. As a rough estimation, the total dewdrop depth over 1500 years is greater than 200mm

  6. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  7. Comparative assessment of disposal of TRU waste in a greater-confinement disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neal, D.A.

    1982-11-01

    This study reviewed previous work that established generic limits for shallow land burial of TRU contaminated wastes and extended previous methodology to estimate approximate appropriate burial limits for TRU wastes in an arid zone greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF). An erosion scenario provided the limiting pathway in the previous determination of generic shallow land burial limits. Erosion removed the cover soil, exposing the waste mass to habitation and agriculture. For the deep burial concept (that is, burial at a depth greater than 10 m [33 ft]), the aquifer transport scenario was controlling. In both cases, the assumed site conditions were characteristic of a humid zone in which groundwater flows immediately below the waste deposit. In deriving limits for an arid site GCDF, either the erosion/reclaimer or the aquifer transport scenario could provide the controlling pathway, depending on the nuclide and the assumed burial depth. The derived limits were higher for the arid sited GCDF than those of the generic humid study. The physical processes that increase limits relative to the generic study include increased time during which radioactive decay occurs prior to release and increased dilution. Some nuclides were effectively unlimited in an arid zone GCDF, while others (notably Pu-239) were affected on a much smaller scale, primarily due to very long half-lives. As a final comment, the limit values derived in this report represent adjustments to the calculations of the Healy and Rodgers report (LA-UR-79-100). Those original calculations were very conservative, utilizing a worst case approach, but nevertheless involving significant levels of uncertainty in key assumptions. Consequently, the results are assumption dependent. Other approaches to such an analysis could, and should be used to develop site specific concentration limits for TRU wastes

  8. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookway, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Government policy towards radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is based on the system of dose limitations laid down by ICRP as interpreted by the National Radiological Protection Board for use in the United Kingdom. The paper describes the legislative and administrative arrangements by which this policy is enforced, including the work of the principal inspectorates, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and the Radiochemical Inspectorate together with the latter's equivalents in Scotland and Northern Ireland. It is concluded that the present legislation, including that relating to planning and the setting up of public inquiries, is sufficiently all-embracing to ensure both strict control of the disposal of all the radioactive waste currently arising or which will arise in the future and a high degree of public involvement in the necessary decisions. (author)

  9. Hydrogeologic and hydrologic investigations in connection with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempel, C. v.; Batsche, H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to permit an assessment of the sometimes very long storage periods occurring in connection with final disposals and of the consequences resulting in the case of an eventual failure, the migration behaviour of selected radionuclides was investigated in the strata of the surface rock masses sourrounding the respective salt stocks. Our Institute performed the corresponding activities in three districts: In the area of the former salt mine Asse II a hydrogeologic research programme is realized in close cooperation with the GSF Institut fuer Tieflagerung, Braunschweig. Within the scope of the ''Projekt Sicherheitsstudien Entsorgung (PSE)'' the required investigations are carried out in the district of the salt stock Gorleben. Within the scope of a NAGRA project, isotope-hydrological measurements were taken up in connection with investigations on the storage of radioactive waste materials in crystalline rocks of Switzerland. (orig./RW) [de

  10. Disposal and solidification of LAW/MAW in underground caverns, phase 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.; Dedegil, Y.

    1989-05-01

    In this report the concluding phase IV of the project for the containerless disposal of LAW/MAW-concentrate is described. This phase IV became necessary because of two pipe pluggings during phase III to demonstrate the technical performability. Compared with phase III the following plant and process modifications were performed: partially filled cross section of the feed pipe ('snifting air'), increased feed pipe diameter (47.4 to 59.4 mm), increased plant throughput (12 t/h to 24 t/h), feed pipe instrumentation (density, flow, pressure). In the pilot scale the modified process was tested in a 100 m-pipe (Asse, Blindschacht 4). The technical demonstration was performed by the 1000 m pipe from the above-day plant to the prototype cavern of the Asse salt mine. Overall more than 1000 t of product have been feeded within several shifts in successful performance. (orig.) [de

  11. Underground disposal for radioactive wastes: study of the thermal impact in a fractured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudrain, A.; Hosanski, J.M.; Ledoux, E.; Vouille, G.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage in deep geologic formations, like granitic rocks, is one of the solutions studied for long-life radioactive wastes disposal. The study, presented in this document, has been developed in five stages: (1) theorical analysis of heat transfer in a fractured medium; bench-scale experiments (2) to study the convection in an artificial fracture with a punctual heat source, and, (3) in a real fracture with a spread heat source; (4) influence of the thermal stresses on the permeability of a fracture; (5) and finally, the mathematical model, validated in laboratory, used to simulate water and heat transfer, allows to discuss the radionuclides migration from an hydrodynamical point of view

  12. Issues related to the licensing of final disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, M.A.; Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzales, H.; Piumetti, E.H.; Palacios, E.

    2010-01-01

    The licensing process of a final disposal facility for radioactive waste involves the design, construction, pre-operation, operation, closure and post closure stages. While design and pre-operational stages are, to a reasonable extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities, construction, operation, closure and post-closure of a radioactive waste disposal facility have unique meanings. As consequence of that, the licensing process should incorporate these particularities. Considering the long timeframes involved at each stage of a waste disposal facility, it is convenient that the development of the project being implemented in and step by step process, be flexible enough as to adapt to new requirements that would arise as a consequence of technology improvements or due to variations in the socio-economical and political conditions. In Argentina, the regulatory Standard AR 0.1.1 establishes the general guideline for the 'Licensing of Class I facilities (relevant facilities)'. Nevertheless, for radioactive waste final disposal facilities a new specific guidance should be developed in addition to the Basic Standard mentioned. This paper describes the particularities of final disposal facilities indicating that a specific licensing system for this type of facilities should be foreseen. (authors) [es

  13. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  14. Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, José; Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper integrates two complementary life cycle assessment (LCA) studies with the aim to advice facility managers on the sustainable use of cups, either disposable or reusable. Study 1 compares three disposable cups, i.e., made from fossil-based polystyrene (PS), biobased and

  15. Safety assessments for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berci, K.; Hauszmann, Z.; Ormai, P.

    2002-01-01

    The centralized waste treatment and disposal facility Puspokszilagy is a shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. The site, together with its geographic, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, is described. Data are given on the radioactive inventory. The operational safety assessment and the post-closure safety assessment is outlined. (author)

  16. Primary Criteria for Near Surface Disposal Facility in Egypt Proposal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media to protect human health and environment from the harmful effect of the ionizing radiation. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. The primary goal of the sitting process is to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  17. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  18. Liquid emulsion scintillators which solidify for facile disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.E.; Krieger, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid organic scintillation cocktail is described which counts solutions of radiolabelled compounds containing up to ten % by volume of water with high efficiency and is readily polymerizable to a solid for easy disposal. The cocktail comprises a polymerizable organic solvent, a solubilizing agent, an intermediate solvent, and an organic scintillator. A method of disposing of liquid organic scintillation cocktail waste and a kit useful for practising the method are also described. (U.K.)

  19. Erosion of surface and near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    A literature search was undertaken to identify existing data and analytical procedures regarding the processes of gully erosion. The applicability of the available information to the problems of gully erosion potential at surface and near surface disposal sites is evaluated. It is concluded that the existing knowledge regarding gully erosion is insufficient to develop procedures to ensure the long-term stability of disposal sites. Recommendations for further research are presented. 46 refs

  20. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  1. Site selection and design basis of the National Disposal Facility for LILW. Geological and engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Content of the presentation: Site selection; Characteristics of the “Radiana” site (location, geological structure, physical and mechanical properties, hydro-geological conditions); Design basis of the Disposal Facility; Migration analysis; Safety assessment approach

  2. Evaluation of Island and Nearshore Confined Disposal Facility Alternatives, Pascagoula River Harbor Dredged Material Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunch, Barry

    2003-01-01

    ...) for the Federal navigation project at Pascagoula, MS. The studies focused on evaluating an option under consideration for the placement of dredged material in an island confined disposal facility (CDF...

  3. Underground facility for geoenvironmental and geotechnical research at the SSC Site in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.F.; Myer, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    The subsurface environment is an important national resource that is utilized for construction, waste disposal and groundwater supply. Conflicting and unwise use has led to problems of groundwater contamination. Cleanup is often difficult and expensive, and perhaps not even possible in many cases. Construction projects often encounter unanticipated difficulties that increase expenses. Many of the difficulties of predicting mechanical behavior and fluid flow and transport behavior stem from problems in characterizing what cannot be seen. An underground research laboratory, such as can be developed in the nearly 14 miles of tunnel at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site, will provide a unique opportunity to advance scientific investigations of fluid flow, chemical transport, and mechanical behavior in situ in weak and fractured, porous rock on a scale relevant to civil and environmental engineering applications involving the subsurface down to a depth of 100 m. The unique element provided by underground studies at the SSC site is three-dimensional access to a range of fracture conditions in two rock types, chalk and shale. Detailed experimentation can be carried out in small sections of the SSC tunnel where different types of fractures and faults occur and where different rock types or contacts are exposed. The entire length of the tunnel can serve as an observatory for large scale mechanical and fluid flow testing. The most exciting opportunity is to mine back a volume of rock to conduct a post-experiment audit following injection of a number of reactive and conservative tracers. Flow paths and tracer distributions can be examined directly. The scientific goal is to test conceptual models and numerical predictions. In addition, mechanical and hydrological data may be of significant value in developing safe and effective methods for closing the tunnel itself

  4. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  5. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S. [Center for Underground Physics - Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I. S.; Kim, G. W.; Park, S. Y. [Ewha Womans University, Physics Department, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-17

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.

  6. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  7. Progress in developing new commercial LLRW disposal facilities and DOE assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, T.D.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports state and regional progress in developing new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Specifically the paper addresses DOE determination of state and regional compliance with the 1988 milestone requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). In addition, the paper summarizes the assistance provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) to the states and regions in their efforts to develop new disposal facilities as mandated in the LLRWPAA

  8. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement

  9. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Vedernikova; I. A. Pron; M. N. Savkin; N. S. Cebakovskaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on d...

  10. 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility Supplemental Information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-03-01

    The 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility located at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site started receiving part of the N Reactor liquid radioactive effluent flow in 1983. In September 1985, the 1325-N Facility became the primary liquid waste disposal system for the N Reactor. The facility is located approximately 60 feet above and 2000 feet east of the shore of the Columbia River. Waste stream discharges were ceased in April 1991.Specific information on types of waste discharged to 1325-N are contained within the Part A, Form 3, Permit application of this unit

  11. Study on manufacturing technique of synthetic shock-absorbers for underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takashi; Onodera, Yoshio; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Ebina, Takeo; Nagase, Takako; Torii, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    On the cse of underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes, natural bentonite is planned to be used for artificial barrier shock-absorber. This is due to expectation of sealing water or adsorbing nuclear materials using swelling and ion-exchanging capacities of smectite, which is a main component of bentonite. In this study, some swelling laminar compounds with various compositions and structures are synthesized to investigate their water sealing and nuclear adsorbing properties. And, according to their results, an optimum material is selected to develop its economic manufacturing method and investigate its alternative possibility for natural bentonite. From such reason, following two titled studies have been executed; 1) Synthesis of the swelling laminar compounds, and 2) Development of manufacturing technique of artificial shock-absorber. In 1995 FY, 1) Detail investigation on synthetic condition of double octahedral type smectite and 2) modeling of the smectite and stability of same type displacement for base of inducing the computer simulation for estimating creation process of optimum materials, were conducted. (G.K.)

  12. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  13. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  14. Engineering for a disposal facility using the in-room emplacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, P; Bilinsky, D M; Ates, Y; Read, R S; Crosthwaite, J L; Dixon, D A

    1996-06-01

    This report describes three nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults using the in-room emplacement method. First, a generic disposal vault design is provided which is suitable for a depth range of 500 m to 1000 m in highly stressed, sparsely fractured rock. The design process is described for all components of the system. The generic design is then applied to two different disposal vaults, one at a depth of 750 m in a low hydraulically conductive, sparsely fractured rock mass and another at a depth of 500 m in a higher conductivity, moderately fractured rock mass. In the in-room emplacement method, the disposal containers with used-fuel bundles are emplaced within the confines of the excavated rooms of a disposal vault. The discussion of the disposal-facility design process begins with a detailed description of a copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal container and the factors that influenced its design. The disposal-room generic design is presented including the detailed specifications, the scoping and numerical thermal and thermal mechanical analyses, the backfilling and sealing materials, and the operational processes. One room design is provided that meets all the requirements for a vault depth range of 500 to 1000 m. A disposal-vault layout and the factors that influenced its design are also presented, including materials handling, general logistics, and separation of radiological and nonradiological operations. Modifications to the used-fuel packaging plant for the filling and sealing of the copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal containers and a brief description of the common surface facilities needed by the disposal vault and the packaging plant are provided. The implementation of the disposal facility is outlined, describing the project stages and activities and itemizing a specific plan for each of the project stages: siting, construction, operation; decommissioning; and closure. (author). 72 refs., 15 tabs., 63 figs.

  15. Engineering for a disposal facility using the in-room emplacement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, P.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Ates, Y.; Read, R.S.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Dixon, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes three nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults using the in-room emplacement method. First, a generic disposal vault design is provided which is suitable for a depth range of 500 m to 1000 m in highly stressed, sparsely fractured rock. The design process is described for all components of the system. The generic design is then applied to two different disposal vaults, one at a depth of 750 m in a low hydraulically conductive, sparsely fractured rock mass and another at a depth of 500 m in a higher conductivity, moderately fractured rock mass. In the in-room emplacement method, the disposal containers with used-fuel bundles are emplaced within the confines of the excavated rooms of a disposal vault. The discussion of the disposal-facility design process begins with a detailed description of a copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal container and the factors that influenced its design. The disposal-room generic design is presented including the detailed specifications, the scoping and numerical thermal and thermal mechanical analyses, the backfilling and sealing materials, and the operational processes. One room design is provided that meets all the requirements for a vault depth range of 500 to 1000 m. A disposal-vault layout and the factors that influenced its design are also presented, including materials handling, general logistics, and separation of radiological and nonradiological operations. Modifications to the used-fuel packaging plant for the filling and sealing of the copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal containers and a brief description of the common surface facilities needed by the disposal vault and the packaging plant are provided. The implementation of the disposal facility is outlined, describing the project stages and activities and itemizing a specific plan for each of the project stages: siting, construction, operation; decommissioning; and closure. (author)

  16. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  17. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for accident conditions of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository: Underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.W.; Sit, R.C.; Zavoshy, S.J.; Jardine, L.J.; Laub, T.W.

    1992-06-01

    This preliminary preclosure radiological safety analysis assesses the scenarios, probabilities, and potential radiological consequences associated with postulated accidents in the underground facility of the potential Yucca Mountain repository. The analysis follows a probabilistic-risk-assessment approach. Twenty-one event trees resulting in 129 accident scenarios are developed. Most of the scenarios have estimated annual probabilities ranging from 10 -11 /yr to 10 -5 /yr. The study identifies 33 scenarios that could result in offsite doses over 50 mrem and that have annual probabilities greater than 10 -9 /yr. The largest offsite dose is calculated to be 220 mrem, which is less than the 500 mrem value used to define items important to safety in 10 CFR 60. The study does not address an estimate of uncertainties, therefore conclusions or decisions made as a result of this report should be made with caution

  18. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  19. Improvement of 137Cs analysis in small volume seawater samples using the Ogoya underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Komura, K.; Kanazawa University, Ishikawa; Aoyama, M.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    137 Cs in seawater is one of the most powerful tracers of water motion. Large volumes of samples have been required for determination of 137 Cs in seawater. This paper describes improvement of separation and purification processes of 137 Cs in seawater, which includes purification of 137 Cs using hexachloroplatinic acid in addition to ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) precipitation. As a result, we succeeded the 137 Cs determination in seawater with a smaller sample volume of 10 liter by using ultra-low background gamma-spectrometry in the Ogoya underground facility. 137 Cs detection limit was about 0.1 mBq (counting time: 10 6 s). This method is applied to determine 137 Cs in small samples of the South Pacific deep waters. (author)

  20. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  1. Model Regulations for Borehole Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication is designed to assist in the development of an appropriate set of regulations for the predisposal management and disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources and small volumes of associated radioactive waste using the IAEA borehole disposal concept. It allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference by those States developing regulations for the first time. The model regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of the existing national legal and regulatory framework and other local conditions in the State.

  2. Need to use probabilistic risk approach in performance assessment of waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes will likely require, either directly or indirectly, that the performance of disposal facilities be assessed quantitatively. Such analyses, commonly called ''performance assessments,'' rely on the use of predictive models to arrive at a quantitative estimate of the potential impact of disposal on the environment and the safety and health of the public. It has been recognized that a suite of uncertainties affect the results of a performance assessment. These uncertainties are conventionally categorized as (1) uncertainty in the future state of the disposal system (facility and surrounding medium), (2) uncertainty in models (including conceptual models, mathematical models, and computer codes), and (3) uncertainty in data and parameters. Decisions regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility must be made in light of these uncertainties. Hence, an approach is needed that would allow the explicit consideration of these uncertainties so that their impact on the estimated consequences of disposal can be evaluated. While most regulations for waste disposal do not prescribe the consideration of uncertainties, it is proposed that, even in such cases, a meaningful decision regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility cannot be made without considering the impact of the attendant uncertainties. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach provides the formalism for considering the uncertainties and the technical basis that the decision makers can use in discharging their duties. A PRA methodology developed and demonstrated for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste provides a general framework for assessing the disposal of all types of wastes (radioactive, hazardous, and mixed). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Groundwater flow modeling for near-field of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. Y.; Park, J. W.; Jang, G. M.; Kim, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    For a hypothetical near-surface radioactive disposal facility, the behavior of groundwater flow around the near-field of disposal vault located at the unsaturated zone were analyzed. Three alternative conceptual models proposed as the hydraulic barrier layer design were simulated to assess the hydrologic performance of engineered barriers for the facility. In order to evaluate the seepage possibility of the infiltrated water passed through the final disposal cover after the facility closure, the flow path around and water flux through each disposal vault were compared. The hydrologic parameters variation that accounts for the long-term aging and degradation of the cover and engineered materials was considered in the simulations. The results showed that it is necessary to construct the hydraulic barrier at the upper and sides of the vault, and that, for this case, achieving design hydraulic properties of bentonite/sand mixture barrier in the as-built condition is crucial to limit the seepage into the waste

  4. Optimal use of the Gaz de France underground gas storage facilities; Utilisation optimale des stockages souterrains de Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favret, F.; Rouyer, E.; Bayen, D.; Corgier, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the tools developed by Gaz de France to optimize the use of its whole set of underground gas storage facilities. After a short introduction about the context and the purposes, the methodology and the models are detailed. The operational results obtained during the last three years are presented, and some conclusions and perspectives are given. (authors)

  5. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  6. Disposal of disused sealed sources and approach for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities (national practice of Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, Z.; Letuchy, A.; Tkachenko, N.V.

    2003-01-01

    The main sources of wastes are 13 units of nuclear power plants under operation at 4 NPP sites (operational wastes and spent sealed sources), uranium-mining industry, area of Chernobyl exclusion zone contaminated as a result of ChNPP accident, and over 8000 small users of sources of ionising radiation in different fields of scientific, medical and industrial applications. The management of spent sources is carried out basing on the technology from the early sixties. In accordance with this scheme accepted sources are disposed of either in the near surface concrete vaults or in borehole facilities of typical design. Radioisotope devices and gamma units are placed into near surface vaults and sealed sources in capsules into borehole repositories respectively. Isotope content of radwaste in the repositories is multifarious including Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Ir-192, Tl-204, Po-210, Ra-226, Pu-239, Am-241, H-3, Cf-252. A new programme for waste management has been adopted. It envisions the modifying of the 'Radon' facilities for long-term storage safety assessment and relocation of respective types of waste in 'Vector' repositories.Vector Complex will be built in the site which is located within the exclusion zone 10Km SW of the Chernobyl NPP. In Vector Complex two types of disposal facilities are designed to be in operation: 1) Near surface repositories for short lived LLRW and ILRW disposal in reinforced concrete containers. Repositories will be provided with multi layer waterproofing barriers - concrete slab on layer composed of mixture of sand and clay. Every layer of radwaste is supposed to be filled with 1cm clay layer following disposal; 2) Repositories for disposal of bulky radioactive waste without cans into concrete vaults. Approaches to safety assessment are discussed. Safety criteria for waste disposal in near surface repositories are established in Radiation Protection Standards (NRBU-97) and Addendum 'Radiation protection against sources of potential exposure

  7. New low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities for the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Within the next few years the Savannah River Plant will require new facilities for the disposal and/or storage of solid low-level radioactive waste. Six options have been developed which would meet the regulatory and site-specific requirements for such facilities

  8. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • 14 C, 226 Ra, 241 Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing 14 C, 226 Ra and 241 Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10 −7 mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv/yr. However, in the

  9. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul, E-mail: gracemi@fnctech.com

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 241}Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10{sup −7} mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit

  10. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  11. Operation of a low-level waste disposal facility and how to prevent problems in future facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a low-level waste facility is an ever increasing problem nationally, and specifically one that could grow to crisis proportion in Pennsylvania. There have been, nevertheless, a variety of changes over the years in the management of low level radioactive waste, particularly with regard to disposal facilities that can avert a crisis condition. A number of companies have been organized thru possible a broad range of services to the nuclear industry, including those that emphasize solidification of waste materials, engineering services, waste management, and transportation to disposal sites across the United States. This paper addresses one particular site and the problems which evolved at that site from an environmental perspective. It is important that it is clearly understood that, although these problems are resolvable, the lessons learned here are critical for the prevention of problems at future facilities. The focus of this paper is on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal facility which was closed in 1977. It must be understood that the regulations for siting, management, burial techniques, waste classification, and the overall management of disposal sites were limited when this facility was in operation

  12. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  13. Socioeconomic issues and analyses for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Waste facility siting and development can raise major social and economic issues in the host area. Initial site screening and analyses have been conducted for both potential high-level and low-level radioactive waste facilities; more detailed characterization and analyses are being planned. Results of these assessments are key to developing community plans that identify and implement measures to mitigate adverse socioeconomic impacts. Preliminary impact analyses conducted at high-level sites in Texas and Nevada, and site screening activities for low-level facilities in Illinois and California have identified a number of common socioeconomic issues and characteristics as well as issues and characteristics that differ between the sites and the type of facilities. Based on these comparisons, implications for selection of an appropriate methodology for impact assessment and elements of impact mitigation are identified

  14. Numerical modeling of the viscoplastic damage behaviour of rocks and application to underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, A.

    2003-12-01

    The long-term behavior of large, underground works of a civil engineering nature carried out in a rock mass is currently the subject of numerous studies. The object is to attain a better understanding of complex phenomena, such as the convergence of excavated cavities or the outbreak and development of damaged zones in the rock mass neighboring the works, in order to foresee them. This Ph.D. thesis is devoted to the analysis of viscoplastic strain in rocks and to the degradation of their mechanical properties with time, often referred to as deferred damage. A bibliographical record presents the current depth of understanding as regards underlying microstructural phenomena and summarizes the main theories upon which the modeling of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale is based. The formulations enabling a coupling between the viscous effects and the deferred damage are revisited and discussed in detail. One phenomenological model in particular, Lemaitre's viscoplastic constitutive damage law is retained for the numerical modeling. The calculations were performed with the help of a finite element code (CAST3M). Designs of nuclear waste disposal structures at great depth make up the subject of different case studies. The Lemaitre model, originally designed for metallic materials, is next the subject of a theoretical development of which the aim is to better adapt it to the description of the long-term mechanical behavior of rocks. The modifications focus on several points; notably that the hypotheses of anelastic strain at constant volume and of isotropy of damage are rejected. The main characteristics of time-dependent strain in rocks; in particular the phenomena of viscoplastic dilation and contraction as well as the anisotropy induced by damage to the rock matrix are reproduced by the proposed model. A parametric study is then undertaken, using the experimental results obtained on different types of rock, in order to demonstrate the model's capabilities

  15. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  16. Design modification of the El Cabril disposal facility for the treatment of steelyard ASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Santos, M.; Ugarte Pallares, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper described in general terms the management performed at the El Cabril Disposal Facility for the radioactive wastes generated as a result of the incident involving the meltdown of a Cs-137 source at a steelyard in Los Barrios (Cadiz), in the Bay of Algeciras. The greater part of this waste stream, consisting of dust from fumes, dry sludges, inert wastes, slag, earths and refractory materials, will be conditioned by mixing them with the waste package blocking mortar in the containers. This conditioning will allow the wastes to be immobilized in a solid matrix, without them occupying any additional volume at the facility and without altering the configuration of the disposal unit of the El Cabril Disposal Facility. The rest of the wastes generated: plastics, rubber, cloths and dust filters, will be conditioned by pressing, this producing compacted slabs which will be immobilized in containers or incinerated, as the case may be. (Author)

  17. Groundwater flow analysis using mixed hybrid finite element method for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hiroomi; Shimomura, Masanori; Kawakami, Hiroto; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    In safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, ground water flow analysis are used for calculating the radionuclide transport pathway and the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities. For this type of calculations, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been used and discussed about the accuracy of ones in Europe. This paper puts great emphasis on the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities, and describes the accuracy of results obtained from mixed hybrid finite element method by comparing of local water mass conservation and the reliability of the element breakdown numbers among the mixed hybrid finite element method, finite volume method and nondegenerated finite element method. (author)

  18. The Predictive Capability of Conditioned Simulation of Discrete Fracture Networks using Structural and Hydraulic Data from the ONKALO Underground Research Facility, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. R. N.; Baxter, S.; Hartley, L.; Appleyard, P.; Koskinen, L.; Vanhanarkaus, O.; Selroos, J. O.; Munier, R.

    2017-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models provide a natural analysis framework for rock conditions where flow is predominately through a series of connected discrete features. Mechanistic models to predict the structural patterns of networks are generally intractable due to inherent uncertainties (e.g. deformation history) and as such fracture characterisation typically involves empirical descriptions of fracture statistics for location, intensity, orientation, size, aperture etc. from analyses of field data. These DFN models are used to make probabilistic predictions of likely flow or solute transport conditions for a range of applications in underground resource and construction projects. However, there are many instances when the volumes in which predictions are most valuable are close to data sources. For example, in the disposal of hazardous materials such as radioactive waste, accurate predictions of flow-rates and network connectivity around disposal areas are required for long-term safety evaluation. The problem at hand is thus: how can probabilistic predictions be conditioned on local-scale measurements? This presentation demonstrates conditioning of a DFN model based on the current structural and hydraulic characterisation of the Demonstration Area at the ONKALO underground research facility. The conditioned realisations honour (to a required level of similarity) the locations, orientations and trace lengths of fractures mapped on the surfaces of the nearby ONKALO tunnels and pilot drillholes. Other data used as constraints include measurements from hydraulic injection tests performed in pilot drillholes and inflows to the subsequently reamed experimental deposition holes. Numerical simulations using this suite of conditioned DFN models provides a series of prediction-outcome exercises detailing the reliability of the DFN model to make local-scale predictions of measured geometric and hydraulic properties of the fracture system; and provides an understanding

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  20. Decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1978-01-01

    A survey and characteristics are given of the main sources of wastes from the operation of nuclear installations. The amounts are compared of liquid and gaseous wastes from PWR and BWR reactors. The main trends of radioactive waste processing in the world are described. In Czechoslovakia, two methods of waste fixation have been developed: vacuum cementation and bituminization. The demands are summed up on radioactive waste storage sites and it is stated that there are a number of suitable localities, namely abolished granite quarries with a very deep ground water level and a low-permeable overburden and exhausted quarries of kaolinitic clays, which meet all criteria and secure the safe disposal of wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants up to the year 2020. (Z.M.)

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first revision to ''Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0

  2. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  3. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  4. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  5. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type

  6. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. ► We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. ► We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. ► Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. ► For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don’t sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no ‘best’ plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four

  7. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  8. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a high potential risk to workers and to the public. The IAEA has received numerous requests for assistance from Member States faced with the problem of safely managing disused sealed sources. The requests have related to both technical and safety aspects. Particularly urgent requests have involved emergency situations arising from unsafe storage conditions and lost sources. There is therefore an important requirement for the development of safe and cost-effective final disposal solutions. Consequently, a number of activities have been initiated by the IAEA to assist Member States in the management of disused sealed sources. The objective of this report is to address safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited amounts of radioactive waste, in borehole facilities. It is the first in a series of reports aiming to provide an indication of the present issues related to the use of borehole disposal facilities to safely disposal

  9. Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrack, Antoony; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear power program will inevitably generate radioactive wastes including low-and intermediate radioactive waste and spent fuel. These wastes are hazardous to human health and the environment and therefore, a reliable radioactive waste disposal facility becomes a necessity. This paper describes Kenya's basic plans for the disposal of radioactive wastes expected from the nuclear program. This plan is important as an initial implementation of a national Low to intermediate level wastes storage facility in Kenya. In Kenya, radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, education and research and development. Future radioactive waste is expected to arise from nuclear reactors, oil exploration, radioisotope and fuel production, and research reactors as shown in table 1. The best strategy is to store the LILW and spent fuel temporarily within reactor sites pending construction of a centralized interim storage facility or final disposal facility. The best philosophy is to introduce both repository and nuclear power programs concurrently. Research and development on volume reduction technology and conceptual design of disposal facility of LILW should be pursued. Safe management of radioactive waste is a national responsibility for sustainable generation of nuclear power. The republic of Kenya is set to become the second African nuclear power generation country after South Africa.

  10. Mechanisms of long-term concrete degradation in LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Most low-level waste (LLW) disposal alternatives, except shallow land burial and improved shallow land burial, involve the use of concrete as an extra barrier for containment. Because concrete is a porous-type material, its moisture retention and transport properties can be characterized with parameters that are also used to characterize the geohydrologic properties of soils. Several processes can occur with the concrete to degrade it and to increase both the movement of water and contaminants through the disposal facility. The effect of these processes must be quantified in designing and estimating the long-term performance of disposal facilities. Modeling the long-term performance of LLW disposal technologies involves, first, estimating the degradation rate of the concrete in a particular facility configuration and environmental setting; second, calculating the water flow through the facility as a function of time; third, calculating the contaminant leaching usually by diffusion or dissolution mechanisms, and then coupling the facility water and contaminant outflow to a hydrogeological and environmental uptake model for environmental releases or doses

  11. Assessment of the properties of disused sealed radioactive sources for disposal in a borehole facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjepong, K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive wastes arise from applications in which radioactive materials are used. Medicine, industries and agriculture are examples of areas where radioactive materials are used. Most of the radioactive materials used in nuclear applications are in the form of sealed radioactive sources (SRS). After a number of usages, the SRS may no longer be useful enough for its original purpose and will be considered as a disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS). DSRS are potentially dangerous to human health and the environment, and therefore important to manage them safely. Currently in Ghana, DSRS are collected and stored awaiting a final disposal option. There are ongoing plans to implement the Borehole Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources (BOSS) system in Ghana as a final disposal option. There are, however, concerns about the number of DSRS disposal packages that can safely be disposed in a narrow borehole underground in a long term without posing any harm to people and the environment. It is therefore necessary to assess the properties of DSRS that need to be placed into the borehole to determine the safety of this disposal option. For this study, 160 DSRS were selected from the DSRS inventory. The present activity, volume, A/D ratio and thermal output of all the DSRS were determined. The SIMBOD database tool was used to determine the number of capsules and disposal packages that will be required with respect to the DSRS registered into it. Also, verification measurements to confirm the DSRS inventory data were conducted. The assessment have shown that DSRS used in this study would require a total of seven (7) capsules. The estimated total activity of the disposal packages were below the waste acceptance criteria and the thermal output for each disposal package were also below the 50W limit. One borehole with an estimated length of 57 m will be safe to dispose the DSRS used in this study. The verification measurements confirmed the confirmed the DSRS inventory data. It

  12. Selection and examination of types of waste relevant to underground disposal. Final report; Auswahl und Untersuchung UTD-relevanter Abfallarten. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, C. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Brasser, T. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Tieflagerung; Bahadir, M. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Fischer, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Lorenz, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik; Petersen, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    1995-12-31

    In order to do justice to the principle laid down in the Waste Management Technical Code that wastes disposed of underground in salt rock formations should remain clear of the biosphere for an indefinite time and without the need for later remedial measures and in order to realise the concept of so-called pollution-free disposal (mainly in non-saline formations) it is necessary to have verified knowledge on the types of waste concerned, the geological and hydrogeological conditions at the disposal site and in its surroundings, and on the future development of the entire disposal system. The long-term safety of a disposal site (or that of any kind of underground disposal of materials) depends on whether water or aqueous solutions can act on the host rock or on the wastes deposited in it, the extent to which this can result in dissolving processes and/or contaminant mobilisation and, finally, on whether this can conceivably lead to an impairment of the intended barriers and to a disposal of contaminants in the nearer or farther surroundings of the underground disposal site. This means in particular that the wastes themselves and their reactivity with fluid components in geological systems must be well-known or else examined and duly assessed. The following final report therefore is intended as a contribution to creating the requisite database for types of waste relevant to underground disposal. It has been possible here to collect important information on arising waste quantities and critical waste constituents and assess their hazard potential and so provide a basis for further research and development work. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der in der TA Abfall formulierte Grundsatz, bei der Ablagerung von Abfaellen in untertaegigen Anlagen im Salzgestein die Abfaelle dauerhaft und nachsorgefrei von der Biosphaere fernzuhalten, wie auch die Realisierung des Konzeptes der sog. immissionsneutralen Ablagerung (vornehmlich in nichtsalinaren Formationen) erfordern gesicherte

  13. Comparative analysis of risk characteristics of nuclear waste repositories and other disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Three fundamental questions concerning public perception of the measurement of radioactive wastes were addressed in this report. The first question centered on the perceived importance of nuclear waste management as a public issue: how important is nuclear waste management relative to other technological and scientific issues; do different segments of the public disagree on its importance; the second question concerned public attitudes toward a nuclear waste disposal facility: how great a risk to health and safety is a nuclear waste disposal facility relative to other industrial facilities; is there disagreement on its riskiness among various public groups; the third question pertained to the aspects of risks that affect overall risk perception: what are the qualitative aspects of a nuclear waste disposal facility that contribute to overall perceptions of risk; do different segments of the population associate different risk characteristics with hazardous facilities. The questions follow from one another: is the issue important; given the importance of the issue, is the facility designed to deal with it considered risky; given the riskiness of the facility, why is it considered risky. Also addressed in this report, and a main focus of its findings, were the patterns of differences among respondent groups on each of these questions

  14. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Simonds

    2006-09-01

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, admin facility, weigh scale, decon building, treatment systems, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and are being constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the central Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facilityyy for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams. This compliance demonstration document discusses the conceptual site model for the ICDF Complex area. Within this conceptual site model, the selection of the area for the ICDF Complex is discussed. Also, the subsurface stratigraphy in the ICDF Complex area is discussed along with the existing contamination beneath the ICDF Complex area. The designs for the various ICDF Complex facilities are also included in this compliance demonstration document. These design discussions are a summary of the design as presented in the Remedial Design/Construction Work Plans for the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond and the Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility. Each of the major facilities or systems is described including the design criteria.

  15. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  16. Consideration of Criteria for a Conceptual Near Surface Radioactive Waste disposal Facility in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nderitu, Stanley Werugia; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures. This study will present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and illustrate some of its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in a conceptual near surface disposal facility in Kenya. The approach will make use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities. The study will mainly focus on post-closure periods. The study will employ some specific inadvertent human intrusion scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. The specific performance assessments will use modified scenarios and data to establish acceptable disposal concentrations for specific disposal sites and conditions. Safety and environmental impacts assessments is required in the post-closure phase to support particular decisions in development, operation, and closure of a near surface repository.

  17. Recent Research Status on the Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal and Identification of Aerobic Microbes in a Groundwater Sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Cho, Won Jin

    2006-11-01

    In this report, a comprehensive review on the research results and status for the various effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal including definition and classification of microbes, and researches related with the waste containers, engineered barriers, natural barriers, natural analogue studies, and radionuclide migration and retardation. Cultivation, isolation, and classification of aerobic microbes found in a groundwater sampled from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the KAERI site have carried out and over 20 microbes were found to be present in the groundwater. Microbial identification by a 16S rDNA genetic analysis of the selected major 10 aerobic microbes was performed and the identified microbes were characterized

  18. The development by means of trial assessments, of a procedure for radiological risk assessment of underground disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Seven trials are outlined showing the development and testing of a procedure based upon pra using Monte Carlo simulators, to assess post closure risks from the underground disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The PRA method is found to be more justifiable than the use of 'best estimates'. Problems of accounting for long-term environmental changes and of future human intrusions are discussed. The importance of achieving statistical convergence within practical time scales and resources and of accounting for the influence of different sources of systematic bias is emphasised. (orig.)

  19. Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology to a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state

  20. Analysis of a Radioactive Release in a Nuclear Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppiti, James; Nelson, Roger; MacMillan, Walter J.; Cunningham, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a 655-meter deep mine near Carlsbad, New Mexico, used to dispose the nation's defense transuranic waste. Limited airborne radioactivity was released from a container of radioactive waste in WIPP on 14 February, 2014. As designed, a mine ventilation filtration system prevented the large scale release of contamination from the underground. However, isolation dampers leaked, which allowed the release of low levels of contaminants after the event until they were sealed. None of the exposed individuals received any recordable dose. While surface contamination was limited, contamination in the ventilation system and portions of the underground was substantial. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the operating ventilation system ensure continued containment during recovery and resumption of disposal operations. However, ventilation flow is restricted since the incident, with all exhaust air directed through the filters. Decontamination and natural fixation by the hygroscopic nature of the salt host rock has reduced the likelihood of further contamination spread. Contamination control and ventilation system operability are crucial for resumption of operations. This article provides an operational assessment and evaluation of these two key areas.

  1. Analysis of a Radioactive Release in a Nuclear Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppiti, James [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, Roger [Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); MacMillan, Walter J. [Nuclear Waste Partners, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Cunningham, Scott

    2017-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a 655-meter deep mine near Carlsbad, New Mexico, used to dispose the nation’s defense transuranic waste. Limited airborne radioactivity was released from a container of radioactive waste in WIPP on 14 February, 2014. As designed, a mine ventilation filtration system prevented the large scale release of contamination from the underground. However, isolation dampers leaked, which allowed the release of low levels of contaminants after the event until they were sealed. None of the exposed individuals received any recordable dose. While surface contamination was limited, contamination in the ventilation system and portions of the underground was substantial. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the operating ventilation system ensure continued containment during recovery and resumption of disposal operations. However, ventilation flow is restricted since the incident, with all exhaust air directed through the filters. Decontamination and natural fixation by the hygroscopic nature of the salt host rock has reduced the likelihood of further contamination spread. Contamination control and ventilation system operability are crucial for resumption of operations. This article provides an operational assessment and evaluation of these two key areas.

  2. Surface disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste. How safe is the disposal facility in Dessel in the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A disposal facility for the disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste is planned to be built on a site located in the community of Dessel (Belgium). The facility will consist of 34 modules, corresponding to a storage volume capacity of approximately 70,000 m3. The disposal concept includes waste containers that are encapsulated in a concrete box which is filled with mortar. Approximately 900 of these blocks, or monoliths, fit inside each module. The article discusses the Research and Development programme that has been conducted at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the development of this facility. Main emphasis is on the models that have been developed for predicting the long-term containment of the disposal facility.

  3. Environmental information document: New hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.; Towler, O.O.

    1987-04-01

    Site selection, alternative facilities and alternative operations are described for new hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for the alternatives are presented

  4. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  5. Role of disposal in developing Federal Facility Compliance Act mixed waste treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Rhoderick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was enacted on October 6, 1992. This act amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which was previously amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The FFCA set in place a process for managing the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed low-level radioactive wastes (MLLW), wastes that contain both hazardous and low-level radioactive constituents, with full participation of the affected states. The FFCA provides the framework for the development of treatment capacity for DOE's mixed waste. Disposal of the treatment residues is not addressed by the FFCA. DOE has initiated efforts in concert with the states in the development of a disposal strategy for the treated mixed wastes. This paper outlines DOE efforts in development of a mixed waste disposal strategy which is integrated with the FFCA Site Treatment Planning process

  6. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste in land burial facilities at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Haegg, C.; Bergman, C.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents the formal background for the handling of the Studsvik application for permission to build a plant for deposition of radioactive waste in land burial facilities. The SSI (National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection) basis for assessment is reported and relevant factors are presented. The radiation doses calculated by the SSI do not exceed a few microsievert per annum in spite of very pessimistic assumptions. The report constitutes assessment material for the standpoint to be taken by the board of SSI. (L.F.)

  9. Development of high integrity, maximum durability concrete structures for LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    A number of disposal facilities for Low-Level Radioactive Wastes have been planned for the Savannah River Site. Design has been completed for disposal vaults for several waste classifications and construction is nearly complete or well underway on some facilities. Specific design criteria varies somewhat for each waste classification. All disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults, although the majority will be above ground for many years before being encapsulated with earth at final closure. Some classes of vaults have a minimum required service life of 100 years. All vaults utilize a unique blend of cement, blast furnace slag and pozzolan. The design synthesizes the properties of the concrete mix with carefully planned design details and construction methodologies to (1) eliminate uncontrolled cracking; (2) minimize leakage potential; and (3) maximize durability. The first of these vaults will become operational in 1992. 9 refs

  10. Institutional aspects of siting nuclear waste disposal facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; Prichard, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper has dealt with the institutional issues associated with disposal of nuclear waste in the US. The authors believe that these institutional problems must be resolved, no matter how technologically well suited a site may be for disposal, before site selection may take place. The authors have also pointed out that the geography of the US, with its large arid regions of very low population density, contributes to the institutional acceptability of nuclear waste disposal. Economic factors, especially in sparsely populated areas where the uranium mining and milling industry has caused operation, also weigh on the acceptability of nuclear waste to local communities. This acceptability will be highest where there are existing nuclear facilities and/or facilities which are closed - thus creating unemployment especially where alternative economic opportunities are few

  11. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives contained in either 10 CFR 61, open-quotes Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste,close quotes or U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Radioactive Waste Management.close quotes The purpose of a performance assessment is to provide detailed, site-specific analyses of all credible pathways by which radionuclides could escape from the disposal facility into the environment. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations. This paper demonstrates that the use of simpler analytical models avoids the complexity and opacity of the numerical simulations while capturing the essential physical behavior of a site

  12. Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

    2000-08-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

  13. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energ Agency. Vienna

    2003-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a ...

  14. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  15. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency WATRP Review Team.

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  16. 77 FR 48107 - Workshop on Performance Assessments of Near-Surface Disposal Facilities: FEPs Analysis, Scenario...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...) disposal facilities. The workshop has been developed to facilitate communication among Federal and State.... NRC Public Meeting The purpose of this public meeting is to facilitate communication and gather... Selection and Implementation, Model Abstraction, and Confidence Building Activities The public meeting will...

  17. Outline of the radioactive waste management strategy at the national radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Tukhto, A.A.; Ivanov, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores' was started in 1964 and was designed for radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. It is located in the neighbourhood of Minsk (2 Mil. people) and it is the only one in this country. In 1997 the Government initiated the project for the facility reconstruction. The main reconstruction goal is to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing radioactive waste at the Ekores disposal facility. This covers modernising technologies for new coming wastes and also that the wastes currently disposed in the pits are retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as new coming wastes. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists was reviewed by the IAEA experts. The main provisions of the revised project strategy are given in this paper. The paper's intention is to outline the technical measures which may be taken at standard 'old type Soviet Radon' disposal facility so as to ensure the radiological safety of the site. (author)

  18. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  19. Rock stress measurements in ONKALO underground characterisation facility at Olkiluoto at depth of 120 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecker, E.

    2007-04-01

    In November and December 2006 overcoring stress measurements have been conducted in the boreholes ONK-PP74, ONK-PP75 and ONK-PP77 in a niche of the access tunnel of the ONKALO underground characterisation facility at the Olkiluoto site. Measurements have been done using the CSIRO 3D stress measuring cell. This cell is one of the mostly used cells in the whole world for estimation of the state of stress in rock when doing the borehole measurements. The boreholes are at a depth of about 120 m under the ground surface. The rock where the measurements have been conducted is a foliated migmatitic gneiss (subtypes veined and diatexitic gneiss). Parallel to the overcoring measurements a glue test has been conducted in the laboratory to check the quality of the bonding of the stress cells to the rock. The result showed that the glue makes a good contact between the rock and the stress cell, but air bubbles, which have normally been observed within the glue and at the edges, proved this time to be disadvantageous. Normally such air bubbles have dimensions of about one millimetre, but sometimes certain bubbles may become notably bigger. In the ONKALO overcored probes sawn apart such air bubbles were found both in wet and dry probe conditions. In the test series eight stress measurements have been provided, three of them failed for technical reasons. At one of these three tests the glue has extruded too early, at the other two tests the overcoring was not conducted deep enough. At the remaining five tests in spite of the glue test results a calculation of the stress tensor could be made. Four of these five measurements can be seen as relatively successful. The results of these measurements show a major principal stress of 14.8 MPa in average, trending northwest - southeast, and with a dipping of 11 degrees in average. (orig.)

  20. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts. 644.486 Section 644.486 National... Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar...

  1. Isotopic dilution requirements for 233U criticality safety in processing and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Hopper, C.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    The disposal of excess 233 U as waste is being considered. Because 233 U is a fissile material, one of the key requirements for processing 233 U to a final waste form and disposing of it is to avoid nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233 U with nonfissile 238 U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities, that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials, to be used for processing and disposing of 233 U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be ∼ 0.66 wt% 233 U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), water (H 2 O), 233 U, and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt% 235 U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233 U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO 2 present. Thus, for the US inventory of 233 U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  2. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  3. Safeguards and security aspects of a potential Canadian used-fuel disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Wuschke, D.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-09-01

    Large quantities of highly radioactive used fuel have been produced by Canadian nuclear generating stations. Conceptual design and development is under way to assess a means of disposing of this used fuel within a vault located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. In parallel with this work, the safeguards and physical security measures that will be required for this used fuel during transportation, packaging, and containment in a disposal vault are being studied in Canada, in several other countries that have similar requirements and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canadian commitments and regulations applicable to used-fuel transportation and disposal are described. The experience gained from applying safeguards and physical security measures at similar facilities is considered together with the availability of equipment that might be used in applying these measures. Possible safeguards and physical security measures are outlined and considered. These measures are based on the conceptual design studies for a reference Used-Fuel Disposal Centre and associated transportation systems undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. These studies show that effective and practical safeguards, which meet present IAEA objectives, can be applied to the used fuel in transportation and at a disposal facility. They also show that physical security measures can be employed that have a high probability of preventing theft or sabotage. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs., glossary, 2 appendices

  4. Safeguards and security aspects of a potential Canadian used-fuel disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R M; Wuschke, D; Baumgartner, P

    1994-09-01

    Large quantities of highly radioactive used fuel have been produced by Canadian nuclear generating stations. Conceptual design and development is under way to assess a means of disposing of this used fuel within a vault located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. In parallel with this work, the safeguards and physical security measures that will be required for this used fuel during transportation, packaging, and containment in a disposal vault are being studied in Canada, in several other countries that have similar requirements and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canadian commitments and regulations applicable to used-fuel transportation and disposal are described. The experience gained from applying safeguards and physical security measures at similar facilities is considered together with the availability of equipment that might be used in applying these measures. Possible safeguards and physical security measures are outlined and considered. These measures are based on the conceptual design studies for a reference Used-Fuel Disposal Centre and associated transportation systems undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. These studies show that effective and practical safeguards, which meet present IAEA objectives, can be applied to the used fuel in transportation and at a disposal facility. They also show that physical security measures can be employed that have a high probability of preventing theft or sabotage. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs., glossary, 2 appendices.

  5. Annual Status Report (FY2016) Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casbon, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual, require that a determination of continued adequacy of the performance assessment (PA), composite analysis (CA), and disposal authorization statement (DAS) be made on an annual basis, and it must consider the results of data collection and analysis from research, field studies, and monitoring. Annual summaries of low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations must be prepared with respect to the conclusions and recommendations of the PA and CA, and a determination of the need to revise the PA or CA must be made. The annual summary requirement provides a structured approach for demonstrating the continued adequacy of the PA and CA in demonstrating a reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met. This annual summary addresses only the status of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) PA (CP-60089, Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Hanford Site, Washington, formerly WCH-520 Rev. 1)1. The CA for ERDF is supported by DOE/RL-2016-62, Annual Status Report (FY 2016): Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The ERDF PA portion of the CA document is found in Section 3.1.4, and the ERDF operations portion is found in Section 3.3.3.2 of that document.

  6. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW [low-level waste] disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Directions in locational conflict research: Voting on the location of nuclear waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, F.M.; Murauskas, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear from empirical evidence that currently significant locational conflicts concerning the siting of nuclear waste disposal facilities cannot be modeled under the standard noxious facility location paradigm that views locational conflict as conflict between regions. Rather, local populations are characterized by sharp disagreements as to whether the proposed facility is in fact salutary or noxious. Thus, conflict concerning nuclear waste disposal must be understood as a conflict among preferences and values, rather than among competing, areally defined interest groups. This has significant implications for the outcomes of political processes leading to siting decisions, as indicated in this paper. Whether intransivity occurs depends on the location and proportion of persons with different preference orderings concerning possible outcomes. Further research on this issue can and should be directed to further mathematical specification of these conditions along with empirical analysis where appropriate

  8. Mastery of risks: we build the memory of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourcelle, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, is organizing today the information needs of tomorrow. The aim is to allow the future generations to have access to the knowledge of the existence of subsurface radioactive waste facilities and to understand the context and technologies of such facilities. The storage of this information is made on 'permanent paper', a high resistant paper with a lifetime of 600 to 1000 years. An updating of these data is made every 5 years for each waste disposal center. Another project, still in progress, concerns the memory management of deep geologic waste disposal facilities for which the time scale to be considered is of the order of millennia. (J.S.)

  9. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  11. Modeling of release of radionuclides from an engineered disposal facility for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.; Suzuki, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer code, ENBAR-1, for the simulation of radionuclide releases from an engineered disposal facility has been developed to evaluate the source term for subsequent migration of radionuclides in and through a natural barrier. The system considered here is that a waste package (waste form and container) is placed, together with backfill materials, into a concrete pit as a disposal unit for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The code developed includes the following modules: water penetration into a concrete pit, corrosion of a drum as a container, leaching of radionuclides from a waste form, migration of radionuclides in backfill materials, release of radionuclides from the pit. The code has the advantage of its simplicity of operation and presentation while still allowing comprehensive evaluation of each element of an engineered disposal facility to be treated. The performance and source term of the facility might be readily estimated with a few key parameters to define the problem

  12. The project for national disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Boyanov, S.; Christoskova, M.; Ivanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The State Enterprise Radioactive Waste is the responsible organisation in Bulgaria for the radioactive waste management and, in particular, for the establishment of the national disposal facility (NDF) for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LIL RAW SL). According to the national strategy for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste the NDF should be commissioned in 2015. NDF will accept two main waste streams - for disposal and for storage if the waste is not disposable. The major part of disposable waste is generated by Kozloduy NPP. The disposal facility will be a near surface module type engineered facility. Consecutive erection of new modules will be available in order to increase the capacity of the facility. The corrective measures are previewed to be applied if needed - upgrading of engineered barriers and/or retrieval of the waste. The active control after the facility is closed should be not more than 300 years. The safety of the facility is supposed to be based on the passive measures based on defense in deep consisting of physical barriers and administrative measures. A multi barrier approach will be applied. Presently the NDF project is at the first stage of the facility life cycle - the site selection. The siting process itself consists of four stages - elaboration of a concept for waste disposal and site selection planning, data collection and region analyses, characterization of the preferred sites-candidates and site confirmation. Up till now the work on the first two stages of the siting process had been done by the SE RAW. Geological site investigations have been carried out for more than two decades all over the territory of the country. The results of the investigations have been summarized and analysed thoroughly. More than 40 potential sites have been considered, after the preselection 12 sites have been selected as favourable and among them 5 are pointed out as acceptable. The ultimate decision for a site

  13. EXPERIENCES FROM THE SOURCE-TERM ANALYSIS OF A LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL RADWASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo-Wan; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2003-01-01

    Enhancement of a computer code SAGE for evaluation of the Korean concept for a LILW waste disposal facility is discussed. Several features of source term analysis are embedded into SAGE to analyze: (1) effects of degradation mode of an engineered barrier, (2) effects of dispersion phenomena in the unsaturated zone and (3) effects of time dependent sorption coefficient in the unsaturated zone. IAEA's Vault Safety Case (VSC) approach is used to demonstrate the ability of this assessment code. Results of MASCOT are used for comparison purposes. These enhancements of the safety assessment code, SAGE, can contribute to realistic evaluation of the Korean concept of the LILW disposal project in the near future

  14. Compaction of solid wastes in countries without disposal facility: A prelude of future troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez-Navarro, J.C.; Salgado-Mojena, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to launch a technical debate, which will lead up to simple recommendations on what to do with compactable solid wastes in countries without disposal facilities. The paper discusses the problems caused by some practical uncertainties in the long-term management of the radioactive solid wastes produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle, in countries belonging to Groups A, B and C. Compaction is the preferred volume reduction method. But the compacted solid wastes are very probably not in a suitable form for future disposal and would need to be processed again in the near future. (author)

  15. Safety assessment of a borehole type disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Yucel, V.; Kozak, M.W.; Moore, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to test the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Borehole Test Case (BTC), related to a proposed future disposal option for disused sealed radioactive sources. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the BTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  16. ASAM - The international programme on application of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has launched a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM). The CRP will focus on the practical application of the safety assessment methodology, developed under the ISAM programme, for different purposes, such as developing design concepts, licensing, upgrading existing repositories, reassessment of operating disposal facilities. The overall aim of the programme is to assist safety assessors, regulators and other specialists involved in the development and review of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities in order to achieve transparent, traceable and defendable evaluation of safety of these facilities. (author)

  17. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  18. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  19. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  20. The progress and results of a demonstration test of a cavern-type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity levels mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning and for part of transuranic (TRU) waste mainly from spent fuel reprocessing are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50 to 100 meters below ground, and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) of a combination of bentonite and cement materials in Japan. In order to advance the feasibility study for these disposal, a government-commissioned research project named Demonstration Test of Cavern-Type Disposal Facility started in fiscal 2005, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up test facility has been constructed under actual subsurface environment. The main objective of the test is to establish construction methodology and procedures which ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. By fiscal 2009 some parts of the facility have been constructed, and the test has demonstrated both practicability of the construction and achievement of the quality. They are respectively taken as low-permeability of less than 5x10 13 m/s and low-diffusivity of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the time of completion of construction. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of some parts of a bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  1. From NIMBY to YIMBY: How generators can support siting LLRW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently head complaint about siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. The producers or generators of this waste can help move public opinion form NIMBY to YIMBY (YES exclamation point In MY Back Yard exclamation point). Generators of low-level radioactive waste often believe it is the responsibility of other organizations to site disposal facilities for the waste, and that their role is to assure the technical aspects of the facility, such as acceptability criteria for the various waste forms, are clearly defined. In reality, generators, using a properly designed and effectively implemented communications plan, can be the most effective advocates for siting a facility. The communications plan must include the following elements: an objective focusing on the importance of generators becoming vocal and active; clearly defined and crafted key messages; specifically defined and targeted audiences for those messages; and speaker training which includes how to communicate with hostile or concerned audiences about a subject they perceive as very risky. Generators must develop coalitions with other groups and form a grassroots support organization. Finally, opportunities must be developed to deliver these messages using a variety of means. Written materials should be distributed often to keep the need for disposal capability in the public's mind. Can we get from NIMBY to YIMBY? It is difficult, but doable--especially with support from the people who make the waste in the first place

  2. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  3. France. The Centre de la Manche disposal facility: Entering into the institutional control period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de la Manche disposal facility, created by decree in 1969, is the first French near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. It lies at the northwest end of the Cotentin peninsula, next to the COGEMA-La Hague fuel reprocessing plant. The Centre de la Manche facility occupies an area of about 150,000 m 2 . Its operation was terminated in late June 1994 with about 500,000 m 3 of packages disposed of. Operating feedback from the Centre de la Manche was used to design the second French disposal facility, located in the Aube, which has been receiving LILW since 1992. Since the end of the operating period, ANDRA has been preparing the statutory files to prepare the Centre de la Manche for its entry into the institutional control period. A new government decree will set the framework in which the Centre will evolve in this period. The regulatory process includes the filing of an application with the ministries concerned, containing a file with the requisite statutory documents, including an impact study of the facility on its environment as well as a hazard study. The file will then be submitted to a public inquiry, an essential informative period of the project designed to make a compilation of criticisms and suggestions from the public. In support of the application, a safety report has been sent to the Nuclear Installation Safety Directorate (DSIN) for a decision on the admissibility of the application. Recently, the Group of experts appointed by the DSIN which examined it has come out in favor of the creation of a new basic nuclear installation (i.e., a new government agency) for the institutional control period. A draft decree will then be submitted to the approval of the Interministerial Commission for Basic Nuclear Installations. This process, initiated in 1994, is nearing completion

  4. Traces of the future. Learning from the nature for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes; Spuren der Zukunft. Lernen von der Natur fuer die Tiefenlagerung von radioaktiven Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2007-04-15

    In view of the long term safety of an underground storage facility for radioactive waste, some observations from the nature can be helpful by judging laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Some examples which are described in this report (so-called natural analogues) show that in the nature geological systems, materials and processes are found the stability of which can be studied over long time intervals of the past. A natural analogue presents an example that is valid for the actual geological conditions and so can give highly useful remarks. However, such an example should not be over estimated. The examples shown in this report are limited to natural analogues which concern the total storage system, the technical barriers or the host rock of a geological underground repository for highly radioactive wastes as they are produced in a nuclear reactor. (author)

  5. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters

  6. The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Currently, many Member States are safely operating near surface disposal facilities and some are in the initial or advanced stages of planning geological repositories. As for other nuclear facilities and their operational phase, all activities associated with the disposal of radioactive waste need to be carefully planned and systematic actions undertaken in order to maintain adequate confidence that disposal systems will meet performance as well as prescribed safety requirements and objectives. The effective development and application of a management system (integrating requirements for safety, protection of health and the environment, security, quality and economics into one coherent system) which addresses every stage of repository development is essential. It provides assurance that the objectives for repository performance and safety, as well as environmental and quality criteria, will be met. For near surface repositories, a management system also provides the opportunity to re-evaluate existing disposal systems with respect to new safety, environmental or societal requirements which could arise during the operational period of a facility. The topic of waste management and disposal continues to generate public interest and scrutiny. Implementation of a formal management system provides documentation, transparency and accountability for the various activities and processes associated with radioactive waste disposal. This information can contribute to building public confidence and acceptance of disposal facilities. The objective of this report is to provide Member States with practical guidance and relevant information on management system principles and expectations for management systems that can serve as a basis for developing and implementing a management system for three important stages; the design, construction/upgrading and operation of disposal facilities. To facilitate the understanding of management system implementation at the different stages of a

  7. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Assessing risks to fish populations near a proposed disposal facility for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Miesenheimer, P.; Hull, R.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of used nuclear fuel disposal in the Canadian Shield is currently undergoing a federal environmental assessment review process. As part of this review, potential risks to brook trout populations in the vicinity of such an underground repository were considered. Chemical fate, transport and exposure models have been utilized to estimate the dose rates from released radionuclides and other fuel constituents, and these likely will not be sufficient to harm fish in nearby streams. However, other stressors such as habitat alteration (e.g., loss of upwelling) and/or fishing pressure associated with increased public access could have significant population impacts if the site is located in a pristine northern region. Population models are utilized to explore the risks of local population reduction for different combinations of fishing pressure and habitat degradation

  9. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  10. 241-CX-70, 241-CX-71, and 241-CX-72 underground storage tanks at the strontium semiworks facility supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the underground storage tanks at the Strontium Semiworks Facility and is intended to be used as a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of WAC 173-303 for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units. Radioactive material is contained in three underground storage tanks: 241-CX-70, 241-CX-71, and 241-CX-72. Tank 241-CX-70 has been emptied, except for residual quantities of waste, and has been classified as an elementary neutralization tank under the RCRA. Tanks 241-CX-71 and 241-CX-72 contain radioactive and Washington State-only dangerous waste material, but do not present a significant hazard to adjacent facilities, personnel, or the environment. Currently, dangerous waste management activities are not being applied at the tanks. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the Strontium Semiworks Facility

  11. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  12. Conceptual model to determine maximum activity of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmosh, I.; Olkhovyk, Yu.

    2016-01-01

    For development of the management strategy for radioactive waste to be placed in near - surface disposal facilities (NSDF), it is necessary to justify long - term safety of such facilities. Use of mathematical modelling methods for long - term forecasts of radwaste radiation impact and assessment of radiation risks from radionuclides migration can help to resolve this issue. The purpose of the research was to develop the conceptual model for determining the maximum activity of radwaste to be safely disposed in the NSDF and to test it in the case of Lot 3 Vector NSDF (Chornobyl exclusion zone). This paper describes an approach to the development of such a model. The conceptual model of "9"0 Sr migration from Lot 3 through aeration zone and aquifer soils was developed. The results of modelling are shown. The proposals on further steps for the model improvement were developed

  13. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 2, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report, the Preoperational Baseline and Site Characterization Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. Five groundwater monitoring wells, six deep characterization boreholes, and two shallow characterization boreholes were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) site to directly investigate site-specific hydrogeologic conditions

  14. Construction and operational experiences of engineered barrier test facility for near surface disposal of LILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Se Moon; Kim, Chang Lak

    2003-01-01

    Engineered barrier test facility is specially designed to demonstrate the performance of engineered barrier system for the near-surface disposal facility under the domestic environmental conditions. Comprehensive measurement systems are installed within each test cell. Long-and short-term monitoring of the multi-layered cover system can be implemented according to different rainfall scenarios with artificial rainfall system. Monitoring data on the water content, temperature, matric potential, lateral drainage and percolation of cover-layer system can be systematically managed by automatic data acquisition system. The periodic measurement data are collected and will be analyzed by a dedicated database management system, and provide a basis for performance verification of the disposal cover design

  15. One consideration about rational design of the multi tunnels in geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Kazuhiko; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Morita, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In the geological disposal facility of the high-level radioactive waste, a group of galleries is designed in parallel at the depth of more than 300 m below surface. This is an unprecedented structure in the field of conventional engineering, and it is necessary to take this characteristic into consideration in the design of the galleries. In the geological disposal facility, as well as ensuring the dynamic stability of the gallery during construction and operational periods, it is necessary to dynamic characteristic of rock mass for long-term stability after the closure. In this study, analysis of the 'multi tunnels model' which represents the whole gallery group was performed and the results about load to act on a pillar. (author)

  16. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-18

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements.

  17. Quality assurance guidance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Hedges, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of 10 CFR 61.12(j) for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility. The QC requirements, plus audits and managerial controls requirements, establish the need for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and the guidance provided herein. The criteria developed for this document are similar to the criteria developed for Appendix B to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 50. Although Appendix B is not a regulatory requirement for an LLRW disposal facility, the criteria that were developed for 10 CFR Part 50 are basic to any QA program. This document establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, engineered or natural systems, and components whose function is required to meet the performance objectives of Subpart C of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or release of radioactivity. 7 refs

  18. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements

  19. Risk assessment associated to possible concrete degradation of a near surface disposal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, B.; Billard, Y.; Wacquier, W.; Gens, R.

    2013-07-01

    This article outlines a risk analysis of possible concrete degradation performed in the framework of the preparation of the Safety Report of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, for the construction and operation of a near surface disposal facility of category A waste - short-lived low and intermediate level waste - in Dessel. The main degradation mechanism considered is the carbonation of different concrete components over different periods (from the building phase up to 2000 years), which induces corrosion of the rebars. A dedicated methodology mixing risk analysis and numerical modeling of concrete carbonation has been developed to assess the critical risks of the disposal facility at different periods. According to the results obtained, risk mapping was used to assess the impact of carbonation of concrete on the different components at the different stages. The most important risk is related to an extreme situation with complete removal of the earth cover and side embankment.

  20. Safety assessment of a vault-based disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Kim, C.-L.; Lietava, P.; Little, R.; Simon, I.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to testing the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Vault Test Case (VTC), related to the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) to a hypothetical facility comprising a set of above surface vaults. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the VTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  1. Study of applicable methods on safety verification of disposal facilities and waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Three subjects about safety verification on the disposal of low level radioactive waste were investigated in FY. 2012. For radioactive waste disposal facilities, specs and construction techniques of covering with soil to prevent possible destruction caused by natural events (e.g. earthquake) were studied to consider verification methods for those specs. For waste packages subject to near surface pit disposal, settings of scaling factor and average radioactivity concentration (hereafter referred to as ''SF'') on container-filled and solidified waste packages generated from Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1-5, setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste generated from Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations, etc. were studied. Those results were finalized in consideration of the opinion from advisory panel, and publicly opened as JNES-EV reports. In FY 2012, five JNES reports were published and these have been used as standards of safety verification on waste packages. The verification method of radioactive wastes subject to near-surface trench disposal and intermediate depth disposal were also studied. For radioactive wastes which will be returned from overseas, determination methods of radioactive concentration, heat rate and hydrogen generation rate of CSD-C were established. Determination methods of radioactive concentration and heat rate of CSD-B were also established. These results will be referred to verification manuals. (author)

  2. Performance of engineered barriers materials in near surface disposal facilities in Spain. Appendix 11: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1992 the Ministry of Industry and Energy issued the Operating License of El Cabril Near Surface Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba, some 100 km away from Cordoba city. Waste packages, mainly 0.22 m 3 steel drums, containing solidified waste in a cement based waste form or pellets coming from the super-compaction process, are placed inside concrete disposal containers. These containers are made of reinforced concrete and in their construction fabrication joints have been avoided. Once these containers are filled with 18 drums (0.22 m 3 ) or 30 to 60 compaction pellets, they are backfilled and sealed with a mortar grout, resulting into a solid block. These blocks are then disposed of inside concrete vaults, called disposal cells, each one with a capacity for 320 containers. The full vaults are backfilled with gravel in the existing central gap left to absorb fabrication and handling tolerances. Then a plastic film is placed on the containers to prevent a true union between the last layer of disposal containers and the massed concrete layer cast to protect the workers during the construction of the closing slab. This 0.5 m thick closing slab is made of reinforced concrete and is protected by acrylic/fibreglass unperceived film. Galleries are made of a 300 kg/cm 2 characteristic strength concrete

  3. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... system by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory and appropriate for installation at a... recommended inspection and maintenance program and as required by the nationally recognized independent...

  4. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Saburo; Maruyama, Masakatsu

    2008-01-01

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  5. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.L. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997

  6. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  7. Description of work for routine groundwater sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, B.H.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a description of work and field implementation guidance for routine (post-baseline) groundwater monitoring sampling program at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The purpose of this program is to (1) meet the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements; (2) document baseline groundwater conditions; (3) monitor those conditions for change; and (4) allow for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program

  8. Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility inventory at risk calculations and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is a wastewater treatment plant being constructed to treat the 300 Area Process Sewer and Retention Process Sewer. This document analyzes the TEDF for safety consequences. It includes radionuclide and hazardous chemical inventories, compares these inventories to appropriate regulatory limits, documents the compliance status with respect to these limits, and identifies administrative controls necessary to maintain this status

  9. Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    California's users of radioactive materials, working together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (Cal Rad), have played a role in fostering development of our state's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. One of Cal Rad's contributions was to develop and sponsor California's siting legislation in 1983. In this paper, the elements of the state's LLRW siting law, California Senate Bill 342 (Chapter 1177, Statutes a 1983), and their relationship to a successful siting program are described

  10. Special feature of the facilities for final disposal of radioactive waste and its potential impact on the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Alvarez, Daniela E.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    During the lifetime of a radioactive waste disposal facility it is possible to identify five stages: design, construction, operation, closure and post-closure. While the design, and pre-operation stages are, to some extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities; construction, operation, closure and post-closure have quite special meanings in the case of radioactive waste disposal systems. For instance, the 'closure' stage of a final disposal facility seems to be equivalent to the commissioning stage of a conventional nuclear or radioactive facility. This paper describes the unique characteristics of these stages of final disposal systems, that lead to concluded that their licensing procedure can not be assimilated to the standard licensing procedures in use for other nuclear or radioactive facilities, making it necessary to develop a tailored license system. (author)

  11. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility's compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the open-quotes Core Requirementsclose quotes listed in DOE Order 5480.31, open-quotes Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilitiesclose quotes

  12. Dose and risk assessment of norm Contaminated waste released from trench disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Geleel, M.; Ramadan, A.B.; Tawfik, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations accumulate naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. The petroleum industry adopted methods for managing of NORM that are more restrictive than past practices and are likely to provide greater isolation of the radioactivity. Trench was used as a disposal facility for NORM contaminated wastes at one site of the petroleum industry in Egypt. The aim of this work is to calculate the risk and dose assessment received from trench disposal facility directly and after closure (1000 year). RESRAD computer code was used. The results indicated that the total effective dose (TED) received after direct closure of trench disposal facility was 7.7E-4 mSv/y while after 1000 years, it will he 3.4E-4. The health cancer risk after direct closure was 3.3E-8 while after 1000 years post closure it was 6E-8. Results of this assessment will help examine policy issues concerning different options and regulation of NORM contaminated waste generated by petroleum industry

  13. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  14. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  15. Development of computer model for radionuclide released from shallow-land disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganda, D.; Sucipta; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.; Eriendi

    1998-01-01

    Development of 1-dimensional computer model for radionuclide release from shallow land disposal facility (SLDF) has been done. This computer model is used for the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong. The SLDF facility is above 1.8 metres from groundwater and 150 metres from Cisalak river. Numerical method by implicit method of finite difference solution is chosen to predict the migration of radionuclide with any concentration.The migration starts vertically from the bottom of SLDF until the groundwater layer, then horizontally in the groundwater until the critical population group. Radionuclide Cs-137 is chosen as a sample to know its migration. The result of the assessment shows that the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong has the high safety criteria. (author)

  16. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  17. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  18. A proposal of constitutive creep model for soft rock to be applied to numerical analysis for mechanical interaction in the underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    In the case that the underground facilities of high-level nuclear waste disposal are constructed in soft rock mass, it is predicted that time-dependent behavior of rock has an important role both on the stability of surrounding rock mass after excavation and on the super long-term stability of barrier system. Existing creep model that has been applied to excavation problems in electric power industry is not sufficient in order to evaluate long-term behavior of the facility constructed in soft rock mass. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an appropriate creep model for soft rock. In this research, we try to develop a prototype of numerical tool for evaluating the stability during and after the excavation and super long-term stability after back-filling. Firstly, a simple rheological model for time-dependent behavior of soft rock is proposed. It is the key feature of this model that two different types of rheological model can be selected in order to describe both failure and non-failure processes. Rock continues to deform until failure in the case where stress applied to the rock exceeds its residual strength, although deformation of the rock finally ceases in the other cases. The applicability of this model is investigated by comparing the calculated results with those in laboratory test results. The proposed model can describe the time-dependent and dilatancy behavior of mudstone of Tertiary period observed in the drained triaxial creep test. Next, we apply the proposed model to the problem of time-dependent behavior of rock mass around a deposition hole. Numerical simulation of excavation problem and long-term mechanical interaction between buffer material and surrounding rock mass is carried out using a hydrological - mechanical coupled FEM code that includes the proposed model. Several mechanical models can be selected in order to apply to the mechanical behavior of materials consisting of underground facility. The main results obtained from this simulation

  19. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  20. Shallow groundwater intrusion to deeper depths caused by construction and drainage of a large underground facility. Estimation using 3H, CFCs and SF6 as trace materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Hiroki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakata, Kotaro; Tomioka, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a method to estimate shallow groundwater intrusion in and around a large underground research facility (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory-MIU). Water chemistry, stable isotopes (δD and δ 18 O), tritium ( 3 H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) in groundwater were monitored around the facility (from 20 m down to a depth of 500 m), for a period of 5 years. The results show that shallow groundwater inflows into deeper groundwater at depths of between 200–400 m. In addition, the content of shallow groundwater estimated using 3 H and CFC-12 concentrations is up to a maximum of about 50%. This is interpreted as the impact on the groundwater environment caused by construction and operation of a large facility over several years. The concomitant use of 3 H and CFCs is an effective method to determine the extent of shallow groundwater inflow caused by construction of an underground facility. (author)

  1. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  2. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  3. Derivation of Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Surface Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.

    2000-01-01

    In France, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are disposed in a near-surface facility, at Centre de l'Aube disposal facility. This facility, which was commissioned in 1992, has a disposal capacity of one million cubic meters, and will be operated up to about 2050. It took over the job from Centre de la Manche, which was commissioned in 1969 and shut down in 1994, after having received about 520,000 cubic meters of wastes. The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility is designed to receive a many types of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as by the industry, hospitals and armed forces. The limitation of radioactive transfer to man and the limitation of personnel exposure in all situations considered plausible require limiting the total activity of the waste disposed in the facility as well as the activity of each package. The paper presents how ANDRA has derived the activity-related acceptance criteria, based on the safety analysis. In the French methodology, activity is considered as end-point for deriving the concentration limits per package, whereas it is the starting point for deriving the total activity limits. For the concentration limits (called here LMA) the approach consists of five steps: the determination of radionuclides important for safety with regards to operational and long-term safety, the use of relevant safety scenarios as a tool to derive quantitative limits, the setting of dose constraint per situation associated with scenarios, the setting of contribution factor per radionuclide, and the calculation of concentration activity limits. An exhaustive survey has been performed and has shown that the totality of waste packages which should be delivered by waste generators are acceptable in terms of activity limits in the Centre de l'Aube. Examples of concentration activity limits derived from this methodology are presented. Furthermore those limits have been accepted by the French regulatory body and

  4. Prediction accident triangle in maintenance of underground mine facilities using Poisson distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuluqi, M. H.; Prapdito, R. R.; Sambodo, F. P.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, mining is categorized as a hazardous industry. In recent years, a dramatic increase of mining equipment and technological complexities had resulted in higher maintenance expectations that accompanied by the changes in the working conditions, especially on safety. Ensuring safety during the process of conducting maintenance works in underground mine is important as an integral part of accident prevention programs. Accident triangle has provided a support to safety practitioner to draw a road map in preventing accidents. Poisson distribution is appropriate for the analysis of accidents at a specific site in a given time period. Based on the analysis of accident statistics in the underground mine maintenance of PT. Freeport Indonesia from 2011 through 2016, it is found that 12 minor accidents for 1 major accident and 66 equipment damages for 1 major accident as a new value of accident triangle. The result can be used for the future need for improving the accident prevention programs.

  5. Modelling an in-situ ventilation test in the Andra Underground Research Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes resulting from the nuclear electricity production have to be isolated from the biosphere for a very long period of time. For this purpose, deep underground repository in weak permeable geological layers is considered as a reliable solution for the nuclear waste storage. It is however well established that during excavation, the underground drilling process engenders cracks and eventually fractures [1] that deteriorate the hydro-mechanical properties of the surrounding host material in the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ. The EDZ behaviour is a major issue because it may constitute a preferential flow path for radionuclide migration. Consequently, the characterisation of the material transport properties and of the transfer kinetics that occur around galleries still need to be investigated. The EDZ properties may be also affected by host rock-gallery air interactions. Ventilation induced drying may also provoke additional cracking, which potentially alters the transport properties of the damaged zone. Large-scale air ventilation experiments are performed in Underground Research Laboratories (URL that have been constructed to check the feasibility of the repository. A numerical modelling of the SDZ air ventilation test (Andra URL performed in a low permeability rock is proposed in order to both predict the development of the EDZ during excavation and study the air interaction with the host formation during maintenance phases.

  6. New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage/Disposal Facilities at the Savannah River Plant: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.; Towler, O.O.

    1987-04-01

    Site selection, alternative facilities, and alternative operations are described for a new low-level solid radioactive waste storage/disposal operation at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for the alternatives are presented. Appendix G contains an intensive archaeological survey of alternative waste disposal areas in the Savannah River Plant area. 117 refs., 99 figs., 128 tabs

  7. French experience in design and construction of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, D.; Medal, G.; Augustin, X.; Wavrechin, B. de

    1993-01-01

    France disposes of all radioactive waste produced on its territory. Short-lived waste (with a half-life shorter than 30 years) are disposed of, since 1969 on the 'La Manche' disposal facility (CSM 'Centre de La Manche'). As this center will be saturated in 1994, ANDRA (French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management) has undertaken in 1984 the studies and works necessary to the realization of a new disposal facility. TECHNICATOME was associated, since the beginning of those studies and was chosen by ANDRA as Prime Contractor for the new Radwaste Disposal Center. French conception was chosen by Spanish Authorities in 1987, ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA) selected the Cabril Site in the South of Spain as disposal of low and medium activity radwaste. TECHNICATOME was associated with this project, through a joint French-Spanish engineering team. Authority of North Carolina State (USA) decided in 1989 to build a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and the contract has been awarded to CNSI (Chem Nuclear System Inc.) with a proposal based on the French experience. A french team ANDRA/TECHNICATOME/SGN is in charge of the design of the disposal facility

  8. Assessment of the mechanical stability of underground excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Shigemori; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-01-01

    Each tunnel in the underground high level radioactive waste repository must be mechanically stable to maintain safety throughout the construction, emplacement operations and closure phase. The mechanical stability of underground excavations were assessed using a theoretical analysis and a finite element method taking a wide range of geological environment in Japan into consideration to establish confidence in the construction of disposal facilities. The results show that it is possible to maintain the mechanical stability with adequate tunnel spacing and disposal pit pitch and proper mechanical support. The procedure used for the analysis of the mechanical stability in the H12 report and the results are described in this report. (author)

  9. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  10. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  11. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations

  12. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations.

  13. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS)

  14. Interpretation of optimisation in the context of a disposal facility for long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Guidance on the Requirements for Authorisation (the GRA) issued by the Environment Agency for England and Wales requires that all disposals of radioactive waste are undertaken in a manner consistent with four principles for the protection of the public. Among these is a principle of Optimisation, that: 'The radiological detriment to members of the public that may result from the disposal of radioactive waste shall be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. The principle of optimisation is widely accepted and has been discussed in both UK national policy and guidance and in documents from international organisations. The practical interpretation of optimisation in the context of post-closure safety of radioactive waste repositories is, however, still open to question. In particular, the strategies and procedures that a developer might employ to implement optimisation in the siting and development of a repository, and demonstrate optimisation in a safety case, are not defined. In preparation for its role of regulatory review, the Agency has undertaken a pilot study to explore the possible interpretations of optimisation stemming from the GRA, and to identify possible strategies and procedures that a developer might follow. A review has been undertaken of UK regulatory guidance and related documents, and also international guidance, referring to optimisation in relation to radioactive waste disposal facilities. In addition, diverse examples of the application of optimisation have been identified in the international and UK performance assessment literature. A one-day meeting was organised bringing together Agency staff and technical experts with different experiences and perspectives on the subject of optimisation in the context of disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This meeting identified and discussed key issues and possible approaches to optimisation, and specifically: (1) The meaning of

  15. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-01-01

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides

  16. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  17. A geohydrological appraisal of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility in Namaqualand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1988-10-01

    The Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility is located on the Bushmanland Plateau. The disposal site is situated close to the junction of three river basins. All the parameters neccessary were obtained, and methodology developed, to monitor the moisture content of the clay layers underlying the disposal site. Environmental isotope studies established the percolation only reached 3,5m in depth during the past 50 years. The depth was confirmed by neutron meter measurements. The depth to the piezometric surface below the site is, on average, 55m. Ground water is confined to both vertical and horizontal fractures and weathered joints. The high transmissivity of water-bearing structures below the site and the flat piezometric surface are seen as advantageous. In the event of a serious leak and radionuclides reaching the ground water, sustained pumping may lower the piezometric surface creating a basin effect and preventing contamination from reaching private boreholes. Regional hydrogeochemical studies have confirmed that regional flow away from the disposal site toward the Koa drainage is slow and nearly stagnant. The geochemical environment is favourable for attenuating any radionuclide leakage. 1 map, 93 figs., 47 tabs., 158 refs

  18. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  19. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  20. Buffer Construction Methodology in Demonstration Test For Cavern Type Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro, Akiyama; Takahiro, Nakajima; Katsuhide, Matsumura; Kenji, Terada; Takao, Tsuboya; Kazuhiro, Onuma; Tadafumi, Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies concerning a cavern type disposal facility have been carried out for disposal of low level radioactive waste mainly generated by power plant decommissioning in Japan. The disposal facility is composed of an engineered barrier system with concrete pit and bentonite buffer, and planed to be constructed in sub-surface 50 - 100 meters depth. Though the previous studies have mainly used laboratory and mock-up tests, we conducted a demonstration test in a full-size cavern. The main objectives of the test were to study the construction methodology and to confirm the quality of the engineered barrier system. The demonstration test was planned as the construction of full scale mock-up. It was focused on a buffer construction test to evaluate the construction methodology and quality control in this paper. Bentonite material was compacted to 1.6 Mg/m 3 in-site by large vibrating roller in this test. Through the construction of the buffer part, a 1.6 Mg/m 3 of the density was accomplished, and the data of workability and quality is collected. (authors)