Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.
Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M
Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
Full Text Available Objective: This paper sets out to highlight the ongoing need for integrated teaching of business skills in the veterinary curriculum.Background: In response to the changing environment of the veterinary profession, it is important to understand the future needs of veterinary practitioners. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made in recent years, they have been highly varied across schools and little evidence is available on how these have improved students’ non-technical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes. Evidentiary value: This literature review of 23 papers provides a solid basis for the further development of knowledge on business management issues in veterinary curricula. The impact on practice from our findings is substantial. The role of clinicians in academia is recognised as a primary source of engaging students with business management through their day-to-day teaching. Furthermore, the role of first-opinion vets who take on placement students (known as extra mural studies or ‘EMS’ in the UK cannot be underestimated as they play an essential role in ensuring that students perceive business skills with the same importance as clinical skills.Methods: This research draws on the findings of 23 papers that emerged as relevant from the structured literature search. The search yielded 124 papers but many were excluded because they focused on issues beyond the search strategy, did not report empirical findings so were based largely on discussion and conjecture, were not about the undergraduate veterinary curriculum, were not written in English or were not related to business teaching.Results: Employers of recent graduates highly value business skills, and often base their hiring decision on non-technical skills, rather than clinical skills. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made to include more non-technical training by individual veterinary schools, it is unclear how effective these
Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Duscher, Georg; Preusche, Ingrid; Winter, Petra
In a changing world with rapidly evolving new technologies, even in the "sheltered world" of teachers and lecturers at universities, we are challenged by new developments. As diversification is increasing in many aspects of our professional life, there is also a need to employ new ways of teaching, learning and assessments in veterinary curricula, taking into account the increasing numbers of students and limited teaching resources. The "classical" Austrian veterinary curriculum, with a series of consecutive lectures followed by practical courses in the different disciplines, separated from each other in the curricular time table and by annual examinations, has been a long-standing concept for teaching in the past. However, when veterinary practitioners and graduates where asked to judge the adequacy of undergraduate training for their professional skills and knowledge, several major shortcomings were revealed. The most commonly mentioned point was a lack of first-day competencies. As a consequence, the Vetmeduni Vienna developed a new veterinary curriculum implemented in 2014-2015. This curriculum covers 12 semesters and includes a "Diploma" (degree) thesis and several externships; graduates are eligible to practice in all branches of veterinary medicine. We abandoned the classical discipline-based teaching, established a modular, mostly organ-based system, and focus on student-centred and competency-based learning and teaching with defined learning outcomes and first-day skills. We also include training of scientific, managerial and communication skills in the curriculum. What does this mean for parasitology? We do not teach this subject in a closed lecture, but rather in a modular style, starting in the first year with the taxonomy and basic morphology of the animal kingdom, proceeding to parasite biology of the major groups in the second year, to the diagnostic and clinical training in practicals in the third year as well as joint lectures, seminars and
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T
Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.
Whittick, William G.
The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)
Doherty, Michael L; Jones, Boyd R
The final-year Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine (MVB) class of 2005 were the first cohort of students to complete the new curriculum at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD). The new curriculum is a fundamental departure from the traditional curriculum that had served the veterinary profession in Ireland over many years. The change was not a precipitate action but the outcome of a prolonged and thorough examination of the realities of veterinary medicine, its science and its art, in the first decade of a new millennium. Over recent decades, rapid and fundamental changes have been witnessed in the economic, cultural, and ethical environment in which the veterinary profession operates, and these changes, coupled with the "information explosion," dictated an examination of the educational paradigm. The new curriculum exposes the first-year class to veterinary information technology and problem-based learning (PBL). In the second year, students are instructed in clinical examination, history taking, and client communication skills, in addition to further exposure to PBL. The third and fourth years are now systems-based, with coordinated input from microbiologists, parasitologists, pathologists, and clinicians in teaching each body system. The first lecture-free final year in the 104-year history of veterinary education in Ireland consists of clinical rotations and a four-week elective pursued within the faculty or at other recognized institutions. Students must also complete a minimum of 24 weeks' extramural studies (EMS). Critically, the development and assessment of all courses in the new undergraduate degree program has been driven by carefully thought out learning outcomes. The new curriculum will provide graduates with the essential knowledge and skills required for entry into the veterinary profession. Society expects these qualities from veterinarians in the interests of the communities they serve during their professional careers
Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy
The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bell, Catriona E; Rhind, Susan M; Stansbie, Nigel H; Hudson, Neil P H
Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) methodologies that involve students teaching other students have been shown to be valid and effective in a variety of disciplines and are gaining increasing interest within veterinary medical education. PAL has been formally embedded within the undergraduate veterinary clinical skills curriculum at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies (R(D)SVS), Edinburgh, since 2009 (and informally for several years before this) and has been delivered successfully to over one thousand first-year tutees by over one thousand fourth-year tutors (in their penultimate clinical year). This "teaching tip" article therefore aims to provide an informative overview of PAL for colleagues who may be interested in the methodology and to give practical tips as to how it can be successfully implemented in a veterinary degree program. We will summarize key evidence from the literature, provide a detailed example of how PAL has been implemented and optimized in our own veterinary degree program, include a subset of representative evaluation data from both tutors and tutees, and then conclude by providing colleagues with practical tips and resources (such as planning checklists and lesson plan templates) for implementing a PAL activity at their own school.
McNulty, Margaret A; Lazarus, Michelle D
Little to no correlation has been identified between previous related undergraduate coursework or outcomes on standardized tests and performance in a veterinary curriculum, including anatomy coursework. Therefore, a relatively simplistic method to predict student performance before entrance would be advantageous to many. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between performance in a veterinary anatomy pre-course and subsequent performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. Incoming first-year veterinary students at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine were asked to participate in a free weeklong pre-course, before the start of the semester. The pre-course covered the musculoskeletal anatomy of the canine thoracic limb using dissection-based methods. Student performance, as evaluated by test grades in the pre-course, did indeed correlate with test grades in professional veterinary anatomy courses. A significant and positive correlation was identified between pre-course final exam performance and performance on examinations in each of 3 professional anatomy courses. Qualitative analyses of student comments pertaining to their experience within the pre-course indicated differences in the perceived benefits of the pre-course between high-, middle-, and low-performing students. These varied perceptions may provide predictive feedback as well as guidance for supporting lower performing students. Together, these results indicate that performance in a weeklong pre-course covering only a small portion of canine anatomy is a strong predictor of performance within a professional anatomy curriculum. In addition, the pre-course differentially affected student perceptions of their learning experience.
Bell, Catriona E; Ellaway, Rachel H; Rhind, Susan M
The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies at the University of Edinburgh, UK, recently initiated a curriculum-mapping project to develop a tool that would facilitate curriculum review, improve integration and clarity across the curriculum, and provide a transparent method of demonstrating outcomes for quality-assurance purposes. The key finding from this project was that the curriculum-mapping process is a more resource-intensive undertaking than expected, and one that should not been taken lightly. At the time the project began, no commercial software was available that could be integrated with the program's other online systems or had content appropriate to an outcomes-based veterinary degree program. We recommend that future projects ensure a minimum of one dedicated full-time staff member, plus adequate educational technology support to develop a coherent and consistent format for the curriculum map that is integrated with the rest of the local online environment. Identifying the main focus of the map is also recommended at an early stage, as is the instigation of a small-scale pilot exercise to identify major local issues before starting the full mapping process. Future sustainability and development of a curriculum map also require buy-in from colleagues to ensure that relevant components of the map (e.g., learning objectives) are maintained and developed appropriately. This article is aimed at our colleagues who are considering starting a curriculum-mapping process at their institutions; we provide a brief overview of curriculum mapping, based on current literature, and then illustrate the process using our own experiences.
Mathematical modeling occupies an unusual space in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum: typically an "advanced" course, it nonetheless has little to do with formal proof, the usual hallmark of advanced mathematics. Mathematics departments are thus forced to decide what role they want the modeling course to play, both as a component of the…
Estrada, Amara H; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Estrada, Daniel J; Black, Erik; Kwiatkowski, Alison; Bzoch, Annie; Blue, Amy
Inter-professional education (IPE) is identified as an important component of health profession training and is listed in the accreditation requirements for many fields, including veterinary medicine. The goals of IPE are to develop inter-professional skills and to improve patient-oriented care and community health outcomes. To meet these goals, IPE relies on enhanced teamwork, a high level of communication, mutual planning, collective decision making, and shared responsibilities. One Health initiatives have also become integral parts of core competencies for veterinary curricular development. While the overall objectives of an IPE program are similar to those of a One Health initiative, they are not identical. There are unique differences in expectations and outcomes for an IPE program. The purpose of this study was to explore veterinary medical students' perceptions of their interprofessional experiences following participation in a required IPE course that brought together beginning health profession students from the colleges of medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, nutrition, public health and health professions, and veterinary medicine. Using qualitative research methods, we found that there is powerful experiential learning that occurs for both the veterinary students and the other health profession students when they work together at the beginning of their curriculum as an inter-professional team.
Maloney, Mark; Parker, Jeffrey; LeBlanc, Mark; Woodard, Craig T.; Glackin, Mary; Hanrahan, Michael
Recent advances involving high-throughput techniques for data generation and analysis have made familiarity with basic bioinformatics concepts and programs a necessity in the biological sciences. Undergraduate students increasingly need training in methods related to finding and retrieving information stored in vast databases. The rapid rise of…
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
Think about the first time you encountered nuclear science in your formal curriculum. For most nuclear scientists this experience occurred as an undergraduate in an upper-level course in a traditional four-year institution. Because of changing student demographics, an explosion of interest in the life sciences, the end of the cold war and a variety of other factors, fewer undergraduates are encountering a traditional nuclear science course at all. For the field to remain vital, we suggest that educators in nuclear science will have to adapt to the changes in student populations and interests. To this end we now offer a variety of experiences to our undergraduate students that incorporate fundamental nuclear science. One component to our approach is to create exciting opportunities in undergraduate research, and another component involves creation of nuclear science modules that can fit within other courses. In recent years both of these components have evolved with an interdisciplinary flavor, but continue to yield students that become interested in pursuing nuclear science careers. We will discuss research opportunities offered to undergraduates at Hope College, and our success with collaborative research opportunities at a variety of extramural laboratories, as well as with our in-house research program with a low-energy accelerator. An overview of several pedagogical approaches we have adopted will also be presented, and there is clearly opportunity to pursue this approach much further. Although the examples are specific to Hope College, both components can clearly be adopted at a variety of other institutions.
Swan, G E; Coetzer, J A W; Terblanche, H M
The globalisation of trade and food, the increased volume and speed of international travel, climate change, and the related escalation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases mean that countries are now more interconnected and interdependent than ever before. Africa is beleaguered by a range of endemic infectious and parasitic tropical diseases which, due to its diverse wildlife populations and indigenous livestock, can serve as a reservoir of high-impact or transboundary diseases and play a role in the emergence of disease, particularly at the wildlife, domestic animal and human interfaces. It is therefore essential to integrate animal and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum. Veterinary training in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa has focused on producing veterinarians to serve the livestock sector although socio-economic changes and privatisation of Veterinary Services have caused curriculum adjustments, as have globalisation and the increased risk of the spread of transboundary diseases. In South Africa, undergraduate veterinary training is more clinically oriented than in other regions. Animal and public health issues are covered in the curriculum, although their global relevance is not emphasised. The authors describe the undergraduate veterinary curriculum and summarise post-graduate programmes in South Africa. They also discuss a more comprehensive core-elective approach to the current curriculum and the need to adapt to new challenges facing the profession. Finally, they examine the potential use of innovative technology in undergraduate and post-graduate training and professional development, the importance of regional and international collaboration and the accreditation and recognition of veterinary training.
Lipman, L J A; van Knapen, F
Veterinary public health is an essential field in public health activities, based upon veterinary skills, knowledge and resources and which aims to protect and improve human health and welfare. This discipline has evolved through three stages, beginning with the fight against animal diseases, moving on to include meat inspection and control of zoonoses and now encompassing a much broader health sciences education, with the goal of guaranteeing a safe and wholesome food supply, protecting human wellbeing and conserving the environment. Within the veterinary medicine curriculum, veterinary public health has undergone a similar development. At first, it was mainly concerned with slaughterhouse-based courses but in time it included the teaching of such subjects as epidemiology, the control of communicable (zoonotic) diseases and emergency preparedness. Veterinary medical faculties in Europe have adjusted their curricula over the past few years to reflect these changes in the subject and to meet the need for specialisation. It could be said that veterinary public health education has literally moved from the local abattoir to the global community. In this paper, the authors briefly discuss examples of veterinary medicine curricula at different universities. The veterinary public health curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, is then discussed in detail, as an example of the European perspective on integrating global and public health issues into the veterinary curriculum.
Keane, C. M.; Gonzales, L.; Martinez, C.
One aspect of assessing the undergraduate curriculum is recognizing that the exit vector of the student is a metric in the absence of a structured assessment program. Detailed knowledge across all geosciences departments regarding the disposition of their recent baccalaureate recipients has been at best inconsistent, and in the case of about half of geoscience programs, non-existent. However, through examining of multiple datasets, a pattern of disposition of geosciences BS recipients emerges, providing a snapshot of the system- wide response to the system-wide "average" program. This pattern can also be juxtaposed against several frameworks of desired skill sets for recent graduates and the employment sectors likely to hire them. The question remains is can one deduce the effectiveness of the undergraduate program in placing graduates in their next step, whether in graduate school or the workplace. Likewise, with an increasing scrutiny on the "value" of an education, is the resulting economic gain sufficient for the student, such that programs will be viewed as sustainable. A factor in answering this question is the importance of the undergraduate program in the ultimate destination of the professional. Clear pathways exist for "optimal" schools for the production of new faculty and new industry professionals, but is it possible to identify those trends further up the educational pipeline? One major mechanism to examine the undergraduate program effectiveness related to exit vectors is to look at hiring trends witnessed related to markedly different program structures, such as those at universities outside of the United States. Rectifying academic programs between the United States and other national systems is often a challenge, but even given the substantial differences between depth of technical knowledge and breadth of education across these programs, in the end, the sum product is often viewed as roughly comparable. This paper will look at end
van Doorn, D.C.K.
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University has seen three major curriculum changes, in 1995, 2001 and 2007. The last change was made because of the European change to a Bachelor-Master system. Almost each time teaching hours tagged for veterinary parasitology have been reduced to
Puente, Antonio E.; And Others
Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)
Lait, Margaret E.
Describes a standalone undergraduate course in nursing history in terms of rationale, purpose, and content. Discusses arguments for inclusion of nursing history in the curriculum and problems associated with teaching it. (SK)
Anaesthesia is commonly taught to medical students. The duration and content of such teaching varies however and no consensus exists as to what constitutes an optimal curriculum. Anaesthetists possess the necessary knowledge and skills and operate in clinical settings suitable to provide training for medical undergraduates, especially in areas where deficiencies have been identified. This Delphi study was directed towards developing a consensus on an optimal anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine curriculum for medical undergraduates.
Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne
In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss major criticisms of traditional undergraduate accounting programmes and to introduce virtual internships as a curriculum innovation that addresses these criticisms. Design/methodology/approach: The main aim of the paper is to inspire curriculum innovation in accounting programmes though the…
Stone-McLean, Jordan; Metcalfe, Brian; Sheppard, Gillian; Murphy, Justin; Black, Holly; McCarthy, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam
Background The introduction of ultrasound into the undergraduate medical school curriculum is gaining momentum in North America. At present, many institutions are teaching ultrasound to undergraduate medical students using a traditional framework designed to instruct practicing clinicians, or have modeled the curriculum on other universities. This approach is not based on educational needs or supported by evidence. Methods Using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of stakeholder groups, we assessed the perceived relevance of various ultrasound skills and the attitude towards implementing an undergraduate ultrasound curriculum at our university. Results One hundred and fifty survey respondents representing all major stakeholder groups participated. All medical students, 97% of residents and 82% of educators agreed that the introduction of an ultrasound curriculum would enhance medical students' understanding of anatomy and physiology. All clinical medical students and residents, 92% of preclinical medical students, and 82% of educators agreed that the curriculum should also include clinical applications of ultrasound. Participants also indicated their preferences for specific curriculum content based on their perceived needs. Conclusion An integrated undergraduate ultrasound curriculum composed of specific preclinical and clinical applications was deemed appropriate for our university following a comprehensive needs assessment. Other universities planning such curricula should consider employing a needs assessment to provide direction for curriculum need and content.
Majority (60.1%) of the respondents suggested a lower entry point on salary scale for veterinarians than human doctors despite the fact that 53.3% of respondents were of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. However 80.7% believed that veterinarians should be addressed as “Doctor”.
Cribb, A; Buntain, B
'One World, One Health' is a foundation concept in veterinary medicine, much like comparative medicine. However, teachers of veterinary medicine often fail to identify it or speak of its importance within the veterinary curriculum. The resurgence of interest in the 'One World, One Health' concept aligns well with the underlying principles on which the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UCVM) has been newly founded. This concept is therefore a key component of the UCVM programme, and one that is well highlighted for those studying in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) course and graduate students.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Molgaard, Laura K; Malone, Erin
Curriculum review is an essential part of ongoing curriculum development, and is a mandate of the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accrediting body of all North American schools and colleges of veterinary medicine. This article describes the steps in curriculum review undertaken by the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine (UMN CVM) in response to this mandate from the COE and to a recommendation from a recent collegiate review that was part of a larger university-level strategic planning effort. The challenges of reviewing and revising the curriculum within a short time frame were met by appointing a dedicated curriculum review board and by engaging students and faculty groups, both as focus groups and as specific faculty work sections within disciplines. Faculty voting on the process was very valuable as it permitted the curriculum review board and faculty groups to move ahead knowing there was a process in place for reassessment if most faculty did not agree with recommendations. Consistent support from the dean of the college and other administrators was vital in helping maintain momentum for curriculum review.
Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Coşkun, Özlem; Ergün, Mehmet Ali
Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC) for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and December ...
Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Coşkun, Özlem; Ergün, Mehmet Ali
Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC) for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and Dec...
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
In recent years, veterinary education has received an increased amount of attention directed at the value and application of collaborative case-based learning. The benefit of instilling deep learning practices in undergraduate veterinary students has also emerged as a powerful tool in encouraging continued professional education. However, research into the design and application of instructional strategies to encourage deep, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary undergraduates has been limited. This study focused on delivering an instructional intervention (via a 20-minute presentation and student handout) to foster productive, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary education. The aim was to instigate and encourage deep learning practices in a collaborative case-based assignment and to assess the impact of the intervention on students' group learning. Two cohorts of veterinary students were involved in the study. One cohort was exposed to an instructional intervention, and the other provided the control for the study. The instructional strategy was grounded in the collaborative learning literature and prior empirical studies with veterinary students. Results showed that the intervention cohort spent proportionally more time on understanding case content material than did the control cohort and rated their face-to-face discussions as more useful in achieving their learning outcomes than did their control counterparts. In addition, the perceived difficulty of the assignment evolved differently for the control and intervention students from start to end of the assignment. This study provides encouraging evidence that veterinary students can change and enhance the way they interact in a group setting to effectively engage in collaborative learning practices.
The undergraduate computer science and engineering degree in India is a professional engineering degree and follows the general structure of other engineering degree programs. It aims to provide a good breadth in basic engineering and 50% of the curriculum in common with all engineering disciplines. The curriculum has a strong electrical engineering bias. At present there is no formal accreditation of engineering programs in India and each university is expected to maintain their own standard...
Crowther, Emma; Baillie, Sarah
Case-based learning (CBL) has been introduced as part of a major review of the veterinary curriculum at the University of Bristol. The initial aim was to improve integration between all first year subjects, i.e., basic science disciplines (anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry), animal management, and professional studies, while highlighting the…
May, Stephen A; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona
Veterinary discipline experts unfamiliar with the broader educational literature can find the adoption of an evidence-based approach to curriculum development challenging. However, greater societal and professional demands for achieving and verifying Day One knowledge and skills, together with continued progress in information generation and technology, make it all the more important that the defined period for initial professional training be well used. This article presents and discusses nine pedagogical principles that have been used in modern curricular development in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States: (1) outcomes-based curriculum design; (2) valid and reliable assessments; (3) active learning; (4) integrated knowledge for action; (5) tightly controlled core curriculum; (6) "just-in-time" rather than "just-in-case" knowledge; (7) vertical integration, the spiral curriculum, and sequential skills development; (8) learning skills support; and (9) bridges from classroom to workplace. Crucial to effective educational progress is active learning that embraces the skills required by the modern professional, made possible by tight control of curricular content. In this information age, professionals' ability to source information on a "just-in-time" basis to support high quality reasoning and decision making is far more important than the memorization of large bodies of increasingly redundant information on a "just-in-case" basis. It is important that those with responsibility for veterinary curriculum design ensure that their programs fully equip the modern veterinary professional for confident entry into the variety of roles in which society needs their skills.
Giarratano, G P
A baccalaureate maternity nursing course was transformed from a behaviorist, content-driven curriculum to one of critical dialogue centering upon ethics of care. The inclusion of required readings from a collection of short stories, Birth Stories by Jane Dwinell, RN (1992), served as the primary catalyst in changing faculty and student's curricular experiences. How the class transformed from lecture/discussion format to dialogue is presented around Freire's writings on the dialogic class and Doll's postmodern curriculum perspectives. Student reactions and clinical implications are described. Recommendations for future applications of story in the dialogic classroom is explored.
Buckeridge, David L; Goel, Vivek
Background There is strong support for educating physicians in medical informatics, and the benefits of such education have been clearly identified. Despite this, North American medical schools do not routinely provide education in medical informatics. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to identify issues facing the introduction of medical informatics into an undergraduate medical curriculum. Nine key informants at the University of Toronto medical school were interviewed, and their responses were transcribed and analyzed to identify consistent themes. Results The field of medical informatics was not clearly understood by participants. There was, however, strong support for medical informatics education, and the benefits of such education were consistently identified. In the curriculum we examined, medical informatics education was delivered informally and inconsistently through mainly optional activities. Issues facing the introduction of medical informatics education included: an unclear understanding of the discipline; faculty and administrative detractors and, the dense nature of the existing undergraduate medical curriculum. Conclusions The identified issues may present serious obstacles to the introduction of medical informatics education into an undergraduate medicine curriculum, and we present some possible strategies for addressing these issues. PMID:12207827
Whitcomb, Tiffany L
The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.
Tayce, Jordan D; Burnham, Suzanne; Mays, Glennon; Robles, Juan Carlos; Brightsmith, Donald J; Fajt, Virginia R; Posey, Dan
The AAVMC has prioritized diversity as one of its core values. Its DiVersity Matters initiative is helping veterinary medicine prepare for the changing demographics of the United States. One example of the changing demographics is the growing Hispanic population. In 2013, the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences responded to the needs of this growing sector by introducing medical Spanish into the core curriculum for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students. The medical Spanish course takes place over 5 weeks during the second year of the curriculum, and is composed of lectures and group learning. While this may seem like a very compressed time frame for language learning, our goal is to provide students with basic medical vocabulary and a limited number of useful phrases. In this paper, we outline the implementation of a medical Spanish course in our curriculum, including our pedagogical approaches to the curricular design of the course, and an explanation of how we executed these approaches. We also discuss the successes and challenges that we have encountered, as well as our future plans for the course. We hope that the successes and challenges that we have encountered can serve as a model for others who plan to introduce a foreign language into their curriculum as a component of cultural competency.
Littleford, Linh Nguyen
Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…
Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years.
Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H
To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9%) and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%). The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Gibbins, Jane; McCoubrie, Rachel; Maher, Jane; Forbes, Karen
It is well recognised that teaching about palliative care, death and dying should begin at undergraduate level. The General Medical Council in the UK has issued clear recommendations for core teaching on the relieving of pain and distress, and care for the terminally ill. However, whereas some medical schools have incorporated comprehensive teaching programmes, others provide very little. The reasons underpinning such variability are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that help or hinder the incorporation of palliative care teaching at undergraduate level in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of coordinators of palliative care teaching in 14 medical schools in the UK. Transcribed interviews were analysed using principles of grounded theory and respondent validation. There are several factors promoting or inhibiting palliative care teaching at undergraduate level that are common to the development of teaching about any specialty. However, this study also revealed several factors that are distinctive to palliative care. Emergent themes were 'need for an individual lead or champion', 'the curriculum', 'patient characteristics and exposure', 'local colleagues and set-up of service', 'university support' and 'the influence of students'. The incorporation of palliative care into the medical undergraduate curriculum involves a complex process of individual, institutional, clinical, patient and curricular factors. These new findings could help medical schools to incorporate or improve such teaching.
Fajt, Virginia R; Scott, H Morgan; McIntosh, W Alex; Dean, Wesley R; Vincent, Virginia C
The objective of this study was to ascertain current teaching methods for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veterinary professional curricula and to find out what veterinary instructors consider to be prioritized subtopics related to AMR. The sampling frame was instructors in veterinary professional programs at US colleges of veterinary medicine who provide instruction about antibiotics or AMR in the disciplines of microbiology, pharmacology, public health, epidemiology, internal medicine, surgery, or related subjects. Identified instructors were invited to participate in an online survey of current teaching methods related to subtopics of AMR. From 1,207 invitations, 306 completed surveys were available for analysis (25% response rate) with the largest number of respondents stating their contact hours about antibiotics occur in the discipline of "medicine-food animal." The median contact time suggested for AMR in the core veterinary curriculum was 3-5 hours, and for antibiotics in general, 16-20 hours. Subtopics of AMR were prioritized based on respondents' indication that they use or would use various teaching tools. The most common teaching tool for all topics was projected text (i.e., slides or PowerPoint slides) and the least common were video clips, non-course Web sites, online modules, and laboratory experiments. Recommendations for identifying the priorities of AMR content coverage and learning outcomes are made.
Forrester-Paton, Calum; Forrester-Paton, Jayne; Gordon, Adam Lee; Mitchell, Hannah K; Bracewell, Nicola; Mjojo, Jocelyn; Masud, Tahir; Gladman, John R F; Blundell, Adrian
in 2008, the British Geriatrics Society (BGS) developed the Recommended Undergraduate Curriculum in Geriatric Medicine. This was subsequently mapped to the second edition of Tomorrows' Doctors (TD2, 2003). Following the publication of the third edition of Tomorrow's Doctors in 2009 (TD3), the mapping exercise was repeated to verify the extent to which the updated General Medical Council recommendations supported teaching in ageing and geriatric medicine. we analysed TD3 and identified 48 aspects of its general guidance that were relevant to the teaching of medicine for older people. We then mapped these to the 2009 BGS curriculum. the BGS curriculum was supported in full by TD3. However, learning outcomes relating to the interpretation and conduct of research in TD3 had no corresponding outcomes in the BGS curriculum. the BGS curriculum for medical undergraduates continues to provide a specific and complete list of learning objectives, all of which could help to operationalise the general statements made in TD3 with relation to ageing and geriatric medicine. Learning outcomes in research in frail older patients have been added following this mapping exercise.
Rosypal, A C; Houk, A E; Zajac, A M; Lindsay, D S
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan that infects humans and other warm-blooded vertebrates. Felids are the only definitive host for T. gondii, and they excrete oocysts in their faeces. The national prevalence in humans is declining in the United States. This zoonotic organism is of particular interest due to its importance in pregnant women, in individuals with altered immune systems, and in reactivated ocular infections. Exposure to the parasite in humans is usually associated with consumption of raw or undercooked meat or by accidental ingestion of oocysts. It was hypothesized that veterinary students would have a greater chance at exposure to the parasite than an average population of undergraduate students due to increased contact with cats who are infected. A commercially available ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 336 students (252 veterinary students and 84 undergraduate students) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine for serum IgG antibodies to T. gondii antigen. The prevalence of T. gondii in these subjects was 5.6% in veterinary school students (n = 252) and 2.4% in undergraduates (n = 84). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in veterinary versus undergraduate students. The overall prevalence of 4.8% in all students in this study reflects the continuing decline of antibodies to T. gondii in humans in the United States. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Design and utilization of a Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory for undergraduate curriculum are introduced in this paper. The laboratory introduced in this study is developed to teach students the basics and design steps of photovoltaic solar energy systems in a virtual environment before entering the field. The users of the proposed virtual lab will be able to determine the sizing by selecting related parameters of the photovoltaic system to meet DC and AC loading conditions. Besides, the user will be able to analyze the effect of changing solar irradiation and temperature levels on the operating characteristics of the photovoltaic systems. Common DC bus concept and AC loading conditions are also included in the system by utilizing a permanent magnet DC motor and an RLC load as DC and AC loading examples, respectively. The proposed Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory is developed in Matlab/Simulink GUI environment. The proposed virtual lab has been used in Power Systems Lab in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Karadeniz Technical University as a part of undergraduate curriculum. A survey on the students who took the lab has been carried out and responses are included in this paper.
Mirsadraee, S.; Mankad, K.; McCoubrie, P.; Roberts, T.; Kessel, D.
Aim: To establish an expert consensus of what, when, and how the teaching of radiology should be incorporated into the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods and materials: This Delphi survey consisted of four iterative rounds, with feedback given at the start of each successive round in the form of the results of the previous round. The participants consisted of both radiologists and non-radiologists with significant interest and involvement in radiology and undergraduate/Foundation training. The study addressed the questions of how, where, when, and by whom radiology should be taught. Results: The number of responses in rounds 1–4 was 20, 23, 41, and 25 (25, 22, 31, and 61% response rate, respectively). There was good consensus amongst the responders on the following: radiology teaching must be delivered in conjunction with anatomy and clinical case-based teaching, if possible in the department of radiology on picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations, and the teaching should be delivered by a competent and credentialled individual. Case-based assessment was the most agreed method of assessment. The majority of the responders concurred that the curriculum should include general indications for commonly requested radiological investigations, consent and safety issues around radiological tests, and their basic interpretation. Conclusion: The consensus points reached by the present study not only serve as directive principles for developing a more comprehensive radiology curriculum, but also places emphasis on a broader range of knowledge required to promote the best use of a department of radiology by junior doctors in an attempt to improve patient experiences and care.
Roder, Carrie A; May, Stephen A
The "hidden curriculum" has long been supposed to have an effect on students' learning during their clinical education, and in particular in shaping their ideas of what it means to be a professional. Despite this, there has been little evidence linking specific changes in professional attitudes to the individual components of the hidden curriculum. This study aimed to recognize those components that led to a change in students' professional attitudes at a UK veterinary school, as well as to identify the attitudes most affected. Observations were made of 11 student groups across five clinical rotations, followed by semi-structured interviews with 23 students at the end of their rotation experience. Data were combined and analyzed thematically, taking both an inductive and deductive approach. Views about the importance of technical competence and communication skills were promoted as a result of students' interaction with the hidden curriculum, and tensions were revealed in relation to their attitudes toward compassion and empathy, autonomy and responsibility, and lifestyle ethic. The assessment processes of rotations and the clinical service organization served to communicate the messages of the hidden curriculum, bringing about changes in student professional attitudes, while student-selected role models and the student rotation groups moderated the effects of these influences.
McComb, Sara A; Kirkpatrick, Jane M
Nurse educators are constantly revising curricula to ensure that graduating nurses have the requisite skills for today's fast-paced, rapidly changing, nonlinear complex care environment. Key nursing education and practice organizations identify systems thinking and quality improvement as essential skills for nurses at the point of care. Systems thinking and quality improvement were embedded across a Bachelor of Nursing (BSN) curriculum in a manner that does not dislocate other, more traditional content. To date, approximately 500 students have been exposed to the new BSN curriculum. Sustainable approaches, preliminary results, lessons learned, and recommendations for sustainability and replication are discussed. Integrating systems thinking and quality improvement with traditional content across the entire undergraduate curriculum exposes students to increasingly sophisticated real-world experiences that highlight the relevance and significance of these skills in the health care context. Feedback from practice partners suggests this approach helps bridge the education and practice gap. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):752-757.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Tamas, Rebecca L; Miller, Karen Hughes; Martin, Leslee J; Greenberg, Ruth B
This study aims to estimate the number of hours dedicated to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content in one medical school's undergraduate curriculum, compare it to the national average, and identify barriers to addressing this content. Course and clerkship directors were asked to estimate how many hours they spent on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content, how many hours would be ideal, and what barriers they perceived to teaching this content. Faculty members identified lack of instructional time, lack of relevance to their course content, and lack of professional development on this topic as major barriers. There was a significant negative correlation (r(s)=-0.47, p=0.047) between "number of hours dedicated" and "perceived barriers to teaching this content." Course and clerkship directors who perceive more barriers to teaching lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender content report dedicating less time to its instruction, but the barriers they perceive can largely be mitigated through faculty development.
It has been reported that healthcare providers often lack the skills set to provide care for people with disabilities, leading to inequalities in health and reduced access to health care. Newly graduating dentists are likely to see a significant number of patients with special healthcare needs in the course of their practicing lives. However, there is evidence of national and international variation in the availability of education and training at the undergraduate level in this important, emerging area. The quality and content of undergraduate education in Special Care Dentistry has been shown to correlate with students\\' confidence and their expressed willingness, towards providing care for patients with special healthcare needs in their future practice. The aim of this study was to use information from a three-round Delphi process, continued into a face-to-face meeting, to establish consensus on what constitutes the essential core knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a newly qualified dentist so that they are able to deliver patient care to diverse populations following graduation. A high level of agreement was established amongst an international panel of experts from 30 countries. The final core items identified by the panel showed a paradigm shift away from the traditional emphasis on medical diagnosis within a curriculum towards an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) with patient-centred treatment planning for people with disabilities and special healthcare needs according to function or environment. Many of the core skills identified by the panel are transferable across a curriculum and should encourage a person-centred approach to treatment planning based on the function, needs and wishes of the patient rather than their specific diagnosis.
Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Coşkun, Ozlem; Ergün, Mehmet Ali
There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC) for Undergraduate Medical Education. This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Descriptive study. The survey was conducted between February 2010 and December 2011; the study population comprised 450 residents. Of this group, 318 (71%) participated in the study. Self-assessment questionnaires on competencies were distributed and residents were asked to assess their own competence in different domains by scoring them on a scale of 1 to 10. Nearly half of the residents reported insufficient experience of putting clinical skills into practice when they graduated. In the theoretical part of NCC, the lowest competency score was reported for health-care administration, while the determination of level of chlorine in water, delivering babies, and conducting forensic examinations had the lowest perceived levels of competency in the clinical skills domain. Residents reported low levels of perceived competency in skills they rarely performed outside the university hospital. They were much more confident in skills they performed during their medical education.
Schnyder, Manuela; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Mathis, Alexander; Schönmann, Marietta; Hehl, Adrian; Deplazes, Peter
Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program. For the final Federal examination in veterinary medicine, both programs and a master thesis have to be completed. Parasitology, as a subject, is introduced with selected examples in the ecology course during the first academic year. The second and third years of the Bachelor program comprise non-organ-centred (NOC) and integrated organ-centred (OC) course modules, respectively. In the NOC modules, parasitology is taught in consecutive courses, focussing on topics including occurrence, biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostics and the strategic principles of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against major veterinary and zoonotic parasites. This syllabus is complemented with live demonstrations as well as practical laboratory exercises. Lecture notes, with defined learning objectives, are based on the textbook "Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine" which is available free of charge to students as an on-line edition in German. Furthermore, students review relevant parasitoses in the diagnostic context of OC case presentations. In another module, immunological aspects of parasitic diseases are elaborated on group sessions, supported through the use of specialist literature. The two-year Master program is divided into a core syllabus for all students, and elective subjects are chosen from six areas of specialisation (three each with clinical or non-clinical focus). Within the clinically focused
Natrah A. Fuad
Full Text Available Special needs patients (SNP have difficulty accessing dental services, partly due to reluctance of dentists to treat them. Objective: We assess didactic and clinical training experiences of final-year dental students and new graduates in managing SNP. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 123 final year dental students and new graduates, assessing their experiences and readiness in handling SNP. Results: Majority of the respondents were not confident in attending to SNP. Majority gained knowledge in handling SNP via lectures while more than half had managed patients with complex medical history. Majority mentioned a lack of clinical training to treat SNP as their dental training experience had only been in a dental school clinical setting. Most of the respondents hope their curriculum would include more education to improve clinical skills in managing SNP. Conclusion: Respondents demonstrated minimum training and lack of confidence and skills that might contribute to a lack of preparedness to manage the oral health care needs of SNP. Clinical exposure in managing SNP at the undergraduate level is still inadequate and it needs to be emphasized in the curriculum.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v22i3.976
The National Science Foundation has awarded over 10 million in awards to four coalitions in the first round of full awards in the Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum program. Overall, more than 50 institutions, ranging from large universities to four-year and community colleges, are formally involved in these projects. Each of the projects will involve five years of curricular development and evaluation and dissemination of the results by the participating institutions, as described in the abstracts below. We encourage faculty who are interested in becoming involved in any of these projects to contact the appropriate coalition. In addition, we expect to begin offering an emphasis in 1997 under the Course and Curriculum Development program in which faculty can request funds to assist them in adapting and adopting at their own institutions curricular innovations that have been developed by these coalitions. Another round of proposals for full awards was accepted in June of 1995, and we expect to make one more award in the program during FY1996. We do not expect to accept proposals for either planning or full grants in this program in June of 1996. However, the regular Course and Curriculum Development program will continue to accept and fund proposals requesting support for smaller-scale changes in the chemistry curriculum. ChemLinks Coalition: Making Chemical Connections Brock Spencer Beloit College, Beloit, WI 53511 DUE 9455918: FY1995, 705,000; FY 1996, 655,000; FY1997, 655,000; FY1998, 350,00; FY1999, 350,000 The ChemLinks Coalition is undertaking a five-year project to change the way students learn chemistry, increase scientific literacy for all students taking chemistry, and promote the process of educational reform. In collaboration with the ModularChem Consortium, faculty are developing, testing, and disseminating modular course materials that use active and collaborative approaches to learning. These materials, focused on the first two
Numerical computation has many pedagogical advantages: it develops analytical skills and problem-solving skills, helps to learn through visualization, and enhances physics education. Unfortunately, numerical computation is not taught to undergraduate education physics students in Indonesia. Incorporate numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum presents many challenges. The main challenges are the dense curriculum that makes difficult to put new numerical computation course and most students have no programming experience. In this research, we used case study to review how to integrate numerical computation into undergraduate education physics curriculum. The participants of this research were 54 students of the fourth semester of physics education department. As a result, we concluded that numerical computation could be integrated into undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel combined with another course. The results of this research become complements of the study on how to integrate numerical computation in learning physics using spreadsheet excel.
Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Schuurmans, Eva M; Van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J J A
The learning environment of undergraduate research internships has received little attention, compared to postgraduate research training. This study investigates students' experiences with research internships, particularly the quality of supervision, development of research skills, the intellectual and social climate, infrastructure support, and the clarity of goals and the relationship between the experiences and the quality of students' research reports and their overall satisfaction with internships. A questionnaire (23 items, a 5-point Likert scale) was administered to 101 Year five veterinary students after completion of a research internship. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with quality of supervision, development of research skills, climate, infrastructure and clarity of goals as independent variables and the quality of students' research reports and students' overall satisfaction as dependent variables. The response rate was 79.2%. Students' experiences are generally positive. Students' experiences with the intellectual and social climate are significantly correlated with the quality of research reports whilst the quality of supervision is significantly correlated with both the quality of research reports and students' overall satisfaction with the internship. Both the quality of supervision and the climate are found to be crucial factors in students' research learning and satisfaction with the internship.
Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant
In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…
Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung
Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…
Mafe, Cecilia; Menyah, Effie; Nkere, Munachi
Health care management and leadership education is an important gap in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Lack of training promotes poor decision making and may lead to inadequate health services, adversely affecting patients. We propose an integrated approach to health care management and leadership education at undergraduate level, to enable doctors to be effective leaders and manage resources appropriately and to ultimately improve patient care.
Needs Analysis is a valuable and irreplaceable tool in the curriculum design of Business English courses. It ensures a focused and efficient curriculum design responsive to the learners' needs. This paper analyses the needs of Business English undergraduates and the information obtained may offer some helpful suggestions to the setting of the…
Maltagliati, Luciana Avila; Goldenberg, Paulete
Approaching from the perspective of curriculum organization, the article examines the development of undergraduate research in dentistry. Based on Brazilian and international printed or electronic publications, the authors examine the institutionalization of higher education in dentistry, university reform, and the enactment of Curriculum Guidelines. From the earliest days of higher education in dentistry, there has been a concern with research. But Brazil's university reform assigned research to graduate studies and scientific instruction to undergraduate studies. In recent years, Curriculum Guidelines have reconsidered the position of research and have recommended changes that allow research to be viewed as an educational principle.
Murray, Jeffrey W.
This essay seeks to contribute to growing discussion concerning the need for more intentional inclusion of habits of mind in curriculum development, particularly in undergraduate general education, and to fuel an examination of the "dialectical" relationship between skills development and the development of habits of mind. The essay…
Full Text Available New information and communication technologies have changed the library and information science education, similar to other science education. Therefore, after 14 years, the Planning Council of Higher Education revised curriculum of undergraduate LIS (Library and Information Science and approved new curriculum in the form of 111 basic, special compulsory and special optional units. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the curriculum of the undergraduate LIS approved in 1375 and 1388. This study was performed using the method of content analysis. Results showed that the percent of titles with share content at two curricula was only 25%, which represents the novelty of the new program. Curriculum approved in 1388 had more number of special and practical units. In the new curriculum, 75% of the total units have been changed in terms of creating new courses, renaming or merging of courses. Also, 44% of curriculum approved in 1388 was new and 22% related to application of information technologies in libraries. The consistent percent of new Iranian LIS curriculum with other countries curriculum was nearly 70%. Due to the created changes in the field title and LIS curriculum in various countries, and accordance of these changes with evolution of LIS curriculum in Iran, It seemed that the conditions were appropriate for renaming the title of LIS field.
It is well known that several reports on the common educational problems of nuclear chemistry have been prepared by certain groups of experts from time to time. According to very important statements in these reports, nuclear chemistry and related courses generally do not take sufficient importance in undergraduate chemistry curricula and it was generally proposed that nuclear chemistry and related courses should be introduced into undergraduate chemistry curricula at universities worldwide. Starting from these statements, an ideal program in an undergraduate chemistry curriculum was proposed to be introduced into the undergraduate chemistry program at the Department of Chemistry, Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey during the regular updating of the chemistry curriculum. Thus, it has been believed that this Department of Chemistry has recently gained an ideal teaching program in the field of nuclear chemistry and its applications in scientific, industrial, and medical sectors. In this contribution, the details of this program will be discussed. (author)
Eight awards in chemistry curriculum development for FY1996 have been announced. One award, to a consortium centered at the University of California-Los Angeles, represents the fifth award in the Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum program. Although no proposals will be accepted in this program for either planning or full grants for FY1997, it is anticipated that proposals will be accepted in June of 1997 for projects that would adapt and adopt materials developed by the five funded consortia: Molecular Science centered at the University of California-Los Angeles; ChemLinks centered at Beloit College; MolecularChem Consortium centered at the University of California-Berkeley; Workshop Chemistry centered at CUNY City College; and New Traditions centered at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Seven awards have been made in the Course and Curriculum Development program. This ongoing program continues to accept proposals in chemistry as usual. Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Program Award. Molecular Science. Orville L. Chapman University of California-Los Angeles DUE 9555605 FY96 725,000 FY97 575,000, FY98 575,000 FY99 275,000, FY00 275,000 The UCLA-CSUF-Community College Alliance (24 area community colleges that have worked together for more than 15 years) proposes a sweeping restructuring of the lower division chemistry curriculum and the auxiliary learning and assessment processes. In forming our new curriculum, we reject the positivist approach to science education in favor of a constructivist approach that emphasizes problem solving and exploratory learning. We make this change in order to focus on the developing key skills, traits, and abilities of our students. Our new curriculum, the Molecular Science Curriculum, cuts across departments and disciplines to embrace all activities that involve the study of atoms and molecules. In particular, environmental science, materials science, and molecular life science have
Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy
A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.
Reisner, Barbara A.; Vaughan, K. T. L.; Shorish, Yasmeen L.
In the age of "big data" science, data management is becoming a key information literacy skill for chemistry professionals. To introduce this skill in the undergraduate chemistry major, an activity has been developed to familiarize undergraduates with data management. In this activity, students rename and organize cards that represent…
Malher, Xavier; Bareille, Nathalie; Noordhuizen, Jos P T M; Seegers, Henri
A case-based learning (CBL) format was implemented at the Veterinary School of Nantes, France, for veterinary students in their last year of the curriculum who had chosen to track toward a farm animal career. The focus of the CBL format was learning about dairy herd health consultancy. The goal was to emphasize teamwork among students, introduce professional communications and advisory relationships with clients, and work within the technical and economic limitations of participating farms. These farms volunteered to participate and had identified a problem. The learning objectives included gaining basic knowledge of herd-level diseases and the methods to control these within herds. The program focused on health audits of dairy farms performed by teams of four to five students, culminating in submission of a herd health management action plan specific for the farm visited by each team. The CBL program was comprised of defined learning objectives for each team. The learning process was supervised, from orientation through to validation, by a panel of experts from within the veterinary school and from local industry. Teams submitted written reports that listed recommendations and an action plan for implementation. This report was defended by each team in front of the farmers, their professional partners, and the panel of supervisors. Assessment of the program by students, participating farms, and industry professionals was positive.
Oyewumi, Modupe; Isaac, Kathryn; Schreiber, Martin; Campisi, Paolo
The aim of Canadian medical school curricula is to provide educational experiences that satisfy the specific objectives set out by the Medical Council of Canada. However, for specialties such as otolaryngology, there is considerable variability in student exposure to didactic and clinical teaching across Canadian medical schools, making it unclear whether students receive sufficient teaching of core otolaryngology content and clinical skills. The goal of this review was to assess the exposure to otolaryngology instruction in the undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Toronto. Otolaryngology objectives were derived from objectives created by the Medical Council of Canada and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto's recently developed Curriculum Mapping System (CMap) was used to perform a keyword search of otolaryngology objectives to establish when and to what extent essential topics were being taught. All (10 of 10) major topics and skills identified were covered in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Although no major gaps were identified, an uneven distribution of teaching time exists. The majority (> 90%) of otolaryngology education occurs during year 1 of clerkship. The amount of preclerkship education was extremely limited. Essential otolaryngology topics and skills are taught within the University of Toronto curriculum. The CMap was an effective tool to assess the otolaryngology curriculum and was able to identify gaps in otolaryngology education during the preclerkship years of medical school. As a result, modifications to the undergraduate curriculum have been implemented to provide additional teaching during the preclerkship years.
Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Chhem, Rethy; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vujnovic, Sasa
Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.
The purpose of this study was to appraise the curriculum of technical teacher education in terms of its compatibility to the goals of the programme. A sample of three Universities offering technical teacher programme was used for the study. Components of the technical teacher education curriculum in each institution were ...
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…
Lipman, L.J.A.; van Knapen, F.
Veterinary public health is an essential field in public health activities, based upon veterinary skills, knowledge and resources and which aims to protect and improve human health and welfare. This discipline has evolved through three stages, beginning with the fight against animal diseases, moving
Noble, Christy; O'Brien, Mia; Coombes, Ian; Shaw, P Nicholas; Nissen, Lisa
To explore a pharmacy school curriculum for opportunities for student engagement and to determine how these might shape student identity as pharmacists. The learning aims and objectives and methods of assessment from the curriculum of a bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) program were collected and a concept map was generated. The concept map was interpreted using Barnett and Coates' curricular domains of knowing, acting and being. The key concepts within the intended curriculum that were identified from the concept map were drugs, pharmacy, understanding, practice, and skills. Concepts such as patient and consumer, which would indicate a patient-centered approach to the curriculum, were limited. The main form of assessment used in the curriculum was multiple-choice and short-answer examinations. There was an emphasis in the curriculum on student acquisition of knowledge and this was reinforced by the use of theoretical examinations. The content of the curriculum was drug-centered rather than patient-centered and the emergence of students' identity as pharmacists may be fragmented as a result.
Wiertelak, Eric P
In 2007 FUN established the FUN Program and Department Consultations Service, or FUN-PDCS. Since that founding, the service has provided numerous consultation recommendations to undergraduate programs seeking assistance with external program reviews, designing and improving courses and many other programmatic needs. FUN-PDCS, like FUN, is primarily a grassroots organization and draws on the expertise of the FUN membership to aid programs in their more personalized pursuit of the FUN mission: to promote and improve undergraduate neuroscience education and research.
Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah
In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…
Esselman, Brian J.; Hill, Nicholas J.
Advances in software and hardware have promoted the use of computational chemistry in all branches of chemical research to probe important chemical concepts and to support experimentation. Consequently, it has become imperative that students in the modern undergraduate curriculum become adept at performing simple calculations using computational…
Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley
"The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…
Ahmed, Rashida; Naqvi, Zoon; Wolfhagen, Ineke
To identify essential psychomotor skills for all the medical graduates of an undergraduate programme in Pakistan. Twenty-five physicians practising in a tertiary care centre and ninety primary care physicians used a Likert's scale, ranging from "very essential" to"not required at all", to mark 99 psychomotor skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Pakistan. Overall the opinions of both the groups about the essential skills matched except for a few areas. This study provides baseline data about psychomotor skills that a medical graduate in developing countries should be able to perform. Further studies will be undertaken by involving other stakeholders to identify and incorporate these skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum, thereby enabling graduates to practice in all the settings in Pakistan.
Celenza, A; Jelinek, G A; Jacobs, I; Kruk, C; Graydon, R; Murray, L
To describe the implementation and evaluation of an undergraduate course in the first Australian academic emergency medicine unit. A descriptive study of a course involving fifth year medical students at the University of Western Australia was undertaken. Teaching included self-directed case problem solving, small group tutorials, practical-skills teaching, clinical attachments and information handouts. Evaluation involved questionnaire scores and written feedback regarding life-support skills, tutorial teaching, course materials, clinical attachments and the course in general. Some groups of students underwent pre-course and post-course examinations. Subjective and objective testing showed that student knowledge significantly improved. Feedback was especially positive toward clinical attachments in emergency departments, practical skills tutorials and the case-based learning method. Students requested longer attachments to emergency departments, and more practical, case-based, interactive and bedside teaching. Problems encountered included inadequate time for teaching, vagueness about student roles and objectives, and dealing with death for the first time without adequate preparation. Undergraduate emergency medicine education should become an essential part of Australian and international undergraduate medical education. Emergency medicine is enjoyable and eminently suitable for problem-based, interactive and integrated teaching and improves confidence, clinical experience in emergencies, practical skills and teamwork. Improvements include more problem-based teaching, more practical skills sessions and better definition of student roles. These are general principles that can be applied to other undergraduate courses and to designers of other emergency medicine courses, both undergraduate and postgraduate.
Gatumu, Margaret K.; MacMillan, Frances M.; Langton, Philip D.; Headley, P. Max; Harris, Judy R.
This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation…
Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Schuurmans, Eva M.; van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.
The learning environment of undergraduate research internships has received little attention, compared to postgraduate research training. This study investigates students' experiences with research internships, particularly the quality of supervision, development of research skills, the intellectual
Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Schuurmans, Eva M; Van Beukelen, Peter; Scherpbier, Albert J J A
UNLABELLED: The learning environment of undergraduate research internships has received little attention, compared to postgraduate research training. This study investigates students' experiences with research internships, particularly the quality of supervision, development of research skills, the
Thapa, Samanta; Chan, Kam C.
Using online survey, we document the opinions of finance professors as to what should be the core content of undergraduate entrepreneurial finance course and the approach to be taken to teach this course. On the core content of the course, the top five topics preferred by the respondents were: Identifying business opportunities and examining their…
Discusses the importance of computer security and considers criminal, national security, and personal privacy threats posed by security breakdown. Several examples are given, including incidents involving computer viruses. Objectives, content, instructional strategies, resources, and a sample examination for an experimental undergraduate computer…
A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…
Sangwin, Christopher J.; O'Toole, Claire
This paper reports a study which investigated the extent to which undergraduate mathematics students in the United Kingdom are currently taught to programme a computer as a core part of their mathematics degree programme. We undertook an online survey, with significant follow-up correspondence, to gather data on current curricula and received…
Smith, Korydon H.
The study of architectural theory remains absent from many undergraduate design programs, or, if present, the structure of many curricula place "theory" as an autonomous, peripheral course. Theory, however, as it is in other disciplines, is the foundation of the discipline of architecture. To regain the importance and vitality of…
The presentation of undergraduate Business Management degrees that are relevant to the needs of the business community is an ongoing challenge. The content of the degree structure therefore has to be adapted constantly to meet the ever-changing needs of the business community. This study focuses on the broad
Perlman, Baron; McCann, Lee I.
Explores the most frequently listed undergraduate psychology courses for four institutional types by analyzing 400 college catalogs. Reports that some segmentation continues in the research methodology and developmental areas, the balance of natural and social science courses appear stable, and there are no signs of a change toward vocationalism.…
Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.
Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…
Background: Nigerian Medical Schools need to attain international bes t prac t i ces in teaching psychiatry. The supply or availability of mental health professionals demands strong medical school psychiatry curriculum. The study therefore aims to investigate the level of adherence of Nigerian Medical Schools to the ...
Background. In the Nigerian setting the curriculum of each medical school is the sole responsibility of the senate of the respective university. This arrangement results in variability in learning objectives and in students' acquisition of skills to manage clinical problems. Educational objectives can be used to both standardise ...
Objective To determine the successful implementation and effectiveness of program-level learning outcomes for a 4-year bachelor of science pharmacy degree program. Methods A comprehensive and iterative program evaluation framework was implemented and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. Results The critical factors in the successful development and implementation of program-level learning outcomes in this context were program accreditation, the leadership qualities of the curriculum chair, a strong and adequately resourced curriculum team that was able to engage and mobilize the faculty learning community, and scholarly approaches to curriculum reform. Conclusion An integrated range of institutional and programmatic strategies enhance the implementation of program-level learning outcomes in a 4-year undergraduate curriculum. PMID:17998987
Smulders, Frans J M; Buncic, Sava; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Huey, Robert J; Korkeala, Hannu; Prieto, Miguel; Steinhauserova, Iva
Prompted by developments in the agri-food industry and associated recent changes in European legislation, the responsibilities of veterinarians professionally active in veterinary public health (VPH), and particularly in food hygiene (FH), have increasingly shifted from the traditional end-product control toward longitudinally integrated safety assurance. This necessitates the restructuring of university training programs to provide starting competence in this area for veterinary graduates or a sub-population of them. To date, there are substantial differences in Europe in the way in which graduate programs in FH/VPH are structured and in the time allocated to this important curricular group of subjects. Having recognized this, the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) recently instituted a working group to analyze the current situation, with a view to produce standard operating procedures allowing fair and transparent evaluations of universities/faculties constituting its membership and in concurrence with explicit European legislation on the professional qualifications deemed necessary for this veterinary discipline. This article summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations of the working group and seeks to contribute to the international efforts to optimize veterinary training in FH/VPH.
Jones, Meredyth L; Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; White, Brad J
The objectives of this project were to determine the number of school-sanctioned extracurricular opportunities available to veterinary students and characterize the policies of school administrations toward extracurricular involvement and academic standing. Further, we sought to describe the level of extracurricular involvement of veterinary students, determine the association between extracurricular activity involvement and academic performance, and determine the motivation for extracurricular involvement of veterinary students. Survey data were obtained from 18 associate deans of colleges of veterinary medicine regarding the number of extracurricular student organizations within their school and administrative recommendations regarding student involvement. Another survey was administered and responded to by 665 veterinary students enrolled in curricular years 1-3 at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University regarding their extracurricular involvement. Associate deans of 11 schools responded that they make formal or informal recommendations to students about extracurricular activities, workload, and academic priority (61.1%). In a multivariate model, students who participated two times per week or more had a significantly higher overall grade point average (GPA) than students participating once per week (pextracurricular involvement is a consideration for administrators when counseling students in academic difficulty. Moderate levels of extracurricular involvement can contribute to the academic success of students, but students should temper their level of involvement based upon their own motivations.
Fernandes, Lynette B
Responsible conduct in learning and research (RCLR) was progressively introduced into the pharmacology curriculum for undergraduate science students at The University of Western Australia. In the second year of this undergraduate curriculum, a lecture introduces students to issues such as the use of animals in teaching and responsible conduct of research. Third year student groups deliver presentations on topics including scientific integrity and the use of human subjects in research. Academic and research staff attending these presentations provide feedback and participate in discussions. Students enrolled in an optional capstone Honours year complete an online course on the responsible conduct of research and participate in an interactive movie. Once RCLR became established in the curriculum, a survey of Likert-scaled and open-ended questions examined student and staff perceptions. Data were expressed as Approval (% of responses represented by Strongly Agree and Agree). RCLR was found to be relevant to the study of pharmacology (69-100% Approval), important for one's future career (62-100% Approval), and stimulated further interest in this area (32-75% Approval). Free entry comments demonstrated the value of RCLR and constructive suggestions for improvement have now been incorporated. RCLR modules were found to be a valuable addition to the pharmacology undergraduate curriculum. This approach may be used to incorporate ethics into any science undergraduate curriculum, with the use of discipline-specific topics. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):53-59, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Bearn, David R; Chadwick, Stephen M; Jack, Alan C; Sackville, Andrew
This paper describes the problems of assessment for students on an undergraduate orthodontic course which is using problem-based learning to encourage active self-learning, deep learning and give students the skills to become effective lifelong learners in the future. Traditional assessment does little to encourage a range of behaviours and skills which are encouraged through problem-based learning but which must be rewarded, in the minds of the students, by the chosen method of assessment. This is because learner behaviour is driven by assessment. Details of the range of assessment methods available and those chosen on the orthodontic undergraduate course at the University of Manchester Dental School are reported and discussed.
Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver
, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, undergraduate medical education has undergone a transition from a speciality-based to a more competence-based training system. Consequently, whilst medical knowledge is rapidly expanding, time for teaching of the surgical specialties is decreasing. Thus...
Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.
Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)
Educators face the dilemma of conveying didactic information in concise, creative ways that evoke critical thinking. In addition, high patient acuity, coupled with a growing nursing shortage, requires assimilation of didactic knowledge into sound clinical judgment in a timely manner. Human simulation offers a creative teaching modality that allows transference of textbook knowledge into a real-life situation where nursing students can function in their role without untoward effects to their clients. The author illustrates the use of a human birthing simulator, Noelle, in an undergraduate nursing program as a creative and effective teaching strategy.
Hodgson, Steven C.; Bigger, Stephen W.; Billingham, Norman C.
This review and its comprehensive list of 339 references is published on the Web at the JCE Online site. It is offered as an up-to-date resource for chemical educators for their use in developing innovative ways of teaching the topic of synthetic polymers within the context of the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. An account is given of (i) the scope of polymer chemistry in education, (ii) the educational literature available in this field, (iii) course modules that may be used for instruction about polymer chemistry, and (iv) polymer-based experiments for the teaching laboratory. To encourage the wider inclusion of polymers in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, a selection of simple experiments that relate to common polymers is recommended.
Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart
The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical
Ingram, D; Murphy, J
Previous case reports in this series on Education and Training have looked at specialist courses for postgraduate students seeking an in-depth knowledge of informatics and a career in the field. By contrast, this review describes a project designed to pilot a series of learning opportunities for undergraduate medical students. Although some UK medical colleges have opted to introduce informatics into the curriculum as a discipline in its own right, the Informatics Department at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College chose a different approach. When a new curriculum was introduced at St Bartholomew's and at The London Hospital Medical College, the Head of the Informatics Department saw this as an ideal opportunity to explore ways of integrating informatics into the curriculum. The initiatives described in this paper were made possible as a result of an award from the UK government Department of Employment. Money from an Enterprise in Higher Education grant funded a range of programmes, one of which was designed to introduce students to selected aspects of informatics and to demonstrate what is feasible in the undergraduate curriculum. The work carried out over a period of three and a half years was intended to provide the basis for the next phase of curriculum development. However, in the wake of the restructuring which has taken place in London medical colleges, the Informatics Department at what was St Bartholomew's has relocated to University College London Medical School, and is now called The Centre for Health Informatics and Multiprofessional Education (CHIME). University College is designing a new medical curriculum and CHIME is drawing on the experience gained through the Enterprise Project to find the best way to integrate informatics into this curriculum.
Basu, S; Roberts, C
The need to adequately train medical professionals in public health has been recognised internationally. Despite this, public health curricula, particularly in undergraduate medicine, are poorly defined. This study explored the public health disciplines that newly qualified doctors in the United Kingdom (UK) should know. We developed a 31-item questionnaire covering public health subject areas and expected competencies that medical graduates should know. The questionnaire was then administered to a stratified sample of medically trained individuals across a number of postgraduate schools of public health in the UK. Following administration, a ranking list was developed by subject area and by competency. There was an 85% response rate (69/81). Subject areas ranked highest included epidemiology, health promotion and health protection. Sociology and the history of public health ranked lowest. Competencies perceived as important by the respondents included understanding health inequalities, empowering people about health issues and assessing the effectiveness of healthcare programmes. Our study identifies the expected public health subject areas and competencies that newly graduating medical students should know. They provide a context through which to begin addressing concerns over the disparity between these expectations and what is actually taught in medical school, highlighting the continuing need to reframe undergraduate public health education in the UK.
Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique BH; Herrler, Andreas; Verheijen, Inge WH; Scherpbier, Albert JJA; van der Vleuten, Cees PM
Background To get insight in how theoretical knowledge is transformed into clinical skills, important information may arise from mapping the development of anatomical knowledge during the undergraduate medical curriculum. If we want to gain a better understanding of teaching and learning in anatomy, it may be pertinent to move beyond the question of how and consider also the what, why and when of anatomy education. Methods A purposive sample of 78 medical students from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6...
the rise in the number of older, frail adults necessitates that future doctors are adequately trained in the skills of geriatric medicine. Few countries have dedicated curricula in geriatric medicine at the undergraduate level. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus among geriatricians on a curriculum with the minimal requirements that a medical student should achieve by the end of medical school.
Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver; Hansson, Emma
In recent years, undergraduate medical education has undergone a transition from a speciality-based to a more competence-based training system. Consequently, whilst medical knowledge is rapidly expanding, time for teaching of the surgical specialties is decreasing. Thus, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel was recruited from various plastic surgery subspecialties, institutions, and levels of clinical experience, in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). Questionnaires were sent out and answers collected electronically via Google Forms™. Following completion of three predefined rounds of anonymous questionnaires; a final core curriculum competency list was agreed upon based on a consensus agreement level of 80%. Two hundred and ninety-five competences were suggested in the first round. In the second round, 76 competences (33 skills and 43 knowledge items) received a score ≥3.00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus of competences a recently graduated medical doctor should be expected to possess.
Carlson, Wendy; Witschey, Hannah
This study examined whether combining classroom curriculum with direct experience with people with disabilities (PWDs) can influence change in undergraduate students' attitudes toward PWDs. Undergraduate students (N = 68) enrolled in a psychology course completed the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale at the beginning and end of the semester.…
Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf
Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of "social and communicative competencies" (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students' cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.
Fauzi'ah, Lina; Diniaty, Artina; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan
This study aimed to know the effect of implementation modified spiral (or two-cycle) organic curriculum for Chemistry Education Undergraduate Students. The changing of curriculum that impacted in the organization of topics, was due to the low of student's achievement in Organic Chemistry courses. In a spiral curriculum, the first cycle was surveyed course which students learned about general organic chemistry that must be studied in year-long courses in the previous curriculum. The survey course discussed topics in less detail but with some emphasis on the topics that related to the chemistry for high school. The second course was the spiral of the first cycle that discussed the same chapter but in a more advanced discussion. In this cycle, students began to study about stereochemistry, mechanism of organic reaction and its application for daily need and industry. From the data analysis, there was a significant difference of students' achievement that learned with previous and spiral organic curriculum. It can be concluded that this modified curriculum is more appropriate to be applied for Chemistry Education students.
By screening various sources, such as handouts, lectures, official and personal correspondence, and interviewing historical eyewitnesses, it was possible to reconstruct the history and document the importance of the Veterinary Ambulance and Diagnostic Services Schwarzenbek. Before 1989, when Germany was devided and Berlin in an insular situation separated from the Federal Republic, it seemed necessary to establish a field station of training for students studying at the Faculty of Veterina...
Velthuis, Floor; Varpio, Lara; Helmich, Esther; Dekker, Hanke; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
Changing an undergraduate medical curriculum is a recurring, high-stakes undertaking at medical schools. This study aimed to explore how people leading major curriculum changes conceived of the process of enacting change and the strategies they relied on to succeed in their efforts. The first author individually interviewed nine leaders who were leading or had led the most recent undergraduate curriculum change in one of the eight medical schools in the Netherlands. Interviews were between December 2015 and April 2016, using a semi-structured interview format. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection, with themes being constructed inductively from the data. Leaders conceived of curriculum change as a dynamic, complex process. They described three major challenges they had to deal with while navigating this process: the large number of stakeholders championing a multitude of perspectives, dealing with resistance, and steering the change process. Additionally, strategies for addressing these challenges were described. The authors identified an underlying principle informing the work of these leaders: being and remaining aware of emerging situations, and carefully constructing strategies for ensuring the intended outcomes were reached and contributed to the progress of the change process. This empirical, descriptive study enriches the understanding of how institutional leaders navigate the complexities of major medical curriculum changes. The insights serve as a foundation for training and coaching future change leaders. To broaden the understanding of curriculum change processes, future studies could investigate the processes through alternative stakeholder perspectives.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not
Brown, S J; White, S; Power, N
Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped according to their first-year academic achievement using a two-step cluster analysis method and that grades achieved in the human anatomy and physiology courses would be strong predictors of overall achievement. One cohort that graduated in 2014 (n = 105) and one that graduated in 2015 (n = 94) were analyzed separately, and for both cohorts, two groups were identified, these being "high achievers" (HIGH) and "low achievers" (LOW). Consistently, the anatomy and physiology courses were the strongest predictors of group assignment, such that a good grade in these was much more likely to put a student into a high-achieving group. Students in the HIGH groups also scored higher in the Transition to Nursing course when compared with students in the LOW groups. The higher predictor importance of the anatomy and physiology courses suggested that if a first-year grade-point average was calculated for students, an increased weighting should be attributed to these courses. Identifying high-achieving students based on first-year academic scores may be a useful method to predict future academic performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Eseonu, Kelechi; Wedderburn, Catherine; Maurice, James
The UK's General Medical Council (GMC) emphasises effective communication as fundamental to good medical practice. Conversations with colleagues without English as a first language suggested that their needs in learning clinical communication skills might have differed from those of native English speakers. This study investigated whether training in UK medical schools was adequately catering for these students. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to seven UK medical schools. Responses were analysed to find areas of concern, the most beneficial aspects of the current curriculum and proposals for improvements. In total, 151 international students responded. Students reported improvements in clinical communication throughout medical school, but concerns remain concerning 'social communication' and integration with peers. A majority felt that there was a need to improve clinical communication training specifically for international students. Medical schools are successful in helping international students to develop clinical communication skills, but could further encourage social integration. This could be achieved by introducing a programme linking international students with non-international students upon medical school entry. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Kroeplin, Birgit S; Strub, Joerg R
The aim of this literature review was to evaluate to what extent oral implant dentistry was integrated into undergraduate educational programs worldwide. An online search of PubMed (MEDLINE and additional life science journals) was performed for articles published from 1966 to January 2010 using combinations of select medical subject headings. Additionally, the ISI Web of Knowledge database (MEDLINE: 1950 to present, Web of Science: 1945 to present) was searched using "education" and "implant" as search terms. The online search was supplemented with a manual search of dental journals in the fields of education, prosthodontics, and implant dentistry and of the reference lists of selected full-text articles. Surveys comparing different undergraduate dental implant curricula and articles describing the undergraduate dental implant curriculum of a single university were identified. Postgraduate or continuing education programs for dental practitioners or master and specialist programs were excluded. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria of this review. The percentage of universities that included implant dentistry in undergraduate education increased from 51% in 1974 to 97% in 2006 for universities in the United States and to 100% for surveyed European universities. All curricula included lectures (mostly 1 to 20 hours) and 30% to 42% included laboratory courses, but the level of clinical experience differed greatly between surveyed universities. Because oral implant dentistry has become a standard treatment alternative, the undergraduate dental curricula should include its application in treatment planning, observation of placing and restoring implants, and treating patients with implant-retained or -supported restorations.
Watt-Watson, Judy; Hunter, Judi; Pennefather, Peter; Librach, Larry; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Schreiber, Martin; Lax, Leila; Stinson, Jennifer; Dao, Thuan; Gordon, Allan; Mock, David; Salter, Michael
Pain education, especially for undergraduates, has been identified as important to changing problematic pain practices, yet, no published data were found describing an integrated, interprofessional pain curriculum for undergraduate students. Therefore, this project aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated pain curriculum, based on the International Association for the Study of Pain curricula [http://www.iasp-pain.org/curropen.html], for 540 students from six Health Science Faculties/Departments. Over an 18-month period, the University of Toronto Centre for the Study of Pain's Interfaculty Pain Education Committee developed a 20-h undergraduate pain curriculum to be delivered during a 1-week period. Students from Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, and Occupational Therapy participated as part of their 2nd or 3rd year program. Teaching strategies included large and small groups, Standardized Patients, and 63 facilitators. Evaluation methods included: (a) pre- and post-tests of the Pain Knowledge and Beliefs Questionnaire (PKBQ) and (b) Daily Content and Process Questionnaire (DCPQ) to obtain feedback about process, content, and format across the curriculum's 5 days. A significant improvement in pain knowledge and beliefs was demonstrated (t = 181.28, P < 0.001), although non-responders were problematic at the post-test. DCPQ overall ratings of 'exceeding or meeting expectations' ranged from 74 to 92%. Ratings were highest for the patient-related content and panel, and the small-group discussions with Standardized Patients. Overall evaluations were positive, and statistically significant changes were demonstrated in students' pain knowledge and beliefs. This unique and valuable learning opportunity will be repeated with some modifications next year.
Belu, R.; Cioca, L.
Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Creation of a sustainable society is a complex multi-disciplinary and multi-stage project, believed to dominate our century, requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions. Sustainable development means technological progress meeting the present needs without compromising future generation ability to meet its needs and aspirations. It has four aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organizations. Students are often taught to deal with technological developments and economic analysis to assess the process or product viability, but are not fully familiar with sustainability and optimization of technology development benefits and the environment. Schools in many disciplines are working to include sustainability concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and renewable energy has become an essential feature today higher education. Sustainable and green design is about designs recognizing the constraints of the natural resource uses and the environment. It applies to all of engineering and science areas, as all systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project goals are to provide students with multiple and comprehensive exposures to sustainability and renewable energy concepts, facilitating the development of passion and skills to integrate them into practice. The expected outcomes include an increased social responsibility; development of innovative thinking skills; understanding of sustainability issues, and increasing student interests in the engineering and science programs. The project aims to incorporate sustainability and renewable energy concepts into our undergraduate curricula, employing the existing course resources, and developing new courses and laboratory experiments
Kustritz, Margaret V Root; Nault, André J
Veterinary education has traditionally focused on clinical skills. Success as a practicing veterinarian, however, also depends on good communication skills, emotional intelligence, and other "soft" skills that can lead to greater employee and employer satisfaction and increased practice revenue. The University of Minnesota has approached this curricular need by convening a task force and creating a series of courses aimed at improving leadership skills, teamwork, and verbal and written communication; managing conflict; and understanding ethics and personal finance. This article describes the evolution and structure of these soft-skill classes and the challenges in securing faculty and student buy-in essential for success.
Siegel-Richman, Yonaton; Kendall, John
Over the years, the use of ultrasound in the medical profession has become a common occurrence. As a result, many medical schools are considering an ultrasound curriculum for first- and second-year medical students. The question posed by many of these programs is how much time and effort are required to establish such a curriculum. We at the University of Colorado School of Medicine sought to quantify the resources and time required. We conducted a cohort study that analyzed the time spent teaching, as well as the types of instructors (eg, faculty, resident, and peer student) that contributed to our ultrasound curriculum. The study population consisted of instructors who participated in the curriculum during the 2014-2015 academic year. We analyzed the amount of time that facilitators spent teaching and tabulated these data using their specialty. Our data revealed that within an academic year, a combined total of 484 hours were spent teaching ultrasound to first- and second-year medical students combined. A total of 6 days were required to teach ultrasound to first-year medical students, and a total of 5 days were required for second-year medical students. It required 1 instructor for every 8 students, and most the faculty who volunteered time were from the field of emergency medicine, followed by family medicine and radiology. We describe the number of hours and instructors required to implement an ultrasound curriculum for undergraduate medical education. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L
To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.
Full Text Available Elliott Yann Ah-kee,1 Aamir Asif Khan21Monklands Hospital, Airdrie, 2Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UKWe read with high interest the letter by Singh et al1 which advocates a mandatory year studying for a BSc in management, within the UK undergraduate medical curriculum. The authors have supported their proposition with compelling figures from a recent National Health Service (NHS report, which is expecting a £30 billion funding gap by 2020/2021.We strongly believe that nowadays, leadership and management skills are crucial within the NHS and have been shown to positively impact the overall performance of doctors appointed to hospital boards of directors and clinical outcomes.2 Furthermore, we agree with the authors that a lack of knowledge of the NHS structure can be efficiently addressed by incorporating medical leadership and management (MLM early during undergraduate training.However, we believe that a mandatory year studying management within an already overcrowded undergraduate curriculum is not realistic and feasible. Moreover, several identified barriers to the implementation of such education, including negative attitudes held by both doctors and students toward MLM still need to be addressed.2Previous letter has been published
Cessford, Tara A; Norman, Wendy
Recent evidence suggests that medical schools offer insufficient training to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to counsel patients about abortion and to become abortion providers. We conducted a knowledge-assessment survey of medical students before (second-year students) and after (fourth-year students) teaching related to abortion to evaluate the effectiveness of the undergraduate abortion curriculum. Undergraduate medical students answered a knowledge-assessment survey about abortion epidemiology, practice guidelines, abortion methods and procedures, and student readiness to provide abortions. One hundred and twenty six of 266 second-year students (47%) and 67 of 170 fourth-year students (39%) completed the survey. Fourth-year medical students scored higher on average than second-year students (P Abortion epidemiology was the weakest area of performance for all students. Most medical students would either provide an abortion (37% of fourth-year students, 38% of second-year students) or refer to a provider (36% of fourth-year students and 34% of second-year students). There was no significant relationship between overall scores and student readiness to provide abortions. Medical students in both second and fourth year demonstrated a limited understanding of abortion. Most future physicians participating in this study indicated they would be willing to provide abortions. Curriculum reform to improve abortion training in undergraduate medical programs is essential to provide students with necessary learning opportunities and to ensure safe and effective reproductive health care for women.
Kotur, Premanath F
Current undergraduate medical curricula in most institutions around the globe do not nurture the skills, needed for self-directed lifelong learning in medical graduates, and it needs to be reformed in such a way that the medical graduate who is trained through this reformed curriculum, possesses all the competencies of a self-directed learner. Evidence-based medicine (EBM), a new vision of physician learning which is based on continuous development and assessment of competencies needed for creating self-directed learners is to be strongly advocated for inclusion in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Clinical teaching opportunities which are available while treating patients, in outpatient clinic, operating room, and by the bedside need to be utilized to teach EBM. Medical curricula, both undergraduate and postgraduate, should incorporate both EBM and quality improvement training, and these should be taught in a holistic fashion. Evidence-based practice competency was shown to increase, regardless of whether evidence-based practice is delivered to medical students at an undergraduate or postgraduate level.Early introduction of EBM in the undergraduate medical curriculum, in the form of a short course, using various modes of instruction, enhances the competence of critical thinking and also influences change in attitude towards EBM positively in medical students. Introduction of EBM in undergraduate medical curriculum helps in the development of professional competencies of self-directed learners in medical students.
Bajow, Nidaa; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ageely, Hussein; Bani, Ibrahim; Corte, Francesco Della
Nowadays, many medical schools include training in disaster medicine in undergraduate studies. This study evaluated the efficacy of a disaster medicine curriculum recently designed for Saudi Arabian medical students. Participants were 15 male and 14 female students in their fourth, fifth or sixth year at Jazan University Medical School, Saudi Arabia. The course was held at the Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Medicine and Computer Sciences Applied to the Medical Practice in Novara, Italy. The overall mean score on a test given before the course was 41.0 % and it increased to 67.7 % on the post-test (Wilcoxon test for paired samples: z = 4.71, p medicine to undergraduate medical students. Adoption of this course would help to increase the human resources available for dealing with disaster situations.
Full Text Available Concomitant with the heavy use of the Internet, the Web and social Networks, scientific, technological and social changes speed up nowadays, resulting in the production of massive data and information. Information that is mostly discovered, organized, retrieved and used through the networks needs to be managed effectively. The curricula of the departments of Information Management educating information professionals should mirror such scientific, technological and social developments. In this paper, we review the process of the revision of the undergraduate curriculum of the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University. First, we introduce the Department briefly, then we review the studies carried out between 2009 and 2011 to update the curriculum along with the conceptual model of education for information management developed during this process. Finally, we provide brief information on double major and minor programs that have been developed mutually with the Departments of Economics and Computer Engineering.
Masud, T.; Blundell, A.; Gordon, A. L.
Introduction: the rise in the number of older, frail adults necessitates that future doctors are adequately trained in the skills of geriatric medicine. Few countries have dedicated curricula in geriatric medicine at the undergraduate level. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus among...... was reached following the third round. The final curriculum consisted of detailed objectives grouped under 10 overarching learning outcomes. Discussion: a consensus on the minimum requirements of geriatric learning objectives for medical students has been agreed by European geriatricians. Major efforts...... will be needed to implement these requirements, given the large variation in the quality of geriatric teaching in medical schools. This curriculum is a first step to help improve teaching of geriatrics in medical schools, and will also serve as a basis for advancing postgraduate training in geriatrics across...
Chonacky, Norman; Winch, David
There is substantial evidence of a need to make computation an integral part of the undergraduate physics curriculum. This need is consistent with data from surveys in both the academy and the workplace, and has been reinforced by two years of exploratory efforts by a group of physics faculty for whom computation is a special interest. We have examined past and current efforts at reform and a variety of strategic, organizational, and institutional issues involved in any attempt to broadly transform existing practice. We propose a set of guidelines for development based on this past work and discuss our vision of computationally integrated physics.
This paper presents an updated statement on behalf of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) in relation to proposals for undergraduate Curriculum Structure, Content, Learning, Assessment and Student \\/ Staff Exchange for dental education in Europe. A task force was constituted to consider these issues and the two previous, related publications produced by the Association (Plasschaert et al 2006 and 2007) were revised. The broad European dental community was circulated and contributed to the revisions. The paper was approved at the General Assembly of ADEE, held in Amsterdam in August 2010 and will be updated again in 2015.
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
Hussain, M M; Talukder, H K; Moazzem, N; Rashid, A; Hanif, A; Nargis, T
This study was conducted for evaluation of existing MBBS curriculum (2002) of undergraduate medical education in Bangladesh. The specific objectives of this study were: i) to assess the subject wise course content coverage in the new MBBS curriculum, ii) to assess different examination system for evaluation of MBBS students, iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities under the curriculum, iv) to explore students opinions regarding improvement of new curriculum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among the students of Dhaka medical colleges of Bangladesh in 2008. Data was collected by self administered structured questioner adopting convenient sampling method. About ninety percent students opined that the coverage of course content of subjects in the curriculum in Phase I was enough. In case of the subjects in phase II except community medicine more than four fifth of the students expressed their opinion about coverage of course content in the curriculum as enough. In case of phase III it was mentioned by most of the students that coverage of course content was enough. Study revealed that teaching methods were perceived suitable by about three fourth of the respondents, to achieve learning objectives. Most of the students expressed their positive views regarding practice of block posting teaching. More than three fourth of the students perceived that formative assessment was encouraging for students to become time bound learner and Structured Oral Examination (SOE) was fair on an average. Only 31(8.6%) of the respondents had opinion that Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE)/Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was not well organized. About half of the students opined that 20% marks in written test should be allocated for Multiple Choice Question (MCQ). Students' suggestions regarding teaching were: there should be smaller group sessions; more interactive sessions; more clinical
Furmedge, Daniel S; Iwata, Kazuya; Gill, Deborah
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become increasingly popular over recent years with many medical schools now formally incorporating peer-teaching programs into the curriculum. PAL has a sound evidence base with benefit to both peer-teacher and peer-learner. Aside from in teaching delivery, empowering students to develop education in its broadest sense has been much less extensively documented. Five case studies with supportive evaluation evidence illustrate the success of a broad range of peer-led projects in the undergraduate medical curriculum, particularly where these have been embedded into formal teaching practices. These case studies identify five domains of teaching and support of learning where PAL works well: teaching and learning, resource development, peer-assessment, education research and evaluation and mentoring and support. Each case offers ways of engaging students in each domain. Medical students can contribute significantly to the design and delivery of the undergraduate medical program above and beyond the simple delivery of peer-assisted "teaching". In particular, they are in a prime position to develop resources and conduct research and evaluation within the program. Their participation in all stages enables them to feel involved in course development and education of their peers and ultimately leads to an increase in student satisfaction.
Solà, Montserrat; Pulpón, Anna M; Morin, Victòria; Sancho, Raül; Clèries, Xavier; Fabrellas, Núria
Despite the fact that Objective Structured Clinical Examination is considered to be an efficient assessment method, their implementation in the undergraduate nursing curriculum encounters difficulties. However, the initiative of the European Higher Education Area to promote competency-based assessment may represent an opportunity to introduce this instrument in undergraduate nursing curriculum. To explore the perception of nursing faculty members regarding the implementation of the OSCE as an assessment tool in Catalan Nursing Schools. In this qualitative study, fifteen teachers participated in semi-structured interviews in eight Catalan Nursing Schools. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major themes in the interview data and collaborative analysis was undertaken to ensure rigorous results. The relevant aspects that are emphasized by teachers included the consideration of the dual purpose of the OSCE via its formative and evaluative facets by enhancing the feedback received by students about their performance on the OSCE. The OSCE should be administered towards the end of the degree program and should complement other methods of assessment. Despite its high cost, the OSCE was deemed to be efficient as it enables student competencies to be assessed with objective criteria, which is a difficult task with other instruments. OSCE implementation is feasible with the institutional support of and collaborative work between schools. The implementation of the OSCE in the Catalan undergraduate nursing degree programs is feasible if the project receives the support of all involved parties and if creative strategies are determined to reduce economic costs and optimize resources. With adequate feedback, the OSCE is an assessment tool that can provide high-impact training to students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mighell, A J
The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.
Kristin C. Burkholder
Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.
Busemann, A; Busemann, C; Traeger, T; Festge, O-A; Neu, J; Heidecke, C-D
Risk reducing measures like the surgical checklist have been proven to reduce effectively adverse events and improve patient safety and teamwork among surgical staff members. Nevertheless, many physicians still refuse to use even simple safety tools like the WHO checklist. A progress in patient safety can only be achieved by changing the operating proceedings and mentality of medical students. This is best performed by teaching patient safety already very early in the medical education. The present study demonstrates the implementation and evaluation of the curriculum "patient safety" for undergraduate medical students in the 4th year of medical school at the Department of Surgery, University of Greifswald. 141 students evaluated a total of six lectures from April to October 2011. The results indicate that young medical students show great enthusiasm in safety matters and are willing to adopt the principles. Especially the importance of the issue and the didactic design were evaluated as being very high. The curriculum "patient safety" as part of the training program in medical school is a powerful and effective educational tool that is able to raise the student's awareness of patient safety affairs. Thereby it is crucial to start early within medical education during the phase of socialisation. We recommend the general implementation of a patient safety curriculum in medical school. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80% of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.
Komattil, Ramnarayan; Hande, Shyamala Handattu; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali; Subramaniam, Barathi
The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD) module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80%) of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.
Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Heller, Nathan A.; Batchelor, John H.
Continuing pressures are being placed on undergraduate business education to alter curriculum content and delivery. The anticipated product of these changes is a graduate that is capable of performing the higher order thinking skills needed to navigate a constantly changing, global business environment. This article describes the implementation of…
Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie
This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…
Sasaki, Hidenao; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Itoyama, Yasuto; Kwak, Shin; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Nakashima, Kenji; Amano, Takahiro; Inoue, Kiyoharu; Uozumi, Takenori; Kohara, Nobuo; Tsuji, Sadatoshi; Tamagawa, Akira; Toyoshima, Itaru; Mizutani, Tomohiko; Yoshii, Fumihito; Sobue, Gen; Shimizu, Teruo
To investigate the current state of education for undergraduates, the subcommittee of the Japanese Society of Neurology for undergraduate education sent a questionnaire on the 2001-version of Model Core Curriculum to the department of neurology in 80 medical universities and their 7 associate medical institutes throughout Japan. Answers were obtained from 56 out of those 87 institutes (64.4%). According to the answers, the Core Curriculum was introduced to the program of undergraduate education in 93% of those 56 universities. For the revision of neurology part in the current Core Curriculum, there are number of requests for improving the description on the neurological examination, list of common symptoms and disorders, and addition of therapeutics. Despite application of the Model Core Curriculum in medical education, the present study disclosed that there were considerable difference in the number and content of the lectures, and the duration of clinical clerkship in neurology ward. These differences of the curriculum and training program depends on not only the number of staffs, but also whether they are working as staffs in a department of neurology or as a small group of neurologists within a department other than neurology.
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
Full Text Available Anita Ghosh, Vidushi Pradhan Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Kensington, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Al Achkar et al highlighting the importance of residents-as-teachers (RaT programs.1 The increasing use of RaT instruction resonated with us from a medical student perspective, as a program that should be adapted and implemented as early as medical school to allow students to develop key teaching skills as well as enhance their own learning. The importance of teaching has been recognized by the UK General Medical Council (GMC for many years; however, it still only forms a small part of the current undergraduate curriculum with few medical schools in the UK integrating structured formal training.2 View the original paper by Al Achkar et al
Kogan, L.R.; Stewart, S.M.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R.; Hellyer, P.W.
Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4
Full Text Available Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution. Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proved that basic science knowledge learned in the context of a clinical case is actually better comprehended and more easily applied by medical students than basic science knowledge learned in isolation. The present study intended to validate the effectiveness of Clinically Oriented Physiology Teaching (COPT in undergraduate medical curriculum at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus, Manipal, India. Methods COPT was a teaching strategy wherein, students were taught physiology using cases and critical thinking questions. Three batches of undergraduate medical students (n = 434 served as the experimental groups to whom COPT was incorporated in the third block (teaching unit of Physiology curriculum and one batch (n = 149 served as the control group to whom COPT was not incorporated. The experimental group of students were trained to answer clinically oriented questions whereas the control group of students were not trained. Both the group of students undertook a block exam which consisted of clinically oriented questions and recall questions, at the end of each block. Results Comparison of pre-COPT and post-COPT essay exam scores of experimental group of students revealed that the post-COPT scores were significantly higher compared to the pre-COPT scores. Comparison of post-COPT essay exam scores of the experimental group and control group of students revealed that the experimental group of students performed better compared to the control group. Feedback from the students indicated that they preferred COPT to didactic lectures. Conclusion The study supports the fact that assessment and teaching patterns should fall in line with each other as proved by the better performance of the experimental group of students compared to the control group. COPT was also found to be a useful adjunct to didactic lectures in teaching physiology.
Reisner, Barbara A; Smith, Sheila R; Stewart, Joanne L; Raker, Jeffrey R; Crane, Johanna L; Sobel, Sabrina G; Pesterfield, Lester L
The undergraduate inorganic chemistry curriculum in the United States mirrors the broad diversity of the inorganic research community and poses a challenge for the development of a coherent curriculum that is thorough, rigorous, and engaging. A recent large survey of the inorganic community has provided information about the current organization and content of the inorganic curriculum from an institutional level. The data reveal shared "core" concepts that are broadly taught, with tremendous variation in content coverage beyond these central ideas. The data provide an opportunity for a community-driven discussion about how the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training's vision of a foundation and in-depth course for each of the five subdisciplines maps onto an inorganic chemistry curriculum that is consistent in its coverage of the core inorganic concepts, yet reflects the diversity and creativity of the inorganic community. The goal of this Viewpoint is to present the current state of the diverse undergraduate curriculum and lay a framework for an effective and engaging curriculum that illustrates the essential role inorganic chemistry plays within the chemistry community.
Full Text Available Edentulism is the major problem in the developing countries, and is widely spread in the current population, although the prevalence is declining and incidence of tooth loss is decreasing in the developed nations. The prevalence of edentulism in India varies from 60% to 69% of 25 years and above age group. It is obvious that the number of lost teeth increases with age leading to an increase in prevalence of partially edentulous patients. From a biological point of view, the replacement of a single missing tooth with an implant rather than a three-unit fixed partial denture, and the implant-supported complete denture has been proved more efficient in improving the mastication and maintaining the bone for a longer time and also more cost-effective treatment. Many dental schools throughout Europe and America have to a various extent introduced implant dentistry as part of the compulsory undergraduate curriculum. Thus, it becomes more essential to introduce implant dentistry at undergraduate level in Indian dental schools to manage the higher percentage of edentulism.
Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi
This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.
Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.
Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.
Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ
Full Text Available Aim: A survey was conducted in undergraduate medical students enrolled in 3 or 4-year degree programs in Nursing, Midwifery, Radiology and Medical Imaging (technician, Physiotherapy and Kinetotherapy (technician and Clinical laboratory (technician in order to identify their perception of the medical informatics and statistics curriculum. Material and Method: A qualitative study was carried out in 1st year undergraduate students at the “Iuliu Haţieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania during the 2008-2009 academic year. A questionnaire containing 10 categories of items for assessing lectures and 19 for assessing practical activities was developed as an online tool with a database connection using Google Docs. Results: Students’ attendance to lectures proved not to be statistically related with their final mark. The mean final mark obtained by students (6.02±1.57 proved to be statistically lower compared to the expected mean (6.58±1.23; t = -2.76, DF = 54, p = 0.0078. The teacher, the problems solved during lectures, the lecture summaries as well as the course web page proved to statistically influence the learning process. The results revealed that all students were satisfied with the materials used within lectures and practical activities as well as with the objectiveness of the final evaluation. Most students classified the difficulty of the practical activities as reasonable (p < 0.05 and their pace as just about right (p< 0.05. The overall quality of the practical activities was classified as easy by 13% of respondents, pretty easy by 30%, reasonable by 29%, and difficult by 25%. Conclusions: Overall, undergraduate students were satisfied with the materials used within lectures and practical activities as well as with the teacher’s attitude and support in the learning process.
Carol O. Larson
Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.
Chuenjitwongsa, S; Oliver, R G; Bullock, A D
Recent developments in European dental education are student-focused, concerned with competency-based and problem-based learning. The development of dental educators has so far received little consideration. This study aimed to agree curriculum content for developing dental educators so that they are better able to support changing undergraduate dental education. Adopting consensus methodology, a 2-round Delphi was conducted in 2012. Fifty-three dental educators and 39 dental students across Europe volunteered to take part. The Delphi questionnaire was developed based on literature, piloted and sent to participants to gather opinions and seek consensus on educational content using rating scales and open-ended questions. Numeric data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were analysed thematically. This study revealed 7 domains of curriculum content for dental educators. Four of these domains were considered essential: educational principles; educational practice in dentistry; curriculum, quality and improvement; and educational professionalism. Three domains were viewed as optional and could be tailored to local needs: educational principles in relation to specific contexts, educational research, and educational and healthcare management. When developing training for dental educators, factors which need consideration were identified as the academic position and teaching experience of educators, and the nature of clinical dental education. The results are beneficial for individual educators to inform professional development plans; institutions to devise faculty developments; ADEE to inform policies on developing European dental educators; and other disciplines to inform training for their educators. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison
Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation
Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K
Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is
Full Text Available Jumanah Karim,1 Becher Al-Halabi,2 Yousef Marwan,3 Hussain Sadeq,4 Ahmed Dawas,5 Dalia Al-Abdulrazzaq5 1Department of Pediatrics, Al-Amiri Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 2Department of Surgery, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Al-Razi Orthopaedic Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 4Department of Pediatrics, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: Educational environment of an institution affects the quality of learning. We aim to assess the educational environment of the undergraduate curriculum of Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (FOMKU. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during April 2014. The validated Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM questionnaire was e-mailed to 607 students. Mean scores of the main domains of the questionnaire, and for each item, were calculated, and their association with the students’ background information was measured using Student’s t-test (P-value of ≤0.05 was considered as the cut-off level of significance. Results: Of 607 students, 117 (19.3% completed the questionnaire. The total mean score for DREEM was 108.7/200 (54.3%. The mean score for students’ perception of teaching, perception of teachers, academic self-perception, perception of atmosphere, and social self-perception were 25.2/48 (52.5%, 24.6/44 (55.9%, 18.4/32 (57.5%, 26.2/48 (54.5%, and 14.3/28 (51.0%, respectively. The highest mean score for an item of DREEM questionnaire was for “my accommodation is pleasant” (3.48±0.75, while the lowest was for “there is a good support system for students who get stressed” (0.88±0.86. The total mean score was not significantly different between the two phases of the curriculum, or among males and females; however, few significant differences among the main domains and items were noted. Conclusion
Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K
Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Materials, Methods and Results: Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their
Vaughan, R.; Thomas, S.
Objective The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff). The questions were about plastic surgery: (1) source of information and basic understanding; (2) undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3) factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group). The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2) and level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Results Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n = 171/332, 52%) (McGill n = 72/132, 54%). Birmingham students (14%) considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p plastic surgery. Conclusions Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in collaboration with national educational bodies worldwide. PMID:28630768
Farid, M; Vaughan, R; Thomas, S
The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff). The questions were about plastic surgery: (1) source of information and basic understanding; (2) undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3) factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group). The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ 2) and level of significance p ≤ 0.05. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n = 171/332, 52%) (McGill n = 72/132, 54%). Birmingham students (14%) considered the word "plastic" synonymous with "cosmetic" more than McGill students (4%, p plastic surgery. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in collaboration with national educational bodies worldwide.
Kroeplin, Birgit S; Strub, Joerg R
The aim of this study was to describe the didactic and clinical undergraduate implant dentistry program of the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany, with emphasis on the clinical implant experience. A detailed description of the implant curriculum at Albert-Ludwigs University is given with documented exemplary cases and additional flow charts. All students participate in 28 hours of lectures and approximately 64 hours of seminars with hands-on courses and gain clinical experience. All undergraduate students are eligible to place and restore oral implants. Emphasis is placed on prosthetic-driven planning of implant positions, three-dimensional imaging, and computer-guided implant placement. Implant restorations performed by undergraduate students comprise single crowns and small multiunit fixed dental prostheses in partially edentulous posterior maxillae and anterior or posterior mandibles, implant-retained overdentures (snap attachment) in edentulous patients, and telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses on remaining teeth and strategically placed additional implants. Over the past 2.5 years, 51 patients were treated with 97 dental implants placed by students in the undergraduate program. Seventy-one restorations were inserted: 60.6% single crowns, 7% fixed dental protheses, 21.1% overdentures, and 11.3% telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses. The implant survival rate was 98.9%. Because survival rates for dental implants placed and restored by students are comparable to those of experienced dentists, oral implant dentistry should be implemented as part of the undergraduate dental curriculum.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in healthcare such as virtual dental implant planning have the capacity to result in greater accuracy, speed, and efficiencies leading to improvement in patient care. It has been suggested that the acceptance of new technology is influenced by a variety of factors including individual differences, social and situational influences, user beliefs, and user attitudes. Despite the large volume of work in this area, only limited research has been conducted in the field of dental education. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing the acceptance of virtual dental implant planning software by undergraduate students. Methods Forty-three third-year dental students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, were included in the study. They filled in a questionnaire based on a combination of the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior (C-TAM-TPB. Cronbach’s α, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and squared multiple correlations (R2 were calculated. Results Cronbach’s α exceeded .7 for all constructs. Pearson correlations were significant for the pairs perceived usefulness/behavioral intention, perceived usefulness/attitude, and attitude/behavioral intention. Perceived ease of use explained .09% of the variance of perceived usefulness (R2 = .09. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness accounted for 31% of the variance of attitude (R2 = .31. Perceived usefulness, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explain 37% of the variance of behavioral intention (R2 = .37. Conclusions Virtual dental implant planning software seems to be accepted by dental students especially because of its usefulness and the students’ attitude towards this technology. On the other hand, perceived ease of use does not play a major role. As a consequence, the implementation of virtual dental implant planning software in a dental undergraduate curriculum should be supported
Nkenke, Emeka; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Bauersachs, Anne; Eitner, Stephan; Budach, Alexander; Knipfer, Christian; Stelzle, Florian
Advances in healthcare such as virtual dental implant planning have the capacity to result in greater accuracy, speed, and efficiencies leading to improvement in patient care. It has been suggested that the acceptance of new technology is influenced by a variety of factors including individual differences, social and situational influences, user beliefs, and user attitudes. Despite the large volume of work in this area, only limited research has been conducted in the field of dental education. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing the acceptance of virtual dental implant planning software by undergraduate students. Forty-three third-year dental students of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, were included in the study. They filled in a questionnaire based on a combination of the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior (C-TAM-TPB). Cronbach's α, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and squared multiple correlations (R2) were calculated. Cronbach's α exceeded .7 for all constructs. Pearson correlations were significant for the pairs perceived usefulness/behavioral intention, perceived usefulness/attitude, and attitude/behavioral intention. Perceived ease of use explained .09% of the variance of perceived usefulness (R2 = .09). Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness accounted for 31% of the variance of attitude (R2 = .31). Perceived usefulness, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explain 37% of the variance of behavioral intention (R2 = .37). Virtual dental implant planning software seems to be accepted by dental students especially because of its usefulness and the students' attitude towards this technology. On the other hand, perceived ease of use does not play a major role. As a consequence, the implementation of virtual dental implant planning software in a dental undergraduate curriculum should be supported by highlighting the usefulness by the supervisors, who should also
Knight, James; Stroud, Lauren; Geyton, Thomas; Stead, Anthony; Cock, Hannah R
The aim of this study was to evaluate undergraduate medical student perceptions as to the value of different types of neurosurgical teaching to their general neuroscience education, delivered in the penultimate year of a U.K medical school. We surveyed penultimate-year medical students at St George's Hospital Medical School, University of London (SGUL), who were undertaking their clinical neuroscience attachment from August 2014 to July 2015. A questionnaire comprising closed Likert scale questions and an open question inviting participants to comment freely was used to assess student perception about the value of Neurosurgical sessions within their overall neuroscience education. Of the 316 students in the year we surveyed 247 (78.2%), of whom 201 responded (response rate 81.4%). On average, 82.8% of students either agreed or strongly agreed that neurosurgical teaching sessions made a valuable contribution to their learning. In particular, lectures by neurosurgeons, clinical teaching on the Glasgow Coma Scale in neuro-ITU, bedside teaching and neurosurgical clinics were considered the most beneficial. The majority of students felt the sessions improved their understanding of neurological examination, signs, and 'red-flags'. The sessions were also beneficial for learning neuro-imaging and understanding of neurosurgical emergencies. Over two thirds felt that theatre sessions were beneficial, significantly more so amongst students invited to 'scrub-in'. Students rated neurosurgical sessions highly and valued the contribution they made not only to their learning of neurosurgical conditions and emergencies, but also to their learning of general neurology and clinical neurosciences overall. Student perceived learning from theatre sessions was significantly correlated with whether or not the student had been invited to 'scrub-in'. Expert neurosurgical teaching can make a valuable, and arguably essential contribution to the undergraduate medical curriculum.
Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in
Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T
The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this study, we deliberately integrated bioinformatics instruction at multiple course levels into an existing biology curriculum. Students in an introductory biology course, intermediate lab courses, and advanced project-oriented courses all participated in new course components designed to sequentially introduce bioinformatics skills and knowledge, as well as computational approaches that are common to many bioinformatics applications. In each course, bioinformatics learning was embedded in an existing disciplinary instructional sequence, as opposed to having a single course where all bioinformatics learning occurs. We designed direct and indirect assessment tools to follow student progress through the course sequence. Our data show significant gains in both student confidence and ability in bioinformatics during individual courses and as course level increases. Despite evidence of substantial student learning in both bioinformatics and mathematics, students were skeptical about the link between learning bioinformatics and learning mathematics. While our approach resulted in substantial learning gains, student "buy-in" and engagement might be better in longer project-based activities that demand application of skills to research problems. Nevertheless, in situations where a concentrated focus on project-oriented bioinformatics is not possible or desirable, our approach of integrating multiple smaller components into an existing curriculum provides an alternative. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hamid, Nasri A.; Mujaini, Madihah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz
The Center for Nuclear Energy (CNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) has a great responsibility to undertake educational activities that promote developing human capital in the area of nuclear engineering and technology. Developing human capital in nuclear through education programs is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in Malaysia in the near future. In addition, the educational program must also meet the nuclear power industry needs and requirements. In developing a certain curriculum, the contents must comply with the university's Outcomes Based Education (OBE) philosophy. One of the important courses in the nuclear curriculum is in the area of nuclear security. Basically the nuclear security course covers the current issues of law, politics, military strategy, and technology with regard to weapons of mass destruction and related topics in international security, and review legal regulations and political relationship that determine the state of nuclear security at the moment. In addition, the course looks into all aspects of the nuclear safeguards, builds basic knowledge and understanding of nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards in general. The course also discusses tools used to combat nuclear proliferation such as treaties, institutions, multilateral arrangements and technology controls. In this paper, we elaborate the development of undergraduate nuclear security course at the College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Since the course is categorized as mechanical engineering subject, it must be developed in tandem with the program educational objectives (PEO) of the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering program. The course outcomes (CO) and transferrable skills are also identified. Furthermore, in aligning the CO with program outcomes (PO), the PO elements need to be emphasized through the CO-PO mapping. As such, all assessments and distribution of Bloom Taxonomy
Gishen, Faye; Whitman, Sophia; Gill, Deborah; Barker, Rhiannon; Walker, Steven
Training to be a doctor and caring for patients are recognized as being stressful and demanding. The wellbeing of healthcare professionals impacts upon the wellbeing and care of patients. Schwartz Centre Rounds (SCRs), multidisciplinary meetings led by a trained facilitator and designed for hospital staff, were introduced to enhance communication and compassion, and have since been widely adopted as a way of fostering compassion. The continuum of education suggests that medical students need to develop these attributes in conjunction with resilience and maintaining empathy. The benefits of SCRs in fostering this development in medical students is unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of SCRs within the undergraduate curriculum. Two student-focused SCRs were piloted at a major medical school. The sessions were based on the current format implemented across the US and UK: a presentation of cases by a multidisciplinary panel followed by an open discussion with the audience. Participants were asked to complete an evaluative questionnaire immediately following the sessions. Seven students took part in a focus group to explore their views on the SCR. Data sets were examined using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Feedback was obtained from 77 % (258/334) Year 5 and 37 % (126/343) Year 6 students. Mean student ratings of the session on a five-point scale, where 1 = poor and 5 = exceptional, were 3.5 (Year 5) and 3.3 (Year 6). Over 80 % of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that the presentation of cases was helpful and gave them insight into how others feel/think about caring for patients. Eighty percent said they would attend a future SCR and 64 % believed SCRs should be integrated into the curriculum. Focus group participants felt SCRs promoted reflection and processing of emotion. Students identified smaller group sizes and timing in the curriculum as ways of improving SCRs. Students were positive about
Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.
At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and
Baral, K P; Upadhyay, S K; Bhandary, S; Gongal, R N; Karki, A
In response to continuing health disparities between rural and urban population, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) was established in 2008. It aimed to produce physicians who would be able and willing to serve in the rural areas. In order to empower them with understanding and tools to address health issues of rural population, an innovative curriculum was developed. This paper aims to describe the community based learning and education (CBLE) system within the overall framework of PAHS undergraduate medical curriculum. A Medical School Steering Committee (MSSC) comprising of a group of committed medical educators led the curriculum development process. The committee reviewed different medical curricula, relevant literatures, and held a series of consultative meetings with the stakeholders and experts within and outside Nepal. This process resulted in defining the desirable attributes, terminal competencies of the graduates, and then the actual development of the entire curriculum including CBLE. Given the critical importance of population health, 25% of the curricular weightage was allocated to the Community Health Sciences (CHS). CBLE system was developed as the primary means of delivering CHS curriculum. The details of CBLE system was finalized for implementation with the first cohort of medical students commencing their studies from June 2010. The CBLE, a key educational strategy of PAHS curriculum, is envisaged to improve retention and performance of PAHS graduates and, thereby, health status of rural population. However, whether or not that goal will be achieved needs to be verified after the graduates join the health system.
Full Text Available Utkarsh Ojha,1 Raihan Mohammed,2 Sayinthen Vivekanantham3 1Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 3University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Abstract: Medical imaging has been one of the most revolutionary innovations in medicine. Today, as health care professionals shift their focus toward more sophisticated technology and minimally invasive procedures, interventional radiology (IR has become a rapidly expanding specialty. Despite these advances, there is a lack of doctors specializing in this field. A growing body of evidence suggests that the low number of applicants for posts may be due to poor exposure to the specialty at medical school. In this article, we outline the importance of IR in today’s health care system. Next, we evaluate the evidence that there is a lack of knowledge of IR not only among medical students in the UK but globally. We further discuss how a more effective incorporation of IR in the undergraduate curriculum can enhance medical students’ interest in the field and subsequently increase the number of doctors specializing in IR. Finally, we suggest alternative strategies to gauge medical students’ interest in IR, including teaching via e-learning and virtual reality. Keywords: interventional radiology, diagnostic imaging, innovation, medical education, e-learning, virtual reality
Roberts, Chris; Lawson, Mary; Newble, David; Self, Ashley; Chan, Philip
When considering implementing integrated curriculum models, such as problem-based learning (PBL), concerns may be expressed about the need for increased staff resources required to deliver tutor-led small group PBL. Less staff intensive ways of supporting PBL need to be explored. We compared the outcomes of a PBL module conducted in a large class format within a lecture theatre with a module having the same defined learning outcomes delivered in small group PBL format, both supported by e-learning resources. The pre-existing 27 small groups within the whole class (n = 246) of first year students undertaking a cardiovascular basic science module at Sheffield undergraduate medical school, UK, were randomized to 22 groups undertaking the large class Integrated Learning Activity (ILA) and 5 groups to traditional small group facilitated PBL sessions. Outcome measures were: a pre-post knowledge based test, a student educational effectiveness questionnaire, and assessment of student group work and presentations. There seemed to be no significant differences in learning outcomes between the methods although it is recognized that students would prefer the small group teaching format. Within institutions where resources to support small group PBL are limited, the large group ILA format supported with e-learning techniques may be a useful alternative approach.
Thompson, Katerina V; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S; Hrycyna, Christine A; LaCourse, William R
The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students' conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination.
Ramjan, John M; Costa, Catherine M; Hickman, Louise D; Kearns, Margot; Phillips, Jane L
The majority of society's deaths occur in a health care environment. Regardless of whether a death occurs in acute care, hospice, residential aged care or community settings, nurses are the health professionals that will spend the largest proportion of time with the patient who has a terminal condition and their families. As few nurses have specialist palliative care qualifications it is essential that nursing education prepares graduates to achieve the core capabilities required for the delivery of best evidenced based palliative care. This reality makes the integration of palliative care content into the undergraduate nursing curricula an important priority. This paper aims to describe how palliative care content has been embedded throughout the three-year University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney (UNDA) undergraduate nursing degree. The School of Nursing at the University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney campus is committed to ensuring that students graduate with the capabilities to deliver appropriate care to people with requiring end-of-life care. The establishment of this new School of Nursing coincided with the release of the 'The Palliative Care Curricula for Undergraduates Program' (PCC4U) learning resources. These resources have been integrated into relevant units across the three-year nursing curricula. The nursing curriculum has been design to supports the integration of palliative care knowledge into clinical practice. The Palliative Care Curricula for Undergraduates Program Learning resources offer engaging palliative care case studies and scenarios for academics to utilise. Adopting an iterative approach where palliative care content is spiralled across multiple units provides opportunities for undergraduate nursing students to sequentially build and consolidate their palliative care capabilities. Developing a new curricular provided an ideal opportunity to integrate and embed palliative care content into the undergraduate nursing degree. The next
Atterholt, Cynthia; Butcher, David J.; Bacon, J. Roger; Kwochka, William R.; Woosley, Royce
The Department Chemistry and Physics at Western Carolina University has added an environmental focus to its curriculum, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was identified as an essential tool in environmental analysis. GC-MS is used in undergraduate chemistry courses in: (i) the identification of synthesized compounds and natural products, (ii) monitoring compounds and their degradation in the environment, and (iii) analytical method development. In Organic Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to characterize natural products and the products of an environmentally benign chemical synthesis. In Environmental Chemistry, the GC-MS is used to identify compounds of environmental interest, such as pesticides in soil samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, and hydrocarbons in gasoline samples. In Instrumental Analysis I, students characterize numerous compounds in cigarette smoke using GC-MS. In Instrumental Analysis II, students are presented with an analytical chemistry problem for which they research protocols, collect samples, and perform the analyses. The GC-MS has been used to identify volatile compounds in a number of complex mixtures. Also, research in chemistry is a significant part of our curriculum, and numerous undergraduate students have used the GC-MS in their research. The addition of GC-MS has enhanced many of our undergraduate laboratory courses and student-led research projects.
Doran, Frances; Hutchinson, Marie
To gain a comprehensive understanding of undergraduate nursing student attitudes and views towards domestic violence, and employ the findings to inform undergraduate curriculum development. Nurses have an important role in identifying people who are victims of domestic violence through screening and facilitating their access to assistance and support. Undergraduate nursing education is key to shaping attitudes and facilitating the development of a comprehensive understanding of domestic violence. Little research has been undertaken exploring nursing students' attitudes towards domestic violence. A cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a three-year Bachelor of Nursing programme across three campuses of a regional university in NSW, Australia. Students completed a pen and paper survey during class time and descriptive and comparative analysis was undertaken. The majority of respondents were female, first year students females aged 17-26 years. Many students understood the nature and consequences of domestic violence, yet others across the course of the programme demonstrate attitudes that reflect a lack of understanding and misconceptions of domestic violence. Stereotypical and gendered attitudes that normalise violence within intimate partner relationships and sustain victim-blaming attitudes were evident across the cohort. It is important for nurses to understand the relationship between exposure to violence and women's ill health, and be able to respond appropriately. Undergraduate programmes need to highlight the important role of nurses around domestic violence and address stereotypical conceptions about domestic violence. Continued effort is required to address domestic violence in undergraduate nursing education so that nursing graduates understand the association between violence exposure and poor health and are able to assess exposure and respond appropriately in the clinical environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kadagad, P; Tekian, A; Pinto, P X; Jirge, V L
Globalisation has affected all aspects of life and dentistry is no exception. In the context of today's dentist being a global citizen, undergraduate training in dentistry is set to ensure converging standards so that international recognition of dental qualifications can move forward. The decision of the Dental Council of India to expand the undergraduate dental program to five years provides an opportunity to be part of the endeavor of the Global Dental Congress to achieve converging standards which was initially for the European Union, and now spreading out globally. Economic emergence in Indian subcontinent has resulted in growing oral health care needs both in quality and quantity. To address this issue, the graduating dentist needs to be trained following a competency based curricular model. Access to Internet facilitated the goal of achieving converging standards of dental schools to be feasible because of the instant communication and capacity to share information about training strategies via technology across the globe. Upgrading the undergraduate training to global standards by dental schools in India could be a wise and strategic move both for attracting students to study in India, as well as retaining the graduates after their training. The following is a case study of an Indian dental school set to restructure the undergraduate curriculum to global standards using the 8 steps of Kotter's transformational change. Change in curriculum and the subsequent accreditation of the school in global platform not only attracts prospective students but also results in producing competent dentists. Dental education provided by the institution can result in quality assurance, benchmarking the assessment system to achieve international recognition. This paper highlights the need and importance of facilitation of international convergence with long term aspirations for mutual recognition of international degrees. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Regis R. Marie Modeste
Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV. Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa. Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration. Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.
Gonzales, D. A.
This presentation highlights the curricular design and preliminary outcomes of undergraduate research in the Department of Geosciences at Fort Lewis College (FLC), supported by an NSF-RUI project on the Navajo volcanic field (NVF). A prime impact of this project was to support the education and career development of undergraduate students by further developing basic knowledge and skills in the context of authentic inquiry on petrologic-based research topics. Integrating research into the curriculum promoted scientific habits of mind by engaging students as "active agents" in discovery, and the creative development and testing of ideas. It also gave students a sense of ownership in the scientific process and knowledge construction. The initial phase of this project was conducted in Igneous Petrology at FLC in 2010. Eleven students were enrolled in this course which allowed them to work as a team in collaboration with the PI, and engage in all aspects of research to further develop and hone their skills in scientific inquiry. This course involved a small component of traditional lecture in which selected topics were discussed to provide students with a foundation to understand magmatic processes. This was complemented by a comprehensive review of the literature in which students read and discussed a spectrum of articles on Tertiary magmatism in the western United States and the NVF. Invited lectures by leading-scientists in geology provided opportunities for discussions and interaction with professional geologists. All of the students in the class engaged in the active collection of petrologic data in the field and laboratory sessions, and were introduced to the use of state-of-the art analytical tools as part of their experiences. Four students were recruited from the course to design, develop, and conduct long-term research projects on selected petrologic topics in the NVF. This research allowed these students to engage in the "messy" process of testing existing
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
Tuleja, Elizabeth A.; Greenhalgh, Anne M.
Educating undergraduate business students in the 21st century requires more than addressing the quantitative side of business; rather, it calls for including the more qualitative "soft skills," such as speaking and writing. This article examines the design, delivery, and effectiveness of an undergraduate program dedicated to leadership,…
Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja
This article describes how a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was established at the International Medical University in Malaysia for preclinical education in a 5-semester phase 1 programme. Based on positive feedback from a modified PBL program implemented in one discipline, a multidisciplinary PBL curriculum was…
Beuttler, Fred W.
American higher education has been in almost perpetual crisis for several generations, with students experiencing fragmentation and loss of coherence across the curriculum. Most liberal arts colleges in the 19th century had a required senior course in "moral philosophy" to integrate the curriculum and prepare students for future leadership, but…
Torenbeek, Marjolein; Jansen, Ellen; Suhre, Cor
The time students invest in their studies and their resulting achievement is partly dependent on curriculum characteristics. Degree programmes differ greatly with respect to how the curriculum is organized, for example in the type (e.g. lectures, practicals) and the number of classes. The focus of
Harris, Lynne; Driscoll, Peter; Lewis, Melinda; Matthews, Lynda; Russell, Cherry; Cumming, Steven
This case study presents a longitudinal, evidence-based approach to health science curriculum reform and evaluation. Curriculum in higher education must meet the needs of diverse stakeholders and must respond to dynamic local, national and international contexts, and this creates challenges for evaluation. The long lead time prior to the…
Szeto, Alan Ka-Fai
This study explored how undergraduate students in a new problem-centered General Chemistry Laboratory curriculum achieved cognitive growth. The new curriculum had three instructional segments: the highly-structured, semi-structured, and open-ended segments. The pedagogical approaches adopted were expository, guided-inquiry, and open-inquiry styles, respectively. Sixty-seven first-year undergraduate students who enrolled in the course in Spring semester, 2000, at Columbia University and three Ph.D.-level chemistry experts were included in the study. A qualitative approach was used including data collection through "think-aloud" problem solving; however, quantitative data such as test scores were also used. The findings from this study confirmed that chemistry experts possessed sophisticated and domain-specific conceptual knowledge structures; they mobilized and applied conceptual knowledge in conjunction with use of heuristics, tacit knowledge, and experience in authentic problem solving. They validated the new curriculum design in preparing students for inquiry-type of problem solving. For novices, solving of semi-structured before ill-structured problems had a positive effect on the solvers' chance of success in solving the latter type of problems as their abilities to mobilize and apply conceptual knowledge and use effective strategies appeared to be critical for successful problem solving. Students in the new course curriculum had grown cognitively as evidenced by their performance on the Case Study projects and Final Examination. High academic achievers were found to perform well independently while the medium and relatively low academic achievers should benefit from sustained and intensive instruction. It is proposed that ill-structured problems should be used to assess and identify the best from the better students. Finally, it was found that no significant change in students' attitudes had resulted from their curriculum experience. Gender and cognitive style
Gerard J.A. Baars
Discussion: The earliest moment with the highest specificity to predict student failure in the first-year curriculum seems to be at 6 months. However, additional factors are needed to improve this prediction or to bring forward the predictive moment.
Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.
Radwany, Steven M; Stovsky, Erica J; Frate, Dean M; Dieter, Kevin; Friebert, Sarah; Palmisano, Barbara; Sanders, Margaret
In order to graduate physicians prepared to effectively address clinical issues in palliative medicine and to comply with LCME requirements, the Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM) integrated a coordinated four-year palliative care (PC) curriculum. This report describes the development of the longitudinal curriculum and provides helpful resources and strategies to guide clinicians and administrators undertaking similar efforts. This is a retrospective, descriptive report based on data collected throughout development of the new curriculum. A Palliative Care Advisory Committee initiated development of curricula in PC. An Office of Palliative Care was established to assess and coordinate offerings. Curriculum transformation was based on best practices. Two cornerstone pieces are highlighted: a mandatory hospice experience and a case based small group discussion prior to graduation.
Wiley, Wayne Hamilton
This curriculum supplement on India consists of three modules that have been used with undergraduates in introductory world civilization courses. Module 1, "Ancient Period: Hinduism and the Caste System in India: Origin, Development, and Social Functions" discusses the religious doctrines of Hinduism, the caste system, and its structure.…
Christ, Roxie; Guevar, Julien; Poyade, Matthieu; Rea, Paul M
Neuroanatomy can be challenging to both teach and learn within the undergraduate veterinary medicine and surgery curriculum. Traditional techniques have been used for many years, but there has now been a progression to move towards alternative digital models and interactive 3D models to engage the learner. However, digital innovations in the curriculum have typically involved the medical curriculum rather than the veterinary curriculum. Therefore, we aimed to create a simple workflow methodology to highlight the simplicity there is in creating a mobile augmented reality application of basic canine head anatomy. Using canine CT and MRI scans and widely available software programs, we demonstrate how to create an interactive model of head anatomy. This was applied to augmented reality for a popular Android mobile device to demonstrate the user-friendly interface. Here we present the processes, challenges and resolutions for the creation of a highly accurate, data based anatomical model that could potentially be used in the veterinary curriculum. This proof of concept study provides an excellent framework for the creation of augmented reality training products for veterinary education. The lack of similar resources within this field provides the ideal platform to extend this into other areas of veterinary education and beyond.
Abraham, R R; Vinod, P; Kamath, M G; Asha, K; Ramnarayan, K
Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus; Manipal, Karnataka, India) conducts the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program, for which the admission intakes are during the months of March and September. The present study was undertaken to study the differences in learning approaches to physiology of undergraduate medical students in a partially problem-based learning (PBL)- and non-PBL-oriented curriculum. PBL was introduced as a curricular reform for the September 2006 batch of students (partially PBL group), whereas it was not incorporated for the March 2006 batch of students (non-PBL group). Learning approaches to physiology of both groups of students were compared using the short inventory of approaches to learning. Mean scores for deep and strategic approaches were found to be significantly higher for the partially PBL group compared with the non-PBL group. The results of the present study support the earlier observation that PBL promotes a deep approach to learning.
Ahmed, Syed Danish Haseen; Mubeen, Syed Muhammed
To find out the teaching style and its differences among teachers in a medical college setup. The observational cross-sectional study was carried out from June to August 2011 at a private medical and dental college in Karachi, using traditional curriculum and comprising 77 faculty members. Self-assessment Staffordshire Evaluation of Teaching Styles questionnaire was used for data collection. SPSS version 15.0 was used for analysis of categorical variables and t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare data variables. Of the total, 28 (36.4%) teachers preferred all round flexible and adaptable style; 19 (24.7%) preferred student-centred, sensitive; 4 (5.2%) official curriculum; 5 (6.5%) straight facts no nonsense; 6 (7.8%) big conference; 1 (1.3%) one-off; and 14 (18.2%) mixed. Percentage of 'all round flexible and adaptable' was higher among females, senior faculty and clinical sciences when compared to males, junior faculty and basic sciences. However, females, junior faculty, and basic science teachers attained significantly higher in official curriculum scores compared to males, senior faculty, and clinical sciences respectively. Similarly, basic sciences teachers attained significantly higher in big conference teaching style score compared to clinical sciences teachers (p Traditional curriculum does not support all round flexible and adaptable teaching style. Gender, curriculum, teaching strategies and faculty rank of the teacher influence the teaching style. To train teachers, effective faculty development should be done in medical colleges.
Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.
Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)
Kleppinger, E.W.; Robertson, J.D.
Although many areas of major national need depend critically on professionals trained in nuclear and radiochemistry, educational opportunities and student interest in this area have declined steadily for the last twenty years. One major contributing factor to the lack of student interest is that most students in science and chemistry courses are never introduced to these topics. This deficiency in sciences curricula, coupled with the negative public perception towards all things 'nuclear', has resulted in a serious shortage of individuals with a background in this area. We propose to address this problem by 'educating the educators' - providing faculty from two- and four-year colleges and high school science teachers with the curriculum materials, training, and motivation to incorporate these topics on a continuing basis in their curricula. Two advantages of this approach are; it will generate scientists with a basic understanding of this field and as teachers incorporate nuclear topics, many students will have the opportunity to reflect on the role of science in a technological society. (author)
Full Text Available To present a multiple-instructor, active-learning strategy in the undergraduate medical curriculum. This educational research is a descriptive one. Shared teaching sessions, were designed for undergraduate medical students in six organ-system based courses. Sessions that involved in-class discussions of integrated clinical cases were designed implemented and moderated by at least 3 faculties (clinicians and basic scientists. The participants in this study include the basic sciences medical students of The Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Students’ reactions were assessed using an immediate post-session evaluation form on a 5-point Likert scale. Six two-hour sessions for 2 cohorts of students, 2013 and 2014 medical students during their two first years of study were implemented from April 2014 to March 2015. 17 faculty members participated in the program, 21 cases were designed, and participation average was 60 % at 6 sessions. Students were highly appreciative of this strategy. The majority of students in each course strongly agreed that this learning practice positively contributed to their learning (78% and provided better understanding and application of the material learned in an integrated classroom course (74%. They believed that the sessions affected their view about medicine (73%, and should be continued in future courses (80%. The percentage demonstrates the average of all courses. The program helped the students learn how to apply basic sciences concepts to clinical medicine. Evaluation of the program indicated that students found the sessions beneficial to their learning.
Peters, Kimberly A
To describe some of the benefits of service learning (SL), considerations in course development and construction, and implementation and outcomes of an SL course in the undergraduate communication sciences and disorders (CSD) program at a small, public university in northwest Washington. A review of the literature on SL and a description of the author's experience in course development are provided on the basis of a computerized database search, library search, and discussions with the Western Washington University Center for Service Learning. Teaching an SL course can present challenges to both faculty and students; nonetheless, incorporating SL into the undergraduate CSD curriculum is an excellent way of enriching the academic experience and improving critical-thinking skills of young students. SL provides hands-on opportunities for students to apply what they are learning in their CSD classes to real-world contexts, gain a better understanding of course content through engagement in real situations, and integrate information from a variety of courses in and outside of their major.
Ma, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hyun-Hwa
An authentic learning strategy fostering students' active learning was studied using the scenario of a real-world project. Students from two different classes at two different universities worked as clients or consultants to develop an apparel sourcing strategy. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 44 undergraduates enrolled in…
Stanley, Christopher T.; Robbins, Jamie E.
Given the growth of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SEP) in recent decades, and the interdisciplinary nature of research and practice in the field, it may be particularly relevant in undergraduate courses and textbooks. However, no studies to date have examined the relative presence of the field. Accordingly, a primary aim of the study described in…
Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…
Train, Tonya Laakko; Miyamoto, Yuko J.
The ability to effectively communicate science is a skill sought after by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers in science-related fields. Are content-heavy undergraduate science curricula able to incorporate opportunities to develop science communication skills, and is promoting these skills worth the time and effort? The…
Zahid, Muhammad Ajmal; Al-Zayed, Adel; Ohaeri, Jude; Varghese, Ramani
Objective: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was introduced in undergraduate psychiatry clerkship in 2008. The authors studied the effect of OSCE on the students' performance. Methods: The "short case" (SC) and "oral examination" (OE), two of the five components of the previous assessment format, were…
Crittenden, Victoria L.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.
In response to calls from both business practitioners and educators, this research explores the extent to which undergraduate marketing education is delivered with a cross-functional perspective. Given that marketing is often recognized as a boundary-spanning role within companies, marketing department chairs were asked to report on…
Keyes, Carol A.; Subramanian, Senthil; Yu, Oliver
Hairy root transformation has been widely adapted in plant laboratories to rapidly generate transgenic roots for biochemical and molecular analysis. We present hairy root transformations as a versatile and adaptable model system for a wide variety of undergraduate laboratory courses and research. This technique is easy, efficient, and fast making…
Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…
Pritchard, Benjamin P.; Simpson, Scott; Zurek, Eva; Autschbach, Jochen
A computational experiment investigating the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of molecules with unpaired electrons has been developed and implemented. This experiment is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course in computational, physical, or inorganic chemistry. The…
Hosein, Anesa; Rao, Namrata
In higher education, despite the emphasis on student-centred pedagogical approaches, undergraduate research methods pedagogy remains surprisingly teacher-directed. Consequently, it may lead to research methods students assuming that becoming a researcher involves gathering information rather than it being a continuous developmental process. To…
Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T.
The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this…
Floraino, Wely B.
This article discusses the challenges that bioinformatics education is facing and describes a bioinformatics course that is successfully taught at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, to the fourth year undergraduate students in biological sciences, chemistry, and computer science. Information on lecture and computer practice…
Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.
Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…
Larripa, Kamila R.; Mazzag, Borbala
Our paper describes a solution we found to a still existing need to develop mathematical modeling courses for undergraduate biology majors. Some challenges of such courses are: (i) relatively limited exposure of biology students to higher-level mathematical and computational concepts; (ii) availability of texts that can give a flavor of how…
Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H David; Horton, Jonathan L
In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated curricular modules based on undergraduate researchers' field and laboratory projects. Our goals were to 1) teach botanical concepts, from cells to ecosystems; 2) strengthen competencies in statistical analysis and scientific writing; 3) pique plant science interest; and 4) allow all undergraduates to contribute to genuine research. Our series of inquiry-centered exercises mitigated potential faculty barriers to adopting research-rich curricula, facilitating teaching/research balance by gathering publishable scholarly data during laboratory class periods. Student competencies were assessed with pre- and postcourse quizzes and rubric-graded papers, and attitudes were evaluated with pre- and postcourse surveys. Our revised curriculum increased students' knowledge and awareness of plant science topics, improved scientific writing, enhanced statistical knowledge, and boosted interest in conducting research. More than 300 classroom students have participated in our program, and data generated from these modules' assessment allowed faculty and students to present 28 contributed talks or posters and publish three papers in 4 yr. Future steps include analyzing the effects of repeated module exposure on student learning and creating a regional consortium to increase our project's pedagogical impact. © 2014 J. R. Ward et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http
Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: email@example.com [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)
IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.
Riley, Simon C; Morton, Jeremy; Ray, David C; Swann, David G; Davidson, Donald J
Student selected components (SSCs), at that time termed special study modules, were arguably the most innovative element in Tomorrow's Doctors (1993), the document from the General Medical Council that initiated the modernization of medical curricula in the UK. SSCs were proposed to make up one-third of the medical curriculum and provide students with choice, whilst allowing individual schools autonomy in how SSCs were utilized. In response, at the University of Edinburgh the undergraduate medical curriculum provides an integrated and sequential development and assessment of research skill learning outcomes, for all students in the SSC programme. The curriculum contains SSCs which provide choice to students in all 5 years. There are four substantial timetabled SSCs where students develop research skills in a topic and speciality of their choice. These SSCs are fully integrated and mapped with core learning outcomes and assessment, particularly with the 'Evidence-Based Medicine and Research' programme theme. These research skills are developed incrementally and applied fully in a research project in the fourth year. One-third of students also perform an optional intercalated one-year honours programme between years 2 and 3, usually across a wide range of honours schools at the biomedical science interface. Student feedback is insightful and demonstrates perceived attainment of research competencies. The establishment of these competencies is discussed in the context of enabling junior graduate doctors to be effective and confident at utilizing their research skills to effectively practice evidence-based medicine. This includes examining their own practice through clinical audit, developing an insight into the complexity of the evidence base and uncertainty, and also gaining a view into a career as a clinical academic.
Jandciu, Eric; Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Stoodley, Robin; Birol, Gülnur; Han, Andrea; Fox, Joanne A.
The authors describe a model for embedding science communication into the science curriculum without displacing science content. They describe the rationale, development, design, and implementation of two courses taught by science faculty addressing these criteria. They also outline the evaluation plan for these courses, which emphasize broad…
Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.
This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…
Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Campbell, S. Matt; Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, Harold; Daigle, Roy J.
In addition to being a relevant program for health information technology workers, a recently proposed Health Informatics program was designed with additional objectives in mind: that the program is compatible with the IS 2010 Model Curriculum and that it satisfies the International Medical Informatics Association recommendation for undergraduate…
Franzen, Susan; Bannon, Colleen M.
The ACRL's "Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education" offers the opportunity to rethink information literacy teaching and curriculum. However, the ACRL's rescinded "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" correlate with the preferred research and decision-making model of the health…
Spittle, Michael; Spittle, Sharna
This study explored the perceptions of university physical education students of the importance of physical education curriculum content areas and how those perceptions related to the reasons for course choice and motivation. Physical education degree students (n = 188) completed measures of their perceptions of physical education content areas,…
Lehto, Juho T; Hakkarainen, Kati; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Saarto, Tiina
Education in palliative medicine (PM) at medical schools reveals wide variation despite the increasing importance of palliative care. Many universities present poor description of the benefits and detailed content of the total curriculum in PM. Using the recommendations of European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) as a reference, we evaluated the content and outcomes of the curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere, Finland. We searched for a PM curriculum by examining the teaching offered by every specialty and compared it to EAPC recommendations. Students' knowledge was evaluated using a progress test over three consecutive years. We found 53.5 teaching hours addressing PM issues, which exceeds the recommendation of the EAPC. Basics, symptom management, ethics, and communication skills were well established, while education in psychosocial/spiritual aspects, teamwork and self-reflection failed to reach the recommendations. Out of the maximum of 4.0, the progress test mean scores in PM among the third, fourth, fifth and sixth year students were 0.1 (SD 0.71), 0.69 (SD 1.28), 1.38 (SD 1.46) and 2.53 (SD 1.26), respectively (p curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere is integrated into the teaching of many disciplines and complied well with the EAPC recommendations. This education led to increasing knowledge in PM among medical students.
Elder, Craig L; Pujol, Thomas J; Barnes, Jeremy T
Undergraduate exercise science programs develop curricula by referring to standards set by professional organizations. A web-based survey was administered to 235 institutions with exercise science undergraduate programs to evaluate their adherence to stated curricular guidelines. Results indicate that 29% of institutions considered American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); 33% both ACSM and National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) guidelines; 6% ACSM, NASPE, and National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA); 8% ACSM, NASPE, NSCA, and American Society of Exercise Physiologists, and 5% NASPE. The two largest subgroups had good compliance with the areas of exercise physiology, biomechanics, and human anatomy and physiology. However, neither subgroup adhered to the areas of exercise prescription, testing, and implementation; exercise and aging; or exercise with special populations. Regardless of the implemented guideline(s), most institutions placed minimal emphasis on areas related to health promotion and many curricula did not require any field experience.
Campbell, Karen; Overeem, Irina; Berlin, Maureen
The United States faces a crisis in education: a dire shortage of students sufficiently prepared in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines to competitively enter the workforce (National Education Technology Plan, 2010). At the same time, there is increasing demand for well-trained geoscientists in a variety of careers related to the environment and natural resources. Many efforts, including the recently released Earth Science and Climate Literacy Principles, seek to promote better Earth science education, as well as to strengthen the Earth science literacy of the entire US population. Yet even those undergraduate students who choose to major in geology or related geoscience disciplines rarely acquire sufficient quantitative skills to be truly competitive graduate students or professionals. Experience with modeling, during their undergraduate careers, could greatly increase the quantitative literacy of geoscience majors and help them appreciate the real world applicability of mathematics and computational methods in their future careers in the geosciences.
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional
Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors\\' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained.
Fraser, M; Girling, S J
Guide dogs and their owners will visit a veterinary practice at least twice a year. The aim of this study was to evaluate what guide dog owners thought about these visits, in order to identify areas of good practice which could be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum. Nine guide dog owners volunteered to take part in the study and were interviewed by the primary researcher. Thematic analysis was carried out and several themes were identified: good experiences were highlighted where staff had an understanding of visual impairment and the work of a guide dog; the importance of good communication skills involving the owner in the consultation; the need for veterinary professionals to understand the bond between an owner and guide dog; how medication and information could be provided in a user-friendly format for someone affected by a visual impairment and concerns about costs and decision making for veterinary treatment. This work highlights the importance for veterinary staff to talk to, empathise with and understand the individual circumstances of their clients and identifies areas that should be included in veterinary education to better prepare students for the workplace. British Veterinary Association.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs in higher education institutions, particularly engineering programs, face challenges related to recruitment, retention, and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are significant relationships among students' major preference, academic skills, nonacademic characteristics and perceptions, and retention to year 2 among students in electronic engineering, other STEM, and non STEM majors. The academic skills considered were study habits, intellectual interest, verbal and writing confidence, and academic assistance. The non-academic factors included academic support, family support, financial support, and student social integration into the campus environment. Tinto's theory of retention served as the theoretical framework. The research design was quantitative with a general linear method of analysis using responses to the College Student Inventory (CSI) survey as secondary data to determine the relationships among the independent variables (major and academic and non-academic factors) and dependent variable (retention). Participants were 3,575 first year undergraduate full-time students from three entering classes, 2012 to 2014. Findings suggested that student major and non-academic factors had no effect on student retention, but student study habits and seeking academic assistance were predictors of retention in each of the three groups of majors: engineering, other STEM majors, and nonSTEM majors. Strategies to help increase undergraduate students' study skills and help seeking behaviors may contribute to positive social change at HBCU institutions.
Visscher, Kari L; Faden, Lisa; Nassrallah, Georges; Speer, Stacey; Wiseman, Daniele
This article is a continuation of a qualitative study designed to explore how radiology exposures can impact medical student opinions and perceptions of radiology and radiologists. We focused on: 1) conducting a radiology exposure inventory from the perspective of the medical student; 2) student evaluation of the quality of the radiology exposures and suggestions for positive change; and 3) development of a framework to address the needs of medical students as it relates to radiology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Research methodology and design for this qualitative study were described in detail in a previous article by Visscher et al . Participants included 28 medical students; 18 were in medical school years 1 and 2 (preclerkship), and 10 were in years 3 and 4 (clerkship). Specific to the focus of this article, the data revealed 3 major findings: 1) multiple exposures to radiology exist, and they are received and valued differently depending on the medical student's stage of professional development; 2) medical students value radiology education and want their radiology exposure to be comprehensive and high quality; 3) Medical students have constructive suggestions for improving the quality of both formal and informal radiology exposures. Performing a radiology exposure inventory from a medical student perspective is a useful way to explore how students receive and value radiology instruction. Medical students want a more comprehensive radiology education that can be summarized using the 5 C's of Radiology Education framework. The 5 C's (curriculum, coaching, collaborating, career and commitment) reflect medical students' desires to learn content that will support them in clinical practice, be supported in their professional development, and have the necessary information to make informed career decisions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loue, Sana; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy; Limbach, Kristen
Physicians and other health care workers are increasingly being called upon to bridge the cultural differences that may exist between themselves and their patients. Adequate cross-cultural education is essential if existing health care disparities are to be reduced. We conducted a needs assessment to identify gaps in the cultural competence/sensitivity components of the undergraduate medical school curriculum at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The 2011 study was designed (1) to assess how first and second year medical school students perceive the adequacy of the medical school curriculum with respect to issues of diversity and (2) the extent to which first and second year medical students believe that an understanding of issues relating to patient culture are important to the provision of effective patient care. Student perspectives were assessed through a web-based anonymous survey of all first year (n = 167) and all second year (n = 166) medical school students, two focus groups (total n = 14) and a Problem-based Case Inquiry Group exercise (n = 6), both with second year students. A substantial proportion of participating first and second year medical students do not believe that self-reflection regarding one's own cultural biases is important to one's performance as a physician, do not view an understanding of diverse patient cultural beliefs as important or very important in the provision of effective patient care, and are uncomfortable with and unsure about how to approach culture-related issues arising in patient care. The inclusion of specified elements--increased contact with diverse patients, more comprehensive resources, increased opportunities to practice communication skills and engage in self-reflection--may be critical to heighten student awareness of and comfort in interacting with diverse populations. Our findings are relevant to the development of medical school curricula designed to improve physician understanding of and
Al Qaroot, Bashar S; Sobuh, Mohammad
Problem-based learning (where rather than feeding students the knowledge, they look for it themselves) has long been thought of as an ideal approach in teaching because it would encourage students to acquire knowledge from an undetermined medium of wrong and right answers. However, the effect of such approach in the learning experience of prosthetics and orthotics students has never been investigated. This study explores the implications of integrating problem-based learning into teaching on the students' learning experience via implementing a research-informed clinical practice module into the curriculum of last year prosthetics and orthotics undergraduate students at the University of Jordan (Amman, Jordan). Qualitative research pilot study. Grounded theory approach was used based on the data collected from interviewing a focus group of four students. Students have identified a number of arguments from their experience in the research-informed clinical practice where, generally speaking, students described research-informed clinical practice as a very good method of education. Integrating problem-based learning into teaching has many positive implications. In particular, students pointed out that their learning experience and clinical practice have much improved after the research-informed clinical practice. Findings from this investigation demonstrate that embedding problem-based learning into prosthetics and orthotics students' curriculum has the potential to enhance students' learning experience, particularly students' evidence-based practice. This may lead to graduates who are more knowledgeable and thus who can offer the optimal patient care (i.e. clinical practice). © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.
Wylie, Ann; Leedham-Green, Kathleen
Despite the economic, environmental and patient-related imperatives to prepare medical students to become health promoting doctors, health promotion remains relatively deprioritised in medical curricula. This paper uses an in-depth case study of a health promotion curriculum implementation at a large UK medical school to provide insights into the experiences of teachers and learners across a range of topics, pedagogies, and teaching & assessment modalities. Topics included smoking cessation, behavioural change approaches to obesity, exercise prescribing, social prescribing, maternal and child health, public and global health; with pedagogies ranging from e-learning to practice-based project work. Qualitative methods including focus groups, analysis of reflective learning submissions, and evaluation data are used to illuminate motivations, frustrations, practicalities, successes and limiting factors. Over this three year implementation, a range of challenges have been highlighted including: how adequately to prepare and support clinical teachers; the need to establish relevance and importance to strategic learners; the need for experiential learning in clinical environments to support classroom-based activities; and the need to rebalance competing aspects of the curriculum. Conclusions are drawn about heterogeneous deep learning over standardised surface learning, and the impacts, both positive and negative, of different assessment modalities on these types of learning.
Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah
Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international
Forsberg, N E; Taur, J S; Xiao, Y; Chesbrough, H
The goal of this project was to identify the current level at which internationalization has been adopted as a theme in the North American animal science curriculum and to identify its value and the barriers to its implementation. We surveyed animal, dairy, and poultry science departments across Canada and the United States. One hundred twenty-four surveys were mailed and 60% were returned. Associations between aspects of internationalization and student outcomes (admission to veterinary and graduate schools and starting salaries) were examined. Although administrators strongly believed internationalization had value, implementation was limited. The most common practices included international content in core animal science classes, advising, international internships, and participation of faculty in international scholarly activities. Few departments have incorporated internationalization into their mission statements or developed a specific international-themed class, scholarships devoted to international activities, or roles for international students. Few departments reported participation of students in international programs. Barriers included finances and limited commitment from higher administration. Student outcomes were positively associated with faculty size, percentage of international faculty, the ratio of international students to the total student population, international content in core animal science classes, a specific international-themed class, availability of international internships, and exchange of class material internationally via the Internet. Departments that did not offer international opportunities had a negative association (r = -0.79) with starting salary, but these relationships may not be causal. Alternatively, progressive departments may attract and retain exceptional students. The analysis indicated an awareness of the value of international programs, positive impacts in student outcomes, and financial barriers to implementation.
Areti Z. Karasmani
Full Text Available Background: The problems and difficulties in students' education that arise from the existing undergraduate curriculum at the medical school of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH urged the academic staff members to the pursuance of new pedagogic approaches that could revitalize medical education practice. The educational programs "mEducator", "ePBLnet" and "Ariadne" that run at AUTH laid the foundations for the development of a plenty of virtual patient (VP cases. A VP is an innovative computer simulation method that can motivate students to occupy themselves with their studies and perfect their skills. Unfortunately, despite the indisputable advantages of embedding VPs to the lessons, their utilization is neglected during the educational process at AUTH. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons for which VP authors do not use their own VP cases. Why even VP authors avoid VPs' exploitation and in this way they forsake the insistent efforts they made through the rigorous process of VPs' creation? Methods: After study' s authorization, 35 academic staff members, who had previously developed their own VPs, signed an informed consent and fulfilled a specially designed questionnaire, mainly consisted of closed questions (answer: yes/no about the possible causes of VPs' dereliction. Results: Some 77% of participants granted that they do not utilize their own VP cases. Almost 56% of them admitted that the lack of proper infrastructures (computers, projectors and Internet connection in the lecture rooms impede VPs' use. Specifically, some 33% acknowledged the absence of access to the Internet as the only reason of VPs' abandonment. Almost 52% claimed that they do not have enough time in the courses for covering the great curriculum. Moreover, almost 30% sustained that the great number of students in the lessons enables all of them to conduct a fruitful discussion. Almost 15% asserted that they do not exploit VPs due to the
Rosemary M. Caron
Full Text Available The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to developing one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that all undergraduates should have access to education in public health. Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the integration of public health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry. The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population’s health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university’s experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning.
Russell, Martha Joan
As professionals, nurses are expected to engage in respectful relationships with clients, other health care professionals, and each other. Regulatory bodies set standards and codes of ethics for professional behavior in nursing that clearly communicate expectations for civility. However, the wealth of literature on incivility in the profession indicates that nurses often fall short of meeting these standards in their interactions with other nurses. Currently, few effective strategies exist for nurse educators to teach civility to nursing students and prepare them to engage in healthy relationships with their colleagues. This article argues for the use of virtue ethics as a philosophical framework for teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students. The pedagogical strategies proposed may help students contribute to the development of healthy workplaces. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C
The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and
Full Text Available Nikhil Patel, David ZargaranImperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, UKWe read with great interest the letter by Ah-kee et al1 that highlights the importance and the difficulties surrounding the provision of teaching by junior doctors.As students of Imperial College London, we have experienced the benefits of teaching skills in the curriculum, having received lectures on teaching skills in our preclinical years as well as a dedicated course in our penultimate year. In line with Ah-kee et al’s1 proposals, we have found that studying adult-learning concepts and a variety of teaching strategies have not only improved our teaching skills, but also helped guide our own learning. View original letter by Ah-kee et al.
Samira S. Bamuhair
Full Text Available Background. Medical education is rated as one of the most difficult trainings to endure. Throughout their undergraduate years, medical students face numerous stressors. Coping with these stressors requires access to a variety of resources, varying from personal strengths to social support. We aimed to explore the perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies employed by medical students studying in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of randomly selected medical students that explored demographics, perceived stress scale, sources of stress, and coping strategies. Results. Of the 378 medical students that participated in the study, males were 59.3% and females 40.7%. Nearly 53% of the students often felt stressed, and a third felt that they could not cope with stress. Over 82% found studying stressful and 64.3% were not sleeping well. Half of the students reported low self-esteem. Perceived stress scores were statistically significantly high for specific stressors of studying in general, worrying about future, interpersonal conflict, and having low self-esteem. Coping strategies that were statistically significantly applied more often were blaming oneself and being self-critical, seeking advice and help from others, and finding comfort in religion. Female students were more stressed than males but they employ more coping strategies as well. Conclusions. Stress is very common among medical students. Most of the stressors are from coursework and interpersonal relationships. Low self-esteem coupled with self-blame and self-criticism is quite common.
Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay
Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that medical students wish to focus their learning in psychiatry on general skills that are applicable to all doctors. This study seeks to establish what aspects of psychiatry students perceive to be relevant to their future careers and what psychiatric knowledge and skills they consider to be important. It is relevant to consider whether these expectations about learning needs vary prior to and post-placement in psychiatry. To what extent these opinions should influence curriculum development needs to be assessed. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to medical students before they commenced their psychiatry placement and after they had completed it. The questionnaire considered the relevance of psychiatry to their future careers, the relevance of particular knowledge and skills, the utility of knowledge of psychiatric specialties and the utility of different settings for learning psychiatry. Results The students felt skills relevant to all doctors, such as assessment of suicide risk, were more important than more specialist psychiatric skills, such as the management of schizophrenia. They felt that knowledge of how psychiatric illnesses present in general practice was important and it was a useful setting in which to learn psychiatry. They thought that conditions that are commonly seen in the general hospital are important and that liaison psychiatry was useful. Conclusion Two ways that medical students believe their teaching can be made more relevant to their future careers are highlighted in this study. Firstly, there is a need to focus on scenarios which students will commonly encounter in their initial years of employment. Secondly, psychiatry should be better integrated into the overall curriculum, with the opportunity for teaching in different settings. However, when developing curricula the need to listen to what students believe they should learn needs to be balanced against the necessity of
found to be useful for subsequent thermal diffusion p-type doping without fear of contaminations like Au. The main finding of this work is Sn-seeded GaP nanowires although Sn was removed without any residues and the nanowires had less twin defects than Au-seeded GaP, the nanowires were degenerately n-doped. On the contrary, Au-seeded GaP nanowires exhibited n-type characteristics with orthogonalized light absorption and charge separation. Chapter IV describes the synthesis of zinc tin phosphide (ZSP), a ternary analog of GaP comprised of low-cost, earth-abundant elements in the nanowire form using Sn nanoparticles as the VLS growth seed. The as-prepared ZSP nanowire film is capable of sustaining stable cathodic photoresponse in aqueous electrolyte under white light illumination. The nanowires were crystalized in the stoichiometric sphalerite form and possessed a direct optical band gap of ˜ 1.5 eV instead of the chalcopyrite structure that has comparable band gap energy to GaP. The Sn nanoparticles acted as the VLS seed as well as Sn source for the ZnSnP 2 nanowires growth. Chapter V summarizes the progress and findings of p-GaP nanowire array films as well as a phase non-specific, persistent ALD dye attachment scheme that facilitates hole injection into p-GaP photocathodes, extending the photon absorption range beyond its band gap. Lastly, a separate work about undergraduate chemical education development is documented in Chapter VI of this thesis. Chapter VI details the efforts made in two distinct undergraduate laboratory coursework with the intention to introduce modern microfluidics and photovoltaic technologies including multidisciplinary research experience to the undergraduate students.
Louisa Poon, W Y; Covington, Jennifer P; Dempsey, Lauren S; Goetgeluck, Scott L; Marscher, William F; Morelli, Sierra C; Powell, Jana E; Rivers, Elizabeth M; Roth, Ira G
This article provides an introduction to the use of students' business skills in optimizing teaching opportunities, student learning, and client satisfaction in a primary health care setting at a veterinary teaching hospital. Seven veterinary-student members of the local chapter of the Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA) evaluated the primary-care service at the University of Georgia (UGA) veterinary teaching hospital and assessed six areas of focus: (1) branding and marketing, (2) client experience, (3) staff and staffing, (4) student experience, (5) time management, and (6) standard operating procedures and protocols. For each area of focus, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were identified. Of the six areas, two were identified as areas in need of immediate improvement, the first being the updating of standard operating protocols and the second being time management and the flow of appointments. Recommendations made for these two areas were implemented. Overall, the staff and students provided positive feedback on the recommended changes. Through such a student-centered approach to improving the quality of their education, students are empowered and are held accountable for their learning environment. The fact that the VBMA functions without a parent organization and that the primary-care service at UGA functions primarily as a separate entity from the specialty services at the College of Veterinary Medicine allowed students to have a direct impact on their learning environment. We hope that this model for advancing business education will be studied and promoted to benefit both veterinary education and business practice within academia.
Gamble, Andree S
Simulation in health education has been shown to increase confidence, psychomotor and professional skills, and thus positively impact on student preparedness for clinical placement. It is recognised as a valuable tool to expose and engage students in realistic patient care encounters without the potential to cause patient harm. Although inherent challenges exist in the development and implementation of simulation, variability in clinical placement time, availability and quality dictates the need to provide students with learning opportunities they may otherwise not experience. With this, and a myriad of other issues providing the impetus for improved clinical preparation, 28 final semester undergraduate nursing students in a paediatric nursing course were involved in an extended multi-scenario simulated clinical shift prior to clinical placement. The simulation focussed on a complex ward experience, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate a variety of psychomotor skills, decision making, leadership, team work and other professional attributes integral for successful transition into the clinical arena. Evaluation data were collected at 3 intermittent points; post-simulation, post clinical placement, and 3 months after commencing employment as a Registered Nurse. Quantitative and qualitative analysis suggested positive impacts on critical nursing concepts and psychomotor skills resulted for participants in both clinical placement and beyond into the first months of employment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fredrick, K. C.
In today's economy and job market, "workplace readiness" has become a popular buzzword applied to educational efficacy and worthiness. This additional attention to employment outcomes for undergraduate students adds pressure on faculty, as they come under greater scrutiny from administration and prospective students. It is an important marketing tool for programs to report their placement numbers. In our geology program at California University, even though we have had several years of successful placement of our graduates, we have struggled with student buy-in until they are seniors looking at an uncertain future. In recent years, it has become apparent that a greater proportion of our students are not prepared for university-level work when they enter college. They are unprepared for the rigors of critical thinking and quantitative analyses. A way to help them get more serious about their professional career at an earlier stage of education is to demonstrate to them what they do not know. Beginning this year, we have implemented a new, required course, Professional Development for Geologists. It is not a novel idea, in terms of design, but its application as a required course within the major and the students' option of taking it multiple times seems to be a new approach. The course is structured to work with students to develop their skills for the job market, graduate school, and improve general professionalism.
Kyle, Brandon N; Corral, Irma; John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G
Returning to the original emphasis of higher education, universities have increasingly recognized the value and scholarship of teaching, and medical schools have been part of this educational scholarship movement. At the same time, the preferred learning styles of a new generation of medical students and advancements in technology have driven a need to incorporate technology into psychiatry undergraduate medical education (UGME). Educators need to understand how to find, access, and utilize such educational technology. This article provides a brief historical context for the return to education as scholarship, along with a discussion of some of the advantages to this approach, as well as several recent examples. Next, the educational needs of the current generation of medical students, particularly their preference to have technology incorporated into their education, will be discussed. Following this, we briefly review the educational scholarship of two newer approaches to psychiatry UGME that incorporate technology. We also offer the reader some resources for accessing up-to-date educational scholarship for psychiatry UGME, many of which take advantage of technology themselves. We conclude by discussing the need for promotion of educational scholarship.
Art, Bruno; De Roo, Leen; Willems, Sara; De Maeseneer, Jan
Since 2002, the medical curriculum at Ghent University has incorporated a community diagnosis exercise, teaming medical students with master of social work and social welfare studies students. The course focuses on the interaction between the individual and the community in matters of health and health care. During one week, small groups of students visit patients and their caregivers in six underserved urban neighborhoods, and they combine these experiences with public health data, to develop a community diagnosis. Local family physicians and social workers monitor sessions. The course requires students to design an intervention tackling one community health issue. At the end of the course, the students present their diagnoses and interventions to community workers and policy makers who provide feedback on the results. In the authors' experience, medical and social work students all value the joint learning experience. The occasional culture clash is an added value. The one-week course is very intensive for students, mentors, and cooperating organizations. Although students criticize time restraints, they feel that they reach the outlined objectives, and they rate the overall experience as very positive. The authors find that this interdisciplinary, community-oriented exercise allows students to appreciate health problems as they occur in society, giving them insight into the interaction of the local community with health and health care agencies. Combining public health data with experiences originating from a patient encounter mimics real-life primary care situations. This campus-community collaboration contributes to the social accountability of the university.
Full Text Available According to the guidelines published by the WHO in 2010, palliative care has been defined as “an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial, and spiritual.” Intervention provided as a part of the palliative care has to be by health professionals who strictly work as a part of the multidisciplinary team and have been specifically trained to an optimal level of competency in the field. Two key problem areas in palliative care which a physiotherapist deals with are poor physical function and pain. This article deals with the following issues: (1 What is palliative care education and its importance? (2 Current scenario of palliative care in medical and allied fields internationally. (3 Current scenario of palliative care education in medical and allied fields in India. (4 Proposed curriculum guidelines for palliative care in physiotherapy.
According to the guidelines published by the WHO in 2010, palliative care has been defined as "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial, and spiritual." Intervention provided as a part of the palliative care has to be by health professionals who strictly work as a part of the multidisciplinary team and have been specifically trained to an optimal level of competency in the field. Two key problem areas in palliative care which a physiotherapist deals with are poor physical function and pain. This article deals with the following issues: (1) What is palliative care education and its importance? (2) Current scenario of palliative care in medical and allied fields internationally. (3) Current scenario of palliative care education in medical and allied fields in India. (4) Proposed curriculum guidelines for palliative care in physiotherapy.
Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Monterrosas-Rojas, Ana María; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Flores-Morones, Felipe; Torruco-García, Uri; Navarrete-Martínez, Andrea; Arrioja-Guerrero, Araceli
Competency-based education has been considered the most important pedagogical trend in Medicine in the last two decades. In clinical contexts, competencies are implemented through Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) which are observable and measurable. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the design of educational tools to assess students´ competencies in clinical practice during their undergraduate internship (UI). In this paper, we present the construction of specific APROCs (Actividades Profesionales Confiables) in Surgery (S), Gynecology and Obstetrics (GO) and Family Medicine (FM) rotations with three levels of performance. The study considered a mixed method exploratory type design, a qualitative phase followed by a quantitative validation exercise. In the first stage data was obtained from three rotations (FM, GO and S) through focus groups about real and expected activities of medical interns. Triangulation with other sources was made to construct benchmarks. In the second stage, narrative descriptions with the three levels were validated by professors who teach the different subjects using the Delphi technique. The results may be described both curricular and methodological wise. From the curricular point of view, APROCs were identified in three UI rotations within clinical contexts in Mexico City, benchmarks were developed by levels and validated by experts' consensus. In regard to methodological issues, this research contributed to the development of a strategy, following six steps, to build APROCs using mixed methods. Developing benchmarks provides a regular and standardized language that helps to evaluate student's performance and define educational strategies efficiently and accurately. The university academic program was aligned with APROCs in clinical contexts to assure the acquisition of competencies by students.
Bush, H; Bissell, V
Students in higher education are being encouraged to become active, independent and life-long learners. The use of progress files has been endorsed to encourage this approach. A portfolio intended to fulfil the role of a progress file and to promote student-centred learning and reflection was introduced as a central component of the revised undergraduate degree at the Glasgow Dental School in 2004. This article evaluates its role in promoting reflection. Students following the Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) programme completed three written reflections per year using structured proformas, and discussed them with their mentor and mentoring group. Their views of the portfolio and of reflection were gathered using a five-point Likert scale. In BDS1 2004-5, 84% completed a questionnaire, as did 89% in BDS1 2005-6 and 99% in BDS2 2005-6. Most students did not enjoy reflecting (a finding commonly reported elsewhere) or feel that reflection identified their learning needs. It appears that students disliked writing reflections, rather than reflecting per se. In contrast, they took a positive view of mentor group discussions and of having a mentor, both essential components of the portfolio model described. Comparisons of BDS1 2004-5 and BDS2 2005-6 data suggest that students are becoming more comfortable with reflection. The data provide some limited encouragement that students are beginning to acquire the skills which will enable them to reflect purposefully in their professional lives, although it will be some years before this assertion can be substantiated.
Jones, Ray; Kelsey, Janet; Nelmes, Pam; Chinn, Nick; Chinn, Teresa; Proctor-Childs, Tracey
To ask: (i) is it feasible to include Twitter as an assessed element of the first-year nursing curriculum; (ii) how should it be introduced and assessed; and (iii) do students think it worthwhile and learn anything from its use? Nursing students need to use social media professionally, avoiding pitfalls but using learning opportunities. This case study (2014-2015) comprised: (i) pilot introduction of Digital Professionalism (including Twitter) with second- and third-year students; (ii) introduction and assessment with a first cohort of 450 first-year students. Based on feedback, methods were revised for; (iii) a second cohort of 97. Students received a face-to-face lecture, two webinars, used chat rooms and were asked to create course Twitter accounts and were assessed on their use. Few second and third year students started optional Twitter use whereas nearly all first years used it. Most students (70·1% first, 88·0% second cohort) thought inclusion of Twitter was worthwhile. Changes from first to second cohort included better peer-peer support, more contextualization and more emphasis on nursing communities. More second cohort students learned from Twitter (44·4% vs. 70·8%) and used Twitter recently (43·3% vs. 81·6%). Students gained wider perspectives on nursing, better understanding of social media, 'being student nurses' and topics like health promotion. Students mostly followed not only online nursing communities but also patient organizations. Including Twitter as an assessed element for first-year nursing students was feasible, students think it worthwhile and other nursing schools should consider introducing it in the broader context of Digital Professionalism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Medical colleges in India usually follow a traditional curriculum, characterized by "discipline wise model" which compelled Medical Council of India to recommend a teaching approach characterized by maximal efforts to encourage integrated teaching (IT between traditional subject areas. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of IT; to compare IT with traditional teaching (TT and to analyze the student′s feedback and faculty feedback about perception of IT. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted among fifth semester students using pre- and post-test questionnaire and student and faculty feedback forms. Students were divided randomly into two groups. IT was introduced to Group I on the topic of tuberculosis (TB by faculties of different disciplines; using methods of didactic lectures, seminars, role play, clinical case presentation, demonstration of Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and visit to Directly Observed Treatment Centre. Group II were exposed to TT on TB by faculties of Community Medicine using method of didactic lectures. Paired and un-paired t-test and effect size were used as statistical tests. Results : Statistically significant results were obtained using pre- and post-test questionnaire of IT. Similarly, statistically significant results were obtained using posttest results of IT and TT. Effect size that is: Cohen′s d and Pearson correlation revealed large effect which indicates high influence on student achievement. The students and faculty showed a positive attitude about IT. Conclusion: The introduction of IT was found to be feasible and to be more effective and acceptable than TT.
Schoonheim-Klein, M; Ong, T S; Loos, B G
To report on our implementation process within the existing local curriculum of all periodontal competences and assessments as proposed in the 2010 European consensus meeting. In 2011, a workshop for all teaching staff at the Department of Periodontology, ACTA, an education and assessment blueprint, was developed to test for missing education and assessment of European competences, divided into seven domains. This was repeated in 2013. An oral evaluation of the staff followed both meetings. It appeared that eight of 58 (14%) European competences were not taught, and 21 (35%) competences were not assessed. After evaluation of the results on the actual curriculum and the assessment programme, shared decisions were made about how to teach and assess the missing competences within the local periodontal educational programme. The second workshop in 2013 revealed still 8 (14%) competences were not taught and 8 (14%) competences were not assessed. Staff appreciated the used method of validation; it gave insight and an overview of the curriculum. The existence of the European consensus report for undergraduate periodontal education, based on seven domains, has been instrumental and essential. The development of a blueprint from the education programme and concomitant assessment methods in periodontology by participating teaching staff gives a validation and appreciation of the curriculum and will improve the quality of education and assessment. It is advised that for quality control of the curriculum, dental schools could do this exercise for all their specialties if European consensus reports exist. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Food-supply veterinary medicine has been an essential part of veterinary degree programs in Australia since the first veterinary school opened in the late nineteenth century. Australian veterinary schools, like others internationally, are being challenged by the relevance of material in current curricula for modern food-supply veterinary medicine. Additionally, student aspirations are a major issue, as curriculum designers balance companion-animal training with the herd/flock-based issues that focus on productivity and profitability. One of the challenges is to examine the relative balance of education in generic skills (self-knowledge, change management, teamwork, leadership, negotiation) with more technically or scientifically based education. An ongoing process of curriculum review and renewal, which involves input from both external and internal stakeholders and allows regular review and assessment, is needed to ensure continuing curriculum relevance.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. Methods A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Results Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. Conclusion The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.
Misbah, Samreen; Mahboob, Usman
The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO) patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.
Dhatt, Karanvir Singh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran
Significant change has been happening in the introduction of technology in medical teaching all over the world. We aim to determine if the undergraduate medical students and teachers are open to incorporating changes in the current medical curriculum or if there is a need for the same in the Republic of Ireland. A cross-sectional study involving 202 participants of whom 152 were medical students and 50 medical professionals (teachers and hospital doctors) were carried out involving three different medical universities namely; University College Cork (UCC), University College Dublin (UCD), and National University of Ireland in Galway (NUIG). Participants were requested to answer a series of 15 questions designed incorporating various fields of technology necessary for the study. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to determine statistical significance. The participants overall had a positive attitude toward the utility of modern technology and web-based applications in current medical curriculum. Ninety-one percent of the participants preferred the introduction of modern technology into medical education and 7% were against the idea and a further 2% of them remained undecided. There seems to be a "technology gap" in the current undergraduate medical curriculum in Ireland. A large-scale study involving more participants from all the medical schools in Ireland is recommended. We believe, changes can be brought into the current medical teaching and learning to make the process more fruitful and successful.
Mokgobadibe V. Ntsiea
Conclusion: The Wits physiotherapy curriculum covers all medical conditions treated by physiotherapists within the Gauteng state health facilities, and overall, the curriculum prepares the students to practise in a variety of situations.
Hazel, Susan J; Heberle, Nicole; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Adams, Karen
Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented into a first-year course (Principles in Animal Behaviour, Welfare and Ethics) for BSc Veterinary Bioscience (VB) and Animal Science (AS) students. TBL is now used widely in teaching medical students, but has had more limited uptake in veterinary education. This study reports its use over 2 years with cohorts of 126 and 138 students in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Average individual marks for multiple-choice question (MCQ) tests in the Readiness Assurance component of TBL were higher for the teams than for individuals for each session, explicitly demonstrating the advantages of teamwork. Students reported that they felt actively involved and that TBL helped them both with their learning and in developing other important skills, such as teamwork and communication. Qualitative analysis of written feedback from the students revealed positive themes of discussion, application, revelation, socializing, engagement, clarification, and retention/revision. In 2011 negative comments included the need to shorten the TBL sessions, but in 2012 tightening of the timelines meant that this was no longer a major concern. Requests to provide better introductory and background materials and ambiguity in questions in the TBL activities were what students least liked about the TBL. However, most comments were positive rather than negative in nature, and many students preferred the TBL to lectures. With requirements for curricula to teach professional skills, such as communication and teamwork, and the positive results from TBL's implementation, it is hoped that this study will encourage others to trial the use of TBL in veterinary education.
Das Longitudinale Curriculum "Soziale und kommunikative Komptenzen" im Bologna-reformierten Medizinstudium in Basel [The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel
Full Text Available [english] Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland. Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE. Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.[german] Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das
Taylor David CM
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.
Full Text Available The increasing graduate unemployment rate in Ghana is a matter of concern not only to government but also to stakeholders in education. In an era of globalisation, the issue has culminated in discourses about curriculum planning and alignment. Using a concurrent mixed method, the study purposely focused on exploring graduate competences as a labour market mechanism for curriculum alignment. In this regard, 63 participants comprising alumni, Human Resource Managers and lecturers were sampled using multiple procedures. In the end, the study showed that employers’ highly ranked integrated curriculum and their responses favoured an amalgamation of education and practical training tailored to promote organisational growth. A significant difference was found between responses of lecturers and alumni regarding their preference for graduate competences as the basis for curriculum alignment. The study finally advocated, among other things, for competency-based curriculum philosophy as the underpinning variable to underlie Business Education curriculum in Ghana.
Wang, Songliang; Caldwell, Claude; Wei, Liqing; Su, Haiyan
The Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University-Nova Scotia Agricultural College (FAFU-NSAC) 2 + 2 undergraduate program initiated in 2003 is a model for creative collaboration between China and Canada in undergraduate education. This paper addresses the achievements of the program development and highlights the process for successful curriculum…
Treacy, Páraic; Faulkner, Fiona; Prendergast, Mark
The phenomenon in which students enter university under-prepared for the mathematical demands of their undergraduate courses, regularly referred to as the 'Maths Problem', has been widely reported in Ireland, UK, Australia, and the US. This issue has been of particular concern in Ireland recently, with beginning undergraduates' performance of…
Zimbardi, Kirsten; Myatt, Paula
Undergraduate research experiences provide students with opportunities to engage in high-impact experiential learning. Although prevalent in the sciences, there are now extensive banks of case studies demonstrating the use of undergraduate research as an educationally enriching activity across many disciplines. This study investigated the…
Nelson, Regina K.
A mixed-methods research study was designed to test whether undergraduate engineering students were better prepared to learn advanced topics in biomedical engineering if they learned physiology via a quantitative, concept-based approach rather than a qualitative, system-based approach. Experiments were conducted with undergraduate engineering…
Roush, James K; Rush, Bonnie R; White, Brad J; Wilkerson, Melinda J
Data consisting of preadmission criteria scores, annual and final cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), grades from individual professional courses, American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA-COE) Competency scores, annual class rank, and North American Veterinary Licensing Exam (NAVLE) scores were collected on all graduating DVM students at Kansas State University in 2009 and 2010. Associations among the collected data were compared by Pearson correlation. Pre-veterinary admissions criteria infrequently correlated with annual GPAs of Years 1-3, rarely correlated with the AVMA-COE Competencies, and never correlated with the annual GPA of Year 4. Low positive correlations occurred between the NAVLE and the Verbal Graduate Record Examination (GRE) (r=.214), Total GRE (r=.171), and the mean GPA of pre-professional science courses (SGPA) (r=.236). Annual GPAs strongly correlated with didactic course scores. Annual GPAs and final class rank strongly correlated (mean r=-.849), and both strongly correlated with the NAVLE score (NAVLE: GPAs mean r=.628, NAVLE: final class rank r=-.714). Annual GPAs at the end of Years 1-4 weakly correlated or did not correlate with the AVMA-COE Competencies. The AVMA-COE Competencies weakly correlated with scores earned in didactic courses of Years 1-3. AVMA-COE Competencies were internally consistent (mean r=.796) but only moderately correlated with performance on the NAVLE (mean r=.319). Low correlations between admissions criteria and outcomes indicate a need to reevaluate admission criteria as predictors of school success. If the NAVLE remains the primary discriminator for veterinary licensure (and the gateway to professional activity), then the AVMA-COE Competencies should be refined to better improve and reflect the NAVLE, or the NAVLE examination should change to reflect AVMA-COE Competencies.
Kieves, Nina R; Roark, Andrew W; Sparks, Tonya K
Studies have indicated the importance of business education in improving the income level attained by veterinarians and the quality of service they provide. The Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA), a national organization of veterinary students, has the potential to augment veterinary curricula by providing additional education to help ensure professional success. Local chapters at 27 of the 28 veterinary colleges in the United States (as of 2007) supplement the curriculum by focusing on business topics. A national governing board oversees the chapters, helping to ensure that high-quality educational programs are conducted and providing a conduit for communication.
Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The first step toward integrating cognitive skills into the curriculum was to assemble a taskforce of different faculty and students, including a wide variety of fields with multidisciplinary expertise using nonprobability sampling and the snowball method. Several meetings with the contribution of experts and some medical students were held to generate the draft of expected outcomes. Subsequently, the taskforce also determined what content would fit best into each phase of the program and what teaching and assessment methods would be more appropriate for each outcome. After a pilot curriculum with a small group of second-year medical students, we implemented this program for all first-year students since 2011 at TUMS. Based on findings, the teaching of four areas, including scientific and critical thinking skills (Basic sciences, problem-solving and reasoning (Pathophysiology, evidence-based medicine (Clerkship, and clinical decision-making (Internship were considered in the form of a longitudinal theme. The results of this study could be utilized as a useful pattern for integration of psycho-social subjects into the medical curriculum.
Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.
The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)
Matthews, Kelly E.; Firn, Jennifer; Schmidt, Susanne; Whelan, Karen
This study investigated students' perceptions of their graduate learning outcomes including content knowledge, communication, writing, teamwork, quantitative skills, and ethical thinking in two Australian universities. One university has a traditional discipline-orientated curriculum and the other, an interdisciplinary curriculum in the entry…
Koh, Jansen; Dubrowski, Adam
Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician's lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning.
Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician’s lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning. PMID:27446767
Diana L. Eubanks
Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of MBBS student toward concept and practice of psychiatry between groups of students exposed to psychiatry rotation versus those not yet exposed to. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out. Anonymity and confidentiality of the respondent was emphasized. Attitude was measured with 30-item "attitude toward psychiatry" scale. Results: Attitude toward psychiatry was found to be better in groups of medical students exposed to 2 weeks clinical rotation in psychiatry . However, the same reached statistical significance in only 36.7% of the questions. Conclusion: Clinical rotation in Psychiatry in undergraduate has a favorable effect on the attitude of medical students toward concept and practice of psychiatry. Better curriculum and more hours in psychiatry may yield better gain.
Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G
The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance.
Lindstrom, U. B.
A survey of graduates from the University of Nairobi, Kenya in the field of veterinary medicine is reported. Areas covered include curriculum; teaching techniques; quality of faculty; and examinations. (JMF)
Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H. David; Horton, Jonathan L.
In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated…
Fenk, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Nathan; Gerbig, Donald G., Jr.
A new, fast and effective colorimetric analysis of the artificial sweetener aspartame is presented for application in undergraduate laboratory courses. This new method incorporates the use of a modified biuret reagent for selective detection and analysis of aspartame in aqueous solutions. The modified reagent is less caustic than the traditional…
Randall, David W.; Hayes, Ryan T.; Wong, Peter A.
A LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) spectrometer constructed by the instructor is reported for use in undergraduate analytical chemistry experiments. The modular spectrometer described here is based on commonly available components including a commercial Nd:YAG laser and a compact UV-vis spectrometer. The modular approach provides a…
Carrió, Mar; Agell, Laia; Baños, Josep Eladi; Moyano, Elisabeth; Larramona, Pilar; Pérez, Jorge
Although problem-based learning (PBL) has been used for over 40 years, with many studies comparing the benefits of PBL versus other educational approaches, little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hybrid PBL (H-PBL) curricula. Here we aimed to compare the learning outcomes of two groups of undergraduate biology students working towards a bachelor's degree: one group used an H-PBL approach, while the second used a lecture-based learning (LBL) approach. Specifically, the H-PBL group used a PBL module with interdisciplinary problems, which represented 20% of the entire curriculum. The main outcomes of evaluation were the long-term acquisition of factual knowledge and the problem-solving skills at the end of the bachelor's degree. The sample included 85 students, 39 in the H-PBL group and 46 in the LBL group. We found that an H-PBL curriculum can improve the students' learning outcomes such as long-term knowledge acquisition, problem solving skills and generic competences. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This work examines the teaching approach for chemistry laboratory practicals for first year undergraduate students to determine if the underpinning pedagogical strategy meets the requirements for these students for the remainder of their undergraduate programme. This is based on the knowledge, skills, content and learning outcomes for undergraduate chemistry courses. This work aims to enhance the first year experience of chemistry education by facilitating greater student engagement and “deeper” learning of relevant content during practical laboratory experiences by focusing on the learners’ needs. During this research, a survey of undergraduate science students from 2nd, 3rd and 4th years was carried out to determine if first year chemistry practicals facilitated the development of skills needed in further science education. It concluded that overall there was a positive response to first year laboratory practicals, that students engaged with them and felt they assisted with skills required for subsequent years of undergraduate study. Participants were most satisfied with the organic chemistry experiments while, for the physical/analytical chemistry experiments, the results obtained reiterated difficulties with mathematical calculations that are accepted as an issue in other aspects of third level STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects. As a result of these findings, modifications that were made to the laboratory practical element included a pre-populated workbook supplied to the students and the introduction of pre-laboratory questions to be completed by each student before each session to reduce cognitive load and improve the students’ knowledge and understanding of 2 the purpose and potential outcomes of each laboratory practical. Also, the total first year chemistry syllabus was re-organised, as was the scheduling of the experiments to synchronise the theory lectures with the experiments as far as was
Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco
In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners
Schulz, Christian; Möller, Mischa F; Seidler, Daniel; Schnell, Martin W
By 2013 Palliative Care will become a mandatory examination subject in the medical curriculum in Germany. There is a pressing need for effective and well-designed curricula and assessment methods. Debates are on going as how Undergraduate Palliative Care Education (UPCE) should be taught and how knowledge and skills should be assessed. It is evident by this time that the development process of early curricula in the US and UK has led to a plethora of diverse curricula which seem to be partly ineffective in improving the care for the seriously ill and dying offered by newly qualified doctors, as is demonstrated in controlled evaluations. The goals of this study were to demonstrate an evidence-based approach towards developing UPCE curricula and investigate the change in medical students' self-perceived readiness to deal with palliative care patients and their families. To evaluate the effects of the UPCE curriculum we chose a prospective, controlled, quasi-experimental, pre, retrospective-pre, post study design. A total of n = 37 3rd and 4th -year medical students were assigned to the intervention group (n = 15; 4th -year) and to the control group (n = 22; 3rd-year). Resting on the self-efficacy concept of Bandura the measurement was conducted by a refined test-battery based on two independent measurements (the revised Collet-Lester-Fear-of-Death-Scale and the instrument of the "Program in Palliative Care Education and Practice" at Harvard Medical School) including 68 items altogether in a five-point Likert-scale. These items were designed to test elementary skills in caring for the dying and their relatives as perceived by medical undergraduates. Datasets from both groups were analysed by paired and independent two-sample t-test. The TREND statement for reporting non-randomized evaluations was applied for reporting on this quasi-experimental study. Three constructs showed statistically significant differences comparing the intervention group before and
Full Text Available Abstract Background By 2013 Palliative Care will become a mandatory examination subject in the medical curriculum in Germany. There is a pressing need for effective and well-designed curricula and assessment methods. Debates are on going as how Undergraduate Palliative Care Education (UPCE should be taught and how knowledge and skills should be assessed. It is evident by this time that the development process of early curricula in the US and UK has led to a plethora of diverse curricula which seem to be partly ineffective in improving the care for the seriously ill and dying offered by newly qualified doctors, as is demonstrated in controlled evaluations. The goals of this study were to demonstrate an evidence-based approach towards developing UPCE curricula and investigate the change in medical students’ self-perceived readiness to deal with palliative care patients and their families. Methods To evaluate the effects of the UPCE curriculum we chose a prospective, controlled, quasi-experimental, pre, retrospective-pre, post study design. A total of n = 37 3rd and 4th –year medical students were assigned to the intervention group (n = 15; 4th -year and to the control group (n = 22; 3rd-year. Resting on the self-efficacy concept of Bandura the measurement was conducted by a refined test-battery based on two independent measurements (the revised Collet-Lester-Fear-of-Death-Scale and the instrument of the “Program in Palliative Care Education and Practice” at Harvard Medical School including 68 items altogether in a five-point Likert-scale. These items were designed to test elementary skills in caring for the dying and their relatives as perceived by medical undergraduates. Datasets from both groups were analysed by paired and independent two-sample t-test. The TREND statement for reporting non-randomized evaluations was applied for reporting on this quasi-experimental study. Results Three constructs showed statistically
Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical education, feedback from students' is essential in course evaluation and development. Students at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka complete a five year medical curriculum comprising of five different streams. We aimed to evaluate the five year medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A qualitative research was conducted among recent graduates of the faculty. Students' opinions on strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum were collected via questionnaires, which were analysed and classified into common themes. A focus group discussion (FGD based on these themes was conducted among two student groups, each comprising of a facilitator, two observers and nine students selected as a representative sample from questionnaire respondents. FGDs were conducted using a semi-structured set of open-ended questions to guide participants and maintain consistency between groups. The FGD evaluated the reasons behind students' perceptions, attitudes, emotions and perceived solution. Verbal and non-verbal responses were transcribed and analysed. Results Questionnaire response rate was 82% (153/186. Students highlighted 68 and 135 different responses on strengths and weaknesses respectively. After analysis of both questionnaire and FGD results the following themes emerged: a well organized module system, increased frequency of assessments, a good variety in clinical appointments, lack of specific objectives and assessments at clinical appointments, community and behavioural sciences streams beneficial but too much time allocation, lengthy duration of course, inadequate knowledge provided on pharmacology and pathology. Conclusion We demonstrate how a brief qualitative method could be efficiently used to evaluate a curriculum spanning a considerable length of time. This method provided an insight into the students' attitudes and perceptions of the present faculty
Full Text Available The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.
4. 1Department of Theriogenology and Animal Production, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto; 2Department of. Veterinary Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi,. Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
Caron, Rosemary M.
The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to developing one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that all undergraduates should have access to education in public health. Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the integ...
Laidlaw, Anita; Guild, Simon; Struthers, Julie
This study was completed as part of a project for the Quality Assurance Agency on the enhancement theme of 'Research teaching linkages: enhancing graduate attributes' in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The aims of this investigation were to elucidate a list of desirable research related graduate attributes for the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine and provide evidence as to how they could be covered within such curricula. Semi structured interviews, symposium breakout sessions and conference workshops were used to define and rank attributes suggested by curricula design experts from the three disciplines. Students graduating from a BSc Medical Science degree program were surveyed to determine how well they felt the curriculum and associated final year project equipped them with the identified attributes. A list of seven high level attributes which were desirable in graduates wishing to pursue either a professional or research career were identified. 105 students reported that a final year project was particularly effective at developing an understanding of the need to have an inquiring mind and critical appraisal skills whilst other components of their degree course covered team working skills, core knowledge and an understanding of ethics and governance. This study identified desirable attributes from graduates from medical, dental and veterinary degree programs and provides evidence to support the case for student projects helping to achieve both clinical and research related graduate attributes in medical undergraduates. The project also provides a focus for debate amongst those involved in curriculum design as to whether the attributes identified are those desirable in their graduates and to examine their current curriculum to determine coverage.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was completed as part of a project for the Quality Assurance Agency on the enhancement theme of 'Research teaching linkages: enhancing graduate attributes' in the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine. The aims of this investigation were to elucidate a list of desirable research related graduate attributes for the disciplines of Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine and provide evidence as to how they could be covered within such curricula. Methods Semi structured interviews, symposium breakout sessions and conference workshops were used to define and rank attributes suggested by curricula design experts from the three disciplines. Students graduating from a BSc Medical Science degree program were surveyed to determine how well they felt the curriculum and associated final year project equipped them with the identified attributes. Results A list of seven high level attributes which were desirable in graduates wishing to pursue either a professional or research career were identified. 105 students reported that a final year project was particularly effective at developing an understanding of the need to have an inquiring mind and critical appraisal skills whilst other components of their degree course covered team working skills, core knowledge and an understanding of ethics and governance. Conclusion This study identified desirable attributes from graduates from medical, dental and veterinary degree programs and provides evidence to support the case for student projects helping to achieve both clinical and research related graduate attributes in medical undergraduates. The project also provides a focus for debate amongst those involved in curriculum design as to whether the attributes identified are those desirable in their graduates and to examine their current curriculum to determine coverage.
Bachynsky, E A; Dale, V H M; Kinnison, T; Gazzard, J; Baillie, S
A questionnaire was designed to assess recent veterinary graduates' proficiency in early career business skills, from the perspectives of graduates of 2006-2008 and employers of recent graduates in the UK. Recent graduates perceived themselves to be generally more competent in financial matters than employers considered them to be. However, when specific skills were assessed, graduates felt less prepared than employers considered them to be competent. Overall, graduates and employers rated recent graduates' preparedness/competence as poor to average for all skills, which were regarded as having average to high importance. Both groups commented on the difficulties faced by new graduates in terms of client communication (generally and financially), and having the confidence to charge clients appropriately for veterinary services. The results of this study indicate that veterinary schools need to take a more active role in the teaching of basic finance skills in order to equip graduates with essential early career competencies. It is anticipated that the information reported will help inform undergraduate curriculum development and highlight the need for increased training at the continuing education level.
Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A
This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.
The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is a project funded by the URC program of the NSF Chemistry Division. The purpose of CASPiE was to provide students in first and second year laboratory courses with authentic research experiences as a gateway to more traditional forms of undergraduate research. Each research experience is a 6- to 8-week laboratory project based on and contributing to the research work of the experiment's author through data or preparation of samples. The CASPiE program has resulted in a model for engaging students in undergraduate research early in their college careers. To date, CASPiE has provided that experience to over 6000 students at 17 different institutions. Evaluation data collected has included student surveys, interviews and longitudinal analysis of performance. We have found that students' perceptions of their understanding of the material and the discipline increase over the course of the semester, whereas they are seen to decrease in the control courses. Students demonstrate a greater ability to explain the meaning and purpose of their experimental procedures and results and provide extensions to the experimental design, compared not only to control courses but also compared to inquiry-based courses. Longitudinal analysis of grades indicates a possible benefit to performance in courses related to the discipline two and three years later. A similar implementation in biology courses has demonstrated an increase in critical thinking scores. Work supported by the National Science Foundation, Division of Chemistry.
Nurses are being increasingly asked to develop leadership skills in their practice and to be actively involved in continuous change processes in the workplace. Nursing students need to be developing leadership skills prior to entering the workplace to ensure they are able to meet the challenges associated with organisations and the cultures present in nursing, along with having highly tuned communication skills and leadership attributes that contribute to best patient care and outcomes. This paper looks at how the use of Active Learning in an undergraduate setting enabled the development and implementation of a leadership subject for nursing students preparing for professional practice. Through the use of a specific model of Active Learning, incorporating multiple intelligences into education allows students to bring deeper learning to their conscience so that whole person learning is an engaged experience. It seems apparent that Active Learning is an effective means of learning about leadership in undergraduate students who are developing towards a career as a health professional. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slocombe, J Owen D
A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.
Hall, Pippa; Byszewski, Anna; Sutherland, Stephanie; Stodel, Emma J
The University of Ottawa (uOttawa) Faculty of Medicine in 2008 launched a revised undergraduate medical education (UGME) curriculum that was based on the seven CanMEDS roles (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, health advocate, manager, scholar, and professional) and added an eighth role of person to incorporate the dimension of mindfulness and personal well-being. In this article, the authors describe the development of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) program that enables uOttawa medical students to document their activities and to demonstrate their development of competence in each of the eight roles. The ePortfolio program supports reflective practice, an important component of professional competence, and provides a means for addressing the "hidden curriculum." It is bilingual, mandatory, and spans the four years of UGME. It includes both an online component for students to document their personal development and for student-coach dialogue, as well as twice-yearly, small-group meetings in which students engage in reflective discussions and learn to give and receive feedback.The authors reflect on the challenges they faced in the development and implementation of the ePortfolio program and share the lessons they have learned along the way to a successful and sustainable program. These lessons include switching from a complex information technology system to a user-friendly, Web-based blog platform; rethinking orientation sessions to ensure that faculty and students understand the value of the ePortfolio program; soliciting student input to improve the program and increase student buy-in; and providing faculty development opportunities and recognition.
Lawton, Jeffrey A; Prescott, Noelle A; Lawton, Ping X
We have developed an integrated, project-oriented curriculum for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses spanning two semesters that is organized around the ldhA gene from the yogurt-fermenting bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which encodes the enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular biology module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eleven sessions, begins with the isolation of genomic DNA from L. bulgaricus in yogurt and guides students through the process of cloning the ldhA gene into a prokaryotic expression vector, followed by mRNA isolation and characterization of recombinant gene expression levels using RT-PCR. The biochemistry module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eight sessions, begins with overexpression of the cloned ldhA gene and guides students through the process of affinity purification, biochemical characterization of the purified LdhA protein, and analysis of enzyme kinetics using various substrates and an inhibitor, concluding with a guided inquiry investigation of structure-function relationships in the three-dimensional structure of LdhA using molecular visualization software. Students conclude by writing a paper describing their work on the project, formatted as a manuscript to be submitted for publication in a scientific journal. Overall, this curriculum, with its emphasis on experiential learning, provides hands-on training with a variety of common laboratory techniques in molecular biology and biochemistry and builds experience with the process of scientific reasoning, along with reinforcement of essential transferrable skills such as critical thinking, information literacy, and written communication, all within the framework of an extended project having the look and feel of a research experience. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Tramontano, S.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Claiborne, L. L.; Brame, C.
Optical mineralogy is not an easy skill to master as an undergraduate, but it is crucial for understanding what the Earth is made out of. It is a supplementary and specific skillset typically taught in a microscope lab supporting lessons on crystallography, chemistry and mineral analysis in the classroom. Mastering the basic skills is required for advancement in courses that utilize thin sections in teaching igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. This project asks: Will exposing undergraduate Earth and environmental studies students to optical microscopy figures in videos prior to lab assist in the acquisition of skills required to describe and distinguish Earth materials? This project is conducted in conjunction with the Blended and Online Learning Design (BOLD) Fellowship offered through the Center for Teaching (CFT) at Vanderbilt University. Eight videos and accompanying pre-lab questions were hosted online weekly in a semester-long, undergraduate Earth materials course. The focus of the design of the videos and supporting questions is specifically on microscopy skills rather than on optics concepts, which is taught post-video. The videos were made available prior to a weekly lab with the intent of familiarizing the student with the types of images and information he/she should obtain with the microscope. Multiple choice, formative-style questions accompany the videos in an online-hosted assignment. These questions are graded on basis of completion and are intended to aid in student metacognition. Subjects include students in the Vanderbilt University Earth Materials course and students from the Hanover College Mineralogy course. The effectiveness of the videos is assessed in two parts: (1) Comparing the homework and lab final grades of the students this year with those of the students last year (2) Analysis of a weekly questionnaire. The answers after each week will be compiled and compared. Collecting data from Vanderbilt University students and Hanover
Fosgate, Geoffrey T
To identify predictors of veterinary students and veterinarians having an interest in veterinary public health and epidemiology (PH&E). Cross-sectional study. Veterinary students enrolled in the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University and veterinarians with membership in a Texas veterinary professional organization. 2 questionnaires were designed and administered to investigate hypothesized predictors of PH&E interests among veterinary students and veterinarians. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables from both questionnaires. Prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and chi(2) tests were used to evaluate bivariate associations between variables and an interest in PH&E. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for the effects of multiple variables on the outcome. 70% (215/305) of students believed that a course in PH&E was necessary, and 46% (140/304) believed that more courses in PH&E would improve the veterinary curriculum. Ninety-nine percent (299/303) of veterinarians believed that a course in PH&E was necessary in the curriculum. Ninety-two percent (272/297) of veterinarians agreed that knowledge related to PH&E was important to perform the functions of their job. History of raising animals and membership in 4-H or Future Farmers of America were significant predictors of veterinary students having an interest in PH&E. Being male and growing up in a rural environment were not significant predictors. Most veterinary students and veterinarians agreed that knowledge of PH&E is important. Variables identified as associated with an interest in PH&E may be useful for designing mitigation strategies to increase the number of veterinarians entering public health careers.
Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Long, Kendra C
The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and degree of coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in veterinary curricula across North America. The attitudes and opinions of a cohort of veterinary students and alumni about human relations skills and human-animal bond training in the veterinary program was also investigated. Twenty veterinary schools across North America were contacted and data were collected regarding their coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in the curriculum. A survey was developed to measure attitudes and opinions about this type of training. The survey was disseminated to students in years 1 to 4 and alumni from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC). Data were analyzed descriptively. Based on availability of contact people, 20 schools in North America were contacted, and all participated in the study. Each of the veterinary schools surveyed has incorporated strategies for teaching human relations skills through required courses, electives, guest speakers, and/or community service programs. The overall participation rate for OVC students was 53%. Ninety-nine percent of all students surveyed agreed that their ability to deal with people using effective human relations skills was a concern, and all students said they would like to receive more training in this area. There was a 41% participation rate for OVC alumni. Fifty-five percent of alumni said they had learned enough in the veterinary program to employ effective human relations skills in practice, yet 65% felt they had not received enough instruction in addressing the human-animal bond specifically. It is apparent that veterinary schools recognize the need to prepare entry-level practitioners to deal with the human-animal bond and with human relations. It is also evident that students and practitioners value receiving information of this nature in the curriculum and desire further training. Specific learning objectives for veterinary curricula have
A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.
Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew
The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Caron, Rosemary M
The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public-health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to develop one's societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health." Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP) framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the "integration of public-health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry." The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population's health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university's experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public-health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning.
Gürsoy, M; Wilensky, A; Claffey, N; Herrera, D; Preshaw, P M; Sanz, M; Schlagenhauf, U; Trombelli, L; Demirel, K
This survey aimed to evaluate whether periodontal education and assessment in undergraduate dental curricula amongst the member countries of the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) follow the competency-based curricular guidelines and recommendations developed by the Association for Dental Education in Europe. A multiple-choice questionnaire was emailed to 244 dental institutes amongst the 24 EFP member countries between November 2014 and July 2015. Data were received from 16 (66.7%) EFP member countries. Out of 117 responding dental institutes, 76 (64.95%) were included as valid responders. In most of the institutes (86.3%), a minimum set of competencies in periodontology was taken into account when constructing their dental education programmes. Out of 76 responders, 98.1% included lecture-based, 74.1% case-based and 57.1% problem-based teaching in their periodontal curricula, whilst a minority (15.9%) also used other methods. A similar pattern was also seen in the time allocation for these four educational methods, that is, the highest proportion (51.8%) was dedicated to lecture-based teaching and only a small proportion (5.7%) to other methods. Periodontal competencies and skills were most frequently assessed by clinical grading on clinic, multiple-choice examination (written examination) and oral examination, whereas competency tests and self-assessment were rarely used. Only in 11 (14.5%) cases, access flap procedures were performed by students. Great diversity in teaching methodology amongst the surveyed schools was demonstrated, and thus, to harmonise undergraduate periodontal education and assessment across Europe, a minimum set of recommendations could be developed and disseminated by the EFP. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wright, David; Wickham, Jane; Sach, Tracey
Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into the first 3 years of the undergraduate degree course at the University of East Anglia (UEA) to both enhance the student learning experience and to enable it to meet external course accreditation criteria. Evidence to support both of these assertions is required. The objective was to determine student opinions on the value of PBL and the PBL learning process at one UK school of pharmacy. Utilising the professional accreditation criteria for UK schools of pharmacy a questionnaire was devised and piloted before being given to all UEA undergraduate pharmacy students for self-completion. The most appropriate method of dissemination was determined from a student-led focus group. A total of 201/329 (61.1%) students responded. The majority of students agreed that PBL improved their team working (83.1%), oral communication (89.1%) and problem-solving skills (61.7%). Additionally PBL improved students' ability to identify and address ethical dilemmas (74.5%) as well as enhancing their ability to manage their own learning (67.6%). Male students and those with a stated preference for team working were found to prefer PBL. Students generally believe that PBL develops a number of key skills and consequently inclusion of PBL alongside traditional teaching methods enables the school to meet a number of degree accreditation criteria. Male students, those who enjoyed team working and working with their current group were more positive about PBL. Further work is required to improve the experience for all students. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
vision 2020. KEY WORDS: Nigerian, Veterinarians,. Millennium Development Goals, Empowerment,. Food security. Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ARTICLE. Veterinary Profession: Potential .... registered veterinarians were in the public sector (Anon, 1985), but over ... control of zoonotic and water borne diseases in humans.
Laughlin, J. B.; Sarquis, J. L.; Jones, V. M.; Cox, J. A.
Materials chemistry has become a field of high priority internationally, in terms of both fundamental and applied science. Although a growing field in industrial and scientific research, materials chemistry continues to be a minor segment of the academic curriculum. We propose using sol-gel chemistry to introduce undergraduate chemistry majors to the field of materials chemistry. In this experiment, students vary the synthetic processes necessary for xerogel production. They investigate how different parameters (e.g., temperature and pH) affect the internal porous network during xerogel synthesis. Techniques such as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are used to investigate the porous nature of xerogels. Conclusions are drawn on the basis of measurements that reflect the pore diameters. By varying the synthetic processes and comparing their experimental results, students are introduced to the concept of cooperative learning to enhance teamwork in the laboratory. Students are introduced to data handling, to writing formal reports in the style common in chemistry journals, and to use of scientific literature. However, the primary objective is to introduce them to the synthesis and characterization of a material.
Full Text Available Background: Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives: The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design: The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact: Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%. The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively. Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement, but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001. Conclusion: A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of. Jos, Jos, Nigeria. ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the .... mouse, rabbit and rat (Carpenter, 2014). Polyclonal ...
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
Ford, R. E.; Dunbar, S. G.; Soret, S.; Wiafe, S.; Gonzalez, D.; Rossi, T.
The vision of the School of Science and Technology (SST) at Loma Linda University (LLU) is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to doing science that bridges the social, biological, earth, and health sciences. It will provide opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to apply new tools and concepts to the promotion of global service and citizenship while addressing issues of global poverty, health and disease, environmental degradation, poverty, and social inequality. A primary teaching strategy will be to involve students with faculty in applied field social and science policy research on "global sustainability" issues and problems in real places such as Fiji, Jamaica, Honduras, Bahamas, East Africa, and the US southwest (Great Basin, Salton Sea, coastal California, southern Utah). Recently we became a partner in the NASA/USRA ESSE21 Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century). We bring to that consortium strengths and experience in areas such as social policy, sustainable development, medicine, environmental health, disaster mitigation, humanitarian relief, geoinformatics and bioinformatics. This can benefit ESSE21, the NASA Earth Enterprise Mission, and the wider geosciences education community by demonstrating the relevance of such tools, and methods outside the geosciences. Many of the graduate and undergraduate students who will participate in the new program come from around the world while many others represent underserved populations in the United States. The PI and Co-PIs have strong global as well as domestic experience serving underrepresented communities, e.g. Seth Wiafe from Ghana, Sam Soret from Spain, Stephen Dunbar from the South Pacific, and Robert Ford from Latin America and Africa. Our partnership in implementation will include other institutions such as: La Sierra University, the California State University, Pomona, Center for Geographic Information Science Research, ESRI, Inc., the University of
Caron, Rosemary M.
The Educated Citizen Initiative proposes that an understanding of public-health issues is a core component of an educated citizenry and is essential to develop one’s societal responsibility. This initiative supports the Institute of Medicine’s recommendation that “all undergraduates should have access to education in public health.” Furthermore, the Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP) framework developed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities supports the “integration of public-health education into general and liberal education with an aim to produce an educated citizenry.” The LEAP framework is implemented by teaching about the role of social determinants in a population’s health status; the significance of personal and social responsibility; and providing skills for inquiry, critical thinking, problem solving, and evaluation. This article describes one university’s experience in generating an educated citizenry cognizant of comprehensive public-health conflicts, thus contributing to both a local and global perspective on learning. PMID:26973829
Goldberg, Janet L; Dallwig, Amber L
For nursing professionals to direct and influence the health care changes for implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, emerging graduate nurses must be prepared as leaders and advocates for smooth patient care transitions for patients and caregivers. This article reports on how an undergraduate nursing program and its clinical partner created a course to allow students to step back from direct patient care and explore diverse nursing roles, team collaboration, communication, and processes that aim to collectively promote safe and effective quality care. Students completed online pre- and posttest surveys to rate their confidence levels with skills across seven measures. Comparative analysis of the pre- and posttest surveys indicated a significant increase in students' perception of their knowledge and skills across all areas. The instructional framework, using a care transitions model and clinical experiences, prepared students to work with health care teams and community partners for managing patient and family transitions in a variety of health care settings. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL is a well-established method for facilitating the learning of basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Relevant evidence is lacking regarding PBL’s effectiveness and acceptability as perceived by students accustomed to classical traditional teaching in India. Hence, this study gathered students’ opinions on PBL versus Traditional teaching methods to generate a foundation for institutional policymaking and ultimately, changes in the policy of regulatory bodies. Methods: A total of 773 first year medical students admitted from 2007-2010 in Kasturba Medical College Manipal, Manipal University, India were asked to respond to a 15-item questionnaire evaluating their preferences for PBL or traditional methods such as lectures after undergoing a systematically conducted PBL session in physiology. Their responses were analyzed with an unpaired t-test. Their comments were also collected. Results: PBL scored significantly higher for most items in the questionnaire for “learning efficiency” and “student-teacher relationship”. The students’ comments highlighted the importance of a trained tutor/facilitator to enhance the learning process. Conclusion: Our students are willing to adapt to the PBL method, although they recognize certain benefits of traditional pedagogy. For learning efficiency and the student-teacher relationship, the students feel that neither method holds an advantage. We recommend that the future medical curriculum in India be a hybrid form of PBL and traditional methods with specific training on the unfamiliar PBL approach for both faculty and students.
Bhise, Manik Changoji; Marwale, Arun Vishwambharrao; Deshmukh, Apoorva Sadgun; Saoji, Sanjeev Gopal
Negative attitude toward psychiatry (ATP) among medical students is a serious concern. Some studies have concluded that after training in the subject, attitude changes toward positive side. Currently in India, medical students have a less intense course without separate exam or binding to attend training whereas physiotherapy students have more intense course with separate subject exam and binding to attend training in psychiatry. To ascertain and compare the positive and negative ATP in final year MBBS students and final year physiotherapy (BPTh) students who have completed psychiatry curriculum. This is a cross-sectional study with semi-structured pro forma for sociodemographic variables and ATP-30 questionnaire to evaluate ATP of 94 medical and physiotherapy students each. Nonparametric methods were used for statistical analysis with appropriate tests of significance and P value was set at 0.05. Mean ATP-30 score for medical students was 91.9 (standard deviation [SD] =7.0) and that of physiotherapy students was 105.8 (SD = 9.7), this difference in two groups was highly significant (Kruskal-Wallis H = 81.3, df = 1, P physiotherapy students had negative ATP (χ(2) = 41.7, P Physiotherapy students with intense and planned training in psychiatry as an exam subject have significantly more positive ATP than medical students.
Higgins, R; Hogg, P; Robinson, L
To evaluate the learning experience of a level 5 (year 2) student cohort within a research-informed teaching (RiT) activity and to map findings against learning outcomes and level descriptors using constructive alignment. An online questionnaire was used to explore the level 5 student experience of a Research-informed Teaching (RiT) activity. Responses were retrospectively mapped against Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) level descriptors for level 5 using constructive alignment. Thirty one out of 46 level 5 students completed the questionnaire (67% response rate). Analysis of the questionnaire supported the integration of this RiT activity within the curriculum in terms of learning and research skill development by students. However, it was identified that this activity could be revised further to better align with level 5 descriptors and incorporate additional higher level cognitive processes. Learning outcomes for this RiT activity were constructively aligned with FHEQ level 5 descriptors. Recommendations are provided on how these could be further refined to ensure students undertake a more critical approach to the application of theory into practice. Discussion also considers how this process could be used to develop a similar RiT activity at level 6 (year 3). Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kyong-Jee; Lee, Joo Heung; Kee, Changwon
A study was conducted on the effectiveness of general physicians recently graduated from a medical school with Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum as PBL tutors to expand the school's tutor pool. This study aims to investigate these non-staff tutors' effectiveness in terms of student satisfaction and learning outcomes. An experimental study was conducted of 12 PBL groups of second-year medical students (n = 40). Four PBL groups were led by non-staff tutors; the other eight groups were led by staff tutors during the two PBL units. Tutor evaluation and student satisfaction questionnaires were administered and student performance scores were analysed to compare between groups led by staff tutors and non-staff tutors. The students' overall satisfaction with the non-staff tutors on a five-point Likert-scale was high (M = 4.5 +/-.638). Additionally, the student scores on written tests were comparable between groups. Yet, in one unit, the groups led by staff tutors received significantly higher scores on the group evaluation than those led by non-staff tutors. The results of this study show that the non-staff tutors performed as effectively as the staff tutors did with regard to student achievement in written exams. Still, the findings of this study suggest that different tutor backgrounds and experiences might affect student performance beyond the written exam scores.
Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident). A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%), understanding extraction indications (93.8%), and performing simple extractions (90.6%). Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%), extracting molars with separation (50.0%) or extracting third molars (56.3%). The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55), ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003). Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported. PMID:26442715
Ariyasinghe, S; Pallegama, R
The dentistry course in Sri Lanka is conducted in English, a second language for its students. A decade ago, English language proficiency was the key factor in predicting the academic performance of first year dental undergraduates. Since then, changes have been introduced to the teaching programme and examination format to minimise the effect of language proficiency on their performance. This study aimed at re-evaluating the factors influencing academic performance in a similar academic cohort. A total of 306 first year students in five consecutive academic years ranging in age from 20 to 24 years (77% of the total number registered, 36.3% men) were recruited, and a questionnaire was used to collect data regarding demographics, previous academic ability and perceived levels of difficulty of the first year course, English language and its sub-skills. Performances of the English language test and cumulative GPA of the first year course were used as objective indicators of language competency and academic performance respectively. The data were analysed using SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical Regression Analysis revealed that English language proficiency, gender and previous academic ability were the significant predictors of GPA. Students who received a lower GPA perceived English as considerably more difficult compared to the academic course itself; however, students who obtained a higher GPA perceived the opposite. Students' language competency remains the major predictor of academic performance, although previous academic ability and gender emerge as significant predictors. The perceived difficulty, however, of the dental course and of studying in English may also be predictors of student academic performance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.
Finotto, Stefano; Carpanoni, Marika; Turroni, Elena Casadei; Camellini, Riccarda; Mecugni, Daniela
For the nature of the Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and its relevance to nursing, the skills that it requires should be a component in the basic Nursing degree courses. For this reason, the EBP process should be introduced early on in nursing education to develop students' independence and ability to self-learning. the aim of this study is to describe the perception that newly graduated nurses have relative to the benefits of the skills learned during the laboratory's three-year EBP in consideration of the construction of the thesis, the research of evidence and usefulness of the EBP process for the development of their professional career. A descriptive study with a sample of 300 newly graduated nurses from the Degree Course in Nursing of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, venue of Reggio Emilia. The data collection instrument was an anonymous questionnaire. It was possible to answer through a 10 Likert scale. The sample considers effective the research of evidence carried out (mean 6, SD 2), related to the problems of patients (mean 7, SD 2); the sample considered the skills acquired during the laboratory's three-year EBP to be useful for career development (mean 7, SD 2). the decision to include the laboratory's three-year EBP in the curriculum of the Nursing degree promotes the development of skills relating to the use of the EBP process, competence that in the literature is indicated as one of the core competencies that all health professionals should develop and maintain throughout their professional career. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Penniston-Dorland, S.; Stern, R. J.; Edwards, B. R.; Kincaid, C. R.
The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate fundamental results from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. Three Subduction Factory (SubFac) mini-lessons were developed as part of this project. These include hands-on examinations of data sets representing 3 key components of the subduction zone system: 1) Heat transfer in the subducted slab; 2) Metamorphic processes happening at the plate interface; and 3) Typical magmatic products of arc systems above subduction zones. Module 1: "Slab Temperatures Control Melting in Subduction Zones, What Controls Slab Temperature?" allows students to work in groups using beads rolling down slopes as an analog for the mathematics of heat flow. Using this hands-on, exploration-based approach, students develop an intuition for the mathematics of heatflow and learn about heat conduction and advection in the subduction zone environment. Module 2: "Subduction zone metamorphism" introduces students to the metamorphic rocks that form as the subducted slab descends and the mineral reactions that characterize subduction-related metamorphism. This module includes a suite of metamorphic rocks available for instructors to use in a lab, and exercises in which students compare pressure-temperature estimates obtained from metamorphic rocks to predictions from thermal models. Module 3: "Central American Arc Volcanoes, Petrology and Geochemistry" introduces students to basic concepts in igneous petrology using the Central American volcanic arc, a MARGINS Subduction Factory focus site, as an example. The module relates data from two different volcanoes - basaltic Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) and andesitic Ilopango (El Salvador) including hand sample observations and major element geochemistry - to explore processes of mantle and crustal melting and differentiation in arc volcanism.
Kow, A W C; Ang, B L S; Chong, C S; Tan, W B; Menon, K R
While healthcare outcomes have improved significantly, the complex management of diseases in the hospitals has also escalated the risks in patient safety. Therefore, in the process of training medical students to be proficient in medical knowledge and skills, the importance of patient safety cannot be neglected. A new innovation using mobile apps gaming system (PAtient Safety in Surgical EDucation-PASSED) to teach medical students on patient safety was created. Students were taught concepts of patient safety followed by a gaming session using iPad games created by us. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of patient safety perception using the PASSED games created. An interactive iPad game focusing on patient safety issues was created by the undergraduate education team in the Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore. The game employed the unique touched-screen feature with clinical scenarios extracted from the hospital sentinel events. Some of the questions were time sensitive, with extra bonus marks awarded if the student provided the correct answer within 10 s. Students could reattempt the questions if the initial answer was wrong. However, this entailed demerit points. Third-year medical students posted to the Department of Surgery experienced this gaming system in a cohort of 55-60 students. Baseline understanding of the students on patient safety was evaluated using Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire III (APSQ-III) prior to the game. A 20 min talk on concept of patient safety using the WHO Patient Safety Guidelines was conducted. Following this, students downloaded the apps from ITune store and played with the game for 20-30 min. The session ended with the students completing the postintervention questionnaire. A total of 221 3rd year medical students responded to the survey during the PASSED session. Majority of the students felt that the PASSED game had trained them to understand the
Pfennig, Brian W.; Frock, Richard L.
This paper illustrates how valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and molecular modeling can be used in a complimentary fashion in the undergraduate curriculum to predict the three-dimensional structure of molecules. Students use the familiar VSEPR model to sketch the three-dimensional structures of molecules predicted by a comparison of the relative magnitudes of electrostatic repulsion between electron pair domains on the central atom. Despite the simplicity and elegance of the VSEPR model, however, students often have difficulty visualizing the three-dimensional shapes of molecules and learning the more subtle features of the model, such as the bond length and bond angle deviations from ideal geometry that accompany the presence of lone pair or multiple bond domains or that result from differences in the electronegativity of the bonded atoms, partial charges and molecular dipole moments, and site preferences in the trigonal bipyramidal electron geometry. Students therefore also employ a molecular modeling approach to predict the three-dimensional shapes of molecules by performing both molecular mechanics and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations to minimize the structures of these molecules. A major strength of the molecular modeling approach is that it allows students to quantitatively explore the more subtle implications of VSEPR theory using an alternative model. Student responses on end-of-the-semester evaluations ranked this exercise highly among the seven projects performed during the semester, commenting specifically on how the software allowed them to visualize the three-dimensional aspects of molecules more effectively than simple ball-and-stick models and on how the molecular modeling helped them to explore the more detailed structural features predicted by VSEPR theory.
Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis
The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
In a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
An evaluation of methods used to teach quality improvement to undergraduate healthcare students to inform curriculum development within preregistration nurse education: a protocol for systematic review and narrative synthesis.
Armstrong, Lorraine; Lauder, William; Shepherd, Ashley
Despite criticism, quality improvement (QI) continues to drive political and educational priorities within health care. Until recently, QI educational interventions have varied, targeting mainly postgraduates, middle management and the medical profession. However, there is now consensus within the UK, USA and beyond to integrate QI explicitly into nurse education, and faculties may require redesign of their QI curriculum to achieve this. Whilst growth in QI preregistration nurse education is emerging, little empirical evidence exists to determine such effects. Furthermore, previous healthcare studies evaluating QI educational interventions lend little in the way of support and have instead been subject to criticism. They reveal methodological weakness such as no reporting of theoretical underpinnings, insufficient intervention description, poor evaluation methods, little clinical or patient impact and lack of sustainability. This study aims therefore to identify, evaluate and synthesise teaching methods used within the undergraduate population to aid development of QI curriculum within preregistration nurse education. A systematic review of the literature will be conducted. Electronic databases, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychological Information (PsychINFO), Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), will be searched alongside reference list scanning and a grey literature search. Peer-reviewed studies from 2000-2014 will be identified using key terms quality improvement, education, curriculum, training, undergraduate, teaching methods, students and evaluation. Studies describing a QI themed educational intervention aimed at undergraduate healthcare students will be included and data extracted using a modified version of the Reporting of Primary Studies in Education (REPOSE) Guidelines. Studies will
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...
Farmers' Awareness of Marek's Disease and Biosecurity. Practices in Poultry Production in. Selected States of Nigeria. JWANOER, L.O.", ABOU, P.A.', IBRAHIM, N.O.G.' and NOK, J.A.'. 'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ...
1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State,. Nigeria.2Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Faculty of ... study showed that large number of occupational exposed humans did not receive rabies pre- exposure vaccination despite their frequent exposure to ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: email@example.com ...
Lea, P. D.; Urquhart, J.
during runoff events. Engaging students year-round has a number of benefits, including continuity with community partners, being able to assess seasonal controls in water-quality dynamics and to capture significant runoff events, and exposing students to different aspects of the complex system over time. Supporting such student engagement is costly in terms of instructor time, especially for introductory students, who collect enough data to feel “ownership” but are provided with additional data so as to have an adequate basis for conclusions relevant to stakeholders. Strategies for providing these additional data include (1) regular (e.g., weekly) “snapshot sampling” by undergraduate interns, and (2) automated dataloggers and samplers obtained from external funding for curriculum development. Students assume increasing independence and time commitment to the project as they progress through the curriculum, building upon their prior experiences. Along the way, they learn authentic lessons both on how scientific knowledge is developed, and on how that knowledge is communicated to the benefit of diverse stakeholders in the community.
Allen, J. L.; Creamer, E. G.; Kuehn, S. C.
Short-term undergraduate research experiences (URE's) provide skill and confidence enhancement to students, but it is unclear how effective they are in comparison to a dedicated, longer-term URE. This study examines the impact of a long-term URE embedded in a sequence of five courses in the geology curriculum. It begins with a sophomore course in environmental geology, and continues through mineralogy, structural geology, and petrology, before concluding at our summer geology field camp. In this sequence, they build upon individual URE's related to the structure and petrology of fault rocks from a mid-crustal shear zone. Rather than have students engage in one or more short-term URE's, they retain the same project for two calendar years so that we can assess when and how different gains, including a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of science, begin to emerge and mature. As each student progresses, we document the longitudinal development of a diverse suite of gains including: (1) Technical and higher-order research skills, (2) personal gains such as self-identity as a scientist, and (3) communication skills. In this presentation, we describe the framework of the study and baseline observations recorded during the first year of a 2-year cohort. Using a Q-sort method, students were given a deck of 16 index cards with an educational outcome listed on each. They sorted the cards into three piles: Those that encouraged an interest in geology, those that deterred an interest, and those with no impact. Participants discussed the top cards from the negative and positive piles. The top attractors to geology are collegial relationships with faculty, the opportunity to use scientific equipment, field work, the concreteness of geology, and the availability of jobs. Factors that deter interest include hours of tedious homework, math courses, and time invested in wrong answers or failed experiments/sample preparation. Factors not yet evident include confidence in
... Meetings & Events About AVMA Knowledge Base Thanksgiving Thanksgiving Pet Safety Help make Thanksgiving safe for both people and animals. Share these important tips with clients and friends. Practice Ownership Is Practice Ownership for You? Veterinary practice ownership ...
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate
values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge......Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...
This paper discusses how best to develop the educational platforms that can foster a wider appreciation of the importance of the One Health concept in medical and veterinary education. There are many compelling examples, from genetics to infectious diseases, where significant advances have been made in medicine and veterinary medicine by applying the principles of One Health, i.e. by recognising the interconnectedness between medicine, veterinary medicine and related sciences. In the medical and veterinary curriculum the objective should be to ensure that all opportunities are taken throughout preclinical and clinical teaching to incorporate the lessons which have been learned from the success stories in One Health. This will ensure that advances continue to be made and that a more pervasive and forward-looking scientific culture sustains One Health in the future.
Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.
The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
Hsu, Stephen M [GWU
A wind energy curriculum has been developed at the George Washington University, School of Engineering and Applied Science. Surveys of student interest and potential employers expectations were conducted. Wind industry desires a combination of mechanical engineering training with electrical engineering training. The curriculum topics and syllabus were tested in several graduate/undergraduate elective courses. The developed curriculum was then submitted for consideration.
Archbald, L. F.; Hagstad, H. V.
At Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, training in preventive medicine is incorporated into all four years of the curriculum. The curriculum is described with focus on the fourth year practical course that involves problem solving, using various herds in the area. (JMD)
Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.
A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)
Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.
A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)
An innovation in curriculum content and delivery of cancer education within undergraduate nurse training in the UK. What impact does this have on the knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care?
Edwards, Deborah; Anstey, Sally; Kelly, Daniel; Hopkinson, Jane
This was an evaluation of an innovation in curriculum content and delivery within undergraduate nursing education in the UK. Its purpose was to investigate the effect on knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care. The study design was a pre-test post-test survey design with a comparison group. Participants were two cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n(intervention) = 84, n(comparison) = 91). The intervention cohort were exposed to a new 3.5 day programme of cancer education, coproduced with patients, carers and health professionals, which focused on cancer as a life changing long-term condition. The comparison cohort had been exposed to a 2 day programme produced by a lecturer. Following exposure to the new model for the delivery of undergraduate nurse cancer education, the intervention cohort demonstrated good overall knowledge of the impact of cancer, more positive attitudes towards cancer treatment and more confidence in their ability to deliver cancer care. Attitudes were more positive and confidence in ability to support cancer patients at all stages of the cancer journey were greater than in the comparison group. Insights gained into the cancer patient and carer perspectives were highly valued. This study has found that a new model for the delivery of cancer education focusing on survivorship and delivered in partnership with patients, carers and clinicians, may improve knowledge, attitudes and confidence in the delivery of cancer care. Further work is now needed, using a more robust experimental design, to investigate the generalisability of the results to other education programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Sherman, Barbara L; Serpell, James A
Knowledge of animal behavior is an extremely important component of modern veterinary practice. Appreciation of species-typical behavior helps to ensure that veterinary patients are handled safely and humanely, and plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of health and welfare problems in animals, including the recognition of pain and distress. Veterinary students who acquire a good understanding of animal behavior will be better clinicians and will be best able to promote and repair the "human-animal bond," that important connection between people and their pets. Animal behavior problems can negatively impact this critical relationship, leading to abandonment, re-homing, relinquishment to an animal shelter, and sometimes premature euthanasia of the animal. Therefore, identifying, preventing, and treating behavior problems is important in maintaining the human-animal bond. Education in animal behavior should be an essential part of the veterinary curriculum; a board-certified veterinary behaviorist should be an integral member of the veterinary college faculty.
To be or not to be a facilitator of reflective learning for medical students? a case study of medical teachers' perceptions of introducing a reflective writing exercise to an undergraduate curriculum.
Sukhato, Kanokporn; Sumrithe, Sutida; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Hathirat, Saipin; Leelapattana, Wajana; Dellow, Alan
Introducing reflective writing to a medical curriculum requires the acceptance and participation of teachers. The purpose of this study was to explore medical teachers' views on the benefits of introducing a reflective writing exercise into an undergraduate medical curriculum, including their levels of satisfaction and their concerns. We also investigated effects on the teachers' personal and professional development arising from their roles as novice facilitators. A qualitative approach was employed using semi-structured interviews. During an attachment to Primary Care Medicine course, fourth-year medical students (n = 180) in the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand were assigned to write a reflective essay titled, "A Significant Event in My First Clinical Year". After reading the essays and facilitating between one to three small group discussions based on these, each of the 18 teachers enrolled in our study completed an in-depth face to face interview. Transcripts of these were studied, using thematic content analysis to identify emerging themes. The novice facilitators felt that facilitated reflection was both valuable and appropriate for students. They also perceived that it had a positive impact on their own personal and professional lives. In the early phase of implementing this activity, teachers expressed concerns about 1) their ability and confidence as facilitators in small group discussion 2) their ability to deal with emotions raised within their groups 3) the effectiveness of the activity 4) poor presentation and possible fabrication of student work. Most teachers regarded this activity as being beneficial to them, to student learning, and to the curriculum. Their insights, including concerns about the level of skill needed for facilitation, provide valuable material for planning a comprehensive faculty development programme.
Teater, Barbra; Roy, Jessica; Carpenter, John; Forrester, Donald; Devaney, John; Scourfield, Jonathan
Students in the United Kingdom (UK) are found to lack knowledge and skills in quantitative research methods. To address this gap, a quantitative research method and statistical analysis curriculum comprising 10 individual lessons was developed, piloted, and evaluated at two universities The evaluation found that BSW students' (N = 81)…
Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom, Nigeria; 5Avian Influenza Control Program, Kano State; 6Ministry of. Agriculture. ... showed severe pathological lesions consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). .... with subcutaneous hemorrhagic face (arrow), (B) shank and feet with diffuse subcutaneous.
Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...
When books and theses are cited, the first letter of every key word is capitalized. The standard abbreviation form of the journal in which the paper appears should come ... and COCKRAN, W.G. (1976): Statistical Methods. Iowa State University Press, Iowa: 3-9. HALL, L.W and CLARKE, K.W. (1991): Veterinary Anesthesia.
Veterinary Medicine, University ofIbadan. They were fed ad-libitum with commercial grower's mash (Guinea feeds, Benin,. Nigeria) containing 18% crude protein. Water was also given ad-libitum. The rabbits were allowed to acclimatize for three weeks before the commencement of the trials. During this period, health checks.
Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Journal Homepage Image. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated ...
Dog, though a major companion or pet animal in Nigeria house-hold is kept for various reasons ranging from security, breeding business, ... using the record of dogs presented to two private veterinary practices between January 2006 to. December 2010 in Enugu, ..... chronic prostatitis, and perineal hernia (Reichler, 2009).
Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, Niger state. 'Department of. Veterinary Medicine, University of ...
Bello University, Zaria; 3 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. *Corresponding. Authors: Email: ... No:+234 8038386953. SUMMARY. In spite of numerous vaccines and different vaccination schedules used in the control of ... viral disease of domestic poultry and wild birds, characterised by ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have
Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 140-150. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria, Nigeria. Audu, H. A.. 1. ; Idris, S. Y.. 2. ; Hamidu, A. 3. ; Fadason, S. T.. 1 and Lawal, M. 1 and Bappa, M. N.. 1. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello ...
Jul 2, 2000 ... Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1341-1350. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Reproductive Potential of Male Catfish Treated with Gel Extract of Aloe. Vera Plant. Owoyemi, A. O.. 1. , Oyeyemi, M. O.. 1. , Adeyemo, A. K.. 2 and Aina, O. O.. 3. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, 2Department of ...
of Bentonite, Spirulina platensis and. Glucomannan Mycotoxin Binders on. Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Breeders and. Carry Over Effects on Progeny. Performance. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and. Fisheries Sciences University,. Bangalore, India. MANAFI, M. (2010). Effect of. AFlatoxicosis in Hatching ...
epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) in two French draft horse breeds. Genetics Selection Evolution,. BioMed Central, 35 (2), pp.249-256. . MORIELLO, K.A. Congenital anomalies of the skin. (2010)The Merk veterinary. Manual 10th Ed. Merk & Co., INC. Whitehouse station, N.J., USA: 770. PETERS M., REBER I., JAGANNATHAN.
Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.
The reference list should begin on a separate page. The Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal uses the Harvard referencing style. Note: No other style will be permitted. References should be confined to those cited in the text, arranged in alphabetical order of first author. Where a book is cited, the title of the book, the edition, the ...
Before sacrifice, the animals were weighed; the foetuses were weighed with Ohaus® Heavy. Duty Double Beam Balance (Thomas. Scientific, UK) in the laboratory, Department of. Veterinary Anatomy, UNN, while the prepubertal and pubertal goats were weighed with Avery® weighing balance (Pacific. Industrial Scale, USA) ...
Focus and Scope. The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of ...
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Klement, A; Omler, M; Lautenschläger, C; Bretschneider, K; Haerting, J
The topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum in the context of quality assurance, a continuous evaluation by the target group is necessary. Of importance are particularly the subjective success in learning and its interdependence to invested time, achievement expenditure and perceived relevance of the topics. Medical students (N=660) of the fifth academic years of 2007-2009 at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg were asked about their opinion after completing their Q10 curriculums by means of a standardised questionnaires. Emphasis of the questioning was placed on self estimates about success in learning, expenditure of time, evaluation of instruction elements, perceived relevance of prevention topics and the motivation for further occupation with the topic field. The collection instruments covered multiple choice questions, decimal number data and 5-point Likert scales. 510 questionnaires (77% return) could be evaluated. The curriculum "prevention and health promotion" was continuously evaluated over 3 years with increasingly indicated performance requirements and expenditure of time regarding instruction elements and success in learning. The invested time in lecture visits correlated positively with relevance-attribution (r=0.16, pevaluation of the instruction elements (r=0.65, pevaluations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
To remain relevant the Faculty of Medicine Makerere University needs to identify research enhancing opportunities like undergraduate research experiences. Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving 424 graduate and undergraduate students of Makerere University Medical School on the traditional curriculum.
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Scott, N R
Nanotechnology, as an enabling technology, has the potential to revolutionize veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, identity preservation of animal history from birth to a consumer's table, the security of animal food products, major impact on animal nutrition scenarios ranging from the diet to nutrient uptake and utilization, modification of animal waste as expelled from the animal, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. Thus, building blocks do exist and are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. While it is reasonable to presume that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will revolutionize veterinary medicine in the future, there is a huge concern, among some persons and organizations, about food safety and health as well as social and ethical issues which can delay or derail technological advancements.
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students.
Doucet, Michèle; Vrins, André; Harvey, Denis
Teaching methods that provide an opportunity for individual engagement and focussed feedback are required to create an active learning environment for case-based teaching in large groups. A prospective observational controlled study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of an audience response system (ARS) would promote an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups, have an impact on student motivation and improve long-term retention. Group A (N = 83) participated in large group case discussions where student participation was voluntary, while for group B (N = 86) an ARS was used. Data collection methods included student and teacher surveys, student focus group interviews, independent observations and 1-year post-course testing. Results indicated that the use of an ARS provided an active learning environment during case-based discussions in large groups by favouring engagement, observation and critical reflection and by increasing student and teacher motivation. Although final exam results were significantly improved in group B, long-term retention was not significantly different between groups. It was concluded that ARS use significantly improved the learning experience associated with case-based discussions in a large group of undergraduate students.
Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter
Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Donihue, Michael R.
Contends that academic departments have come under increasing scrutiny in terms of the scope of curriculum and teaching methods. Describes a senior undergraduate economics course in which the primary objective was to give students opportunities to combine theoretical training with quantitative skills and apply them to real-world problems. (CFR)
Miller, Stephen R.
A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…
Welsh, P J K; Jones, L M; May, S A; Nunn, P R; Whittlestone, K D; Pead, M J
Competency at graduation, in a variety of physical and attitudinal skills, is an essential outcome measure for courses training veterinary surgeons. The approach adopted by the Royal Veterinary College, London, to identify and define the expected skill competencies required of our veterinary undergraduates by the time of graduation is described. In addition, we demonstrate how this skill set was built into a framework that was aligned with other student learning objectives. This two-year project resulted in the publication of a day-one skills handbook, which was introduced to the college staff and students in 2007.
Matthews, Stephen A.
Reports on efforts to redesign medical geography courses taught to undergraduate and graduate students. Describes the author's participation in a curriculum development seminar that focused on current research on women and other underrepresented groups. (CFR)
The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Does interdisciplinary and multiprofessional undergraduate education increase students' self-confidence and knowledge toward palliative care? Evaluation of an undergraduate curriculum design for palliative care at a German academic hospital.
Gerlach, Christina; Mai, Sandra; Schmidtmann, Irene; Massen, Clara; Reinholz, Ulrike; Laufenberg-Feldmann, Rita; Weber, Martin
Undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) became mandatory in Germany by 2013. The training in Mainz, addressing fifth-year (5Y) medical students, emphasizes transfer of knowledge and skills. In this study we assessed students' knowledge and students' self-estimation of self-confidence in palliative care (PC) according to Bandura's concept of self-efficacy. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of the Mainz UPCE on students' self-confidence regarding important domains in PC. We conducted a prospective questionnaire-based cohort study with a pre-post design. 5Y medical students (n=329) were asked for self-estimation concerning knowledge, somatic aspects, spiritual and psychological aspects before and after a 7x90-minute teaching course. To assess knowledge, students completed a multiple choice examination at the end of the term. Overall, 156 students completed matched surveys at both points of measurement. The majority of these students felt more confident after the course than before in all aspects of PC (p<0.0001). All students passed the exam with average scores greater than 90%. A 7x90-minute interactive tutorial in PC for 5Y medical students is feasible and improves both self-efficacy and knowledge of core PC issues. Whether the effects of the course are long-lasting is the objective for further research.
Waugh, Anna; McNay, Lisa; Dewar, Belinda; McCaig, Marie
The centrality of therapeutic relationships is considered to be the cornerstone of effective mental health nursing practice. Strategies that support the development of these skills and the emotional aspects of learning need to be developed. Action learning is one such strategy. This article reports on a qualitative research study on the introduction of Action Learning Sets (ALS) into a Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programme. This teaching and learning methodology was chosen to support the emotional aspects of learning and mental health nursing skills. Four themes were identified: developing skills of listening and questioning in 'real time', enhanced self-awareness, being with someone in the moment--there is no rehearsal and doing things differently in practice. Students and lecturers found the experience positive and advocate for other Pre-registration Mental Health Nursing Programmes to consider the use of ALS within the curriculum. © 2013.
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.
By law in 2013, palliative medicine will be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum as part of a mandatory training program and examinations at German medical schools. For this reason a national curriculum in palliative medicine has to be developed.
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and ... Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed ...
Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Newman, H. C.
Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.
This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. .... The reaction was considered to be negative if the increase in skin thickness at the bovine site of injection was less than or equal to the increase in the skin reaction at the avian site.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Molgaard, Laura K; Preast, Vanessa A
To determine relationships among several common measures of performance prior to and during veterinary school (ie, Graduate Record Examination [GRE] scores, undergraduate grade point average [UGPA], Qualifying Examination [QE] scores, overall grade point average during veterinary school [VGPA], and scores for the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination [NAVLE]). Longitudinal retrospective study. 192 students from the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine and 152 students from the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. Student UGPA, VGPA, and GRE score data were gathered during the normal admissions and academic processes. The QE was administered as a low-stakes examination at both institutions for the purposes of curricular assessment. Scores on the NAVLE were provided with student permission by the National Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. Path analysis was used to explore hypothesized relationships among variables. GRE scores and UGPA predicted NAVLE scores indirectly through QE scores and VGPA, whereas QE scores and VGPA directly predicted NAVLE scores. The resulting models explained 58% to 62% of the variance in NAVLE scores, with QE score being the strongest predictor. Results indicated that for veterinary school students, GRE scores, UGPA, VGPA, and QE scores could be used to predict scores on the NAVLE. This suggests that these measures could prove useful to veterinary schools when admitting students or preparing them for the NAVLE.
Quince, Thelma; Abbas, Mark; Murugesu, Sughashini; Crawley, Francesca; Hyde, Sarah; Wood, Diana; Benson, John
To explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards and opinions about leadership and management education. Between 2009 and 2012 we conducted a qualitative study comprising five focus group discussions, each devoted to one of the five domains in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, (Personal Qualities, Working with Others, Managing Services, Improving Services and Setting Direction). Each discussion examined what should be learnt, when should learning occur, what methods should be used, how should learning be assessed, what are the barriers to such education. 28 students from all three clinical years (4-6) of whom 10 were women. 2 inter-related themes emerged: understanding the broad perspective of patients and other stakeholders involved in healthcare provision and the need to make leadership and management education relevant in the clinical context. Topics suggested by students included structure of the National Health Service (NHS), team working skills, decision-making and negotiating skills. Patient safety was seen as particularly important. Students preferred experiential learning, with placements seen as providing teaching opportunities. Structured observation, reflection, critical appraisal and analysis of mistakes at all levels were mentioned as existing opportunities for integrating leadership and management education. Students' views about assessment and timing of such education were mixed. Student feedback figured prominently as a method of delivery and a means of assessment, while attitudes of medical professionals, students and of society in general were seen as barriers. Medical students may be more open to leadership and management education than thought hitherto. These findings offer insights into how students view possible developments in leadership and management education and stress the importance of developing broad perspectives and clinical relevance in this context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Quince, Thelma; Abbas, Mark; Murugesu, Sughashini; Crawley, Francesca; Hyde, Sarah; Wood, Diana; Benson, John
Objective To explore undergraduate medical students’ attitudes towards and opinions about leadership and management education. Design Between 2009 and 2012 we conducted a qualitative study comprising five focus group discussions, each devoted to one of the five domains in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, (Personal Qualities, Working with Others, Managing Services, Improving Services and Setting Direction). Each discussion examined what should be learnt, when should learning occur, what methods should be used, how should learning be assessed, what are the barriers to such education. Participants 28 students from all three clinical years (4–6) of whom 10 were women. Results 2 inter-related themes emerged: understanding the broad perspective of patients and other stakeholders involved in healthcare provision and the need to make leadership and management education relevant in the clinical context. Topics suggested by students included structure of the National Health Service (NHS), team working skills, decision-making and negotiating skills. Patient safety was seen as particularly important. Students preferred experiential learning, with placements seen as providing teaching opportunities. Structured observation, reflection, critical appraisal and analysis of mistakes at all levels were mentioned as existing opportunities for integrating leadership and management education. Students’ views about assessment and timing of such education were mixed. Student feedback figured prominently as a method of delivery and a means of assessment, while attitudes of medical professionals, students and of society in general were seen as barriers. Conclusions Medical students may be more open to leadership and management education than thought hitherto. These findings offer insights into how students view possible developments in leadership and management education and stress the importance of developing broad perspectives and clinical relevance in this context. PMID
Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Mogensen, Kevin; Hjort-Madsen, Peder
The article presents a particular case of undergraduate students working on subprojects within the framework of their supervisors' (the authors') research project during Autumn Semester 2012 and Spring Semester 2013. The article's purpose is to show that an institutionalized focus on students...... as "research learners" rather than merely curriculum learners proves productive for both research and teaching. We describe the specific university learning context and the particular organization of undergraduate students' supervision and assistantships. The case builds on and further enhances a well......-established and proven university model of participant-directed, problem-oriented project work. We explore students' and researchers' experiences of being part of the collaboration, focusing on learning potentials and dilemmas associated with the multiple roles of researcher and student that characterized...
DiLorenzo-Aiss, Janet; Dion, Paul
A Fordham University (New York) initiative to internationalize its undergraduate business curriculum is described. The curriculum development project, designed to both stem declining enrollment and make the curriculum more relevant to business needs, included student surveys, grant proposal preparation, assessment of local program competition,…
Thompson, Katerina V.; Cooke, Todd J.; Fagan, William F.; Gulick, Denny; Levy, Doron; Nelson, Kären C.; Redish, Edward F.; Smith, Robert F.; Presson, Joelle
A major curriculum redesign effort at the University of Maryland is infusing all levels of our undergraduate biological sciences curriculum with increased emphasis on interdisciplinary connections and quantitative approaches. The curriculum development efforts have largely been guided by recommendations in the National Research Council's "Bio…
Lukishova, Svetlana G.
At the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester (UR), we have adapted to the main challenge (the lack of space in the curriculum) by developing a series of modular 3-hour experiments and 20-min-demonstrations based on technical elective, 4-credit-hour laboratory course "Quantum Optics and Nano-Optics Laboratory" (OPT 253/OPT453/PHY434), that were incorporated into a number of required courses ranging from freshman to senior level. Rochester Monroe Community College (MCC) students also benefited from this facility that was supported by four NSF grants. MCC students carried out two 3-hour labs on photon quantum mechanics at the UR. Since 2006, total 566 students passed through the labs with lab reports submission (including 144 MCC students) and more than 250 students through lab demonstrations. In basic class OPT 253, four teaching labs were prepared on generation and characterization of entangled and single (antibunched) photons demonstrating the laws of quantum mechanics: (1) entanglement and Bell's inequalities, (2) single-photon interference (Young's double slit experiment and Mach-Zehnder interferometer), (3) confocal microscope imaging of single-emitter (colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots and NV-center nanodiamonds) fluorescence within photonic (liquid crystal photonic bandgap microcavities) or plasmonic (gold bowtie nanoantennas) nanostructures, (4) Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup. Fluorescence antibunching from nanoemitters. Students also carried out measurements of nanodiamond topography using atomic force microscopy and prepared photonic bandgap materials from cholesteric liquid crystals. Manuals, student reports, presentations, lecture materials and quizzes, as well as some NSF grants' reports are placed on a website http://www.optics.rochester.edu/workgroups/lukishova/QuantumOpticsLab/ . In 2011 UR hosted 6 professors from different US universities in three-days training of these experiments participating in the Immersion Program of the Advanced
Seguino, Alessandro; Seguino, Ferruccio; Eleuteri, Antonio; Rhind, Susan M
Veterinary surgeons working on farms and food-processing establishments play a fundamental role in safeguarding both public health and the welfare of animals under their care. An essential part of veterinary public health (VPH) undergraduate training in the UK involves students undertaking placements within abattoirs, a practice that remains vital to the educational experience of future veterinary professionals. However, several issues have adversely affected the ability of students to gain such extramural placements. For this reason, the Virtual Slaughterhouse Simulator (VSS) was developed to strengthen and enhance undergraduate VPH teaching at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, enabling students to explore a realistic abattoir work environment with embedded educational activities. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the VSS as a teaching and learning tool for training and educating veterinary students. Ninety-eight final-year veterinary students engaged with the prototype VSS, followed by assessment of their knowledge and behavior when faced with a "real-life" abattoir situation. Further evaluation of their experiences with the VSS was carried out using questionnaires and focus groups. The results of this investigation show that there is the potential for the VSS to enhance the student learning experience in basic abattoir procedures. This innovative tool provides a visually based learning resource that can support traditional lectures and practical classes and can also be used to stimulate interactive problem-solving activities embedded in the relevant context.
Chapman-Waterhouse, Emily; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona; Whittlestone, Kim David
This intervention study examined the interaction of animal and veterinary nursing students with reusable learning objects (RLO) in the context of preparing for summative assessment. Data was collected from 199 undergraduates using quantitative and qualitative methods. Students accessed RLO via personal devices in order to reinforce taught…
Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan
This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.
Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…
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... fiscal guidance, establishes guidance on the veterinary role in the human-animal bond, prescribes new and revised forms used to record animal medical information and allows for the use of computers...
The course gives general veterinarians an outline of the apparative and diagnostic possibilities in veterinary radiology. Legal prescriptions (X-ray Ordinance, Radiation Protection Ordinance) and sources of failures in X-ray imaging are discussed. (HP) [de
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah
Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.
de Bie, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.
In view of current technological possibilities and the popularity of games, the interest in games for educational purposes is remarkably on the rise. This article outlines the (future) use of (digital) games and simulators in several disciplines, especially in the veterinary curriculum. The
The past decennia, veterinary medical education worldwide has gone through some rapid and major developments. Motivation for these developments were, among others, the explosion of (bio) medical knowledge, the related problem of curriculum overload and the mismatch between university and the
This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to see if Problem-based Learning (PBL can be successfully used in veterinary medicine. Research results show that PBL offers several advantages (it contributes towards the reduction of information overload; it develops generic skills and aptitudes; it facilitates an integrated core curriculum; it facilitates the relevance of curriculum content; it fosters active, deep learning, improved understanding, and retention and development of lifelong learning skills; it is a constructivist approach; it makes the students more responsible for their learning; and it motivates both teachers and students over traditional teaching methods. However, it also has several well recognised disadvantages (it deprives students’ access to a particular inspirational teacher who, in a traditional curriculum, would deliver lectures to a large group; it is difficult and frustrating for the tutors who cannot “teach”; it makes students be unsure about how much self-directed study to do and what information is relevant and useful; it needs more human resources to take part in the tutoring process; it needs more material resources for the students to access simultaneously. The conclusion is that PBL can successfully be used in the teaching of veterinary medicine-related disciplines provided the teachers work on its disadvantages
Reis, Sonia Maria Nunes
The differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raise some interesting issues that are well worth considering through undergraduate university students' perceptions and attitudes. Instructors of undergraduate courses in Portuguese literature suggest that in terms of curriculum design, curriculum delivery, and…
Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A
This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
Bowman, D D
In this paper, the author reviews the reasons for the current interest in waterborne transmission of infectious agents in the veterinary curriculum. In addition, the paper provides short summaries of some of the major zoonotic outbreaks that have caused this new interest in water-borne diseases. Some curricular recommendations are made, including: basic training in modern methodologies in microbiology; a brief introduction to water and sewage treatment, with some discussion of pathogens in relation to the basic treatment processes of flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, denitrification and phosphorus removal; and an introduction to the regulations being promulgated to reduce the pathogen loading of water on farms.
Larsen, Edward W.
During the past five years, a new third-year undergraduate nuclear engineering course has been developed and taught at the University of Michigan. The course was created to correct certain deficiencies in the undergraduate nuclear engineering curriculum. Here we discuss the origins of the new course and our experience with it. (author)
David, Andrew A
Many biology subdisciplines are re-evaluating their undergraduate curriculum amid changing student attitudes towards education. However, a modern framework for undergraduate parasitology has yet to be formally outlined. We present a student-centered approach to teaching parasitology, which diminishes the power of the lectern and emphasizes the use of active learning techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Delaware Technical Community College (DTCC) is one of the pilot schools involved in the Community College Undergraduate Research Initiative (CCURI) which is responding to the call for reform of undergraduate science education. The major tenet of this initiative is to engage students early in their course of study by embedding undergraduate research into the curriculum. At DTCC this is accomplished by incorporating research-based laboratories, case studies, and problem-based learning activitie...
Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L
Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B
Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Tanggaard, L.
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
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Brook, Bryan David
A recommended method for source reduction of pollutants is chemical substitution, in which hazardous materials are substituted for less hazardous materials. Here lab experiments and demonstrations were designed using household chemicals. The advantages include easy accessibility to low cost materials and minimal waste in comparison to traditional experiments. Students also showed more interest in performing experiments using familiar products. A Handbook of Household Chemicals was created. Using chemicals in the Handbook, qualitative and quantitative experiments are described that only require simple equipment. In addition, chemicals are identified in a quantitative analysis experiment with applications for upper level classes. Experiments requiring the use of water condensers were modified using an ice cooled condenser. The condenser, developed in our laboratory, is useful for distillation and reflux experiments where running water is not practical. Finally, demonstrations were designed for an overhead projector to be used in large classrooms. The experiments and demos can be used in any secondary school, college or university. The laboratory exercises can also accompany long distance learning and Internet chemistry courses. Several experiments using consumer products have been incorporated into the Pennsylvania Department of Education Science In Motion project. The program provides a van equipped with instruments and chemicals to be taken to local schools. Overall, the experiments discussed here provide a safe and low-cost alternative to traditional experiments.
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...
Liu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Long-Xian; Zou, Feng-Cai; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Hu, Min; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan
China has made significant achievements in social-economic development in the last three decades, and the numbers of livestock and companion animals are rapidly increasing. Some advances have been made in the control and prevention of animal parasitic diseases, but there are still some significant challenges, particularly in relation to foodborne parasitic zoonoses and vector-borne diseases. In addition, new molecular (e.g., genomic and transcriptomic) technologies have been developed and are gradually being introduced into the veterinary parasitology field. Therefore, teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities has undergone significant changes over the years, in terms of topics, depth and breadth, and also in the ways in which courses are delivered. In this article, we describe the current status of veterinary parasitology teaching at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Chinese universities, summarise changes and improvement in veterinary parasitology teaching, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for veterinary parasitology teaching in the 21st century, including the use of new teaching technologies and the integration of the "One Health" concept into veterinary parasitology courses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Editorial Board Members. Editor-in-Chief: Eshetu Yimer Ahmed, Development Consultant, E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com. Associate Editors: Melaku Tefera, College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Abebe Wossene Wolde, E-mail: abebeww@yahoo.
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Coles, G C
Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.
Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul
The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.
Sharma, Aditya; Murphy, Marianne C.; Rosso, Mark A.; Grant, Donna
Information Systems Security as a specialized area of study has mostly been taught at the graduate level. This paper highlights the efforts of establishing an Information Systems (IS) Security track at the undergraduate level. As there were many unanswered questions and concerns regarding the Security curriculum, focus areas, the benefit of…
Burgoyne, Louise N
Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.
The teaching and learning of such a multidimensional construct require a comprehensive approach in order to be effective and the IBM seems to be a useful and applicable theoretical model to apply. Keywords: integrated behaviour model, patient-centredness, teaching and learning, undergraduate medical curriculum ...
A comparative analysis of the structure of undergraduate chemistry curricula of universities in the southwest of Nigeria with a view to establishing the relative proportion of the different areas of chemistry each curriculum accommodates. It is a qualitative research, involving content analysis with a partial quantitative analysis ...
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.
Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B
To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Levine, Emily D; Mills, Daniel S; Houpt, Katherine A
The American Veterinary Medical Association's policy states that veterinarians are obliged to promote good animal welfare. In order to establish how compatible the attitudes of future veterinarians in one North American Veterinary College were with the promotion of good animal welfare, students were surveyed with respect to their opinions about the humaneness of commonly employed agricultural procedures (e.g., hot branding) and their beliefs about the cognitive ability of various domesticated species. A Web-based questionnaire was made available to all veterinary students at Cornell University. Descriptive summary data were collected with regards to students' perceptions of the cognitive abilities of six different domesticated species. Students were also asked if they considered certain agricultural procedures to be humane for each of these species. The data were analyzed with respect to students' future career goals. Chi-squared tests and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to examine differences between species and desired career goals. Veterinary students were more likely to believe that dogs and cats had cognitive abilities than farm animals did. Students considered various procedures to be more humane for farm mammals than for dogs and cats. Students aspiring to work with food animals considered more procedures to be humane for all species than did students aspiring to work with small animals. The inconsistency of students' attitudes for different species has implications for veterinary education and animal welfare. Scientific fields integral to understanding animal welfare may need to be emphasized within the veterinary educational curriculum.
Strand, Elizabeth B; Brandt, Jennifer; Rogers, Kenita; Fonken, Laurie; Chun, Ruthanne; Conlon, Peter; Lord, Linda
This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016, and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire about ACEs, depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the age at which they wanted to become a veterinarian. Sixty-one percent (677) of respondents reported having at least one ACE. The most prevalent ACE reported was living with a household member with a mental illness (31%). Students who had experienced four or more ACEs had an approximately threefold increase in signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress when compared to students who had experienced no ACEs. The number of ACEs showed an overall graded relationship to signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress. There was no statistically significant relationship between age at which a student wanted to become a veterinarian and exposure to ACEs. Veterinary students report being exposed to ACEs before age 18 at a rate similar to that of other population-based studies. These findings do not suggest that veterinary students enter the veterinary medical education system more at risk for poor mental health due to ACEs than the general population.
Dunne, Karen; Brereton, Bernadette; Duggan, Vivienne; Campion, Deirdre
Veterinary nurses report an intrinsic desire to work with animals. However, this motivation may be eroded by poor working conditions and low pay, resulting in the exit of experienced veterinary nurses from clinical practice. This study sought to quantify the level of animal-handling experience students possessed at the start of their training and to explore the factors motivating them to enter veterinary nurse training in two Irish third-level institutions. The authors had noted a tendency for veterinary nursing students to possess limited animal-handling skills, despite their obvious motivation to work with animals. The study explores possible reasons for this, as it mirrors previous reports in relation to students of veterinary medicine. First-year veterinary nursing students at Dundalk Institute of Technology and University College Dublin were surveyed and a focus group was held in each institution to explore student motivations for choosing this career and their prior animal-handling experience and workplace exposure. The results show that veterinary nursing students are highly intrinsically motivated to work with and care for animals. The majority had spent time in the veterinary workplace before starting their studies but they had limited animal-handling experience beyond that of family pets, primarily dogs. The study also revealed potential tensions between the veterinary nursing and veterinary medical students at University College Dublin: a hitherto unexposed aspect of the hidden curriculum in this institution. The results of this study highlight the need for ongoing investment in practical animal-handling training for veterinary nursing students.
Kumar, Pawan; Jangid, Purushottam; Sethi, Sujata
Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit. This review tries to identify the gaps in undergraduate curriculum, present a SWOT analysis of current situation and recommend the possible ways to address the deficiencies particularly in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coulter, Dwight B.
The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)
This article provides an overview of how quality assurance is developing as a major component of the evaluation of establishments of veterinary education in Europe and, hence, of the evaluation of the veterinary training provided. Also discussed are the ways in which education in veterinary medicine in Europe is currently regulated and assessed and how this assessment is evolving. Major attention is paid to quality indicators, quality-assurance implementation, the development of a culture of quality in veterinary education within Europe, quality assurance for certification or accreditation of such schools, and promoting the development of a global network of evaluation of veterinary education.
Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.
Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…
Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier-Motzkin elimin...
Zamor, Eliza; Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E
The objective of this study was to determine if a revised, recently implemented curriculum, embracing an integrated block design with a focus on student-centered, inquiry-based learning, had a different effect on veterinary medical students' approaches to studying than the previous curriculum. A total of 577 students completed a questionnaire consisting of the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). It included questions relating to conceptions about learning, approaches to studying, and preferences for different types of courses and teaching. In addition, students were asked to respond to general questions regarding the design of the revised curriculum. The scores for the deep and strategic learning approaches were higher for students studying under the previous curriculum compared to the revised curriculum, despite the fact that the revised curriculum was specifically designed to foster deep learning. The scores for the surface learning approach were lower in the students studying the revised curriculum compared to students studying under the previous curriculum. We identified the following factors affecting student learning: alteration of learning activities, such as problem-based learning, from the recommended models; a lack of instructor support for the revised curriculum; assessments that were not aligned to encourage critical thinking; and directed self-learning activities that were too comprehensive to complete in the allotted time. The results of this study can be used to improve the implementation of student-centered and inquiry-based curricula by identifying potential problems that could prevent a deep learning approach in veterinary medical students.
Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...
Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Jensen, A.L.
The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... Skills); both courses were offered in multiple classes (with a total of 171 students in 2009 and 156 students in 2010). All classes in 2009 participated in the SSL stage of the Basic Surgical Skills course before performing live-animal surgery, and one class (28 students) in 2010 did not. Two validated...
Anderson, P.; Beeley, J.; Monteiro, P.M.; de Soet, H.; Andrian, S.; Amaechi, B.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
This paper is part of a series of papers towards a European Core Curriculum in Cariology for undergraduate dental students. The European Core Curriculum in Cariology is the outcome of a joint workshop of the European Organization for Caries Research (ORCA) together with the Association for Dental
Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes
This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate…
Apigian, Charles H.; Gambill, Stanley E.
This article presents the results of research that gathered data about undergraduate information systems curricula and compared it to previous studies and the IS 2009 working model curriculum which is now named IS 2010 Model Curriculum after final approval. Data was collected from the websites of 240 colleges and universities identified as having…
The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth
Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.
Taylor, Kay Ann; Robinson, Daniel C
Women now dominate student enrollment in colleges of veterinary medicine in the USA, as well as in other countries. Projections indicate that this will remain a constant. The implications for teaching, learning, mentoring, leadership, professional development, student and faculty diversity, and curriculum structure are enormous. This article provides the groundwork for examining gender diversity in veterinary medical education. Women's development and ways of knowing are identified as paramount for understanding and benefiting students and faculty in their higher education experiences and in their professional lives. Seminal research focusing on women's development and ways of knowing is introduced, summarized, and contrasted to male-centered models, and implications for teaching practice are considered. Our underlying premise is that research about women's moral and intellectual development is relevant to veterinary education and supports the adoption of student-centered approaches to teaching and learning.
Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier-Motzkin elimin......Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier......-Motzkin elimination, the theory is developed by introducing polyhedra, the double description method and the simplex algorithm, closed convex subsets, convex functions of one and several variables ending with a chapter on convex optimization with the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, duality and an interior point...... algorithm....
de Bie, M H; Lipman, L J A
In view of current technological possibilities and the popularity of games, the interest in games for educational purposes is remarkably on the rise. This article outlines the (future) use of (digital) games and simulators in several disciplines, especially in the veterinary curriculum. The different types of game-based learning (GBL)-varying from simple interactive computer board games to more complex virtual simulation strategies-will be discussed as well as the benefits, possibilities, and limitations of the educational use of games. The real breakthrough seems to be a few years away. Technological developments in the future might diminish the limitations and stumbling blocks that currently exist. Consequently, educational games will play a new and increasingly important role in the future veterinary curriculum, providing an attractive and useful way of learning.
Neal, Larry L.
This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt
Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
Background: The establishment of a credible, defensible and acceptable “formal competency based ophthalmology training curriculum for undergraduate medical and dental students” is fundamental to program recognition, monitoring and evaluation. The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZ-CHS) has ...
Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.
Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…
Winberg, S. L.; Schach, S. R.; Inggs, M. R.
The use of effective knowledge management is becoming an essential part of technical development projects in order to enable developers to handle the growing complexity of these projects. In this article we discuss an innovative approach to address this concern from the perspective of an undergraduate engineering curriculum. Instead of adding…
Yilmaz, M.; Ozcelik, S.; Yilmazer, N.; Nekovei, R.
This paper presents an innovative two-course, laboratory-based, and design-oriented robotics educational model. The robotics curriculum exposed senior-level undergraduate students to major robotics concepts, and enhanced the student learning experience in hybrid learning environments by incorporating the IEEE Region-5 annual robotics competition…
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L
Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.