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Sample records for undergraduate medical curriculum

  1. Medical humanities in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supe, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    The medical humanities have been introduced in medical curricula over the past 30 years in the western world. Having medical humanities in a medical school curriculum can nurture positive attitudes in the regular work of a clinician and contribute equally to personality development. Though substantial evidence in favour of a medical humanities curriculum may be lacking, the feedback is positive. It is recommended that medical humanities be introduced into the curriculum of every medical school with the purpose of improving the quality of healthcare, and the attitudes of medical graduates.

  2. Defining an anaesthetic curriculum for medical undergraduates. A Delphi study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rohan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Anaesthesia is commonly taught to medical students. The duration and content of such teaching varies however and no consensus exists as to what constitutes an optimal curriculum. Anaesthetists possess the necessary knowledge and skills and operate in clinical settings suitable to provide training for medical undergraduates, especially in areas where deficiencies have been identified. This Delphi study was directed towards developing a consensus on an optimal anaesthesia, intensive care and pain medicine curriculum for medical undergraduates.

  3. The hidden curriculum in undergraduate medical education: qualitative study of medical students' perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive

    2004-10-02

    To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.

  4. National Undergraduate Medical Core Curriculum in Turkey: Evaluation of Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl İrem Budakoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is very little information available on self-perceived competence levels of junior medical doctors with regard to definitions by the National Core Curriculum (NCC for Undergraduate Medical Education. Aims: This study aims to determine the perceived level of competence of residents during undergraduate medical education within the context of the NCC. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The survey was conducted between February 2010 and December 2011; the study population comprised 450 residents. Of this group, 318 (71% participated in the study. Self-assessment questionnaires on competencies were distributed and residents were asked to assess their own competence in different domains by scoring them on a scale of 1 to 10. Results: Nearly half of the residents reported insufficient experience of putting clinical skills into practice when they graduated. In the theoretical part of NCC, the lowest competency score was reported for health-care administration, while the determination of level of chlorine in water, delivering babies, and conducting forensic examinations had the lowest perceived levels of competency in the clinical skills domain. Conclusion: Residents reported low levels of perceived competency in skills they rarely performed outside the university hospital. They were much more confident in skills they performed during their medical education.

  5. Radiology curriculum for undergraduate medical studies—A consensus survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Mankad, K.; McCoubrie, P.; Roberts, T.; Kessel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish an expert consensus of what, when, and how the teaching of radiology should be incorporated into the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods and materials: This Delphi survey consisted of four iterative rounds, with feedback given at the start of each successive round in the form of the results of the previous round. The participants consisted of both radiologists and non-radiologists with significant interest and involvement in radiology and undergraduate/Foundation training. The study addressed the questions of how, where, when, and by whom radiology should be taught. Results: The number of responses in rounds 1–4 was 20, 23, 41, and 25 (25, 22, 31, and 61% response rate, respectively). There was good consensus amongst the responders on the following: radiology teaching must be delivered in conjunction with anatomy and clinical case-based teaching, if possible in the department of radiology on picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations, and the teaching should be delivered by a competent and credentialled individual. Case-based assessment was the most agreed method of assessment. The majority of the responders concurred that the curriculum should include general indications for commonly requested radiological investigations, consent and safety issues around radiological tests, and their basic interpretation. Conclusion: The consensus points reached by the present study not only serve as directive principles for developing a more comprehensive radiology curriculum, but also places emphasis on a broader range of knowledge required to promote the best use of a department of radiology by junior doctors in an attempt to improve patient experiences and care.

  6. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  7. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B., E-mail: T.Pascual@iaea.org [Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Chhem, Rethy, E-mail: R.Chhem@iaea.org [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Shih-Chang, E-mail: shih-chang.wang@sydney.edu.au [University of Sydney Discipline of Imaging, University of Sydney, Department of Radiology, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Vujnovic, Sasa, E-mail: svujnovic@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Clinical Center Banja Luka, Zdrave Korda 1, 51000 Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2011-06-15

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  8. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Chhem, Rethy; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  9. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-10-01

    Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is

  10. Psychomotor skills for the undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country--Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rashida; Naqvi, Zoon; Wolfhagen, Ineke

    2005-03-01

    To identify essential psychomotor skills for all the medical graduates of an undergraduate programme in Pakistan. Twenty-five physicians practising in a tertiary care centre and ninety primary care physicians used a Likert's scale, ranging from "very essential" to"not required at all", to mark 99 psychomotor skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Pakistan. Overall the opinions of both the groups about the essential skills matched except for a few areas. This study provides baseline data about psychomotor skills that a medical graduate in developing countries should be able to perform. Further studies will be undertaken by involving other stakeholders to identify and incorporate these skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum, thereby enabling graduates to practice in all the settings in Pakistan.

  11. A behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum proposal for Japanese undergraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine cor...

  12. Consensus statement on an updated core communication curriculum for UK undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lorraine M; Scott-Smith, Wesley; O'Neill, Bernadette; Salisbury, Helen

    2018-04-22

    Clinical communication is a core component of undergraduate medical training. A consensus statement on the essential elements of the communication curriculum was co-produced in 2008 by the communication leads of UK medical schools. This paper discusses the relational, contextual and technological changes which have affected clinical communication since then and presents an updated curriculum for communication in undergraduate medicine. The consensus was developed through an iterative consultation process with the communication leads who represent their medical schools on the UK Council of Clinical Communication in Undergraduate Medical Education. The updated curriculum defines the underpinning values, core components and skills required within the context of contemporary medical care. It incorporates the evolving relational issues associated with the more prominent role of the patient in the consultation, reflected through legal precedent and changing societal expectations. The impact on clinical communication of the increased focus on patient safety, the professional duty of candour and digital medicine are discussed. Changes in the way medicine is practised should lead rapidly to adjustments to the content of curricula. The updated curriculum provides a model of best practice to help medical schools develop their teaching and argue for resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

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    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  14. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  15. How we developed a bioethics theme in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Khan, Kausar S; Khan, Robyna; Khan, Murad M; Farooqui, Arshi; Nayani, Parvez

    2011-01-01

    The 5-year undergraduate medical curriculum at Aga Khan University integrates basic sciences with clinical and community health sciences. Multimodal strategies of teaching and learning, with an emphasis on problem-based learning, are utilized to equip students with knowledge, skills, behaviours, attitudes and values necessary for a high-calibre medical graduate. Bioethics teaching was introduced in the medical curriculum in 1988 and has since undergone several changes. In 2009, a multidisciplinary voluntary group began review of undergraduate bioethics teaching and invested over 350 man-hours in curricular revision. This involved formulating terminal objectives, delineating specific objectives and identifying instructional methodologies and assessment strategies appropriate for the contents of each objective. Innovative strategies were specially devised to work within the time constraints of the existing medical curriculum and importantly, to increase student interest and engagement. The new bioethics curriculum is designed to be comprehensive and robust, and strives to develop graduates who, in addition to being technically skilled and competent, are well-versed in the history and philosophy of ethics and bioethics and are ethical in their thinking and practice, especially in the context of a developing country like Pakistan where health indicators are among the worst in the region, and clinical practices are not effectively regulated to ensure quality of care.

  16. A behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum proposal for Japanese undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum consists of 11 units of lectures and four units of practical study. The working group plans to improve the current core curriculum by devising formative assessment methods so that students can learn and acquire attitude as well as the skills and knowledge necessary for student-centered clinical practice.

  17. Navigating the Complexities of Undergraduate Medical Curriculum Change: Change Leaders' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, Floor; Varpio, Lara; Helmich, Esther; Dekker, Hanke; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2018-02-06

    Changing an undergraduate medical curriculum is a recurring, high-stakes undertaking at medical schools. This study aimed to explore how people leading major curriculum changes conceived of the process of enacting change and the strategies they relied on to succeed in their efforts. The first author individually interviewed nine leaders who were leading or had led the most recent undergraduate curriculum change in one of the eight medical schools in the Netherlands. Interviews were between December 2015 and April 2016, using a semi-structured interview format. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection, with themes being constructed inductively from the data. Leaders conceived of curriculum change as a dynamic, complex process. They described three major challenges they had to deal with while navigating this process: the large number of stakeholders championing a multitude of perspectives, dealing with resistance, and steering the change process. Additionally, strategies for addressing these challenges were described. The authors identified an underlying principle informing the work of these leaders: being and remaining aware of emerging situations, and carefully constructing strategies for ensuring the intended outcomes were reached and contributed to the progress of the change process. This empirical, descriptive study enriches the understanding of how institutional leaders navigate the complexities of major medical curriculum changes. The insights serve as a foundation for training and coaching future change leaders. To broaden the understanding of curriculum change processes, future studies could investigate the processes through alternative stakeholder perspectives.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not

  18. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  19. A survey validation and analysis of undergraduate medical biochemistry practical curriculum in maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, Sucheta P; Maksane, Shalini N; McKinley, Danette

    2012-01-01

    In order to review the strengths and weaknesses of medical biochemistry practical curriculum for undergraduates and to generate ideas to improve it, a questionnaire was sent to 50 biochemistry faculty members selected (through simple random sampling method) from 42 medical colleges of Maharashtra, India. 39 responded to the questionnaire, representing a 78% response rate. The internal consistency of the questionnaire sections was found to be satisfactory (>0.7). The respondents did not agree that the ongoing curriculum was in alignment with learning outcomes (8%), that it encouraged active learning (28%), helped to apply knowledge to clinical situations (18%) and promoted critical thinking and problem solving skills (28%). There were a number of qualitative experiments that were rated 'irrelevant'. Qualitative and quantitative experiments related to recent advances were suggested to be introduced by the respondents. Checklists for the practicals and new curriculum objectives provided in the questionnaire were also approved. The results of the curriculum evaluation suggest a need for re-structuring of practical biochemistry curriculum and introduction of a modified curriculum with more clinical relevance.

  20. Nigerian Medical Students' Opinions about the Undergraduate Curriculum in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bawo; Omoaregba, Joyce; Okogbenin, Esther; Buhari, Olubunmi; Obindo, Taiwo; Okonoda, Mayowa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The number of psychiatrists in Nigeria is inadequate to meet the treatment needs for neuropsychiatric disorders. Developing mental health competency in the future Nigerian physician workforce is one approach to filling the treatment gap. The authors aimed to assess medical students' attitudes to this training and its relevance to their…

  1. Peer-assisted learning--beyond teaching: How can medical students contribute to the undergraduate curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmedge, Daniel S; Iwata, Kazuya; Gill, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become increasingly popular over recent years with many medical schools now formally incorporating peer-teaching programs into the curriculum. PAL has a sound evidence base with benefit to both peer-teacher and peer-learner. Aside from in teaching delivery, empowering students to develop education in its broadest sense has been much less extensively documented. Five case studies with supportive evaluation evidence illustrate the success of a broad range of peer-led projects in the undergraduate medical curriculum, particularly where these have been embedded into formal teaching practices. These case studies identify five domains of teaching and support of learning where PAL works well: teaching and learning, resource development, peer-assessment, education research and evaluation and mentoring and support. Each case offers ways of engaging students in each domain. Medical students can contribute significantly to the design and delivery of the undergraduate medical program above and beyond the simple delivery of peer-assisted "teaching". In particular, they are in a prime position to develop resources and conduct research and evaluation within the program. Their participation in all stages enables them to feel involved in course development and education of their peers and ultimately leads to an increase in student satisfaction.

  2. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Komattil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80% of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.

  3. Clinical medical sciences for undergraduate dental students in the United Kingdom and Ireland - a curriculum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mighell, A J

    2011-08-01

    The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.

  4. A survey of palliative medicine education in Japan's undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.

  5. Integrating radiology vertically into an undergraduate medical education curriculum: a triphasic integration approach

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    Al Qahtani F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fahd Al Qahtani,1 Adel Abdelaziz2,31Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 3Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated.Keywords: radiology foundations, radiology module, students assessment

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a survey of Korean medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeun; Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Min, Byung-Il; Suh, Duk-Joon; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Seung Pil; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam

    2012-09-01

    The current status of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education in Korean medical schools is still largely unknown, despite a growing need for a CAM component in medical education. The prevalence, scope, and diversity of CAM courses in Korean medical school education were evaluated. Participants included academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of the 41 Korean medical schools. A mail survey was conducted from 2007 to 2010. Replies were received from all 41 schools. CAM was officially taught at 35 schools (85.4%), and 32 schools (91.4%) provided academic credit for CAM courses. The most common courses were introduction to CAM or integrative medicine (88.6%), traditional Korean medicine (57.1%), homeopathy and naturopathy (31.4%), and acupuncture (28.6%). Educational formats included lectures by professors and lectures and/or demonstrations by practitioners. The value order of core competencies was attitude (40/41), knowledge (32/41), and skill (6/41). Reasons for not initiating a CAM curriculum were a non-evidence-based approach in assessing the efficacy of CAM, insufficiently reliable reference resources, and insufficient time to educate students in CAM. This survey reveals heterogeneity in the content, format, and requirements among CAM courses at Korean medical schools. Korean medical school students should be instructed in CAM with a more consistent educational approach to help patients who participate in or demand CAM.

  7. The educational environment of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Kuwait University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J

    2015-04-01

    : Based on the learners’ perspectives, the educational environment of FOMKU, was suboptimal. Medical educators in Kuwait should improve this environment in order to advance the quality of the delivered curriculum. Keywords: medical education, undergraduate, medical students, environment, learning, teaching

  8. Is community-based electrocardiography education feasible in the early phase of an undergraduate medical curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol O. Larson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation authorities expect medical schools to increase their teaching standards and civic engagement, despite limited resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of community-based (CB electrocardiography (ECG instruction in semesters 4and/or 5 of the undergraduate MBChB programme at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa. A literature review and 34 structured interviews were employed, using a mixed-methods QUAN (þqual research design. Regarding the preclinical phase, 18 interviewees strongly supported community-based learning (CBL and 21strongly supported task-based (TB CBL. Responses were more conservative regarding the practicability of TB CBL. Twenty-two interviewees supported preclinical phase ECG-specific CBL. There was more support for implementing CB ECG in the clinical phase than in the preclinical phase. Challenges identified included finances, transport, personnel availability, clinic space, curriculum time constraints, student and driver absenteeism, and ethical aspects. Solutions for the preclinical phase included combining electrocardiography with other CBL tasks. Many interviewees supported preclinical phase TB CBL, although several factors determine its feasibility. Availability of human and other resources and curriculum time significantly impact CB ECG learning. Solutions necessitate additional location-specific research.

  9. Student perceptions of a virtual learning environment for a problem-based learning undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leng, Bas A; Dolmans, Diana H J M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a virtual learning environment (VLE) on group interaction and consultation of information resources during the preliminary phase, self-study phase and reporting phase of the problem-based learning process in an undergraduate medical curriculum. A questionnaire was administered to 355 medical students in Years 1 and 2 to ask them about the perceived usefulness of a virtual learning environment that was created with Blackboard for group interaction and the use of learning resources. The students indicated that the VLE supported face-to-face interaction in the preliminary discussion and in the reporting phase but did not stimulate computer-mediated distance interaction during the self-study phase. They perceived that the use of multimedia in case presentations led to a better quality of group discussion than if case presentations were exclusively text-based. They also indicated that the information resources that were hyperlinked in the VLE stimulated the consultation of these resources during self-study, but not during the reporting phase. Students indicated that the use of a VLE in the tutorial room and the inclusion of multimedia in case presentations supported processes of active learning in the tutorial groups. However, if we want to exploit the full potential of asynchronous computer-mediated communication to initiate in-depth discussion during the self-study phase, its application will have to be selective and deliberate. Students indicated that the links in the VLE to selected information in library repositories supported their learning.

  10. Plastic Surgery Inclusion in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Perception, Challenges, and Career Choice—A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in

  11. Incorporation of web-based applications and online resources in undergraduate medical education in the Irish Republic. Can new changes be incorporated in the current medical curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Karanvir Singh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Significant change has been happening in the introduction of technology in medical teaching all over the world. We aim to determine if the undergraduate medical students and teachers are open to incorporating changes in the current medical curriculum or if there is a need for the same in the Republic of Ireland. A cross-sectional study involving 202 participants of whom 152 were medical students and 50 medical professionals (teachers and hospital doctors) were carried out involving three different medical universities namely; University College Cork (UCC), University College Dublin (UCD), and National University of Ireland in Galway (NUIG). Participants were requested to answer a series of 15 questions designed incorporating various fields of technology necessary for the study. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to determine statistical significance. The participants overall had a positive attitude toward the utility of modern technology and web-based applications in current medical curriculum. Ninety-one percent of the participants preferred the introduction of modern technology into medical education and 7% were against the idea and a further 2% of them remained undecided. There seems to be a "technology gap" in the current undergraduate medical curriculum in Ireland. A large-scale study involving more participants from all the medical schools in Ireland is recommended. We believe, changes can be brought into the current medical teaching and learning to make the process more fruitful and successful.

  12. Attitudes among students and teachers on vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynhildsen, J; Dahle, L O; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

    2002-05-01

    Important elements in the curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science sections of the curriculum, and horizontal integration between different subject areas. Integration throughout the whole curriculum is time-consuming for both teachers and students and hard work is required for planning, organization and execution. The aim was to assess the importance of vertical and horizontal integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to opinions among students and teachers. In a questionnaire 102 faculty teachers and 106 students were asked about the importance of 14 different components of the undergraduate medical curriculum including vertical and horizontal integration. They were asked to assign between one and six points to each component (6 points = extremely important for the quality of the curriculum; 1 point = unimportant). Students as well as teachers appreciated highly both forms of integration. Students scored horizontal integration slightly but significantly higher than the teachers (median 6 vs 5 points; p=0.009, Mann-Whitney U-test), whereas teachers scored vertical integration higher than students (6 vs 5; p=0.019, Mann-Whitney U-test). Both students and teachers considered horizontal and vertical integration to be highly important components of the undergraduate medical programme. We believe both kinds of integration support problem-based learning and stimulate deep and lifelong learning and suggest that integration should always be considered deeply when a new curriculum is planned for undergraduate medical education.

  13. Blueprint for an Undergraduate Primary Care Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Demasi, Monica; Farren, Erin; Frankl, Susan; Gottlieb, Barbara; Hoy, Jessica; Johnson, Amanda; Kasper, Jill; Lee, Patrick; McCarthy, Claire; Miller, Kathe; Morris, Juliana; O'Hare, Kitty; Rosales, Rachael; Simmons, Leigh; Smith, Benjamin; Treadway, Katherine; Goodell, Kristen; Ogur, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    In light of the increasing demand for primary care services and the changing scope of health care, it is important to consider how the principles of primary care are taught in medical school. While the majority of schools have increased students' exposure to primary care, they have not developed a standardized primary care curriculum for undergraduate medical education. In 2013, the authors convened a group of educators from primary care internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics, as well as five medical students to create a blueprint for a primary care curriculum that could be integrated into a longitudinal primary care experience spanning undergraduate medical education and delivered to all students regardless of their eventual career choice.The authors organized this blueprint into three domains: care management, specific areas of content expertise, and understanding the role of primary care in the health care system. Within each domain, they described specific curriculum content, including longitudinality, generalism, central responsibility for managing care, therapeutic alliance/communication, approach to acute and chronic care, wellness and prevention, mental and behavioral health, systems improvement, interprofessional training, and population health, as well as competencies that all medical students should attain by graduation.The proposed curriculum incorporates important core features of doctoring, which are often affirmed by all disciplines but owned by none. The authors argue that primary care educators are natural stewards of this curriculum content and can ensure that it complements and strengthens all aspects of undergraduate medical education.

  14. Use of the film The Bridge to augment the suicide curriculum in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamero, Carolina; Walsh, Leorah; Otero-Perez, Guillermo

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and reception of the movie The Bridge as complementary to the suicide curriculum of medical students. One hundred eighty second-year medical students watched The Bridge as a part of the neuroscience curriculum in understanding suicide. They completed a pre- and post-movie survey regarding the understanding of suicide risk, reasons for suicide, prevention of suicide, and impact of suicide on surviving families. The percentage of answers in categories agree, strongly agree, disagree, and strongly disagree were calculated. The significance of results was calculated using paired t tests. Students were also asked to comment on the movie. The comments were grouped according to themes, and the percentages of comments on each theme were calculated. Students consistently reported they found watching the movie The Bridge to be valuable. Students were very receptive to the idea of using a movie to augment instruction on suicide and agreed that it reinforced concepts used in lecture. They also believed that The Bridge should be shown to people in the medical field, and more than 80 % of students had detailed comments to make about one or more people in the story or about the story in general. The Bridge represents a useful method for instructing students and residents on suicide and has utility in medical education. It can and should be used alongside lectures for assisting in education about suicide.

  15. Health promotion in medical education: lessons from a major undergraduate curriculum implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Ann; Leedham-Green, Kathleen

    2017-11-01

    Despite the economic, environmental and patient-related imperatives to prepare medical students to become health promoting doctors, health promotion remains relatively deprioritised in medical curricula. This paper uses an in-depth case study of a health promotion curriculum implementation at a large UK medical school to provide insights into the experiences of teachers and learners across a range of topics, pedagogies, and teaching & assessment modalities. Topics included smoking cessation, behavioural change approaches to obesity, exercise prescribing, social prescribing, maternal and child health, public and global health; with pedagogies ranging from e-learning to practice-based project work. Qualitative methods including focus groups, analysis of reflective learning submissions, and evaluation data are used to illuminate motivations, frustrations, practicalities, successes and limiting factors. Over this three year implementation, a range of challenges have been highlighted including: how adequately to prepare and support clinical teachers; the need to establish relevance and importance to strategic learners; the need for experiential learning in clinical environments to support classroom-based activities; and the need to rebalance competing aspects of the curriculum. Conclusions are drawn about heterogeneous deep learning over standardised surface learning, and the impacts, both positive and negative, of different assessment modalities on these types of learning.

  16. An integrated model for developing research skills in an undergraduate medical curriculum: appraisal of an approach using student selected components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Simon C; Morton, Jeremy; Ray, David C; Swann, David G; Davidson, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Student selected components (SSCs), at that time termed special study modules, were arguably the most innovative element in Tomorrow's Doctors (1993), the document from the General Medical Council that initiated the modernization of medical curricula in the UK. SSCs were proposed to make up one-third of the medical curriculum and provide students with choice, whilst allowing individual schools autonomy in how SSCs were utilized. In response, at the University of Edinburgh the undergraduate medical curriculum provides an integrated and sequential development and assessment of research skill learning outcomes, for all students in the SSC programme. The curriculum contains SSCs which provide choice to students in all 5 years. There are four substantial timetabled SSCs where students develop research skills in a topic and speciality of their choice. These SSCs are fully integrated and mapped with core learning outcomes and assessment, particularly with the 'Evidence-Based Medicine and Research' programme theme. These research skills are developed incrementally and applied fully in a research project in the fourth year. One-third of students also perform an optional intercalated one-year honours programme between years 2 and 3, usually across a wide range of honours schools at the biomedical science interface. Student feedback is insightful and demonstrates perceived attainment of research competencies. The establishment of these competencies is discussed in the context of enabling junior graduate doctors to be effective and confident at utilizing their research skills to effectively practice evidence-based medicine. This includes examining their own practice through clinical audit, developing an insight into the complexity of the evidence base and uncertainty, and also gaining a view into a career as a clinical academic.

  17. Educational Scholarship and Technology: Resources for a Changing Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Brandon N; Corral, Irma; John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G

    2017-06-01

    Returning to the original emphasis of higher education, universities have increasingly recognized the value and scholarship of teaching, and medical schools have been part of this educational scholarship movement. At the same time, the preferred learning styles of a new generation of medical students and advancements in technology have driven a need to incorporate technology into psychiatry undergraduate medical education (UGME). Educators need to understand how to find, access, and utilize such educational technology. This article provides a brief historical context for the return to education as scholarship, along with a discussion of some of the advantages to this approach, as well as several recent examples. Next, the educational needs of the current generation of medical students, particularly their preference to have technology incorporated into their education, will be discussed. Following this, we briefly review the educational scholarship of two newer approaches to psychiatry UGME that incorporate technology. We also offer the reader some resources for accessing up-to-date educational scholarship for psychiatry UGME, many of which take advantage of technology themselves. We conclude by discussing the need for promotion of educational scholarship.

  18. Sources of Stress and Coping Strategies among Undergraduate Medical Students Enrolled in a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

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    Samira S. Bamuhair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical education is rated as one of the most difficult trainings to endure. Throughout their undergraduate years, medical students face numerous stressors. Coping with these stressors requires access to a variety of resources, varying from personal strengths to social support. We aimed to explore the perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies employed by medical students studying in a problem-based learning curriculum. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of randomly selected medical students that explored demographics, perceived stress scale, sources of stress, and coping strategies. Results. Of the 378 medical students that participated in the study, males were 59.3% and females 40.7%. Nearly 53% of the students often felt stressed, and a third felt that they could not cope with stress. Over 82% found studying stressful and 64.3% were not sleeping well. Half of the students reported low self-esteem. Perceived stress scores were statistically significantly high for specific stressors of studying in general, worrying about future, interpersonal conflict, and having low self-esteem. Coping strategies that were statistically significantly applied more often were blaming oneself and being self-critical, seeking advice and help from others, and finding comfort in religion. Female students were more stressed than males but they employ more coping strategies as well. Conclusions. Stress is very common among medical students. Most of the stressors are from coursework and interpersonal relationships. Low self-esteem coupled with self-blame and self-criticism is quite common.

  19. Integration of Cognitive Skills as a Cross-Cutting Theme Into the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    Akbar Soltani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The first step toward integrating cognitive skills into the curriculum was to assemble a taskforce of different faculty and students, including a wide variety of fields with multidisciplinary expertise using nonprobability sampling and the snowball method. Several meetings with the contribution of experts and some medical students were held to generate the draft of expected outcomes. Subsequently, the taskforce also determined what content would fit best into each phase of the program and what teaching and assessment methods would be more appropriate for each outcome. After a pilot curriculum with a small group of second-year medical students, we implemented this program for all first-year students since 2011 at TUMS. Based on findings, the teaching of four areas, including scientific and critical thinking skills (Basic sciences, problem-solving and reasoning (Pathophysiology, evidence-based medicine (Clerkship, and clinical decision-making (Internship were considered in the form of a longitudinal theme. The results of this study could be utilized as a useful pattern for integration of psycho-social subjects into the medical curriculum.

  20. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.; Shaygi, B.; Asadi, H.; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  1. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  2. University of the Witwatersrand physiotherapy undergraduate curriculum alignment to medical conditions of patients within Gauteng state health facilities

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    Mokgobadibe V. Ntsiea

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The Wits physiotherapy curriculum covers all medical conditions treated by physiotherapists within the Gauteng state health facilities, and overall, the curriculum prepares the students to practise in a variety of situations.

  3. An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2012-03-01

    Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors\\' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained.

  4. Teaching diversity to medical undergraduates: Curriculum development, delivery and assessment. AMEE GUIDE No. 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Bhatti, Farah; Ertubey, Candan; Kelly, Moira; Rowlands, Angela; Singh, Davinder; Turner, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this Guide is to support teacher with the responsibility of designing, delivering and/or assessing diversity education. Although, the focus is on medical education, the guidance is relevant to all healthcare professionals. The Guide begins by providing an overview of the definitions used and the principles that underpin the teaching of diversity as advocated by Diversity and Medicine in Health (DIMAH). Following an outline of these principles we highlight the difference between equality and diversity education. The Guide then covers diversity education throughout the educational process from the philosophical stance of educators and how this influences the approaches used through to curriculum development, delivery and assessment. Appendices contain practical examples from across the UK, covering lesson plans and specific exercises to deliver teaching. Although, diversity education remains variable and fragmented there is now some momentum to ensure that the principles of good educational practice are applied to diversity education. The nature of this topic means that there are a range of different professions and medical disciplines involved which leads to a great necessity for greater collaboration and sharing of effective practice.

  5. Virtual patient cases: to use or not to use? Exploring creators' attitudes against their use in the undergraduate medical curriculum

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    Areti Z. Karasmani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problems and difficulties in students' education that arise from the existing undergraduate curriculum at the medical school of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH urged the academic staff members to the pursuance of new pedagogic approaches that could revitalize medical education practice. The educational programs "mEducator", "ePBLnet" and "Ariadne" that run at AUTH laid the foundations for the development of a plenty of virtual patient (VP cases. A VP is an innovative computer simulation method that can motivate students to occupy themselves with their studies and perfect their skills. Unfortunately, despite the indisputable advantages of embedding VPs to the lessons, their utilization is neglected during the educational process at AUTH. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons for which VP authors do not use their own VP cases. Why even VP authors avoid VPs' exploitation and in this way they forsake the insistent efforts they made through the rigorous process of VPs' creation? Methods: After study' s authorization, 35 academic staff members, who had previously developed their own VPs, signed an informed consent and fulfilled a specially designed questionnaire, mainly consisted of closed questions (answer: yes/no about the possible causes of VPs' dereliction. Results: Some 77% of participants granted that they do not utilize their own VP cases. Almost 56% of them admitted that the lack of proper infrastructures (computers, projectors and Internet connection in the lecture rooms impede VPs' use. Specifically, some 33% acknowledged the absence of access to the Internet as the only reason of VPs' abandonment. Almost 52% claimed that they do not have enough time in the courses for covering the great curriculum. Moreover, almost 30% sustained that the great number of students in the lessons enables all of them to conduct a fruitful discussion. Almost 15% asserted that they do not exploit VPs due to the

  6. A Model to Predict Student Failure in the First Year of the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum

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    Gerard J.A. Baars

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The earliest moment with the highest specificity to predict student failure in the first-year curriculum seems to be at 6 months. However, additional factors are needed to improve this prediction or to bring forward the predictive moment.

  7. Faculty perceptions of the strengths, weaknesses and future prospects of the current medical undergraduate experimental physiology curriculum in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralikar, Swapnil; Shah, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an opinion has emerged in India that the current practical curricula in medical schools fail to meet many of the objectives for which they were instituted. Hence, this study has assessed the perception of physiology faculty members regarding the current experimental physiology curriculum in one Indian state, Gujarat. The faculty were of the opinion that many of the topics currently taught in experimental physiology (amphibian nerve-muscle and heart muscle experiments) were outdated and clinically irrelevant: Therefore, the faculty advocated that duration of teaching time devoted to some of these topics should be reduced and topics with clinical relevance should be introduced at the undergraduate level. The faculty also felt that more emphasis should be laid on highlighting the clinical aspect related to each concept taught in experimental physiology . Moreover, a majority of faculty members were in favour of replacing the current practice in Gujarat of teaching experimental physiology only by explanation of graphs obtained from experiments conducted in the previous years, with computer assisted learning in small groups.

  8. Ethics competences in the undergraduate medical education curriculum: the Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Padilla, Guillermo; Ferrández-Antón, Teresa; Lolas-Stepke, Fernando; Almeida-Cabrera, Rut; Brunet, Joan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. Method The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject. An analysis with descriptive parameters and the Cohen’s coefficient (d) was performed. Results All medical schools in Spain (n = 44) were included. A mean of 3.64 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits was specifically devoted to ethical values teaching in Spain. Private medical schools offered more credits than public ones (6.51 ECTS vs 2.88 ECTS, relevant difference: d = 2.06>>0.8), and the 10 most recently founded medical schools offered more credits than the 10 oldest (5.86 ECTS vs 2.63 ECTS, relevant difference: d = 1.43 > 0.8). A mean of 36.75 hours was dedicated to ethics education. Conclusions Although ethics education is incorporated into the training of future Spanish physicians, there is still notable heterogeneity between different medical schools in the time devoted to this topic. PMID:27815940

  9. Ethics competences in the undergraduate medical education curriculum: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Padilla, Guillermo; Ferrández-Antón, Teresa; Lolas-Stepke, Fernando; Almeida-Cabrera, Rut; Brunet, Joan; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2016-10-31

    Aim .To investigate if there are differences in medical ethics education between different schools of medicine in Spain, specifically between private and public schools and between recently founded schools and older ones. The curricula of medical degrees from all Spanish faculties were reviewed for the 2014/2015 academic year, identifying subjects concerning bioethics, deontology, and ethics. We identified the type of teaching, format and method of the course, the number of credits and hours, and the school year of each subject. An analysis with descriptive parameters and the Cohen's coefficient (d) was performed. All medical schools in Spain (n=44) were included. A mean of 3.64 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits was specifically devoted to ethical values teaching in Spain. Private medical schools offered more credits than public ones (6.51 ECTS vs 2.88 ECTS, relevant difference: d=2.06>0.8), and the 10 most recently founded medical schools offered more credits than the 10 oldest (5.86 ECTS vs 2.63 ECTS, relevant difference: d=1.43>0.8). A mean of 36.75 hours was dedicated to ethics education. Although ethics education is incorporated into the training of future Spanish physicians, there is still notable heterogeneity between different medical schools in the time devoted to this topic.

  10. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools; La Fisica Medica en los nuevos planes de estudio de grado de las facultades de medicina espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  11. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Misbah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. Methods A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Results Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. Conclusion The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  12. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Samreen; Mahboob, Usman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO) patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  13. Merging Problem-Based Learning with Simulation-Based Learning in the Medical Undergraduate Curriculum: The PAIRED Framework for Enhancing Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jansen

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician’s lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning. PMID:27446767

  14. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews

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    Taylor David CM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  15. Graduates from a reformed undergraduate medical curriculum based on Tomorrow's Doctors evaluate the effectiveness of their curriculum 6 years after graduation through interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Simon D; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David C M

    2010-09-29

    In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.

  16. Strengthening training in rural practice in Germany: new approach for undergraduate medical curriculum towards sustaining rural health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens; Normann, Oliver; Herrmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    After decades of providing a dense network of quality medical care, Germany is facing an increasing shortage of medical doctors in rural areas. Current graduation rates of generalists do not counterbalance the loss due to retirement. Informed by international evidence, different strategies to ensure rural medical care are under debate, including innovative teaching approaches during undergraduate training. The University of Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt was the first medical school in Germany to offer a rural elective for graduate students. During the 2014 summer semester, 14 medical students attended a two-weekend program in a small village in Northern Saxony-Anhalt that allowed them to become more familiar with a rural community and rural health issues. The elective course raised a series of relevant topics for setting up rural practice and provided students with helpful insight into living and working conditions in rural practice. Preliminary evaluations indicate that the rural medicine course allowed medical students to reduce pre-existing concerns and had positive impact on their willingness to set up a rural medical office after graduation. Even short-term courses in rural practice can help reduce training-related barriers that prevent young physicians from working in rural areas. Undergraduate medical training is promising to attenuate the emerging undersupply in rural areas.

  17. An assessment of the feasibility and effectiveness of an e-learning module in delivering a curriculum in radiation protection to undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sum; Mc Laughlin, Patrick; O'Connor, Owen J; O'Flynn, Siun; Maher, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Integrating radiation protection (RP) education in the undergraduate medical curriculum is gaining importance and is mandatory in certain jurisdictions. An e-learning module for RP was developed at the authors' medical school and was integrated into year 4 of the 5-year undergraduate medical program. The aim of this study was to investigate its impact on RP knowledge, student preferences for various teaching methods, self-assessment of RP knowledge, and perceptions of career prospects in radiology. Likert-type 5-point scale evaluations and general comments about the RP module and various methods of teaching were also obtained. An e-learning module in RP was designed and presented to year 4 medical undergraduates. All students were required to complete premodule and postmodule questionnaires. Eighty-nine percent (n = 113) and 99% (n = 126) of the 127 medical students successfully completed and returned the premodule and postmodule questionnaires, respectively. After the e-learning module, students' postmodule RP knowledge had improved significantly. Analysis of postmodule RP knowledge suggested that a favorable self-assessment of knowledge of RP, perception of career prospects in radiology, and completion of the e-learning module with an increased number of sessions were factors predictive of improved RP knowledge. Students expressed a preference for didactic lectures and clinical attachment for instruction in RP over e-learning. The development of an e-learning module in RP is feasible and results in improved knowledge of RP among medical undergraduates. Combining e-learning and more traditional educational programs such as a clinical radiology rotation is likely to improve student experience. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The students' voice: Strengths and weaknesses of an undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Ruwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical education, feedback from students' is essential in course evaluation and development. Students at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka complete a five year medical curriculum comprising of five different streams. We aimed to evaluate the five year medical curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Methods A qualitative research was conducted among recent graduates of the faculty. Students' opinions on strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum were collected via questionnaires, which were analysed and classified into common themes. A focus group discussion (FGD based on these themes was conducted among two student groups, each comprising of a facilitator, two observers and nine students selected as a representative sample from questionnaire respondents. FGDs were conducted using a semi-structured set of open-ended questions to guide participants and maintain consistency between groups. The FGD evaluated the reasons behind students' perceptions, attitudes, emotions and perceived solution. Verbal and non-verbal responses were transcribed and analysed. Results Questionnaire response rate was 82% (153/186. Students highlighted 68 and 135 different responses on strengths and weaknesses respectively. After analysis of both questionnaire and FGD results the following themes emerged: a well organized module system, increased frequency of assessments, a good variety in clinical appointments, lack of specific objectives and assessments at clinical appointments, community and behavioural sciences streams beneficial but too much time allocation, lengthy duration of course, inadequate knowledge provided on pharmacology and pathology. Conclusion We demonstrate how a brief qualitative method could be efficiently used to evaluate a curriculum spanning a considerable length of time. This method provided an insight into the students' attitudes and perceptions of the present faculty

  19. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

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    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  20. Planning an objective and need based curriculum: the logistics with reference to the undergraduate medical education in biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Srinivasan, A R; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2013-03-01

    The medical education is recently being transformed into several domains in order to adapt to the need and the value based academics which is required for the quality doctors who serve the community. Presently, the biochemistry curricula for the graduate students of medicine have been questioned by as many experts, because of their multiple lacunae. In this review, we would like to highlight the scenario which is related to the existing biochemistry curricula for graduate medical students, which have been followed in several medical schools and universities and we also hope to share our ideas for implementing objective and pragmatic curricula. Evidence based research, wherein the articles which are related to innovative teaching-learning tools are collected and the pros and cons which are related to the different methods analyzed in biochemistry point of view. Rapid changes in the content of the curriculum may not be required, but a gradual introduction of the novel approach and the methods of teaching biochemistry can be adopted into the curriculum.

  1. Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burgoyne, Louise N

    2010-01-01

    Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students\\' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students\\' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students\\' motivation for research and (d) obtain students\\' personal views on doing research.

  2. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Thompson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives: The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design: The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact: Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%. The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively. Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement, but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001. Conclusion: A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.

  3. Impact of differences in psychiatry curriculum of undergraduate medical and physiotherapy students on their attitude towards psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Marwale, Arun Vishwambharrao; Deshmukh, Apoorva Sadgun; Saoji, Sanjeev Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitude toward psychiatry (ATP) among medical students is a serious concern. Some studies have concluded that after training in the subject, attitude changes toward positive side. Currently in India, medical students have a less intense course without separate exam or binding to attend training whereas physiotherapy students have more intense course with separate subject exam and binding to attend training in psychiatry. To ascertain and compare the positive and negative ATP in final year MBBS students and final year physiotherapy (BPTh) students who have completed psychiatry curriculum. This is a cross-sectional study with semi-structured pro forma for sociodemographic variables and ATP-30 questionnaire to evaluate ATP of 94 medical and physiotherapy students each. Nonparametric methods were used for statistical analysis with appropriate tests of significance and P value was set at 0.05. Mean ATP-30 score for medical students was 91.9 (standard deviation [SD] =7.0) and that of physiotherapy students was 105.8 (SD = 9.7), this difference in two groups was highly significant (Kruskal-Wallis H = 81.3, df = 1, P students, 36 (41.4%) had negative attitude while only 2 (2.1%) of the physiotherapy students had negative ATP (χ(2) = 41.7, P Physiotherapy students with intense and planned training in psychiatry as an exam subject have significantly more positive ATP than medical students.

  4. Das Longitudinale Curriculum "Soziale und kommunikative Komptenzen" im Bologna-reformierten Medizinstudium in Basel [The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langewitz, Wolf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of “social and communicative competencies” (SOKO was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland. Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE. Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students’ cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.[german] Hintergrund: Mit der Umstellung auf die Bachelor-/Masterstruktur wurde in Basel (Schweiz ein longitudinales Curriculum „soziale und Kommunikative Kompetenzen“ (SOKO in das Medizinstudium implementiert. Projektbeschreibung: Ziel ist es, den Studierenden grundlegende Techniken einer patientenzentrierten Kommunikation in dem Sinne zu vermitteln, dass die Studierenden in der Lage sind, Informationen zu erheben und Informationen an Patientinnen und Patienten weiterzugeben, um sie als gut informierte Partner am Entscheidungsprozess zu beteiligen. Das

  5. Indian medical students’ perspectives on problem-based learning experiences in the undergraduate curriculum: One size does not fit all

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    Bijli Nanda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL is a well-established method for facilitating the learning of basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Relevant evidence is lacking regarding PBL’s effectiveness and acceptability as perceived by students accustomed to classical traditional teaching in India. Hence, this study gathered students’ opinions on PBL versus Traditional teaching methods to generate a foundation for institutional policymaking and ultimately, changes in the policy of regulatory bodies. Methods: A total of 773 first year medical students admitted from 2007-2010 in Kasturba Medical College Manipal, Manipal University, India were asked to respond to a 15-item questionnaire evaluating their preferences for PBL or traditional methods such as lectures after undergoing a systematically conducted PBL session in physiology. Their responses were analyzed with an unpaired t-test. Their comments were also collected. Results: PBL scored significantly higher for most items in the questionnaire for “learning efficiency” and “student-teacher relationship”. The students’ comments highlighted the importance of a trained tutor/facilitator to enhance the learning process. Conclusion: Our students are willing to adapt to the PBL method, although they recognize certain benefits of traditional pedagogy. For learning efficiency and the student-teacher relationship, the students feel that neither method holds an advantage. We recommend that the future medical curriculum in India be a hybrid form of PBL and traditional methods with specific training on the unfamiliar PBL approach for both faculty and students.

  6. Indian medical students' perspectives on problem-based learning experiences in the undergraduate curriculum: One size does not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Bijli; Manjunatha, Shankarappa

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a well-established method for facilitating the learning of basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Relevant evidence is lacking regarding PBL's effectiveness and acceptability as perceived by students accustomed to classical traditional teaching in India. Hence, this study gathered students' opinions on PBL versus Traditional teaching methods to generate a foundation for institutional policymaking and ultimately, changes in the policy of regulatory bodies. A total of 773 first year medical students admitted from 2007-2010 in Kasturba Medical College Manipal, Manipal University, India were asked to respond to a 15-item questionnaire evaluating their preferences for PBL or traditional methods such as lectures after undergoing a systematically conducted PBL session in physiology. Their responses were analyzed with an unpaired t-test. Their comments were also collected. PBL scored significantly higher for most items in the questionnaire for "learning efficiency" and "student-teacher relationship". The students' comments highlighted the importance of a trained tutor/facilitator to enhance the learning process. Our students are willing to adapt to the PBL method, although they recognize certain benefits of traditional pedagogy. For learning efficiency and the student-teacher relationship, the students feel that neither method holds an advantage. We recommend that the future medical curriculum in India be a hybrid form of PBL and traditional methods with specific training on the unfamiliar PBL approach for both faculty and students.

  7. Botany in Edinburgh's Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    In the early 18th century, at the founding of Edinburgh University Medical School, the study of botany was regarded as an essential component of medical training. Botanical teaching began as basic instruction in the recognition of medical plants, considered a vital aspect of a physician's Materia Medica studies. Over the next hundred years growing importance was given to the study of botany as a science, its popularity peaking under John Hutton Balfour's tenure as Professor (1845-1879). The relevance of botanical study later declined in the undergraduate medical curriculum until its cessation in 1961 .This paper considers the history of botanical studies in Edinburgh, including the reasons for its introduction and its changing importance over time.

  8. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Innovative Patient Safety Curriculum Using iPAD Game (PASSED) Improved Patient Safety Concepts in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kow, A W C; Ang, B L S; Chong, C S; Tan, W B; Menon, K R

    2016-11-01

    While healthcare outcomes have improved significantly, the complex management of diseases in the hospitals has also escalated the risks in patient safety. Therefore, in the process of training medical students to be proficient in medical knowledge and skills, the importance of patient safety cannot be neglected. A new innovation using mobile apps gaming system (PAtient Safety in Surgical EDucation-PASSED) to teach medical students on patient safety was created. Students were taught concepts of patient safety followed by a gaming session using iPad games created by us. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of patient safety perception using the PASSED games created. An interactive iPad game focusing on patient safety issues was created by the undergraduate education team in the Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore. The game employed the unique touched-screen feature with clinical scenarios extracted from the hospital sentinel events. Some of the questions were time sensitive, with extra bonus marks awarded if the student provided the correct answer within 10 s. Students could reattempt the questions if the initial answer was wrong. However, this entailed demerit points. Third-year medical students posted to the Department of Surgery experienced this gaming system in a cohort of 55-60 students. Baseline understanding of the students on patient safety was evaluated using Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire III (APSQ-III) prior to the game. A 20 min talk on concept of patient safety using the WHO Patient Safety Guidelines was conducted. Following this, students downloaded the apps from ITune store and played with the game for 20-30 min. The session ended with the students completing the postintervention questionnaire. A total of 221 3rd year medical students responded to the survey during the PASSED session. Majority of the students felt that the PASSED game had trained them to understand the

  10. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  12. Mathematical Modeling in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling occupies an unusual space in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum: typically an "advanced" course, it nonetheless has little to do with formal proof, the usual hallmark of advanced mathematics. Mathematics departments are thus forced to decide what role they want the modeling course to play, both as a component of the…

  13. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  14. Developing a sustainable electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) program that fosters reflective practice and incorporates CanMEDS competencies into the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pippa; Byszewski, Anna; Sutherland, Stephanie; Stodel, Emma J

    2012-06-01

    The University of Ottawa (uOttawa) Faculty of Medicine in 2008 launched a revised undergraduate medical education (UGME) curriculum that was based on the seven CanMEDS roles (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, health advocate, manager, scholar, and professional) and added an eighth role of person to incorporate the dimension of mindfulness and personal well-being. In this article, the authors describe the development of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) program that enables uOttawa medical students to document their activities and to demonstrate their development of competence in each of the eight roles. The ePortfolio program supports reflective practice, an important component of professional competence, and provides a means for addressing the "hidden curriculum." It is bilingual, mandatory, and spans the four years of UGME. It includes both an online component for students to document their personal development and for student-coach dialogue, as well as twice-yearly, small-group meetings in which students engage in reflective discussions and learn to give and receive feedback.The authors reflect on the challenges they faced in the development and implementation of the ePortfolio program and share the lessons they have learned along the way to a successful and sustainable program. These lessons include switching from a complex information technology system to a user-friendly, Web-based blog platform; rethinking orientation sessions to ensure that faculty and students understand the value of the ePortfolio program; soliciting student input to improve the program and increase student buy-in; and providing faculty development opportunities and recognition.

  15. Bioinformatics and the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Mark; Parker, Jeffrey; LeBlanc, Mark; Woodard, Craig T.; Glackin, Mary; Hanrahan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances involving high-throughput techniques for data generation and analysis have made familiarity with basic bioinformatics concepts and programs a necessity in the biological sciences. Undergraduate students increasingly need training in methods related to finding and retrieving information stored in vast databases. The rapid rise of…

  16. Undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-23

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating.

  17. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  18. A critical review of the core medical training curriculum in the UK: A medical education perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Gkotsi, Despoina; Panteliou, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents a systematic evaluation of the Core Medical Training Curriculum in the UK. The authors critically review the curriculum from a medical education perspective based mainly on the medical education literature as well as their personal experience of this curriculum. They conclude in practical recommendations and suggestions which, if adopted, could improve the design and implementation of this postgraduate curriculum. The systematic evaluation approach described in this paper is transferable to the evaluation of other undergraduate or postgraduate curricula, and could be a helpful guide for medical teachers involved in the delivery and evaluation of any medical curriculum.

  19. Leadership and management in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students' attitudes and opinions at one UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Thelma; Abbas, Mark; Murugesu, Sughashini; Crawley, Francesca; Hyde, Sarah; Wood, Diana; Benson, John

    2014-06-25

    To explore undergraduate medical students' attitudes towards and opinions about leadership and management education. Between 2009 and 2012 we conducted a qualitative study comprising five focus group discussions, each devoted to one of the five domains in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, (Personal Qualities, Working with Others, Managing Services, Improving Services and Setting Direction). Each discussion examined what should be learnt, when should learning occur, what methods should be used, how should learning be assessed, what are the barriers to such education. 28 students from all three clinical years (4-6) of whom 10 were women. 2 inter-related themes emerged: understanding the broad perspective of patients and other stakeholders involved in healthcare provision and the need to make leadership and management education relevant in the clinical context. Topics suggested by students included structure of the National Health Service (NHS), team working skills, decision-making and negotiating skills. Patient safety was seen as particularly important. Students preferred experiential learning, with placements seen as providing teaching opportunities. Structured observation, reflection, critical appraisal and analysis of mistakes at all levels were mentioned as existing opportunities for integrating leadership and management education. Students' views about assessment and timing of such education were mixed. Student feedback figured prominently as a method of delivery and a means of assessment, while attitudes of medical professionals, students and of society in general were seen as barriers. Medical students may be more open to leadership and management education than thought hitherto. These findings offer insights into how students view possible developments in leadership and management education and stress the importance of developing broad perspectives and clinical relevance in this context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  20. Leadership and management in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students’ attitudes and opinions at one UK medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Thelma; Abbas, Mark; Murugesu, Sughashini; Crawley, Francesca; Hyde, Sarah; Wood, Diana; Benson, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore undergraduate medical students’ attitudes towards and opinions about leadership and management education. Design Between 2009 and 2012 we conducted a qualitative study comprising five focus group discussions, each devoted to one of the five domains in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, (Personal Qualities, Working with Others, Managing Services, Improving Services and Setting Direction). Each discussion examined what should be learnt, when should learning occur, what methods should be used, how should learning be assessed, what are the barriers to such education. Participants 28 students from all three clinical years (4–6) of whom 10 were women. Results 2 inter-related themes emerged: understanding the broad perspective of patients and other stakeholders involved in healthcare provision and the need to make leadership and management education relevant in the clinical context. Topics suggested by students included structure of the National Health Service (NHS), team working skills, decision-making and negotiating skills. Patient safety was seen as particularly important. Students preferred experiential learning, with placements seen as providing teaching opportunities. Structured observation, reflection, critical appraisal and analysis of mistakes at all levels were mentioned as existing opportunities for integrating leadership and management education. Students’ views about assessment and timing of such education were mixed. Student feedback figured prominently as a method of delivery and a means of assessment, while attitudes of medical professionals, students and of society in general were seen as barriers. Conclusions Medical students may be more open to leadership and management education than thought hitherto. These findings offer insights into how students view possible developments in leadership and management education and stress the importance of developing broad perspectives and clinical relevance in this context. PMID

  1. Need Assessment of Enhancing the Weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the Undergraduate Curriculum at MGIMS, Sevagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Jena, Lingaraja; Vagha, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    In order to review the need assessment of enhancing the weightage of Applied Biochemistry in the undergraduate curriculum at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sevagram, a validated questionnaire was sent to 453 participants which include 387 undergraduate students, 11 interns, 23 postgraduate students, and 32 faculty members. A…

  2. Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: examples and experiences from Linköping, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, L O; Brynhildsen, J; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

    2002-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Linköping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning.

  3. Special-Study Modules in a Problem-Based Learning Medical Curriculum: An Innovative Laboratory Research Practice Supporting Introduction to Research Methodology in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Gul Akdogan; Cavdar, Zahide; Yener, Nilgun; Kume, Tuncay; Egrilmez, Mehtap Yuksel; Resmi, Halil

    2011-01-01

    We describe the organization of wet-lab special-study modules (SSMs) in the Central Research Laboratory of Dokuz Eylul Medical School, Izmir, Turkey with the aim of discussing the scientific, laboratory, and pedagogical aspects of this educational activity. A general introduction to the planning and functioning of these SSMs is given, along with…

  4. Undergraduate otolaryngology education at the University of Toronto: a review using a curriculum mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Modupe; Isaac, Kathryn; Schreiber, Martin; Campisi, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of Canadian medical school curricula is to provide educational experiences that satisfy the specific objectives set out by the Medical Council of Canada. However, for specialties such as otolaryngology, there is considerable variability in student exposure to didactic and clinical teaching across Canadian medical schools, making it unclear whether students receive sufficient teaching of core otolaryngology content and clinical skills. The goal of this review was to assess the exposure to otolaryngology instruction in the undergraduate medical curriculum at the University of Toronto. Otolaryngology objectives were derived from objectives created by the Medical Council of Canada and the University of Toronto. The University of Toronto's recently developed Curriculum Mapping System (CMap) was used to perform a keyword search of otolaryngology objectives to establish when and to what extent essential topics were being taught. All (10 of 10) major topics and skills identified were covered in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Although no major gaps were identified, an uneven distribution of teaching time exists. The majority (> 90%) of otolaryngology education occurs during year 1 of clerkship. The amount of preclerkship education was extremely limited. Essential otolaryngology topics and skills are taught within the University of Toronto curriculum. The CMap was an effective tool to assess the otolaryngology curriculum and was able to identify gaps in otolaryngology education during the preclerkship years of medical school. As a result, modifications to the undergraduate curriculum have been implemented to provide additional teaching during the preclerkship years.

  5. Undergraduate medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-01

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives...

  6. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  7. The Place of Nursing History in an Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lait, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a standalone undergraduate course in nursing history in terms of rationale, purpose, and content. Discusses arguments for inclusion of nursing history in the curriculum and problems associated with teaching it. (SK)

  8. Comparative Economics Systems in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…

  9. Curriculum Innovation in Undergraduate Accounting Degree Programmes through "Virtual Internships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss major criticisms of traditional undergraduate accounting programmes and to introduce virtual internships as a curriculum innovation that addresses these criticisms. Design/methodology/approach: The main aim of the paper is to inspire curriculum innovation in accounting programmes though the…

  10. Implementation of the medical research curriculum in graduate medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Kim, Tae-Hee; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the medical research curriculum on the students' satisfaction and the research self-efficacy. The curriculum was implemented to 79 graduate medical school students who entered in 2007 and 2008. This curriculum is implemented through 3 years consisting of 5 different sub-courses: Research design, Research ethics, Medical statistics, Writing medical paper, and Presentation. The effect of this program was measured with 2 self-administered surveys to students: the course satisfaction survey and the self-efficacy inventories. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of 18 items from 4 categories: Research design, Research ethics, Data analysis, and Result presentation. The descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were implemented. The average point of satisfaction of the course was 2.74 out of 4, which told us that students generally satisfied with the course. The frequencies of tutoring for research course were 2 or 3 times on average and each session of tutorial lasted 1.5 to 2 hours. The research self-efficacy in three categories (Research design, Research ethics, and Result presentation) increased significantly (presearch paper writing at undergraduate level. The curriculum showed positive results in cultivating research self-efficacy of students. There is a need for improvement of the class of Statistical analysis as students reported that it was difficult.

  11. The role of translation in undergraduate medical English instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Micic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of discourse within the teaching of English translation in the Serbian curriculum are explored. Some suggestions for the improvement of medical English translation in the Serbian curriculum are offered. It has been shown that translation is a valuable skill to be mastered. Translation exercises allow instructors to recognize language-related comprehension problems. Furthermore, teaching translation is important in that future medical professionals are able to recognize different medical genres and structural differences between English and Serbian.

  12. The core content of the undergraduate curriculum in Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P A; Metcalfe, D; David, T J

    1999-02-01

    To identify the core content for the new undergraduate medical curriculum in Manchester. The initial step was to produce a list of 'index clinical situations' (ICSs), for which a newly graduated doctor must have a required level of competence. Using repeated consultation with consultants and general practitioners involved in medical education in the North-West of England, a list of 215 ICSs was agreed. Specialists and generalists were then asked to identify the components of the knowledge base and the performance (skills) base for each ICS. The knowledge base was divided into technical (biomedical facts/concepts) and contextual (effect/management of disease within the individual, family and society) domains. The performance base was divided into intellectual (problem solving and decision making) and interpersonal (history, examination, communication and procedural skills) domains. Forty specialties were consulted and 11,021 items (defined as a piece of knowledge, a concept or a skill) were identified. There was considerable overlap in the items listed, such that when the returns for each ICS were amalgamated, the 215 ICSs contained 6434 items with a mean of 34 +/- 14.2 per situation (range 6-85). UTILISATION: We have used the defined ICSs in the design of the trigger material used in the weekly problem-based learning sessions. Over 4 years almost all (207/215, 96%) of the ICS are covered, with many being revisited at several points in the curriculum.

  13. Assessment of Medical Students in a New Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reliable and valid methods of student assessment in Newcastle University's new undergraduate medical curriculum are examined as indices of competence within the constraints of the educational program objectives. Considerable attention is given to the assessment of sciences basic to medicine through assessment instruments developed from clinical…

  14. An ideal teaching program of nuclear chemistry in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that several reports on the common educational problems of nuclear chemistry have been prepared by certain groups of experts from time to time. According to very important statements in these reports, nuclear chemistry and related courses generally do not take sufficient importance in undergraduate chemistry curricula and it was generally proposed that nuclear chemistry and related courses should be introduced into undergraduate chemistry curricula at universities worldwide. Starting from these statements, an ideal program in an undergraduate chemistry curriculum was proposed to be introduced into the undergraduate chemistry program at the Department of Chemistry, Ege University, in Izmir, Turkey during the regular updating of the chemistry curriculum. Thus, it has been believed that this Department of Chemistry has recently gained an ideal teaching program in the field of nuclear chemistry and its applications in scientific, industrial, and medical sectors. In this contribution, the details of this program will be discussed. (author)

  15. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  16. Developing an undergraduate curriculum in Special Care Dentistry - by consensus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dougall, A

    2013-02-01

    It has been reported that healthcare providers often lack the skills set to provide care for people with disabilities, leading to inequalities in health and reduced access to health care. Newly graduating dentists are likely to see a significant number of patients with special healthcare needs in the course of their practicing lives. However, there is evidence of national and international variation in the availability of education and training at the undergraduate level in this important, emerging area. The quality and content of undergraduate education in Special Care Dentistry has been shown to correlate with students\\' confidence and their expressed willingness, towards providing care for patients with special healthcare needs in their future practice. The aim of this study was to use information from a three-round Delphi process, continued into a face-to-face meeting, to establish consensus on what constitutes the essential core knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a newly qualified dentist so that they are able to deliver patient care to diverse populations following graduation. A high level of agreement was established amongst an international panel of experts from 30 countries. The final core items identified by the panel showed a paradigm shift away from the traditional emphasis on medical diagnosis within a curriculum towards an approach based on the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) with patient-centred treatment planning for people with disabilities and special healthcare needs according to function or environment. Many of the core skills identified by the panel are transferable across a curriculum and should encourage a person-centred approach to treatment planning based on the function, needs and wishes of the patient rather than their specific diagnosis.

  17. Wireless Handheld Computers in the Preclinical Undergraduate Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Jackson

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of a pilot project using wireless PDAs as teaching tools in an undergraduate medical curriculum. This technology was used to foster a transition from a passive to an interactive learning environment in the classroom and provided a solution for the implementation of computer-based exams for a large class. Wayne State Medical School recently provided model e570 Toshiba PocketPCs® (personal digital assistants or PDAs, network interface cards, and application software developed by CampusMobility® to 20 sophomore medical students. The pilot group of preclinical students used the PDAs to access web-based course content, for communication, scheduling, to participate in interactive teaching sessions, and to complete course evaluations. Another part of this pilot has been to utilize the PDAs for computer-based exams in a wireless environment. Server authentication that restricted access during the exams and a proctoring console to monitor and record the PDA screens will be described in this report. Results of a student satisfaction survey will be presented.

  18. European undergraduate curriculum in geriatric medicine developed using an international modified Delphi technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Masud, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    the rise in the number of older, frail adults necessitates that future doctors are adequately trained in the skills of geriatric medicine. Few countries have dedicated curricula in geriatric medicine at the undergraduate level. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus among geriatricians on a curriculum with the minimal requirements that a medical student should achieve by the end of medical school.

  19. Novel horizontal and vertical integrated bioethics curriculum for medical courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Russell F; Mathew, Mary; D'Souza, Derek S J; Palatty, Princy

    2018-02-28

    Studies conducted by the University of Haifa, Israel in 2001, evaluating the effectiveness of bioethics being taught in medical colleges, suggested that there was a significant lack of translation in clinical care. Analysis also revealed, ineffectiveness with the teaching methodology used, lack of longitudinal integration of bioethics into the undergraduate medical curriculum, and the limited exposure to the technology in decision making when confronting ethical dilemmas. A modern novel bioethics curriculum and innovative methodology for teaching bioethics for the medical course was developed by the UNESCO Chair in Bioethics, Haifa. The horizontal (subject-wise) curriculum was vertically integrated seamlessly through the entire course. An innovative bioethics teaching methodology was employed to implement the curriculum. This new curriculum was piloted in a few medical colleges in India from 2011 to 2015 and the outcomes were evaluated. The evaluation confirmed gains over the earlier identified translation gap with added high student acceptability and satisfaction. This integrated curriculum is now formally implemented in the Indian program's Health Science Universities which is affiliated with over 200 medical schools in India. This article offers insights from the evaluated novel integrated bioethics curriculum and the innovative bioethics teaching methodology that was used in the pilot program.

  20. Integrating Informatics into the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Report on a Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D; Murphy, J

    1996-01-01

    Previous case reports in this series on Education and Training have looked at specialist courses for postgraduate students seeking an in-depth knowledge of informatics and a career in the field. By contrast, this review describes a project designed to pilot a series of learning opportunities for undergraduate medical students. Although some UK medical colleges have opted to introduce informatics into the curriculum as a discipline in its own right, the Informatics Department at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College chose a different approach. When a new curriculum was introduced at St Bartholomew's and at The London Hospital Medical College, the Head of the Informatics Department saw this as an ideal opportunity to explore ways of integrating informatics into the curriculum. The initiatives described in this paper were made possible as a result of an award from the UK government Department of Employment. Money from an Enterprise in Higher Education grant funded a range of programmes, one of which was designed to introduce students to selected aspects of informatics and to demonstrate what is feasible in the undergraduate curriculum. The work carried out over a period of three and a half years was intended to provide the basis for the next phase of curriculum development. However, in the wake of the restructuring which has taken place in London medical colleges, the Informatics Department at what was St Bartholomew's has relocated to University College London Medical School, and is now called The Centre for Health Informatics and Multiprofessional Education (CHIME). University College is designing a new medical curriculum and CHIME is drawing on the experience gained through the Enterprise Project to find the best way to integrate informatics into this curriculum.

  1. Ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical

  2. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  3. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B.; Duncan, Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  4. Quiz gaming competitions for undergraduate medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quiz gaming competitions for undergraduate medical students: Questioning the MediQuiz. ... an audience Studies have shown that such quiz games promote active learning, and provide motivational impetus. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Simon; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David

    2009-10-26

    In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors enjoying their undergraduate education but then saying that they

  6. Graduates from a traditional medical curriculum evaluate the effectiveness of their medical curriculum through interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 The University of Liverpool reformed its medical course from a traditional lecture-based course to an integrated PBL curriculum. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. Part of this project has involved gathering retrospective views on the relevance of both types of undergraduate education according to graduates. This paper focuses on the views of traditional Liverpool graduates approximately 6 years after graduation. Methods From February 2006 to June 2006 interviews took place with 46 graduates from the last 2 cohorts to graduate from the traditional Liverpool curriculum. Results The graduates were generally happy with their undergraduate education although they did feel there were some flaws in their curriculum. They felt they had picked up good history and examination skills and were content with their exposure to different specialties on clinical attachments. They were also pleased with their basic science teaching as preparation for postgraduate exams, however many complained about the overload and irrelevance of many lectures in the early years of their course, particular in biochemistry. There were many different views about how they integrated this science teaching into understanding disease processes and many didn't feel it was made relevant to them at the time they learned it. Retrospectively, they felt that they hadn't been clinically well prepared for the role of working as junior doctor, particularly the practical aspects of the job nor had enough exposure to research skills. Although there was little communication skills training in their course they didn't feel they would have benefited from this training as they managed to pick up had the required skills on clinical attachments. Conclusion These interviews offer a historical snapshot of the views of graduates from a traditional course before many courses were reformed. There was some conflict in the interviews about the doctors

  7. Integrating delegation into the undergraduate curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomano, Scott J; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto

    2014-01-01

    One of the essential practice skills for registered nurses (RNs) is the delegation of tasks. However, few experiences in RN educational programs directly address the development of delegation skills. Many RNs report not feeling confident in their ability to delegate appropriately upon completing their educational programs. Nurse educators must respond to the need to address delegation in undergraduate nursing curricula. This article describes research evaluating levels of knowledge of and confidence in the delegation process among newly graduated RNs, and explores options for teachable moments about delegation.

  8. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  9. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  10. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  11. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [, retrieved on 22.03.2016], the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER-database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process.Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews

  12. Monitoring and analysis of the change process in curriculum mapping compared to the National Competency-based Learning Objective Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) at four medical faculties. Part I: Conducive resources and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria; Giesler, Marianne; Gornostayeva, Maryna; Narciss, Elisabeth; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Griewatz, Jan; Fritze, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Objective: After passing of the National Competency-based Learning Objectives Catalogue in Medicine (Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin, [NKLM, retrieved on 22.03.2016]), the German medical faculties must take inventory and develop their curricula. NKLM contents are expected to be present, but not linked well or sensibly enough in locally grown curricula. Learning and examination formats must be reviewed for appropriateness and coverage of the competences. The necessary curricular transparency is best achieved by systematic curriculum mapping, combined with effective change management. Mapping a complex existing curriculum and convincing a faculty that this will have benefits is not easy. Headed by Tübingen, the faculties of Freiburg, Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen take inventory by mapping their curricula in comparison to the NKLM, using the dedicated web-based MER LIN -database. This two-part article analyses and summarises how NKLM curriculum mapping could be successful in spite of resistance at the faculties. The target is conveying the widest possible overview of beneficial framework conditions, strategies and results. Part I of the article shows the beneficial resources and structures required for implementation of curriculum mapping at the faculties. Part II describes key factors relevant for motivating faculties and teachers during the mapping process. Method: The network project was systematically planned in advance according to steps of project and change management, regularly reflected on and adjusted together in workshops and semi-annual project meetings. From the beginning of the project, a grounded-theory approach was used to systematically collect detailed information on structures, measures and developments at the faculties using various sources and methods, to continually analyse them and to draw a final conclusion (sources: surveys among the project participants with questionnaires, semi-structured group interviews and

  13. The relevance of basic sciences in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C; Grant, T; McLoughlin, P; Last, J

    2016-02-01

    Evolving and changing undergraduate medical curricula raise concerns that there will no longer be a place for basic sciences. National and international trends show that 5-year programmes with a pre-requisite for school chemistry are growing more prevalent. National reports in Ireland show a decline in the availability of school chemistry and physics. This observational cohort study considers if the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology should be a prerequisite to entering medical school, be part of the core medical curriculum or if they have a place in the practice of medicine. Comparisons of means, correlation and linear regression analysis assessed the degree of association between predictors (school and university basic sciences) and outcomes (year and degree GPA) for entrants to a 6-year Irish medical programme between 2006 and 2009 (n = 352). We found no statistically significant difference in medical programme performance between students with/without prior basic science knowledge. The Irish school exit exam and its components were mainly weak predictors of performance (-0.043 ≥ r ≤ 0.396). Success in year one of medicine, which includes a basic science curriculum, was indicative of later success (0.194 ≥ r (2) ≤ 0.534). University basic sciences were found to be more predictive than school sciences in undergraduate medical performance in our institution. The increasing emphasis of basic sciences in medical practice and the declining availability of school sciences should mandate medical schools in Ireland to consider how removing basic sciences from the curriculum might impact on future applicants.

  14. Integrating gender into a basic medical curriculum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Mans, L.J.L.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1998, gaps were found to exist in the basic medical curriculum of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre regarding health-related gender differences in terms of biological, psychological and social factors. After screening the curriculum for language, content and context,

  15. Plastic surgery in the undergraduate curriculum: the importance of considering students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Andrew; Chiu, Tor; McNaught, Carmel

    2004-12-01

    As the undergraduate medical curriculum becomes increasingly crowded the competition for time inevitably increases and surgical specialties have decreasing representation. Plastic surgery is regarded with some confusion in terms of its relevance to the generic doctor. Plastic surgeons have no doubt about the relevance of the specialty to undergraduates. Others see this as a very technical specialty dealing with complex reconstructions and surgical interventions or, as a rather indulgent specialty focusing mainly on glamour and cosmesis. This study focuses on students' perceptions of an undergraduate teaching program in plastic surgery. The reality is that highly pressured undergraduates do not have the luxury of time to consider the finer details of the specialties to which they are exposed. Their priority is to pass their examinations and, having addressed that concern, further information becomes an acceptable bonus. The conclusion is that if plastic surgeons are going to gain greater involvement in the undergraduate curriculum they must start with involvement in examinations and assessments. The students will then ensure that adequate and appropriate teaching time is allocated.

  16. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Panwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals.Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally soundapproach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.Keywords: MEDICAL EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, CHALLENGES

  17. Evaluation of an Interactive Undergraduate Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron; Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2018-06-01

    The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks as well as labs that allow students to manipulate and analyze real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a format that builds important STEM skills, while engaging those outside the field with modern discoveries and a more realistic sense of practices and tools used by professional astronomers. Over two semesters, we field-tested the curriculum in general education cosmology classes at a state university in California [N ~ 80]. We administered pre- and post-instruction multiple-choice and open-ended content surveys as well as the CLASS, to gauge the effectiveness of the course and modules. Questions addressed included the structure, composition, and evolution of the universe, including students’ reasoning and “how we know.”Module development and evaluation was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University’s Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and San Francisco State University. The modules are published by Great River Learning/Kendall-Hunt.

  18. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  19. European undergraduate curriculum in geriatric medicine developed using an international modified Delphi technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, T.; Blundell, A.; Gordon, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: the rise in the number of older, frail adults necessitates that future doctors are adequately trained in the skills of geriatric medicine. Few countries have dedicated curricula in geriatric medicine at the undergraduate level. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus among...... geriatricians on a curriculum with the minimal requirements that a medical student should achieve by the end of medical school. Methods: a modified Delphi process was used. First, educational experts and geriatricians proposed a set of learning objectives based on a literature review. Second, three Delphi...... rounds involving a panel with 49 experts representing 29 countries affiliated to the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) was used to gain consensus for a final curriculum. Results: the number of disagreements following Delphi Rounds 1 and 2 were 81 and 53, respectively. Complete agreement...

  20. Kansas Nursing Home Medication Aide Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Myrna J.; Fornelli, Linda K.

    This curriculum guide is designed to aid Kansas instructors in conducting a course for teaching nursing home medication aides. Covered first are various introductory topics such as the role and responsibilities of medication aides, pharmacodynamics, forms in which medication is now available, common medical abbreviations, mathematics and weights…

  1. Not left to chance: introducing an undergraduate interprofessional education curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Karen T

    2013-01-01

    Teaching diverse health profession students to work in teams, communicate, understand each other's roles and responsibilities, and effectively collaborate is imperative for creating a practice-ready workforce. This short report introduces an innovative undergraduate interprofessional curriculum for students enrolled in the baccalaureate majors of applied exercise science, athletic training, dental hygiene, nursing and pre-occupational therapy. The process of designing this program of study, guided by the method of appreciative inquiry, is highlighted. The format and learning activities created for this novel curriculum are described. Congruence for this endeavor is explored through alignment with the recent national Interprofessional Education Collaborative expert panel report. Preparing graduates to fulfill the dual identity of discipline-specific clinician and interprofessional team member is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary health profession education.

  2. A competency-based longitudinal core curriculum in medical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Lisa R; Horak, Holli A; Milligan, Tracey A; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Ali, Imran I

    2014-07-29

    Current medical educational theory encourages the development of competency-based curricula. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 6 core competencies for resident education (medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice) have been embraced by medical schools as the building blocks necessary for becoming a competent licensed physician. Many medical schools are therefore changing their educational approach to an integrated model in which students demonstrate incremental acquisition and mastery of all competencies as they progress through medical school. Challenges to medical schools include integration of preclinical and clinical studies as well as development of learning objectives and assessment measures for each competency. The Undergraduate Education Subcommittee (UES) of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) assembled a group of neuroscience educators to outline a longitudinal competency-based curriculum in medical neuroscience encompassing both preclinical and clinical coursework. In development of this curriculum, the committee reviewed United States Medical Licensing Examination content outlines, Liaison Committee on Medical Education requirements, prior AAN-mandated core curricula for basic neuroscience and clinical neurology, and survey responses from educators in US medical schools. The newly recommended curriculum provides an outline of learning objectives for each of the 6 competencies, listing each learning objective in active terms. Documentation of experiences is emphasized, and assessment measures are suggested to demonstrate adequate achievement in each competency. These guidelines, widely vetted and approved by the UES membership, aspire to be both useful as a stand-alone curriculum and also provide a framework for neuroscience educators who wish to develop a more detailed focus in certain areas of study. © 2014 American Academy

  3. Undergraduate medical students’ empathy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Thelma; Thiemann, Pia; Benson, John; Hyde, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow’s health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students’ empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students’ empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients’ experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have utility across large populations but are limited. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological rigor in investigating the possible determinants of clinical empathy in medical education. Greater

  4. Teaching Social Science Research Methods to Undergraduate Medical Students: The State of the Art and Opportunities for Practice and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Simon

    2017-01-01

    There is an expectation that medical students in the UK will be able to demonstrate conversancy with social science relevant to medicine and health, including the means by which the relevant bodies of knowledge are generated through the use of social science research methods. This paper explores the structural and pedagogical challenges and…

  5. Nutrition guidelines for undergraduate medical curricula: a six-country comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Crowley,1 Lauren Ball,2 Celia Laur,3 Clare Wall,1 Bruce Arroll,4 Phillippa Poole,5 Sumantra Ray3 1Discipline of Nutrition, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, 5Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Aim: To assess nutrition curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medical education in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand to highlight potential opportunities for shared learning on the advancement of nutrition in medical education. Methods: A comprehensive list of professional bodies, councils, organizations, and other groups relevant to education or nutrition was compiled for each country after a review of relevant white and gray literature. All documents that were published from 2000 onwards, and that provided guidance on nutrition education within undergraduate medical education for one of the identified countries were included in the review. Each curriculum guideline was evaluated for 1 the organization's or group's role in undergraduate medical education; 2 the extent of nutrition-related recommendations; and 3 mandatory implementation. Results: In the countries reviewed, a total of six nutrition-related curriculum guidelines were identified. All countries, aside from the Republic of Ireland, currently have externally visible curriculum guidelines to inform medical schools in undergraduate nutrition education, yet there is little evidence of mandatory enforcement. Curriculum guidelines predominantly focus on basic nutrition principles, nutrition assessment, the role

  6. Awareness of Undergraduate Dental and Medical Students Towards Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.

  7. A Virtual PV Systems Lab for Engineering Undergraduate Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ozkop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and utilization of a Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory for undergraduate curriculum are introduced in this paper. The laboratory introduced in this study is developed to teach students the basics and design steps of photovoltaic solar energy systems in a virtual environment before entering the field. The users of the proposed virtual lab will be able to determine the sizing by selecting related parameters of the photovoltaic system to meet DC and AC loading conditions. Besides, the user will be able to analyze the effect of changing solar irradiation and temperature levels on the operating characteristics of the photovoltaic systems. Common DC bus concept and AC loading conditions are also included in the system by utilizing a permanent magnet DC motor and an RLC load as DC and AC loading examples, respectively. The proposed Virtual Photovoltaic Systems Laboratory is developed in Matlab/Simulink GUI environment. The proposed virtual lab has been used in Power Systems Lab in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Karadeniz Technical University as a part of undergraduate curriculum. A survey on the students who took the lab has been carried out and responses are included in this paper.

  8. Incorporating transferable skills in an undergraduate medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In preparing for its most recent curriculum review, the University of the Free State (UFS) School of Medicine borrowed extensively from well-known international models of medical education. This move implied a shift from lecture-based education to more innovative teaching and learning strategies. In international terms, the ...

  9. Teaching of ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula: a survey of Australasian and Asian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2007-01-01

    Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.

  10. Undergraduate medical students' empathy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quince T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thelma Quince, Pia Thiemann, John Benson, Sarah Hyde Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow's health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students' empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students' empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients' experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have

  11. Registrars teaching undergraduate medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    196 October 2016, Vol. 8, No. 2 AJHPE. Research. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) is the overall ... benefits of teaching medical students are also seen in the knowledge acquired by ... Burch[11] emphasised the importance of assessment in the workplace, including .... stressed out (n=1). Benefits of ...

  12. Medical Education: Should Undergraduate Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1960 the first 13 medical students fully trained in Nigeria to internationally accepted standard graduated from the then University College Ibadan, earning the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) London degree. Since then thousands of doctors trained to international standard have been produced from ...

  13. Training undergraduate medical students in 'soft skills' – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    of the curriculum reform at University of Pretoria (UP) goes back to the late ... medical school immediately after finishing their secondary school .... hidden curriculum. Acad Med ... Medical students on the value of role models for developing 'soft ...

  14. Mitigating the risk of opioid abuse through a balanced undergraduate pain medicine curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley-Forster PK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patricia K Morley-Forster,1,2 Joseph V Pergolizzi,3–5 Robert Taylor Jr,5 Robert A Axford-Gatley,6 Edward M Sellers71Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 2Outpatient Pain Clinic, St Joseph’s Hospital, London, ON, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Pharmacology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5NEMA Research Inc, Naples, FL, USA; 6Clinical Content and Editorial Services, Complete Healthcare Communications, Inc, Chadds Ford, PA, USA; 7DL Global Partners Inc, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Chronic pain is highly prevalent in the United States and Canada, occurring in an estimated 30% of the adult population. Despite its high prevalence, US and Canadian medical schools provide very little training in pain management, including training in the safe and effective use of potent analgesics, most notably opioids. In 2005, the International Association for the Study of Pain published recommendations for a core undergraduate pain management curriculum, and several universities have implemented pilot programs based on this curriculum. However, when outcomes have been formally assessed, these initiatives have resulted in only modest improvements in physician knowledge about chronic pain and its treatment. This article discusses strategies to improve undergraduate pain management curricula and proposes areas in which those efforts can be augmented. Emphasis is placed on opioids, which have great potency as analgesics but also substantial risks in terms of adverse events and the risk of abuse and addiction. The authors conclude that the most important element of an undergraduate pain curriculum is clinical experience under mentors who are capable of reinforcing didactic learning by modeling best practices.Keywords: chronic pain, curricular content, medical education, opioids, pain

  15. Medical Students' Perspectives on Implementing Curriculum Change at One Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Baker, Courtney E; Lomis, And Kimberly D

    2017-04-01

    Training physicians to be effective practitioners throughout their careers begins in undergraduate medical education with particular focus on self-directed inquiry, professional and interprofessional development, and competency-based assessment. A select number of medical schools are restructuring their curricula by placing the student at the center of content delivery to enhance the learning experience. While this restructuring may benefit the adult learner, administrators often make assumptions about how students will perceive and respond to such innovative and unfamiliar educational concepts. This can create a disconnect between students and their curriculum. Administrative mindfulness of student experiences is needed to ensure successful implementation of curricular change, facilitate the transition from old to new modalities, and train competent physician graduates.Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (VUSM) recently completed a curriculum update, and student representatives have been essential participants in the transition, from the earliest stages in preplanning to rapid-cycle feedback as the curriculum runs. Two of the authors are members of VUSM's Student Curriculum Committee, which facilitates gathering and relaying student feedback to the administration. Drawing from their experiences, five specific considerations to address and manage when implementing student-centered curricular change are presented: (1) Communicate the rationale, (2) acknowledge anxiety, (3) adjust extracurricular leadership roles, (4) manage "The Bulge" of learners in the clinical environment, and (5) foster ongoing collaboration of students and administrators. For each consideration, examples and proposed solutions are provided.

  16. A Spiral And Discipline-Oriented Curriculum In Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Hanson, Lars G.; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging and Radi......This contribution describes and evaluates an experimental combination of a spiral and discipline-oriented curriculum implemented in the bachelor’s and master’s program in Medicine and Technology. The implementation in the master’s program is in the form of a study line in Medical Imaging...... and Radiation Physics containing three disciplines: Imaging modalities, Radiation therapy and Image processing. The two imaging courses in the bachelor’s program and the first imaging course in the master’s program follow a spiral curriculum in which most disciplines are encountered in all courses......, but in a gradually more advanced manner. The remaining courses in the master’s program follow a discipline-oriented curriculum. From a practical point of view, the spiral course portfolio works well in an undergraduate environment, where the courses involved are to be taken by all students and in the order planned...

  17. Provision of undergraduate otorhinolaryngology teaching within General Medical Council approved UK medical schools: what is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Saeed, S R

    2012-04-01

    Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.

  18. The Perceived long-term impact of the radiological curriculum innovation in the medical doctors training at Ghent University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Valcke, Martin; Verstraete, Koenraad L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: How do students experience and perceive the innovative undergraduate radiology curriculum at Ghent University, and what explains differences in student perception? Methods: A survey was presented to the 2008 cohort of students enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum at Ghent University. The survey focused on their experiences and perceptions in relation to the innovative undergraduate radiology teaching. Results and conclusion: The present research results point at a favorable perception of the innovative radiology curriculum components. The study points - both during pre-clinical and clinical years - at the appreciation for curriculum components that combine traditional curriculum components (ex-cathedra lessons with syllabus) with distance learning components such as E-learning and E-testing. In clinical years - as expected - students switch to the application of knowledge and skills and therefore heavily appreciate practice linked curriculum components.

  19. The Perceived long-term impact of the radiological curriculum innovation in the medical doctors training at Ghent University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V., E-mail: elena.kourdioukova@ugent.be [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital (UZG), MR/-1K12, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Valcke, Martin [Department of Educational Studies, Ghent University, H. Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital (UZG), MR/-1K12, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: How do students experience and perceive the innovative undergraduate radiology curriculum at Ghent University, and what explains differences in student perception? Methods: A survey was presented to the 2008 cohort of students enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum at Ghent University. The survey focused on their experiences and perceptions in relation to the innovative undergraduate radiology teaching. Results and conclusion: The present research results point at a favorable perception of the innovative radiology curriculum components. The study points - both during pre-clinical and clinical years - at the appreciation for curriculum components that combine traditional curriculum components (ex-cathedra lessons with syllabus) with distance learning components such as E-learning and E-testing. In clinical years - as expected - students switch to the application of knowledge and skills and therefore heavily appreciate practice linked curriculum components.

  20. Development of the competency-based medical curriculum for the new Augsburg University Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Härtl, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the resolution from April 28, 2014, the Bavarian state government in Germany decided to found a new medical school at Augsburg University, thereby requiring the development of a competency-based medical curriculum.Methods: Two interdisciplinary groups developed a spiral curriculum (following Harden employing the model of Thumser-Dauth & Öchsner. The curriculum focuses on specifically defined competencies: medical expertise, independent scientific reasoning, argumentation and scholarship, as well as communication skills.Results: The spiral curriculum was developed as a hybrid curriculum. Its modular structure incorporates the mandatory subjects required by the German regulations for medical licensure (Approbationsordnung into organ- and system-centered blocks which are integrated both horizontally and vertically. Basic preclinical sciences are covered in the blocks “Movement,” “Balance” and “Contact.” The clinical sciences are organized according to six pillars (conservative medicine, surgical medicine, men’s-women’s-children’s medicine, the senses, the nervous system and the mind, and general medicine which students revisit three times each over the course of the program. A longitudinal clinical course incorporates interdisciplinary education. A particular focus is on scientific education encompassing a longitudinal course in the sciences (including interdisciplinary classes with other university departments, block practicums, and two scientific projects.Conclusion: It is not only the degree of integration und intensity of the Augsburg University undergraduate medical degree program, but also its targeted advancement of academic, social and communication skills that have not yet been realized to such an extent elsewhere in Germany. On July 8, 2016, the German Council of Science and Humanities unanimously gave this concept a positive evaluation. Future research will examine and evaluate the Augsburg medical curriculum

  1. Crowdsourced Curriculum Development for Online Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Eric; Chan, Teresa M; Thoma, Brent; Trueger, N Seth; Stuntz, Bob; Cooney, Robert; Ahn, James

    2017-12-08

    In recent years online educational content, efforts at quality appraisal, and integration of online material into institutional teaching initiatives have increased. However, medical education has yet to develop large-scale online learning centers. Crowd-sourced curriculum development may expedite the realization of this potential while providing opportunities for innovation and scholarship. This article describes the current landscape, best practices, and future directions for crowdsourced curriculum development using Kern's framework for curriculum development and the example topic of core content in emergency medicine. A scoping review of online educational content was performed by a panel of subject area experts for each step in Kern's framework. Best practices and recommendations for future development for each step were established by the same panel using a modified nominal group consensus process. The most prevalent curriculum design steps were (1) educational content and (2) needs assessments. Identified areas of potential innovation within these steps included targeting gaps in specific content areas and developing underrepresented instructional methods. Steps in curriculum development without significant representation included (1) articulation of goals and objectives and (2) tools for curricular evaluation. By leveraging the power of the community, crowd-sourced curriculum development offers a mechanism to diffuse the burden associated with creating comprehensive online learning centers. There is fertile ground for innovation and scholarship in each step along the continuum of curriculum development. Realization of this paradigm's full potential will require individual developers to strongly consider how their contributions will align with the work of others.

  2. Undergraduate Medical Students Using Facebook as a Peer-Mentoring Platform: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Severin; Nicolai, Leo; Gradel, Maximilian; Pander, Tanja; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-27

    Peer mentoring is a powerful pedagogical approach for supporting undergraduate medical students in their learning environment. However, it remains unclear what exactly peer mentoring is and whether and how undergraduate medical students use social media for peer-mentoring activities. We aimed at describing and exploring the Facebook use of undergraduate medical students during their first 2 years at a German medical school. The data should help medical educators to effectively integrate social media in formal mentoring programs for medical students. We developed a coding scheme for peer mentoring and conducted a mixed-methods study in order to explore Facebook groups of undergraduate medical students from a peer-mentoring perspective. All major peer-mentoring categories were identified in Facebook groups of medical students. The relevance of these Facebook groups was confirmed through triangulation with focus groups and descriptive statistics. Medical students made extensive use of Facebook and wrote a total of 11,853 posts and comments in the respective Facebook groups (n=2362 total group members). Posting peaks were identified at the beginning of semesters and before exam periods, reflecting the formal curriculum milestones. Peer mentoring is present in Facebook groups formed by undergraduate medical students who extensively use these groups to seek advice from peers on study-related issues and, in particular, exam preparation. These groups also seem to be effective in supporting responsive and large-scale peer-mentoring structures; formal mentoring programs might benefit from integrating social media into their activity portfolio.

  3. Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Program Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The National Science Foundation has awarded over 10 million in awards to four coalitions in the first round of full awards in the Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum program. Overall, more than 50 institutions, ranging from large universities to four-year and community colleges, are formally involved in these projects. Each of the projects will involve five years of curricular development and evaluation and dissemination of the results by the participating institutions, as described in the abstracts below. We encourage faculty who are interested in becoming involved in any of these projects to contact the appropriate coalition. In addition, we expect to begin offering an emphasis in 1997 under the Course and Curriculum Development program in which faculty can request funds to assist them in adapting and adopting at their own institutions curricular innovations that have been developed by these coalitions. Another round of proposals for full awards was accepted in June of 1995, and we expect to make one more award in the program during FY1996. We do not expect to accept proposals for either planning or full grants in this program in June of 1996. However, the regular Course and Curriculum Development program will continue to accept and fund proposals requesting support for smaller-scale changes in the chemistry curriculum. ChemLinks Coalition: Making Chemical Connections Brock Spencer Beloit College, Beloit, WI 53511 DUE 9455918: FY1995, 705,000; FY 1996, 655,000; FY1997, 655,000; FY1998, 350,00; FY1999, 350,000 The ChemLinks Coalition is undertaking a five-year project to change the way students learn chemistry, increase scientific literacy for all students taking chemistry, and promote the process of educational reform. In collaboration with the ModularChem Consortium, faculty are developing, testing, and disseminating modular course materials that use active and collaborative approaches to learning. These materials, focused on the first two

  4. Migration of doctors for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, James A; McKinley, Danette W; Boulet, John R

    2007-03-01

    Global shortages of healthcare workers in both developed and developing countries are of great concern. Research on physician migration typically focuses on medical school graduates, most often those seeking postgraduate training opportunities elsewhere. An overview of medical school migration patterns is presented in this paper. To put this phenomenon into the broader context of global physician migration, data is also presented on the distribution of medical schools, physician density, the flow of international medical graduates to the US, and the present composition of the US physician workforce. Results of the study indicate that many individuals leave their home country for undergraduate medical education. Given the movement of students and physicians, both for medical school and for advanced training opportunities, it is evident that some medical schools in the world are training doctors for their home country as well as for the international labor market. Overall, given the internationalization of medical education, collaborative efforts will be needed to develop an adequate, balanced, and well-trained global physician workforce.

  5. Integrating numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Numerical computation has many pedagogical advantages: it develops analytical skills and problem-solving skills, helps to learn through visualization, and enhances physics education. Unfortunately, numerical computation is not taught to undergraduate education physics students in Indonesia. Incorporate numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum presents many challenges. The main challenges are the dense curriculum that makes difficult to put new numerical computation course and most students have no programming experience. In this research, we used case study to review how to integrate numerical computation into undergraduate education physics curriculum. The participants of this research were 54 students of the fourth semester of physics education department. As a result, we concluded that numerical computation could be integrated into undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel combined with another course. The results of this research become complements of the study on how to integrate numerical computation in learning physics using spreadsheet excel.

  6. The medical school curriculum committee revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, W D; Payer, A F; Rogers, L P; Markus, J F

    1993-03-01

    Numerous study commissions have contended that departmental territoriality and lack of coordinated planning are stagnating contemporary medical education. As a cure, these commissions have recommended the creation of centralized academic management units empowered to oversee revitalization of the curriculum through a series of reforms, including better definition of graduation competencies, community-based training, interdisciplinary courses, problem-based learning, and modernization of evaluation strategies. To determine the extent to which these recommendations were being adopted, in 1990 the authors sent a questionnaire on curriculum committee functions, current innovation efforts, and future priorities to academic administrators and members of medical school curriculum committees at 143 North American medical schools. Responses were received from administrators (primarily associate deans for academic affairs) at 118 schools and committee members (primarily faculty) at 111 schools. Recommendations for enhancing curriculum committee effectiveness were also elicited. The authors conclude that centralization of curricular management has occurred at very few institutions, and that the commonly mentioned reforms are being adopted at a modest pace. The results are analyzed in light of theories of the institutional change process and strategies for introducing educational innovations into established institutions.

  7. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  8. Training the 21st Century Voice Teacher: An Overview and Curriculum Survey of the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Ivy

    2014-01-01

    This document examines the current status of voice teacher education in the 21st century, focusing on the undergraduate experience as an important first step, and links that experience to current trends in pedagogical training as a whole. This document includes the results of a curriculum survey detailing the undergraduate vocal pedagogy courses…

  9. Needs Analysis of Business English Undergraduates and the Implications to Business English Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Needs Analysis is a valuable and irreplaceable tool in the curriculum design of Business English courses. It ensures a focused and efficient curriculum design responsive to the learners' needs. This paper analyses the needs of Business English undergraduates and the information obtained may offer some helpful suggestions to the setting of the…

  10. Attitudes towards transferable skills in medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, S R; Eaton, D G

    2001-02-01

    Changes to the style of medical teaching will place a greater responsibility on individual medical students to manage their own learning, highlighting the need for students to develop good so-called 'transferable' skills at an early stage in their undergraduate career. To assess the attitudes of first year undergraduates towards transferable skills, and investigate the gender difference in these attitudes. To assess the contribution of their first year course to skills development. First year students, enrolled on a traditional-style course. A questionnaire asking the students to consider: (a) the importance of named transferable skills for medicine; (b) their own ability in these areas; and (c) the influence of their first year course. All students, irrespective of gender, regarded transferable skills as very important to medicine, rating organizational skills and self-learning skills as most important. Overall, students have a high level of confidence in their own skills. Male students rated their overall level of skills more highly than women. In particular they rated their information handling, managing self-learning and technical skills more highly. Students feel that their first year course has enhanced their skills in most areas. Our results suggest that students will feel equipped to succeed in a learning system which places the onus on them to take responsibility for their own learning. They clearly believe that they have the necessary skills for independent learning. The study highlights the need to enhance students' self-evaluation skills.

  11. Cultural diversity: blind spot in medical curriculum documents, a document analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Loon, Karsten A; van Dulmen, Sandra; Scheele, Fedde

    2014-08-22

    Cultural diversity among patients presents specific challenges to physicians. Therefore, cultural diversity training is needed in medical education. In cases where strategic curriculum documents form the basis of medical training it is expected that the topic of cultural diversity is included in these documents, especially if these have been recently updated. The aim of this study was to assess the current formal status of cultural diversity training in the Netherlands, which is a multi-ethnic country with recently updated medical curriculum documents. In February and March 2013, a document analysis was performed of strategic curriculum documents for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the Netherlands. All text phrases that referred to cultural diversity were extracted from these documents. Subsequently, these phrases were sorted into objectives, training methods or evaluation tools to assess how they contributed to adequate curriculum design. Of a total of 52 documents, 33 documents contained phrases with information about cultural diversity training. Cultural diversity aspects were more prominently described in the curriculum documents for undergraduate education than in those for postgraduate education. The most specific information about cultural diversity was found in the blueprint for undergraduate medical education. In the postgraduate curriculum documents, attention to cultural diversity differed among specialties and was mainly superficial. Cultural diversity is an underrepresented topic in the Dutch documents that form the basis for actual medical training, although the documents have been updated recently. Attention to the topic is thus unwarranted. This situation does not fit the demand of a multi-ethnic society for doctors with cultural diversity competences. Multi-ethnic countries should be critical on the content of the bases for their medical educational curricula.

  12. The perception of the hidden curriculum on medical education: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Manabu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major curriculum reform of undergraduate medical education occurred during the past decades in the United Kingdom (UK; however, the effects of the hidden curriculum, which influence the choice of primary care as a career, have not been sufficiently recognized. While Japan, where traditionally few institutions systematically foster primary care physicians and very few have truly embraced family medicine as their guiding discipline, has also experienced meaningful curriculum reform, the effect of the hidden curriculum is not well known. The aim of this study is to identify themes pertaining to the students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum affecting undergraduate medical education in bedside learning in Japan. Methods Semi-structured interviews with thematic content analysis were implemented. Undergraduate year-5 students from a Japanese medical school at a Japanese teaching hospital were recruited. Interview were planned to last between 30 to 60 minutes each, over an 8-month period in 2007. The interviewees' perceptions concerning the quality of teaching in their bedside learning and related experiences were collected and analysed thematically. Results Twenty five medical students (18 males and 7 females, mean age 25 years old consented to participate in the interviews, and seven main themes emerged: "the perception of education as having a low priority," "the prevalence of positive/negative role models," "the persistence of hierarchy and exclusivity," "the existence of gender issues," "an overburdened medical knowledge," "human relationships with colleagues and medical team members," and "first experience from the practical wards and their patients." Conclusions Both similarities and differences were found when comparing the results to those of previous studies in the UK. Some effects of the hidden curriculum in medical education likely exist in common between the UK and Japan, despite the differences in their demographic

  13. Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post-apartheid South Africa, 2003 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Keymanthri

    2007-11-01

    The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country.

  14. Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post‐apartheid South Africa, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Keymanthri

    2007-01-01

    The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country. PMID:17971474

  15. Analysis of radiology education in undergraduate medical doctors training in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourdioukova, Elena V.; Valcke, Martin; Derese, Anselme; Verstraete, Koenraad L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to describe how undergraduate radiology teaching is organized in Europe and to identify important characteristics of undergraduate radiology curriculum. Methods: An electronic survey on undergraduate teaching was distributed by the European Society of Radiology (ESR) to 38 national delegates of the ESR Education Committee. Results: The 'classic type' of radiology teaching method is more frequent than the 'modular type'. In 38% of medical training centres the first experience with radiology is in pre-clinical years. The students enrolled in the fourth medical year experience the largest involvement in radiology education. The total number of teaching hours (mean 89 h, median 76 h) varies across the countries and differs depending on the radiological topic (mean across all topics 14.8 h, median 13). Written tests and oral exams were the most frequently used examination modes. Clerkships are reported as a key part of training. Conclusion: This first international comparative study of undergraduate radiological curriculum in Europe identifies a large number of differences in curriculum content and teaching methods throughout Europe. More research is needed to establish the radiological educational competences resulting from these differing curricula's to improve and to standardize the teaching according to (inter)national and institutional needs.

  16. Should there be greater exposure to interventional radiology in the undergraduate curriculum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojha U

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Utkarsh Ojha,1 Raihan Mohammed,2 Sayinthen Vivekanantham3 1Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 3University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Abstract: Medical imaging has been one of the most revolutionary innovations in medicine. Today, as health care professionals shift their focus toward more sophisticated technology and minimally invasive procedures, interventional radiology (IR has become a rapidly expanding specialty. Despite these advances, there is a lack of doctors specializing in this field. A growing body of evidence suggests that the low number of applicants for posts may be due to poor exposure to the specialty at medical school. In this article, we outline the importance of IR in today’s health care system. Next, we evaluate the evidence that there is a lack of knowledge of IR not only among medical students in the UK but globally. We further discuss how a more effective incorporation of IR in the undergraduate curriculum can enhance medical students’ interest in the field and subsequently increase the number of doctors specializing in IR. Finally, we suggest alternative strategies to gauge medical students’ interest in IR, including teaching via e-learning and virtual reality. Keywords: interventional radiology, diagnostic imaging, innovation, medical education, e-learning, virtual reality

  17. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chun Yeh; Cheng-Fang Yen; Chung-Sheng Lai; Chun-Hsiung Huang; Keh-Min Liu; In-Ting Huang

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program ...

  18. A community-based approach for integrating geriatrics and gerontology into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences. This approach is intended to expose students to older adults from diverse communities and adequately prepare students to address the complex and individual needs of these patients. Initial results indicate proficiency in the minimum geriatric competencies covered. The growth and diversity of the older adult population makes it important to integrate and evaluate geriatrics education in undergraduate medical education.

  19. Should a clinical rotation in hematology be mandatory for undergraduate medical students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandan J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Mandan,1 Harmeet Singh Sidhu,1 Adil Mahmood2 1Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Clinical rotations form the foundation of medical education. Medical students in the UK are offered conventional rotations such as cardiology, surgery, and psychiatry as part of their undergraduate curriculum, but a rotation in hematology is not currently mandatory. This paper explores the benefits of a compulsory hematology rotation, and suggests recommendations for its implementation in UK medical school curricula. Keywords: medical education, clinical rotations, hematology

  20. Visual analytics in healthcare education: exploring novel ways to analyze and represent big data in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The big data present in the medical curriculum that informs undergraduate medical education is beyond human abilities to perceive and analyze. The medical curriculum is the main tool used by teachers and directors to plan, design, and deliver teaching and assessment activities and student evaluations in medical education in a continuous effort to improve it. Big data remains largely unexploited for medical education improvement purposes. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage of combining data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognize visual patterns. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research on the use and benefits of visual analytics in medical education. Methods. The present study is based on analyzing the data in the medical curriculum of an undergraduate medical program as it concerns teaching activities, assessment methods and learning outcomes in order to explore visual analytics as a tool for finding ways of representing big data from undergraduate medical education for improvement purposes. Cytoscape software was employed to build networks of the identified aspects and visualize them. Results. After the analysis of the curriculum data, eleven aspects were identified. Further analysis and visualization of the identified aspects with Cytoscape resulted in building an abstract model of the examined data that presented three different approaches; (i) learning outcomes and teaching methods, (ii) examination and learning outcomes, and (iii) teaching methods, learning outcomes, examination results, and gap analysis. Discussion. This study identified aspects of medical curriculum that play an important role in how medical education is conducted. The implementation of visual analytics revealed three novel ways of representing big data in the undergraduate medical education context. It appears to be a useful tool to explore such data

  1. Visual analytics in healthcare education: exploring novel ways to analyze and represent big data in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Vaitsis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The big data present in the medical curriculum that informs undergraduate medical education is beyond human abilities to perceive and analyze. The medical curriculum is the main tool used by teachers and directors to plan, design, and deliver teaching and assessment activities and student evaluations in medical education in a continuous effort to improve it. Big data remains largely unexploited for medical education improvement purposes. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage of combining data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognize visual patterns. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research on the use and benefits of visual analytics in medical education.Methods. The present study is based on analyzing the data in the medical curriculum of an undergraduate medical program as it concerns teaching activities, assessment methods and learning outcomes in order to explore visual analytics as a tool for finding ways of representing big data from undergraduate medical education for improvement purposes. Cytoscape software was employed to build networks of the identified aspects and visualize them.Results. After the analysis of the curriculum data, eleven aspects were identified. Further analysis and visualization of the identified aspects with Cytoscape resulted in building an abstract model of the examined data that presented three different approaches; (i learning outcomes and teaching methods, (ii examination and learning outcomes, and (iii teaching methods, learning outcomes, examination results, and gap analysis.Discussion. This study identified aspects of medical curriculum that play an important role in how medical education is conducted. The implementation of visual analytics revealed three novel ways of representing big data in the undergraduate medical education context. It appears to be a useful tool to

  2. Humanities in undergraduate medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousager, Jakob; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-06-01

    Humanities form an integral part of undergraduate medical curricula at numerous medical schools all over the world, and medical journals publish a considerable quantity of articles in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the literature on humanities in undergraduate medical education seeks to provide evidence of a long-term impact of this integration of humanities in undergraduate medical education. Medline was searched for publications concerning the humanities in undergraduate medical education appearing from January 2000 to December 2008. All articles were manually sorted by the authors. Two hundred forty-five articles were included in the study. Following a qualitative analysis, the references included were categorized as "pleading the case," "course descriptions and evaluations," "seeking evidence of long-term impact," or "holding the horses." Two hundred twenty-four articles out of 245 either praised the (potential) effects of humanities on medical education or described existing or planned courses without offering substantial evidence of any long-term impact of these curricular activities on medical proficiency. Only 9 articles provided evidence of attempts to document long-term impacts using diverse test tools, and 10 articles presented relatively reserved attitudes toward humanities in undergraduate medical education. Evidence on the positive long-term impacts of integrating humanities into undergraduate medical education is sparse. This may pose a threat to the continued development of humanities-related activities in undergraduate medical education in the context of current demands for evidence to demonstrate educational effectiveness.

  3. Skills Development, Habits of Mind, and the Spiral Curriculum: A Dialectical Approach to Undergraduate General Education Curriculum Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to growing discussion concerning the need for more intentional inclusion of habits of mind in curriculum development, particularly in undergraduate general education, and to fuel an examination of the "dialectical" relationship between skills development and the development of habits of mind. The essay…

  4. Should there be greater exposure to interventional radiology in the undergraduate curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Utkarsh; Mohammed, Raihan; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen

    2017-01-01

    Medical imaging has been one of the most revolutionary innovations in medicine. Today, as health care professionals shift their focus toward more sophisticated technology and minimally invasive procedures, interventional radiology (IR) has become a rapidly expanding specialty. Despite these advances, there is a lack of doctors specializing in this field. A growing body of evidence suggests that the low number of applicants for posts may be due to poor exposure to the specialty at medical school. In this article, we outline the importance of IR in today's health care system. Next, we evaluate the evidence that there is a lack of knowledge of IR not only among medical students in the UK but globally. We further discuss how a more effective incorporation of IR in the undergraduate curriculum can enhance medical students' interest in the field and subsequently increase the number of doctors specializing in IR. Finally, we suggest alternative strategies to gauge medical students' interest in IR, including teaching via e-learning and virtual reality.

  5. International infectious diseases teaching to undergraduate medical students: A successful European collaborative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Caroline; Johannessen, Ingólfur; Mackintosh, Claire L; Wilks, David; Cauda, Roberto; Wolf, Federica I; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2017-09-01

    The emerging global-health paradigm requires medical teaching to be continuously redefined and updated; to this end, transnational approaches should be encouraged and medical training harmonized. Infectious diseases (ID) teaching in the current context of emerging infections, fast-increasing bacterial resistance and large-scale human migration, was chosen to develop a common international course. We report the successful implementation of a joint European undergraduate course aiming to (i) develop a common ID core curriculum among European medical schools; (ii) promote mobility among teachers and students (iii) promote international cooperation among European teachers. The course was built around teachers' mobility. It was delivered in English by a team of European medical educators from Paris Descartes University, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome and the University of Edinburgh to groups of 25-30 undergraduate medical students at each university. Partner Institutions officially recognized the course as substitutive of or additive to the regular curriculum. The course has been running for 3 years and received excellent satisfaction scores by students and staff as regards to scientific content, pedagogy and international exchanges. This cooperative approach demonstrates the feasibility of a harmonized European undergraduate medical education, having ID as a test experiment for future developments.

  6. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  7. Dental Anxiety among Medical and Paramedical Undergraduate Students of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjal, Shilpa; Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Parkar, Sujal

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the dental anxiety level among dental, medical, and pharmacy students of MAHSA University, Malaysia. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1500 undergraduate students of MAHSA University. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. The responses were assessed by 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The level of anxiety was categorized into lowly anxious (5-11), moderately anxious (12-18), and severely anxious ≥19. Out of 1500 students enrolled, 1024 students (342 males and 682 females) completed and returned the questionnaire having response rate of 68.26%. Results . There was a statistically significant difference ( P students had lowest mean score (11.95 ± 4.21). The fifth year (senior) dental students scored significantly ( P = 0.02) lower mean anxiety score as compared to the first dental students (junior). The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusions . Dental students have a significantly low level of dental anxiety as compared with medical and pharmacy students. Incorporation of dental health education in preuniversity and other nondental university curriculums may reduce dental anxiety among the students.

  8. Life imitating art: depictions of the hidden curriculum in medical television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Agatha; Clarkin, Chantalle; Bould, M Dylan; Writer, Hilary; Doja, Asif

    2015-09-26

    The hidden curriculum represents influences occurring within the culture of medicine that indirectly alter medical professionals' interactions, beliefs and clinical practices throughout their training. One approach to increase medical student awareness of the hidden curriculum is to provide them with readily available examples of how it is enacted in medicine; as such the purpose of this study was to examine depictions of the hidden curriculum in popular medical television programs. One full season of ER, Grey's Anatomy and Scrubs were selected for review. A summative content analysis was performed to ascertain the presence of depictions of the hidden curriculum, as well as to record the type, frequency and quality of examples. A second reviewer also viewed a random selection of episodes from each series to establish coding reliability. The most prevalent themes across all television programs were: the hierarchical nature of medicine; challenges during transitional stages in medicine; the importance of role modeling; patient dehumanization; faking or overstating one's capabilities; unprofessionalism; the loss of idealism; and difficulties with work-life balance. The hidden curriculum is frequently depicted in popular medical television shows. These examples of the hidden curriculum could serve as a valuable teaching resource in undergraduate medical programs.

  9. Emergency radiology curriculum at Medical University - Plovdiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Hilendarov, A.; Cvetkova, S.; Stoeva, M.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent advances in contemporary radiology turn it into one of the major sources for patient information with improved emergency techniques. Emergency Radiology (EP) focuses on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. Objectives: The main objective of this paper is to present the ER curriculum at Medical Imaging Department, Medical University - Plovdiv, aiming to deliver knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Material and methods: The curriculum covers various aspects of ER Radiology - diagnostic imaging methods, contrast enhanced examinations, imaging topography, traumatic and acute conditions, physical and technical aspects. It includes 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. Results and discussion: The educational course in Emergency Radiology is available for medical students in their 8-th and 9-th semester. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. Conclusion: Being one of the most advanced areas of radiology, ER improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole

  10. Systematic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Progam Award and Course and Curriculum Development Program Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Eight awards in chemistry curriculum development for FY1996 have been announced. One award, to a consortium centered at the University of California-Los Angeles, represents the fifth award in the Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum program. Although no proposals will be accepted in this program for either planning or full grants for FY1997, it is anticipated that proposals will be accepted in June of 1997 for projects that would adapt and adopt materials developed by the five funded consortia: Molecular Science centered at the University of California-Los Angeles; ChemLinks centered at Beloit College; MolecularChem Consortium centered at the University of California-Berkeley; Workshop Chemistry centered at CUNY City College; and New Traditions centered at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Seven awards have been made in the Course and Curriculum Development program. This ongoing program continues to accept proposals in chemistry as usual. Systemic Changes in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Program Award. Molecular Science. Orville L. Chapman University of California-Los Angeles DUE 9555605 FY96 725,000 FY97 575,000, FY98 575,000 FY99 275,000, FY00 275,000 The UCLA-CSUF-Community College Alliance (24 area community colleges that have worked together for more than 15 years) proposes a sweeping restructuring of the lower division chemistry curriculum and the auxiliary learning and assessment processes. In forming our new curriculum, we reject the positivist approach to science education in favor of a constructivist approach that emphasizes problem solving and exploratory learning. We make this change in order to focus on the developing key skills, traits, and abilities of our students. Our new curriculum, the Molecular Science Curriculum, cuts across departments and disciplines to embrace all activities that involve the study of atoms and molecules. In particular, environmental science, materials science, and molecular life science have

  11. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Rachel E A; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy

    2015-05-01

    A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  12. The undergraduate paediatric surgery curriculum in Nigeria – how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to: (i) identify main objectives of paediatric surgery at he undergraduate level; (ii) establish students' knowledge with regard to these objectives; (iii) evaluate the input of both specialists and non-specialists to these objectives; and (iv) examine the status of undergraduate paediatric surgery instruction in our ...

  13. Making Data Management Accessible in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Barbara A.; Vaughan, K. T. L.; Shorish, Yasmeen L.

    2014-01-01

    In the age of "big data" science, data management is becoming a key information literacy skill for chemistry professionals. To introduce this skill in the undergraduate chemistry major, an activity has been developed to familiarize undergraduates with data management. In this activity, students rename and organize cards that represent…

  14. Undergraduate Medical Academic Performance is Improved by Scientific Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…

  15. An appraisal of undergraduate curriculum of technical education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to appraise the curriculum of technical teacher education in terms of its compatibility to the goals of the programme. A sample of three Universities offering technical teacher programme was used for the study. Components of the technical teacher education curriculum in each institution were ...

  16. Bioethics in the medical curriculum in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, T O; Omotade, O O

    2009-03-01

    Many new innovations and advances are introduced into life and the sciences at a pace faster than any single individual can keep up with but human beings adjust to these changes at a much slower pace. Development is at snail speed in many developing countries and supersonic in the developed world and yet these have to interrelate. The introduction of medical technology and advances into developing countries is sometimes done haphazardly and often without prior appropriate education and decision making process. This has the potential to create dilemmas among stakeholders and engender conflicts with culture, religion and societal norms. A good grounding in the study of bioethical principles and theories is relevant to addressing current and evolving issues with changing biotechnology and shifting landmarks in today's highly technical clinical medicine. The knowledge and utilization of these principles should limit the occurrence of many scandals in the form and magnitude already recorded in the history of biomedical research and practice. While the debate as to whether ethics can be taught will continue, bioethics education provides the requisite knowledge and skill that are applicable at the bedside and in biomedical research. Some evidence has shown that formal teaching of ethics impacts positively on physicians and medical students' attitudes in the care of patients. In this paper we propose that bioethics as a distinct course should be incorporated into medical curriculum in Africa. The integration of bioethics as a required subject in the medical curriculum would have a positive impact on all aspects of health care and research. Real or assumed obstacles are not justifiable reasons for further delay in implementing this initiative

  17. Developing and Assessing Curriculum on the Physics of Medical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Warren; Johnson, James K.; Van Ness, Grace R.; Mylott, Elliot; Dunlap, Justin C.; Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate educational settings often struggle to provide students with authentic biologically or medically relevant situations and problems that simultaneously improve their understanding of physics. Through exercises and laboratory activities developed in an elective Physics in Biomedicine course for upper-level biology or pre–health majors at Portland State University, we aim to teach fundamental physical concepts, such as light absorption and emission and atomic energy levels, through analysis of biological systems and medical devices. The activities address the properties of electromagnetic waves as they relate to the interaction with biological tissue and make links between physics and biomedical applications such as microscopy or laser eye surgery. We report on the effect that engaging students in tasks with actual medical equipment has had on their conceptual understanding of light and spectroscopy. These initial assessments indicate that students’ understanding improves in some areas as a result of taking the course, but gains are not uniform and are relatively low for other topics. We also find a promising “nonshift” in student attitudes toward learning science as a result of taking the course. A long-term goal of this work is to develop these materials to the extent that they can eventually be imported into an introductory curriculum for life sciences majors. PMID:23737632

  18. Curriculum for undergraduate business management students:The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    curricula for undergraduate business management degrees. The business management areas investigated were: general management, marketing management, financial management, risk management, human resource management and entrepreneurship. The nominal group technique was used, with between six

  19. Incorporation of integrative medicine education into undergraduate medical education: a longitudinal study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saswati Mahapatra; Anjali Bhagra; Bisrat Fekadu; Zhuo Li; Brent A.Bauer; Dietlind L.Wahner-Roedler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Integrative medicine (IM) combines complementary medical approaches into conventional medicine and considers the whole person.We implemented a longitudinal IM short-course curriculum into our medical school education.This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the curriculum via knowledge and attitude surveys regarding IM among students.METHODS:A mandatory short IM curriculum across all years of medical school was created and taught by IM professionals and physician faculty members with expertise in integrative therapies.Graduating classes of 2015 and 2016 completed the same survey in their first and third years of medical school.Paired data analysis was done,and only students who completed surveys at both time points were included in final analyses.RESULTS:Of 52 students in each class,17 (33%) in the class of 2015 and 22 (42%) in the class of 2016 completed both surveys.After the IM curriculum,students' knowledge of and comfort with several IM therapies—biofeedback,mindfulness,and the use of St.John's wort—improved significantly.Students' personal health practices also improved,including better sleep,exercise,and stress management for the class of 2015.Students graduating in 2016 reported decreased alcohol use in their third year compared with their first year.CONCLUSION:It is feasible to incorporate IM education into undergraduate medical education,and this is associated with improvement in students' knowledge of IM and personal health practices.

  20. JOURNAL CLUB: Redefining the Radiology Curriculum in Medical School: Vertical Integration and Global Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrouvey, Michele; Trace, Anthony Paul; Goodmurphy, Craig W; Shaves, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Radiology interconnects medical disciplines given that a working understanding of imaging is essential to clinicians of every specialty. Using online education, we created a globally accessible, web-based undergraduate medical radiology curriculum modeled after the National Medical Student Curriculum in Radiology program of the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology. Seventy-four radiology faculty-mentored video modules were produced, 50 of which were integrated into the 1st-year anatomy course. We administered tests to medical students before and after students saw the videos to assess the effectiveness of the modules. We surveyed students on their interests in pursuing radiology as a career before and after participating in this curriculum. On the preexamination questions, the mean score was 58.0%, which increased to 83.6% on the pair-matched imaging-related questions on the actual examination. Before participating in the new curriculum, 88% of students did not express an interest in radiology, and 9% were undecided about radiology as a future career. There was an increase in students who reported that they would definitely or most likely pursue a career in radiology (7%) after they had viewed the lectures. Radiology education is now available to a greater number of multidisciplinary learners worldwide. This project produced a comprehensive, globally accessible radiology curriculum in a self-paced, flexible learning format for new generations of physicians.

  1. Students' Response to Curriculum Review of Undergraduate Religion/Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluu, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the imperative and students' response to curriculum review of undergraduate Religion/Education programme in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. The study was a survey type and a fifteen (15) item questionnaire was designed to elicit response from the respondents. The population of the study comprised all the second…

  2. Enhancing the Undergraduate Industrial Engineering Curriculum: Defining Desired Characteristics and Emerging Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Hamidreza; Sala-Diakanda, Serge; Furterer, Sandra; Rabelo, Luis; Crumpton-Young, Lesia; Williams, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the results of an initial research study conducted to identify the desired professional characteristics of an industrial engineer with an undergraduate degree and the emerging topic areas that should be incorporated into the curriculum to prepare industrial engineering (IE) graduates for the future workforce.…

  3. Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Hill, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in software and hardware have promoted the use of computational chemistry in all branches of chemical research to probe important chemical concepts and to support experimentation. Consequently, it has become imperative that students in the modern undergraduate curriculum become adept at performing simple calculations using computational…

  4. Experiencing Wireless Sensor Network Concepts in an Undergraduate Computer Science Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.; van de Voort, M.; Dil, B.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Incorporating Embedded Systems courses in a general and broad Computer Science undergraduate curriculum can be a challenging task. The lack of experience with relevant tools and programming languages tends to limit the amount material that can be included in courses on this area. This, combined with

  5. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Al Wardy, N; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, K

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait, and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education, particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  6. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Wardy, N Al; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'Malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, J

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates, two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities, and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  7. Communication Skills Training in the Medical Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branet Partric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is an essential skill in the armory of any worker in the health field. It is an integral part of the skills required, not only in medical doctors, but in all health workers. Communication is more than history taking; it includes all methods of interaction with patients, patient's relatives, members of the health care team, and the public. Many studies stressed that the main complaints of patients are related to communication problems and not to clinical competency. This has contributed to an increase in the number of law suits, non-adherence to medical regimens, and the tendency of patients to keep changing physicians and hospitals. Also, it has been shown that health outcome is positively affected by proper communication. This includes patient's satisfaction and cooperation, decrease in treatment duration, decrease in painkillers requirements, and decrease in hospital stay. Also, it has been shown that communication skills can be taught and important changes in physician's behavior and in their communication skills have been demonstrated after courses of communication skills. Thus, many medical colleges in the world are including communication skills courses in their undergraduate and graduate curricula

  8. Evaluación de competencias médicas en un currículo de grado no diseñado por competencias Assessment of medical competences in an undergraduate curriculum not designed for developing competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Reta-De Rosas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En 2005 se definieron y difundieron seis competencias con 27 componentes para la carrera de medicina. Objetivos. Evaluar los instrumentos de evaluación de los aprendizajes que se utilizan durante la carrera, formar docentes en la elaboración y uso de instrumentos adecuados, válidos y fiables con el fin de evaluar competencias médicas, y formular criterios generales para la evaluación de los aprendizajes. Materiales y métodos. Se trabajó sobre una muestra de 17 asignaturas, pertenecientes a cuatro grupos. Se recogieron muestras de sus instrumentos de evaluación, que se analizaron según su validez, fiabilidad y capacidad de evaluar competencias médicas, en un estudio descriptivo y cuali-cuantitativo. Varios instrumentos de evaluación de las asignaturas no resultaron válidos ni fiables. Pocos evaluaban las competencias médicas. Se devolvieron resultados y se trabajó en la capacitación de docentes de cuatro de esas asignaturas, cuyos sistemas de evaluación mejoraron considerablemente. Se elaboraron cinco criterios generales para el diseño de sistemas de evaluación de competencias médicas válidos y fiables. Resultados y conclusiones. a Muchos de los instrumentos de evaluación del aprendizaje que se utilizan en la carrera no son válidos ni fiables; b son pocas las competencias médicas definidas para la carrera que se evalúan en las rotaciones clínicas, aun cuando gran cantidad de docentes participaron de su formulación; c capacitando al personal docente se logra que produzcan instrumentos de evaluación válidos, fiables y orientados a evaluar las competencias médicas; d la facultad deberá esforzarse en desarrollar programas de capacitación docente.Introduction. Six medical competences with 27 components were defined for the undergraduate medical program in 2005. Aims. To evaluate the learning assessment tools that are used through the program, to develop faculty for working out and using reliable and valid

  9. A core undergraduate curriculum in plastic surgery - a Delphi consensus study in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2017-01-01

    .00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus......, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel...... of anonymous questionnaires; a final core curriculum competency list was agreed upon based on a consensus agreement level of 80%. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-five competences were suggested in the first round. In the second round, 76 competences (33 skills and 43 knowledge items) received a score ≥3...

  10. Determining and prioritizing competencies in the undergraduate internal medicine curriculum in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallim, H

    2011-08-01

    To determine knowledge and skills competencies in internal medicine for the undergraduate curriculum in Saudi Arabia, competencies were identified based on group work utilizing common textbooks. The Delphi Technique was used as a consensus method to determine and prioritize competencies in internal medicine. A group of 20 clinicians rated the identified competencies from 0-3 (0: no need to know, 1: interesting to know, 2: should know and 3: must know). After formulating the results, a second Delphi round was conducted with 5 experts in internal medicine. A total of 1513 knowledge competencies and 189 skills competencies were determined and prioritized. The competencies corresponded to the 12 systems in internal medicine. All competencies rated 2.2-3.0 were produced separately and considered core competencies for the undergraduate internal medicine curriculum. Determining and prioritizing competencies should influence the curriculum reform process.

  11. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  12. Coordinating the undergraduate medical (MBBS basic sciences programme in a Nepalese medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar PR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available KIST Medical College follows the curriculum of the Institute ofMedicine, Tribhuvan University. The programme aims toproduce socially responsible and competent physicians whoare willing and able to meet the existing and emergingchallenges of the national and international healthcaresystem. The first cohort of undergraduate medical students(MBBS students was admitted in November 2008 and threecohorts including the one admitted in 2008 have beenadmitted at the time of writing. The basic science subjects aretaught in an integrated, organ-system-based manner withcommunity medicine during the first two years. I wasappointed as the MBBS Phase I programme coordinator inSeptember 2008 and in this article I share my experiences ofrunning the basic sciences programme and also offersuggestions for running an efficient academic programme. Themanuscript will be of special interest to readers runningundergraduate medical programmes. The reader canunderstand our experiences in running the programme inadverse circumstances, learning to achieve greater integrationamong basic science, community medicine and clinicaldepartments, obtain information about a communitydiagnosis programme and know about running specialmodules on the medical humanities and pharmaceuticalpromotion.

  13. A Tiered Mentoring Model of Exposing and Engaging Students with Research Throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, J.; Hayes, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Incorporating research into undergraduate curricula has been linked to improved critical thinking, intellectual independence, and student retention, resulting in a graduating population more ready for the workforce or graduate school. We have designed a three-tier model of undergraduate chemistry courses that enable first-year students with no previous research experience to gain the skills needed to develop, fund and execute independent research projects by the close of their undergraduate studies. First-year students are provided with context through a broadly focused introductory class that exposes them to current faculty research activities, and also gives them direct experience with the research process through peer mentored research teams as they participate in faculty-directed projects. Mid-career undergraduate students receive exposure and support in two formats: illustrative examples from current faculty research are incorporated into lessons in core classes, and courses specially designed to foster research independence. This is done by providing content and process mentoring as students develop independent projects, write proposals, and build relationships with faculty and graduate students in research groups. Advanced undergraduates further develop their research independence performing student-designed projects with faculty collaboration that frequently result in tangible research products. Further, graduate students gain experience in mentoring though formal training, as well as through actively mentoring mid-career undergraduates. This novel, integrated approach enables faculty to directly incorporate their research into all levels of the undergraduate curriculum while fostering undergraduates in developing and executing independent projects and empowering mentoring relationships.

  14. Sexual Health in Undergraduate Medical Education: Existing and Future Needs and Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Eardley, Ian; Coleman, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the evolution and current delivery of undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. To make recommendations regarding future educational needs, principles of curricular development, and how the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) should address the need to enhance and promote human sexuality education around the world. The existing literature was reviewed for sexuality education, curriculum development, learning strategies, educational formats, evaluation of programs, evaluation of students, and faculty development. The prevailing theme of most publications in this vein is that sexuality education in undergraduate medical education is currently not adequate to prepare students for future practice. We identified components of the principles of attitudes, knowledge, and skills that should be contained in a comprehensive curriculum for undergraduate medical education in human sexuality. Management of sexual dysfunction; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health care; sexuality across genders and lifespan; understanding of non-normative sexual practices; sexually transmitted infections and HIV, contraception; abortion; sexual coercion and violence; and legal aspects were identified as topics meriting particular attention. Curricula should be integrated throughout medical school and based on principles of adult learning. Methods of teaching should be multimodal and evaluations of student performance are critical. To realize much of what needs to be done, faculty development is critical. Thus, the ISSM can play a key role in the provision and dissemination of learning opportunities and materials, it can promote educational programs around the world, and it can articulate a universal curriculum with modules that can be adopted. The ISSM can create chapters, review documents, slide decks, small group and roleplay topics, and video-recorded materials and make all this material easily available. An expert consensus conference

  15. Learning styles of postgraduate and undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukr, Irfan; Zainab, Roop; Rana, Mowadat H

    2013-01-01

    To compare learning styles of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. Observational, comparative study. Department of Medical Education, Army Medical College, NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, during February and March 2012. A total of 170 students were divided into two equal groups of undergraduate students of Army Medical College, and postgraduate students of Armed Forces Post Graduate Medical Institute, Rawalpindi. Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) was used to assess and categorize the participants into Honey and Mumford classification of learning styles. The responses of each student ranging from 'very strong,' 'strong', 'moderate', and 'low' preference towards activist, theorist, reflector and pragmatist learning styles were compiled. The two groups were compared using SPSS version 17, using Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test. A p-value of $lt; 0.05 was considered significant. Preferences for all four learning styles were present in both groups. The results reveal an overall statistically significant difference in the 'very strong' preference in learning styles between the two study groups (p=0.002). Among the undergraduate students, 45% had a very strong preference for being an activist, whereas in postgraduate students, 38% had very strong preference for reflector, and 35% for theorist. This was statistically significant for activist, and reflector, and attained a p-value of learning style was pragmatist in both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Diversity of learning styles at undergraduate and postgraduate level of medical education calls for multiplicity of instructional and assessment modalities to match them. The learning styles amongst the undergraduate medical students are different from the postgraduates. The postgraduates commonly have the reflector learning style while the undergraduates are predominantly activists and theorists.

  16. Evaluating learning among undergraduate medical students in schools with traditional and problem-based curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the second medical school followed the PBL curriculum. Sixty first-year male medical students (30 students from each medical school) volunteered; they were apparently healthy and of the same age, sex, nationality, and regional and cultural background. Students were taught respiratory physiology according to their curriculum for a period of 2 wk. At the completion of the study period, knowledge was measured based on a single best multiple-choice question examination, and skill was measured based on the objective structured practical examination in the lung function laboratory (respiratory physiology). A Student's t-test was applied for the analysis of the data, and the level of significance was set at P schools.

  17. Computer Programming in the UK Undergraduate Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.; O'Toole, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study which investigated the extent to which undergraduate mathematics students in the United Kingdom are currently taught to programme a computer as a core part of their mathematics degree programme. We undertook an online survey, with significant follow-up correspondence, to gather data on current curricula and received…

  18. Integrating Leadership Development throughout the Undergraduate Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kelynne E.; Aiello, David P.; Barton, Lance F.; Gould, Stephanie L.; McCain, Karla S.; Richardson, John M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teaching and Research (STAR) Leadership Program, developed at Austin College, which engages students in activities integrated into undergraduate STEM courses that promote the development of leadership behaviors. Students focus on interpersonal communication,…

  19. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  20. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  1. Bioinformatics for Undergraduates: Steps toward a Quantitative Bioscience Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Barbara S.; Christmann, James L.; Thatcher, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an innovative bioinformatics course developed under grants from the National Science Foundation and the California State University Program in Research and Education in Biotechnology for undergraduate biology students. The project has been part of a continuing effort to offer students classroom experiences focused on principles and…

  2. Architectural Theory in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Pedagogical Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of architectural theory remains absent from many undergraduate design programs, or, if present, the structure of many curricula place "theory" as an autonomous, peripheral course. Theory, however, as it is in other disciplines, is the foundation of the discipline of architecture. To regain the importance and vitality of…

  3. Identifying Avenues for Curriculum Development in Undergraduate Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Sandra; And Others

    The study reported in this paper represents the first stage of a five-year project aimed at improving the quality of teaching and learning in undergraduate mathematics courses for science and engineering students. Students were surveyed about their confidence in their mathematics background, their confidence with current mathematics topics, and…

  4. Undergraduate Entrepreneurial Finance Course: Some Curriculum and Pedagogical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Samanta; Chan, Kam C.

    2013-01-01

    Using online survey, we document the opinions of finance professors as to what should be the core content of undergraduate entrepreneurial finance course and the approach to be taken to teach this course. On the core content of the course, the top five topics preferred by the respondents were: Identifying business opportunities and examining their…

  5. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  6. A Computer Security Course in the Undergraduate Computer Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the importance of computer security and considers criminal, national security, and personal privacy threats posed by security breakdown. Several examples are given, including incidents involving computer viruses. Objectives, content, instructional strategies, resources, and a sample examination for an experimental undergraduate computer…

  7. Practical use of medical terminology in curriculum mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Martin; Schwarz, Daniel; Švancara, Jan; Vaitsis, Christos; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-08-01

    Various information systems for medical curriculum mapping and harmonization have been developed and successfully applied to date. However, the methods for exploiting the datasets captured inside the systems are rather lacking. We reviewed the existing medical terminologies, nomenclatures, coding and classification systems in order to select the most suitable one and apply it in delivering visual analytic tools and reports for the benefit of medical curriculum designers and innovators. A formal description of a particular curriculum of general medicine is based on 1347 learning units covering 7075 learning outcomes. Two data-analytical reports have been developed and discussed, showing how the curriculum is consistent with the MeSH thesaurus and how the MeSH thesaurus can be used to demonstrate interconnectivity of the curriculum through association analysis. Although the MeSH thesaurus is designed mainly to index medical literature and support searching through bibliographic databases, we have proved its use in medical curriculum mapping as being beneficial for curriculum designers and innovators. The presented approach can be followed wherever needed to identify all the mandatory components used for transparent and comprehensive overview of medical curriculum data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  9. Inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career

    OpenAIRE

    Apturkar, D. K.; Dandekar, Usha K.; Dandkar, Kundankumar Narayan; Jorwekar, Golul Jayant; Baviskar, Padmakar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There is acute shortage of teachers in medical field and very few new members are joining this noble profession. The shortage of medical teachers is resulting in decrease of teaching quality, decrease in number of medical seats and the country is losing its education standard worldwide.Aims: To find out the view and inclination of undergraduate medical students towards teaching as career.Objectives: It is an attempt to find possible reasons preventing or stimulating the undergra...

  10. Undergraduate medical student's perceptions on traditional and problem based curricula: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate and compare students' perceptions about teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of course materials and their satisfaction in traditional Lecture Based learning versus Problem-Based Learning curricula in two different medical schools. The comparative cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2009 to January 2011. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected; one followed the traditional curriculum, while the other followed the problem-based learning curriculum. Two equal groups of first year medical students were selected. They were taught in respiratory physiology and lung function lab according to their curriculum for a period of two weeks. At the completion of the study period, a five-point Likert scale was used to assess students' perceptions on satisfaction, academic environment, teaching and learning, knowledge and skills and outcomes of course materials about effectiveness of problem-based learning compared to traditional methods. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Students used to problem-based learning curriculum obtained marginally higher scores in their perceptions (24.10 +/- 3.63) compared to ones following the traditional curriculum (22.67 +/- 3.74). However, the difference in perceptions did not achieve a level of statistical significance. Students following problem-based learning curriculum have more positive perceptions on teaching and learning, knowledge and skills, outcomes of their course materials and satisfaction compared to the students belonging to the traditional style of medical school. However, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant.

  11. General Practice as a career choice among undergraduate medical students in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanadis Christodoulos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although General Practice (GP was recognized as a medical specialty in Greece in 1986, the number of GPs is insufficient to cover needs and only few medical graduates choose GP as a career option. In the present study we investigated the profile of medical students in terms of their decisions regarding specialization and the possible association of career choices different from GP with the status of undergraduate training regarding GP. Methods The sample consisted of final year students in the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece. Students filled in a self-reported questionnaire focusing on medical specialization, and GP in particular. Results Response rate was 82.5% with 1021 questionnaires collected, out of 1237 eligible medical students. Only 44 out of the 1021 (4.3% respondents stated that GP is -or could be- among their choices for specialty. The most popular medical specialty was General Surgery (10.9%, followed by Cardiology (9.6%, Endocrinology (8.7% and Obstetrics-Gynaecology (8.3%. The most common criterion for choosing GP was the guaranteed employment on completion of the residency (54.6% while a 56.6% of total respondents were positive to the introduction of GP/FM as a curriculum course during University studies. Conclusion Despite the great needs, GP specialty is currently not a career option among undergraduate students of the greater Medical University in Greece and is still held in low esteem. A university department responsible for undergraduate teaching, promotion and research in GP (where not available is essential; the status of undergraduate training in general practice/family medicine seems to be one of the most important factors that influence physician career choices regarding primary care specialties.

  12. The Implementation of Medical Informatics in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Marianne; Steffens, Sandra; Marschollek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) describes medical skills and attitudes without being ordered by subjects or organs. Thus, the NKLM enables systematic curriculum mapping and supports curricular transparency. In this paper we describe where learning objectives related to Medical Informatics (MI) in Hannover coincide with other subjects and where they are taught exclusively in MI. An instance of the web-based MERLIN-database was used for the mapping process. In total 52 learning objectives overlapping with 38 other subjects could be allocated to MI. No overlap exists for six learning objectives describing explicitly topics of information technology or data management for scientific research. Most of the overlap was found for learning objectives relating to documentation and aspects of data privacy. The identification of numerous shared learning objectives with other subjects does not mean that other subjects teach the same content as MI. Identifying common learning objectives rather opens up the possibility for teaching cooperations which could lead to an important exchange and hopefully an improvement in medical education. Mapping of a whole medical curriculum offers the opportunity to identify common ground between MI and other medical subjects. Furthermore, in regard to MI, the interaction with other medical subjects can strengthen its role in medical education.

  13. Embedding responsible conduct in learning and research into an Australian undergraduate curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lynette B

    2017-01-02

    Responsible conduct in learning and research (RCLR) was progressively introduced into the pharmacology curriculum for undergraduate science students at The University of Western Australia. In the second year of this undergraduate curriculum, a lecture introduces students to issues such as the use of animals in teaching and responsible conduct of research. Third year student groups deliver presentations on topics including scientific integrity and the use of human subjects in research. Academic and research staff attending these presentations provide feedback and participate in discussions. Students enrolled in an optional capstone Honours year complete an online course on the responsible conduct of research and participate in an interactive movie. Once RCLR became established in the curriculum, a survey of Likert-scaled and open-ended questions examined student and staff perceptions. Data were expressed as Approval (% of responses represented by Strongly Agree and Agree). RCLR was found to be relevant to the study of pharmacology (69-100% Approval), important for one's future career (62-100% Approval), and stimulated further interest in this area (32-75% Approval). Free entry comments demonstrated the value of RCLR and constructive suggestions for improvement have now been incorporated. RCLR modules were found to be a valuable addition to the pharmacology undergraduate curriculum. This approach may be used to incorporate ethics into any science undergraduate curriculum, with the use of discipline-specific topics. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):53-59, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Otolaryngology in the medical school curriculum: Current trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Elizabeth F; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    To identify trends in medical school otolaryngology curriculum requirements. Survey of United States allopathic medical schools. A survey was sent to deans of curriculum at allopathic medical schools. We identified opportunities for medical students to learn basic concepts in otolaryngology during their undergraduate medical training. The opportunities were classified into preclinical and clinical as well as elective and mandatory rotations. Of the schools surveyed, 60% responded. Mean class size was 149 students. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed schools noted that 75% to 100% of their students participated in preclinical otolaryngology experiences, with 59% reporting a mandatory preclinical otolaryngology module for all students. Eighty-nine percent of schools offered otolaryngology as a clinical elective rotation, with a mean of 12 students participating yearly. Only 7% of schools required a mandatory otolaryngology clinical rotation. Our data suggest that medical students do not receive sufficient exposure to otolaryngology during medical school. Increased requirements for otolaryngology curriculum may be beneficial to all medical students, regardless of their specialty choice. NA. Laryngoscope, 00:000-000, 2016 127:346-348, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. External Reviews, Internal Influences: Consultations and the Undergraduate Neuroscience Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 FUN established the FUN Program and Department Consultations Service, or FUN-PDCS. Since that founding, the service has provided numerous consultation recommendations to undergraduate programs seeking assistance with external program reviews, designing and improving courses and many other programmatic needs. FUN-PDCS, like FUN, is primarily a grassroots organization and draws on the expertise of the FUN membership to aid programs in their more personalized pursuit of the FUN mission: ...

  16. Computer programming in the UK undergraduate mathematics curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.; O'Toole, Claire

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports a study which investigated the extent to which undergraduate mathematics students in the United Kingdom are currently taught to programme a computer as a core part of their mathematics degree programme. We undertook an online survey, with significant follow-up correspondence, to gather data on current curricula and received replies from 46 (63%) of the departments who teach a BSc mathematics degree. We found that 78% of BSc degree courses in mathematics included computer programming in a compulsory module but 11% of mathematics degree programmes do not teach programming to all their undergraduate mathematics students. In 2016, programming is most commonly taught to undergraduate mathematics students through imperative languages, notably MATLAB, using numerical analysis as the underlying (or parallel) mathematical subject matter. Statistics is a very popular choice in optional courses, using the package R. Computer algebra systems appear to be significantly less popular for compulsory first-year courses than a decade ago, and there was no mention of logic programming, functional programming or automatic theorem proving software. The modal form of assessment of computing modules is entirely by coursework (i.e. no examination).

  17. Curriculum Mapping with Academic Analytics in Medical and Healthcare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, Martin; Víta, Martin; Vaitsis, Christos; Schwarz, Daniel; Pokorná, Andrea; Zary, Nabil; Dušek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    No universal solution, based on an approved pedagogical approach, exists to parametrically describe, effectively manage, and clearly visualize a higher education institution's curriculum, including tools for unveiling relationships inside curricular datasets. We aim to solve the issue of medical curriculum mapping to improve understanding of the complex structure and content of medical education programs. Our effort is based on the long-term development and implementation of an original web-based platform, which supports an outcomes-based approach to medical and healthcare education and is suitable for repeated updates and adoption to curriculum innovations. We adopted data exploration and visualization approaches in the context of medical curriculum innovations in higher education institutions domain. We have developed a robust platform, covering detailed formal metadata specifications down to the level of learning units, interconnections, and learning outcomes, in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy and direct links to a particular biomedical nomenclature. Furthermore, we used selected modeling techniques and data mining methods to generate academic analytics reports from medical curriculum mapping datasets. We present a solution that allows users to effectively optimize a curriculum structure that is described with appropriate metadata, such as course attributes, learning units and outcomes, a standardized vocabulary nomenclature, and a tree structure of essential terms. We present a case study implementation that includes effective support for curriculum reengineering efforts of academics through a comprehensive overview of the General Medicine study program. Moreover, we introduce deep content analysis of a dataset that was captured with the use of the curriculum mapping platform; this may assist in detecting any potentially problematic areas, and hence it may help to construct a comprehensive overview for the subsequent global in-depth medical curriculum

  18. [Interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum "Medical psychology, psychotherapy and psychosomatics" (MPPP) at the University of Ulm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Gebhard; Gommel, Michael; Tamulionyté, Liudvika; Appelt, Matthias; Zenz, Helmuth; Kächele, Horst

    2002-08-01

    We report the clinical part of the longitudinal curriculum MPPP which was developed by the departments of Medical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine at the University of Ulm. The commitment and creativity of the participating students in their two undergraduate years inspired us to offer them an interest-guided curriculum for their six clinical semesters. Our paper reports the extensive results of two evaluations that we conducted during the clinical part of this new teaching-model. It became evident that we were successful in transferring continuous, intense and patient-centred psychosomatic and psychosocial contents. Yet the transfer of basic and methodological knowledge was not realised to the extent the students would have appreciated. The positive results of our project encouraged us to expand the concept of an interest-guided curriculum onto the whole academic education in psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine at our university.

  19. Performance of a core of transversal skills: self-perceptions of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-15

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.

  20. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  1. Teaching Culture and Improving Language Skills through a Cinematic Lens: A Course on Spanish Film in the Undergraduate Spanish Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the role of a course on Spanish cinema in an undergraduate, university-level curriculum in terms of its potential to acquaint students with significant cultural issues and to develop language skills. (Author/VWL)

  2. A Model for Persistent Improvement of Medical Education as Illustrated by the Surgical Reform Curriculum HeiCuMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Schmidt, Jan; De Cono, Nicola; Kadmon, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Heidelberg Medical School underwent a major curricular change with the implementation of the reform curriculum HeiCuMed (Heidelberg Curriculum Medicinale) in October 2001. It is based on rotational modules with daily cycles of interactive, case-based small-group seminars, PBL tutorials and training of sensomotor and communication skills. For surgical undergraduate training an organisational structure was developed that ensures continuity of medical teachers for student groups and enables their unimpaired engagement for defined periods of time while accounting for the daily clinical routine in a large surgery department of a university hospital. It includes obligatory didactic training, standardising teaching material on the basis of learning objectives and releasing teaching doctors from clinical duties for the duration of a module. To compare the effectiveness of the undergraduate surgical reform curriculum with that of the preceding traditional one as reflected by students' evaluations. The present work analyses student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical training between 1999 and 2008 including three cohorts (~360 students each) in the traditional curriculum and 13 cohorts (~150 students each) in the reform curriculum. The evaluation of the courses, their organisation, the teaching quality, and the subjective learning was significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the preceding traditional curriculum over the whole study period. A medical curriculum based on the implementation of interactive didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. The organisational strategy adopted in the surgical training of HeiCuMed has been successful in enabling the maintenance of a complex modern curriculum on a continuously high level within the framework of a busy surgical environment.

  3. The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E.A. Horak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities.  In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss results of these surveys (353 responses. We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, including lack of time, lack of financial resources, and lack of supporting resources. Given the self-reported challenges to implementing the ASM Curriculum Guidelines in undergraduate classrooms, we identify here some activities related to the ASM Curriculum Guidelines that the ASM Education Board has initiated to assist educators in the implementation process.

  4. Stress and Stressors among Medical Undergraduate Students: A Cross-sectional Study in a Private Medical College in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Sivaprakasam, P; Patil, Aruna B

    2017-01-01

    Medical education is perceived as being stressful, and a high level of stress may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students in a medical school. To (a) assess the perceived stress among medical undergraduate students, (b) identify the sources of stress, and (c) find an association of perceived stress with sociodemographic characteristics and various stressors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical undergraduate students in a private medical college in Tamil Nadu. A total of 750 medical students from 1 st year to final year were invited to participate in the study. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic profile, perceived stress using perceived stress scale-14 and academic, psychosocial and environmental stressors. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, sources of stress and perceived stress. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess determinants of stress. The overall response rate was 93.33% (700 out of 750 students). The mean perceived stress score was 25.64 ± 5.44. Higher age-group, year of studying bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery, vastness of academic curriculum, fear of poor performance in examination, lack of recreation, loneliness, family problem, and accommodation away from home were important determinants of perceived stress. The perceived stress was higher among higher age group and final year medical students. Academic, psychosocial, and environmental stressors are associated with perceived stress. Reframing the academic curriculum and examination patterns, incorporating recreational and sports activities, and establishment of counseling cells in the institution is needed.

  5. NEW PATTERNS IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION--EMERGING CURRICULUM MODELS FOR THE AMERICAN COLLEGE. NEW DIMENSIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION, NUMBER 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AXELROD, JOSEPH

    THIS REVIEW OF A LITERATURE SEARCH PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF NEW MODELS OF UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUMS THAT ARE COMING INTO EXISTENCE AND COMPARES THE PURPOSES OF THESE NEW MODELS WITH THE WEAKNESSES OF THE OLD MODELS THAT THE NEW MODELS SEEK TO CORRECT. THE NEW MODELS OF UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION ARE SEEKING TO CREATE, EVEN ON THE LARGEST CAMPUSES,…

  6. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  7. Must we remain blind to undergraduate medical ethics education in Africa? A cross-sectional study of Nigerian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Onochie; Nwachukwu, Daniel; Maduka-Okafor, Ferdinand C

    2017-12-08

    As the practice of medicine inevitably raises both ethical and legal issues, it had been recommended since 1999 that medical ethics and human rights be taught at every medical school. Most Nigerian medical schools still lack a formal undergraduate medical ethics curriculum. Medical education remains largely focused on traditional medical science components, leaving the medical students to develop medical ethical decision-making skills and moral attitudes passively within institutions noted for relatively strong paternalistic traditions. In conducting a needs assessment for developing a curriculum germane to the Nigerian society, and by extension most of Sub-Saharan Africa, this study determined the views of Nigerian medical students on medical ethics education, ethical issues related to the doctor-patient relationship and the ethical/professional dilemmas they are confronted with. Using self-administered 63-item structured questionnaires, a cross-sectional survey of the final year medical students of the University of Nigeria was conducted in July 2015.Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS Version 17), frequency counts and percentages were generated. The sample included 100 males (71.4%) and 40 females (28.6%), with the respective mean (SD) age being 24.6(5.61) and 21.8 (6.38) years. Only 35.7% were satisfied with their medical ethics knowledge, and 97.9% indicated that medical ethics should be taught formally. Only 8.6% had never witnessed a medical teacher act unethically. The dilemmas of poor communication between physicians and patients, and the provision of sub-standard care were reported highest for being encountered 'often'. A majority (60.7%) indicated that "a doctor should do his best always, irrespective of the patient's wishes". No significant difference in responses across gender was noted. There is a strong desire by the contemporary Nigerian medical student for medical ethics education. Their lack of exposure in medical

  8. Scenario-based teaching in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel, Omar El Tokhy Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the study by Frost et al1 which highlights the importance of scenario-based teaching (SBT of clinical communication in medical undergraduate pediatrics teaching. SBT involves students navigating a storyline based around a complex problem, running in parallel with case-based learning. We were impressed by the results of the SBT program at Cardiff University School of Medicine. As medical students currently on our pediatric rotation at Imperial College London, we have experienced at first hand the benefits of SBT. Throughout the placement, it continues to help us tackle the complexities which arise when communicating with children and their families. We have noted its particular benefit in breaking bad news to families. Without effective teaching on this particular scenario, a failure to grasp this skill could exacerbate patient and parent concerns. Much like the authors of this study highlight,1 we believe specific teaching on communication skills should be a mandatory part of medical undergraduate education at every institution. Imperial College School of Medicine has developed a similar teaching style which has been unparalleled in its benefit to us during our pediatric rotation. Although there is scant literature available specifically addressing communicating with children and parents at undergraduate level, the use of SBT throughout undergraduate medical teaching should not be underestimated. Read the original paper by Frost et al

  9. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, I; Bhadury, T

    2012-01-01

    Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  10. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05% respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21% followed by diarrhea (68 students (25.47%, fever (42 students (15.73%, headache (40 students (14.98% and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students (8.61%. Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09% followed by analgesics (23.21%, antipyretics (17.98%, antiulcer agents (8.99%, cough suppressant (7.87%, multivitamins (6.37% and antihelminthics (4.49%. Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19% felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46% preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73% cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62% preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.

  11. Accreditation of undergraduate and graduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality...... of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes...... are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug...

  12. Embedding Sustainability and Renewable Energy Concepts into Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Cioca, L.

    2017-12-01

    Human society is facing an uncertain future due to the present unsustainable use of natural resources and the growing imbalance with our natural environment. Creation of a sustainable society is a complex multi-disciplinary and multi-stage project, believed to dominate our century, requiring collaboration, teamwork, and abilities to work with respect and learn from other disciplines and professions. Sustainable development means technological progress meeting the present needs without compromising future generation ability to meet its needs and aspirations. It has four aspects: environment, technology, economy, and societal organizations. Students are often taught to deal with technological developments and economic analysis to assess the process or product viability, but are not fully familiar with sustainability and optimization of technology development benefits and the environment. Schools in many disciplines are working to include sustainability concepts into their curricula. Teaching sustainability and renewable energy has become an essential feature today higher education. Sustainable and green design is about designs recognizing the constraints of the natural resource uses and the environment. It applies to all of engineering and science areas, as all systems interact with the environment in complex and important ways. Our project goals are to provide students with multiple and comprehensive exposures to sustainability and renewable energy concepts, facilitating the development of passion and skills to integrate them into practice. The expected outcomes include an increased social responsibility; development of innovative thinking skills; understanding of sustainability issues, and increasing student interests in the engineering and science programs. The project aims to incorporate sustainability and renewable energy concepts into our undergraduate curricula, employing the existing course resources, and developing new courses and laboratory experiments

  13. Evidence Based Medicine Teaching in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Mi

    2012-09-01

    instruction, implementation of an EBM intervention, outcomes measured, and evaluation methods, all of which remain relevant issues for further research. It is important for medical educators and health sciences librarians to attend to these issues in designing and delivering a successful EBM intervention in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

  14. Integrating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Content Into Undergraduate Medical School Curricula: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Gina M; Chakraborti, Chayan; Panunti, Brandy A

    2012-01-01

    The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a diverse, underserved, and often stigmatized group that faces many barriers to accessing quality healthcare. Not only are few practicing physicians knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of LGBT patients, but medical school curricula include limited LGBT-related content. Our goals were to use LGBT-related educational sessions to gauge undergraduate medical students' interest and their perceptions of relevance and to eventually incorporate this topic into the curriculum. We provided 4 educational sessions to preclinical medical students at the Tulane University School of Medicine: 3 optional, 1-hour didactic sessions and 1 standardized patient encounter. Following sessions 1-3, students completed electronic feedback forms; we then analyzed their responses thematically. THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSES IDENTIFIED KEY THEMES: a current lack of exposure to LGBT content, agreement that LGBT material is applicable to students' work as future physicians, and the relevance of including such information in the medical school curriculum. The study validated the underlying assumption that LGBT educational sessions are meaningful to and valued by medical students.

  15. Putting tobacco cessation and prevention into undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training medical students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills is critical to have competent physicians who are prepared to address the grave levels of morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use. However, in India, enough attention has not been given to elicit the active participation of physicians in tobacco control. Keeping this in view, a program was undertaken to develop the skills and competence of medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and the delivery of advice accordingly for patients in their clinical year′s routine consultations. Methods: The targeted learners were 149 1 st -year medical and dental students of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India, who had appeared the second semester examination; 84 of the participants were male. Students were allowed to appear a test before the training session on knowledge of tobacco cessation and post test was done after 1.5 months of training. The knowledge score was evaluated to evaluate the learning outcome. Results: We observed that a curriculum on tobacco intervention could improve relevant knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence and be applied in students early clinical experiences. Conclusions: There is need of joint action by practicing clinicians, the medical faculty and the curriculum planners of the country to incorporate tobacco cessation into the curriculum.

  16. [Basis for designing a medical course curriculum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, R; Bojalil, L F; Mercer, H

    1977-01-01

    This article sets forth the reasons for the structure given to the Division of Biology and Health on the Xochimilco campus of Metropolitan Autonomous University in Mexico: to adjust the university to the process of social change going forward in the country and gear the university to the problems of the present by avoiding the rigidity of its structure. The basic aspects of curriculum design are cited against a background of an historical analysis of the socioeconomic structure of education and health. The principles underlying the curriculum and the course work are then described on the basis of that analysis.

  17. Online Lectures in Undergraduate Medical Education: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Brandon; Coret, Alon; Qureshi, Aatif; Barron, Henry; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Law, Marcus

    2018-04-10

    The adoption of the flipped classroom in undergraduate medical education calls on students to learn from various self-paced tools-including online lectures-before attending in-class sessions. Hence, the design of online lectures merits special attention, given that applying multimedia design principles has been shown to enhance learning outcomes. The aim of this study was to understand how online lectures have been integrated into medical school curricula, and whether published literature employs well-accepted principles of multimedia design. This scoping review followed the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Education Source, FRANCIS, ERIC, and ProQuest, were searched to find articles from 2006 to 2016 related to online lecture use in undergraduate medical education. In total, 45 articles met our inclusion criteria. Online lectures were used in preclinical and clinical years, covering basic sciences, clinical medicine, and clinical skills. The use of multimedia design principles was seldom reported. Almost all studies described high student satisfaction and improvement on knowledge tests following online lecture use. Integration of online lectures into undergraduate medical education is well-received by students and appears to improve learning outcomes. Future studies should apply established multimedia design principles to the development of online lectures to maximize their educational potential. ©Brandon Tang, Alon Coret, Aatif Qureshi, Henry Barron, Ana Patricia Ayala, Marcus Law. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  18. Therapy 101: A Psychotherapy Curriculum for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, Frieda; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This pilot project, designed and taught by a resident, created a curriculum to introduce medical students to the practice of psychotherapy. Medical students who are knowledgeable about psychotherapy can become physicians who are able to refer patients to psychotherapeutic treatments. A search of the literature did not identify a…

  19. Gastroenterology Curriculum in the Canadian Medical School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, ThucNhi Tran; Wong, Clarence; Bistritz, Lana

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Gastroenterology is a diverse subspecialty that covers a wide array of topics. The preclinical gastroenterology curriculum is often the only formal training that medical students receive prior to becoming residents. There is no Canadian consensus on learning objectives or instructional methods and a general lack of awareness of curriculum at other institutions. This results in variable background knowledge for residents and lack of guidance for course development. Objectives. (1) Elucidate gastroenterology topics being taught at the preclinical level. (2) Determine instructional methods employed to teach gastroenterology content. Results . A curriculum map of gastroenterology topics was constructed from 10 of the medical schools that responded. Topics often not taught included pediatric GI diseases, surgery and trauma, food allergies/intolerances, and obesity. Gastroenterology was taught primarily by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Didactic and small group teaching was the most employed teaching method. Conclusion. This study is the first step in examining the Canadian gastroenterology curriculum at a preclinical level. The data can be used to inform curriculum development so that topics generally lacking are better incorporated in the curriculum. The study can also be used as a guide for further curriculum design and alignment across the country.

  20. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, V.C.; Berry, S.; Hsu, T.; North, S.; Neville, A.; Chan, K.; Verma, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. Methods To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Results Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty–related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Conclusions Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners. PMID:24523624

  1. Head and Neck Anatomy: Effect of Focussed Near-Peer Teaching on Anatomical Confidence in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon; Osborne, Max Sallis; Bowyer, Duncan

    2018-05-11

    To assess the effect of near-peer head and neck anatomy teaching on undergraduates and to quantify the benefit from a focussed teaching course. Near-peer teaching involves colleagues within close seniority and age proximity teaching one another on a specified topic. Small group teaching sessions were delivered to medical students on 3 key areas of ENT anatomy. Participants were given a precourse and postcourse questionnaire to determine the benefit attained from the course. An undergraduate anatomy course taking place at the University of Birmingham Medical School. A total of 30 medical students: 15 preclinical (years 1-2) and 15 clinical (years 3-5) medical students participated from a single institution. A total of 71% of students expressed inadequate teaching of head and neck anatomy in undergraduate curriculum. All students (n = 30) expressed benefit from the course, however the patterns of learning differed: preclinical students showed a significant improvement in both their ability to name anatomical structures and their application (p peer learning provides benefit to all medical undergraduates in the context of teaching anatomy which may make it a valuable teaching tool for the future of medical education. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Teaching and Assessing Communication Skills in Medical Undergraduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder

    2016-06-08

    Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.

  3. Undergraduate medical academic performance is improved by scientific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, and even English. We classified scientific training into four levels. We found that literature reading could significantly improve students' test scores in general courses. Students who received scientific training carried out experiments more effectively and published articles performed better than their untrained counterparts in biochemistry and molecular biology examinations. The questionnaire survey demonstrated that the trained students were more confident of their course learning, and displayed more interest, motivation and capability in course learning. In summary, undergraduate academic performance is improved by scientific training. Our findings shed light on the novel strategies in the management of undergraduate education in the medical school. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):379-384, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Madness and the movies: an undergraduate module for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Vivek

    2009-06-01

    Films featuring psychiatrists, psychiatry and the mentally ill abound, for better or for worse. The use of cinema in postgraduate psychiatry training has been gaining increasing acceptability, but its potential for use in undergraduate psychiatry has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the rationale behind, and medical students' responses to a special study module for third year medical students at King's College London, which utilized movies to highlight the significance of the social, cultural and historical context in shaping representations of mental illness, psychiatry, and psychiatrists. Medical students were very receptive to the use of film as an educational tool and able to understand both the benefits and limitations. They found the module enjoyable, and subjectively rated their knowledge of psychiatric topics and the history of psychiatry as significantly improved. The results presented are course feedback from medical students (n = 8) who completed the module. Although our findings provide provisional support for the use of film as an educational tool in undergraduate psychiatry, more systematic research is needed to delineate the potential role of cinema in undergraduate psychiatric education.

  5. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  6. Ethics curriculum for emergency medicine graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Lu, Dave W; Stettner, Edward; Sokolove, Peter E; Ufberg, Jacob W; Noeller, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction of basic obstetrical ultrasound screening in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Solomayer, E-F; Takacs, Z; Juhasz-Boes, I; Joukhadar, R; Radosa, J C; Mavrova, R; Marc, W; Volk, T; Meyberg-Solomayer, G

    2016-09-01

    Teaching ultrasound procedures to undergraduates has recently been proposed to improve the quality of medical education. We address the impact of applying standardized ultrasound teaching to our undergraduates. Medical students received an additional theoretical and practical course involving hands-on ultrasound screening during their mandatory practical training week in obstetrics and gynecology. The students' theoretical knowledge and fetal image recognition skills were tested before and after the course. After the course, the students were asked to answer a course evaluation questionnaire. To standardize the teaching procedure, we used Peyton's 4-Step Approach to teach the skills needed for a German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine Level 1 ultrasound examiner. The multiple-choice question scores after the course showed statistically significant improvement (50 vs. 80 %; P education that should be further evaluated, standardized, and developed.

  8. Twelve tips for integrating leadership development into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Alex; McKimm, Judy; Swanwick, Tim

    2017-10-26

    Healthcare systems need effective leadership. All healthcare professionals can and should "learn to lead" and this requires a clear focus on leadership development from the earliest stages of a career. Within medicine, undergraduate students should be provided with opportunities to thrive and develop their skills in terms of leadership, management and followership. Drawing from the existing evidence base, the authors' expertise and the latest "thought leadership", these 12 tips provide practical guidance to universities and associated provider organizations, and to academic and clinical faculty, on how to integrate leadership development into their undergraduate medical programs. These 12 tips will help educators provide medical education that incorporates leadership as a core part of a professional's identity, and help students gain a deeper understanding of themselves and the teams, organizations and system they work within.

  9. Updating the Undergraduate Curriculum of the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tonta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant with the heavy use of the Internet, the Web and social Networks, scientific, technological and social changes speed up nowadays, resulting in the production of massive data and information. Information that is mostly discovered, organized, retrieved and used through the networks needs to be managed effectively. The curricula of the departments of Information Management educating information professionals should mirror such scientific, technological and social developments. In this paper, we review the process of the revision of the undergraduate curriculum of the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University. First, we introduce the Department briefly, then we review the studies carried out between 2009 and 2011 to update the curriculum along with the conceptual model of education for information management developed during this process. Finally, we provide brief information on double major and minor programs that have been developed mutually with the Departments of Economics and Computer Engineering.

  10. Curriculum structure, content, learning and assessment in European undergraduate dental education - update 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manogue, M

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an updated statement on behalf of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) in relation to proposals for undergraduate Curriculum Structure, Content, Learning, Assessment and Student \\/ Staff Exchange for dental education in Europe. A task force was constituted to consider these issues and the two previous, related publications produced by the Association (Plasschaert et al 2006 and 2007) were revised. The broad European dental community was circulated and contributed to the revisions. The paper was approved at the General Assembly of ADEE, held in Amsterdam in August 2010 and will be updated again in 2015.

  11. Integrating computation into the undergraduate curriculum: A vision and guidelines for future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonacky, Norman; Winch, David

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence of a need to make computation an integral part of the undergraduate physics curriculum. This need is consistent with data from surveys in both the academy and the workplace, and has been reinforced by two years of exploratory efforts by a group of physics faculty for whom computation is a special interest. We have examined past and current efforts at reform and a variety of strategic, organizational, and institutional issues involved in any attempt to broadly transform existing practice. We propose a set of guidelines for development based on this past work and discuss our vision of computationally integrated physics.

  12. Dermatology Medical Education: A Multicenter Survey Study of the Undergraduate Perspective of the Dermatology Clinical Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Parastoo; Millsop, Jillian W; Johnson, Mary Ann N; Takahashi, Stefani R; Peng, David H; Badger, Joanna; Bahr, Brooks A; Shinkai, Kanade; Li, Chin-Shang; Fazel, Nasim

    2017-12-15

    Limited data are available regarding the undergraduate dermatology clinical clerkship curriculum in the United States. Our primaryaim is to assess medical students' perspectives of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A multicenter survey study was conducted, which included four California dermatology academic programs. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to investigate medical student perception with regard tothe overall educational value of the various teaching aspects of the dermatology clinical clerkship. A total of 152 medical student surveys were completed. Over half of the medical students felt proficient in diagnosing the most commondermatologic conditions. Eighty-seven percent of medical students were very satisfied with the dermatology clerkship. Ninety-one percent of students felt the length of the clerkship was appropriate. The vast majority of medical students reported a high level of proficiency in the treatment and diagnosis of common skin disorders. In contrast, our findings suggest that medical students may not begaining sufficient hands-on experience in conducting certain dermatologic procedures following the dermatology clerkship. Overall, medical studentperception of the dermatology clinical clerkship was mostly positive.

  13. Effectiveness of a quality improvement curriculum for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Tartaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As health systems find ways to improve quality of care, medical training programs are finding opportunities to prepare learners on principles of quality improvement (QI. The impact of QI curricula for medical students as measured by student learning is not well delineated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a QI curriculum for senior medical students as measured by student knowledge and skills. Methods: This study was an observational study that involved a self-assessment and post-test Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT for intervention and control students. A QI curriculum consisting of online modules, live discussions, independent readings and reflective writing, and participation in a mentored QI project was offered to fourth-year medical students completing an honor's elective (intervention group. Senior medical students who received the standard QI curriculum only were recruited as controls. Results: A total of 22 intervention students and 12 control students completed the self-assessment and QIKAT. At baseline, there was no difference between groups in self-reported prior exposure to QI principles. Students in the intervention group reported more comfort with their skills in QI overall and in 9 of the 12 domains (p<0.05. Additionally, intervention students performed better in each of the three case scenarios (p<0.01. Discussion: A brief QI curriculum for senior medical students results in improved comfort and knowledge with QI principles. The strengths of our curriculum include effective use of classroom time and faculty mentorship with reliance on pre-existing online modules and written resources. Additionally, the curriculum is easily expandable to larger groups of students and transferable to other institutions.

  14. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanchao Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Methods: Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. Results: The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%, updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%, strengthened faculty development (84.0%, improved educational resources (82.1%, and benefited all students (53.4%. Conclusions: The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  15. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guanchao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qiming; Chi, Baorong; He, Qingnan; Xiao, Haipeng; Zhou, Qinghuan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China) participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%), updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%), strengthened faculty development (84.0%), improved educational resources (82.1%), and benefited all students (53.4%). The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  16. Radiotherapy Learning in Medical Undergraduate Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, L; Garcia-Linares, A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 60 % of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a component of their treatment. Radiation Oncology concepts, specifically, are not formally introduced to students in most traditional school curricula until their clinical rotations or may only be included as an optional elective during the core clinical clerkships. The aim of this study is to determine whether the teaching of Radiation Oncology by radiation oncologists, in the third year, in block diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, is helpful for student training and changes their attitude towards the specialty. We administered a pre-test and post-test examination of the concepts in general radiation oncology, radiation physics, radiobiology, breast cancer and their opinion to the third year medical students. The 10-question, multiple choice tests were administered before starting the lessons and when they finished the course. Of the 130 third year students, 95 (73.07 %) participated in the pre-test and post-test analysis. For the entire cohort, improvement was seen in all questions except one regarding physics. A statistically significant improvement (p < 0.005) was seen in the question regarding the aspects of general radiotherapy, radiobiology, acute and after-effects of radiation and the management of early-stage breast cancer. With an adequate methodology, third year students can learn aspects of Radiation Oncology.

  17. Student feedback about the integrated curriculum in a Caribbean medical school

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    P. Ravi Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Xavier University School of Medicine adopted an integrated, organ system-based curriculum in January 2013. The present study was aimed at determining students’ perceptions of the integrated curriculum and related assessment methods. Methods: The study was conducted on first- to fourth-semester undergraduate medical students during March 2014. The students were informed of the study and subsequently invited to participate. Focus group discussions were conducted. The curriculum’s level of integration, different courses offered, teaching-learning methods employed, and the advantages and concerns relating to the curriculum were noted. The respondents also provided feedback about the assessment methods used. Deductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Twenty-two of the 68 students (32.2% participated in the study. The respondents expressed generally positive opinions. They felt that the curriculum prepared them well for licensing examinations and future practice. Problem-based learning sessions encouraged active learning and group work among students, thus, improving their understanding of the course material. The respondents felt that certain subjects were allocated a larger proportion of time during the sessions, as well as more questions during the integrated assessment. They also expressed an appreciation for medical humanities, and felt that sessions on the appraisal of literature needed modification. Their opinions about assessment of behavior, attitudes, and professionalism varied. Conclusion: Student opinion was positive, overall. Our findings would be of interest to other medical schools that have recently adopted an integrated curriculum or are in the process of doing so.

  18. Meanings about bioethics that emerged in a medical curriculum

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    Villegas-Múnera, Elsa María

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a medical curriculum in Medellín, Colombia. Its goal was to correlate the meanings about bioethics that emerged in the educational guidance with those produced among students and professors. A methodological triangulation was used, namely: analysis of the curriculum foundation documents; a representative survey to students, and interviews and focal groups. Results revealed that the main problem of bioethics in the curriculum is the dissociation between the discursive emphasis ascribed to the training in that field, and its development in the curricular practice. The triad patient –student – professor, projected to the family and the community, emerged as the foundation of the curriculum inasmuch as they are the protagonic agents of their lives. It is then possible to overcome the marginality of patients and the community when they are considered only as objects of study.

  19. Leadership in Undergraduate Medical Education: Training Future Physician Leaders.

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    Clyne, Brian; Rapoza, Brenda; George, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To confront the challenges facing modern health care, experts and organizations are calling for an increase in physician leadership capabilities. In response to this need, physician leadership programs are proliferating, targeting all levels of experience at all levels of training. Many academic medical centers, major universities, and specialty societies now sponsor physician leadership training programs. To meet this need, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, as part of its Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) Program, designed a four-year integrated curriculum, Leadership in Health Care, to engage with leadership topics starting early in the preclinical stages of training. This paper describes the design and implementation of this leadership curriculum for PC-PM students.

  20. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education.

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    Woodward, A

    1994-12-01

    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Community-oriented Curriculum Design for Medical Humanities

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    Duu-Jian Tsai

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Various recent surveys in Taiwan show physicians' decreasing satisfaction and increasing frustration with their working environment. Their major complaints are stress, long hours, salary, management's disrespect, and lack of trust from patients and society. To move towards restoration of social trust, this paper proposes incorporating the concept of “doctor as mediator in the changing relationship with patients” into the medical curriculum, as will be described in detail. This paper argues that structured community service for medical students facilitates self-learning, and will not only motivate them to develop good clinical and communication skills, but will also lead them to realize that the essence of medicine must be social trust. These effects have been seen after several years of an experimental curriculum involving more than 800 students. A program using methodology for community empowerment has been realized in a two-stage curriculum design. Students' self-assessment of achievements in these courses included further improvement in communication skills, courage to express own position, appropriate planning in advance, management of human resources, ability to deal with limited space and time, and experience of a profoundly moving learning process. In conclusion, community-based curriculum designs that facilitate self-learning for medical students should be the key element of reformed humanities education in Taiwan medical schools. Moreover, medical humanities continues to be a key element contributing to ongoing intellectual movements in Taiwan for building civil society and rooting democracy in the community.

  2. Learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates and postgraduates.

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    Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Tharanga; Rodrigo, Chaturaka

    2013-03-25

    The challenge of imparting a large amount of knowledge within a limited time period in a way it is retained, remembered and effectively interpreted by a student is considerable. This has resulted in crucial changes in the field of medical education, with a shift from didactic teacher centered and subject based teaching to the use of interactive, problem based, student centered learning. This study tested the hypothesis that learning styles (visual, auditory, read/write and kinesthetic) and approaches to learning (deep, strategic and superficial) differ among first and final year undergraduate medical students, and postgraduates medical trainees. We used self administered VARK and ASSIST questionnaires to assess the differences in learning styles and approaches to learning among medical undergraduates of the University of Colombo and postgraduate trainees of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo. A total of 147 participated: 73 (49.7%) first year students, 40 (27.2%) final year students and 34(23.1%) postgraduate students. The majority (69.9%) of first year students had multimodal learning styles. Among final year students, the majority (67.5%) had multimodal learning styles, and among postgraduates, the majority were unimodal (52.9%) learners.Among all three groups, the predominant approach to learning was strategic. Postgraduates had significant higher mean scores for deep and strategic approaches than first years or final years (p learning approaches suggest a positive shift towards deep and strategic learning in postgraduate students. However a similar difference was not observed in undergraduate students from first year to final year, suggesting that their curriculum may not have influenced learning methodology over a five year period.

  3. Developing and Assessing Curriculum on the Physics of Medical Instruments

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    Christensen, Warren; Johnson, James K.; Van Ness, Grace R.; Mylott, Elliot; Dunlap, Justin C.; Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate educational settings often struggle to provide students with authentic biologically or medically relevant situations and problems that simultaneously improve their understanding of physics. Through exercises and laboratory activities developed in an elective Physics in Biomedicine course for upper-level biology or pre-health majors…

  4. Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom ... Results: Self-medication practice was highly prevalent among the medical students, with 87 % ... as part of self-care to improve the health care ..... No conflict of interest associated with this work.

  5. A Health Informatics Curriculum Congruent with IS 2010 and IMIA Recommendations for an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Campbell, S. Matt; Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, Harold; Daigle, Roy J.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being a relevant program for health information technology workers, a recently proposed Health Informatics program was designed with additional objectives in mind: that the program is compatible with the IS 2010 Model Curriculum and that it satisfies the International Medical Informatics Association recommendation for undergraduate…

  6. Qualitative synthesis and systematic review of otolaryngology in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey L; Stewart, C Matthew; Senser, Ethan; Stewart, Rosalyn W; Stanley, James; Stierer, Kevin D; Benke, James R; Kern, David E

    2015-12-01

    Although 25% of primary care complaints are otolaryngology related, otolaryngology instruction is not required in most medical schools. Our aim was to systematically review existing literature on the inclusion of otolaryngology in undergraduate medical education. PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Education Resources Information Center. Our search encompassed all indexed years through December 29, 2014. Inclusion criteria were English language, original human data, and a focus on medical student education. Data regarding study design, teacher, educational topic, educational methods, and setting were extracted from each article. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles. Our initial search yielded 436 articles; 87 underwent full-text evaluation and 47 remained in the final review. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States (40%), United Kingdom (23%), and Canada (17%) and represented a single institutional experience. Studies were classified as needs assessments (36%), curriculum descriptions (15%), educational methods (36%), and skills assessments (32%); 81% were levels of evidence 3 or 4. Most reports indicated that otolaryngology rotations are not compulsory. Studies indicated the need for increased exposure to otolaryngology. Educational methods such as team-based learning, simulation, online learning, and clinical skills assessments may offer ways to increase exposure without overburdening clinical faculty and require further study. Data suggest that a universal otolaryngology medical student curriculum would be valuable and aid in resource sharing across institutions. We recommend that an assessment be performed to determine topics and skills that should comprise this curriculum. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Barriers to implementing a health policy curriculum in medical schools

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    Mohammed R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.

  8. Nanomedicine concepts in the general medical curriculum: initiating a discussion.

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    Sweeney, Aldrin E

    2015-01-01

    Various applications of nanoscale science to the field of medicine have resulted in the ongoing development of the subfield of nanomedicine. Within the past several years, there has been a concurrent proliferation of academic journals, textbooks, and other professional literature addressing fundamental basic science research and seminal clinical developments in nanomedicine. Additionally, there is now broad consensus among medical researchers and practitioners that along with personalized medicine and regenerative medicine, nanomedicine is likely to revolutionize our definitions of what constitutes human disease and its treatment. In light of these developments, incorporation of key nanomedicine concepts into the general medical curriculum ought to be considered. Here, I offer for consideration five key nanomedicine concepts, along with suggestions regarding the manner in which they might be incorporated effectively into the general medical curriculum. Related curricular issues and implications for medical education also are presented.

  9. Bullying and Victimization Trends in Undergraduate Medical Students - A Self-Reported Cross-Sectional Observational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shrea; Ajinkya, Shaunak; Jadhav, Pradeep R

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is a form of behaviour that can negatively impact a person. It can lead to several deleterious consequences like low self-confidence, drop in academic performance and depression. Studies have shown that bullying behaviour exists amongst medical students also. In the medical field, it is known to negatively impact dispensing of health care and attitudes of medical students towards becoming doctors. It is very difficult for medical students to cope with such a menace as they are already burdened with a vast curriculum and rigorous schedules. There exists paucity of studies regarding bullying amongst undergraduate medical students in Indian context. To study prevalence of peer-based bullying and victimization along with their associated factors in undergraduate medical students. Four hundred randomly chosen undergraduate medical students were included in the study. Socio-demographic and personal details including history of substance use were recorded in a self-designed case record form. Illinois Bullying Scale was used to assess bullying behaviours. Out of total 400 students, 383 completed the survey and this data was analysed. In this study, 98.69% participants self-reported to having indulged in bullying while 88.77% reported feeling victimized. Physical (pbullying was found to be of significantly greater severity in males as compared to females. Students of the third year of medical school indulged in significantly (p=0.034) greater severity of physical bullying than those of other years. Alcohol consumption (p=0.001) and cigarette smoking (pbullying. Peer-based bullying and victimization was found to be highly prevalent amongst undergraduate medical students. There is an urgent need for more detailed studies on bullying in medical students so that remedial measures can be initiated and steps to limit such behaviours can be looked at seriously.

  10. Evolution of the New Pathway curriculum at Harvard Medical School: the new integrated curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienstag, Jules L

    2011-01-01

    In 1985, Harvard Medical School adopted a "New Pathway" curriculum, based on active, adult learning through problem-based, faculty-facilitated small-group tutorials designed to promote lifelong skills of self-directed learning. Despite the successful integration of clinically relevant material in basic science courses, the New Pathway goals were confined primarily to the preclinical years. In addition, the shifting balance in the delivery of health care from inpatient to ambulatory settings limited the richness of clinical education in clinical clerkships, creating obstacles for faculty in their traditional roles as teachers. In 2006, Harvard Medical School adopted a more integrated curriculum based on four principles that emerged after half a decade of self-reflection and planning: (1) integrate the teaching of basic/population science and clinical medicine throughout the entire student experience; (2) reestablish meaningful and intensive faculty-student interactions and reengage the faculty; (3) develop a new model of clinical education that offers longitudinal continuity of patient experience, cross-disciplinary curriculum, faculty mentoring, and student evaluation; and (4) provide opportunities for all students to pursue an in-depth, faculty-mentored scholarly project. These principles of our New Integrated Curriculum reflect our vision for a curriculum that fosters a partnership between students and faculty in the pursuit of scholarship and leadership.

  11. Seeing Is Believing: Evaluating a Point-of-Care Ultrasound Curriculum for 1st-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bret P; Hojsak, Joanne; Dei Rossi, Elizabeth; Karani, Reena; Narula, Jagat

    2017-01-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound has been a novel addition to undergraduate medical education at a few medical schools. The impact is not fully understood, and few rigorous assessments of educational outcomes exist. This study assessed the impact of a point-of-care ultrasound curriculum on image acquisition, interpretation, and student and faculty perceptions of the course. All 142 first-year medical students completed a curriculum on ultrasound physics and instrumentation, cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal imaging. A flipped classroom model of preclass tutorials and tests augmenting live, hands-on scanning sessions was incorporated into the physical examination course. Students and faculty completed surveys on impressions of the curriculum, and all students under-went competency assessments with standardized patients. The curriculum was a mandatory part of the physical examination course and was taught by experienced clinician-sonographers as well as faculty who do not routinely perform sonography in their clinical practice. Students and faculty agreed that the physical examination course was the right time to introduce ultrasound (87% and 80%). Students demonstrated proper use of the ultrasound machine functions (M score = 91.55), and cardiac, thoracic, and abdominal system assessments (M score = 80.35, 79.58, and 71.57, respectively). Students and faculty valued the curriculum, and students demonstrated basic competency in performance and interpretation of ultrasound. Further study is needed to determine how to best incorporate this emerging technology into a robust learning experience for medical students.

  12. Longitudinal Study of the Impacts of a Climate Change Curriculum on Undergraduate Student Learning: Initial Results

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    Kristin C. Burkholder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the efficacy of a semester-long undergraduate sustainability curriculum designed from a systems approach. The three-course curriculum, which incorporated environmental science and ethics courses along with an integrative course using a community-based learning pedagogy, was intended to provide students with experience using knowledge and skills from distinct disciplines in a holistic way in order to address the complex problems of the human acceptance of and response to anthropogenic climate change. In the fall of 2013, 23 of the 24 sophomore general education students enrolled in the three courses were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester; 17 of those same students completed the survey again in the spring of 2016, their senior year. Results, which focus on the 17 students who continued to participate through their senior year, were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The pre/post data from the surveys demonstrated significant improvement in climate literacy, certainty, concern and urgency over the course of the semester; the senior data indicated that those improvements were largely retained. The study also suggests that the nine-credit curriculum improved transferable skills such as interdisciplinary thinking, self-confidence and public speaking. A qualitative analysis of three student cases, informed by a focus group (n = 7 of seniors along with other sources of information, suggested retention of such transferable skills, and, in some cases, deeper involvement in climate and sustainability action.

  13. Teaching communication skills and medical ethics to undergraduate medical student

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    SADIA AHSIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to improve communication skills and knowledge of bioethics of last year medical students doing clerkship and to evaluate the effectiveness of using workshops for this purpose from students’ point of view, in order to continue such programs in future. Methods: After Ethical approval for the study a two-day workshop on teaching effective communication skills and principles of medical ethics was planned and conducted by the department of Medical Education through multidisciplinary faculty of Foundation University Medical College, Pakistan. A total of 102 last year medical students participated in this workshop. The students were divided into 8 groups each containing 12 students. A team of pre trained facilitators for each group conducted the group activities. Teaching strategies including interactive discussions on basic principles of doctor-patient relationship, power point presentations, day to day case scenarios, video clips and presentations involving students in role plays were used. Pre and post workshop self evaluation proformas about knowledge and skills of communication and medical ethics were rated (0=none, 1=below average, 2=average, 3=above average, 4=very good, 5=excellent by the students. Results: 89 out of 102 participants returned the proformas. A significant percentage of students (%82 showed improvement in their knowledge and skills of appreciating bioethical issues like valid informed consent, patient confidentiality, end of life issues and breaking bad news by rating as “very good” after participation in the workshop. More than %70 students recommended this activity for other students. Conclusion: Teaching through interactive workshops was found to be an effective method as reflected by students’ feedback. Therefore, the program will be continued in future.

  14. Formative assessment in undergraduate medical education: concept, implementation and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Ayesha; Shamim, Muhammad Shahid; Aly, Syed Moyn; Chundrigar, Tariq; Alam, Shams Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment, described as "the process of appraising, judging or evaluating students' work or performance and using this to shape and improve students' competence", is generally missing from medical schools of Pakistan. Progressive institutions conduct "formative assessment" as a fleeting part of the curriculum by using various methods that may or may not include feedback to learners. The most important factor in the success of formative assessment is the quality of feedback, shown to have the maximum impact on student accomplishment. Inclusion of formative assessment into the curriculum and its implementation will require the following: Enabling Environment, Faculty and student Training, Role of Department of Medical Education (DME). Many issues can be predicted that may jeopardize the effectiveness of formative assessment including faculty resistance, lack of motivation from students and faculty and paucity of commitment from the top administration. For improvement in medical education in Pakistan, we need to develop a system considered worthy by national and international standards. This paper will give an overview of formative assessment, its implications and recommendations for implementation in medical institutes of Pakistan.

  15. Integrating evidence based medicine into undergraduate medical education: combining online instruction with clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Stephen C; Evans, Barry; Fleece, David; Lyons, Paul; Kaplan, Lawrence; Rojas, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Incorporation of evidence based medicine into the undergraduate curriculum varies from school to school. The purpose of this study was to determine if an online course in evidence based medicine run concurrently with the clinical clerkships in the 3rd year of undergraduate medical education provided effective instruction in evidence based medicine (EBM). During the first 18 weeks of the 3rd year, students completed 6 online, didactic modules. Over the next 24 weeks, students developed questions independently from patients seen during clerkships and then retrieved and appraised relevant evidence. Online, faculty mentors reviewed student assignments submitted throughout the course to monitor progress. Mastery of the skills of EBM was assessed prior to and at the conclusion of the course using the Fresno test of competency. Paired data were available from 139 students. Postcourse test scores (M= 77.7; 95% CI = 59-96.4) were significantly higher than precourse scores (M= 66.6; 95% CI = 46.5-86.7), ponline, faculty mentored instruction. This method of instruction provided uniform instruction across geographic sites and medical specialties and permitted efficient use of faculty time.

  16. Psychoactive Substance Use among Medical/Health Faculty Undergraduate Students

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    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study sought to explore the drug use practices of undergraduate students within the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Method: This study was a multicentre study carried out in Jamaica and six Latin American countries. The study utilized a cross-sectional design using a survey method of data collection. A list of compulsory classes for first- and second-year undergraduate students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences was retrieved by researchers and then cluster sampling was used to choose lectures to carry out data collection. The instrument utilized for the study was a self-report questionnaire which consisted of 58 questions which enquired about sociodemographic information, psychoactive substance use and associated consequences. Results: A total of 380 students (78 males, 302 females participated in the study; 115 (30.3% reported a past year prevalence of psychoactive substance use. Roughly half (50.8% reported that they first used substances when they were 15−19 years old. Students also reported a past month prevalence of alcohol use (16.6%, prescription drugs without a prescription (4.5%, tobacco (2.4% and cannabis (2.1% use. Conclusion: These preliminary results on substance use patterns among students in the Faculty of Medical Sciences indicate urgent need for further research among this population. Such research should be used to inform prevention and treatment programmes that will directly target this student population.

  17. Characteristics of undergraduate medical thesis of a Peruvian public university

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    Betty Castro Maldonado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The undergraduate thesis rather than a requirement to graduate, are a way of doing research. Previous studies show a thesis published between 2.7% to 17.6% in indexed journals. Objective: Describe the characteristics of the undergraduate thesis of the Faculty of a medical school. Bibliometric study. 221 theses were reviewed, collecting: Year, number of authors, advisers, and references, study population, and national priorities for health research. A search was performed on Google Scholar to assess publication. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: Being lower production in the years 2008-2010 was observed. 91.6% had one advisor, 76% descriptive, 82.8% in hospital population, and 62.4% of adults. Theses displayed between 2010-2014 72.9% did not correspond to any national health research priority. Only 6.8% was based on literature of the last five years. Only 9 (4.1% were published in a scientific journal indexed. Conclusions: The undergraduate thesis were characterized as descriptive, hospital, adults, literature based on outdated and not in line with the national priorities for health research. The publication is low.

  18. Medical Undergraduate Survey on Headache Education in Singapore: Knowledge, Perceptions, and Assessment of Unmet Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jonathan Jia Yuan; Chan, Yee Cheun

    2017-06-01

    There have been no prior studies assessing the status of undergraduate headache training and education in Singapore. Unmet needs of undergraduate medical students in terms of knowledge-practice gaps pertaining to diagnosis and management of headache disorders are unknown. The possible underemphasis of this aspect of the curriculum as compared to other chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus has also not been ascertained. The aim of this article is to assess the knowledge base and perceptions, thereby identifying the unmet needs of headache disorder education in undergraduate medical students. Students reported their perceived time that was devoted to the subject matter and this was recorded and reported. In order to provide a comparative indication on the level of prioritization, the total duration within the syllabus dedicated to headache education vs other chronic diseases (using diabetes mellitus as a surrogate) was sought. A comprehensive survey consisting of questions assessing the headache curriculum, knowledge, and perceptions was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to final year medical students attending a full-day Neurology review course in their last semester. Attendees were given the duration of the course to complete the questionnaire, and forms were collected at the end of the day. About 127 final year medical students completed our survey. More than half (55.1%) did not receive formal teaching on how to take a complete headache history. The majority (90.6%) have not attended a headache sub-specialty clinic. The mean total number of hours exposed to headache disorders was 5.69h (SD ± 5.19). The vast majority (96.1%) were unfamiliar with locally published clinical practice guidelines, and a significant proportion (74.0%) were unfamiliar with the third edition (beta) of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Nearly half (47.2%) were unfamiliar with 'medication overuse headache' as a disease entity. Only one (0

  19. Nanomedicine concepts in the general medical curriculum: initiating a discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney AE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aldrin E Sweeney Center for Teaching & Learning, Ross University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica Abstract: Various applications of nanoscale science to the field of medicine have resulted in the ongoing development of the subfield of nanomedicine. Within the past several years, there has been a concurrent proliferation of academic journals, textbooks, and other professional literature addressing fundamental basic science research and seminal clinical developments in nanomedicine. Additionally, there is now broad consensus among medical researchers and practitioners that along with personalized medicine and regenerative medicine, nanomedicine is likely to revolutionize our definitions of what constitutes human disease and its treatment. In light of these developments, incorporation of key nanomedicine concepts into the general medical curriculum ought to be considered. Here, I offer for consideration five key nanomedicine concepts, along with suggestions regarding the manner in which they might be incorporated effectively into the general medical curriculum. Related curricular issues and implications for medical education also are presented. Keywords: medical education, basic science, teaching, learning, assessment, nanoscience curriculum, nanomedicine concepts

  20. Use Of Psychoactive Drugs Among Medical Undergraduates In Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Aftab Alam; Bukhari, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad. Seven hundred and eighty participants after informed consent were requested to fill a questionnaire seeking information about their demographics, patterns & behaviours regarding ten common psychoactive substances of abuse including (Cigarettes, Benzodiazepines, naswar, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine, opium, cocaine, heroin & organic solvents). Overall students who responded were 698 (89.48%). One hundred and fifty (21.49%) admitted to the use of a psychoactive substance in past or at present. Majority users (71.33%) were males. Overall (81.33%) users were living in hostel or a rented apartment. Substance abuse was more prevalent among senior students, i.e., 30.06% & 24.24% in 4th year & final year MBBS respectively. Majority of the consumers, i.e., 93 (62%) were falling in an age group between 15-20 years. Main reasons behind substance abuse were: psychological stress (49.33%) and pleasure seeking (42.67%). Substances/drugs used by students in order of preference were Cigarettes 115 (76.67%), Benzodiazepines 48 (32%), naswar 42 (28%), Cannabis 41 (27.33%), Alcohol 24 (16%), Amphetamine 22 (14.67%), Opium 15 (10%), Cocaine 14 (9.33%), Heroin 11 (7.33%) & Organic solvents 05 (3.33%). Use of more than one substance was observed in 70 (46.67%) students. It is concluded that prevalence of cigarette smoking, naswar, benzodiazepines, cannabis & alcohol is high among medical undergraduates in Abbottabad which is a matter of concern. Efforts are needed to create

  1. An Empirical Investigation of the Conception Focused Curriculum: The Importance of Introducing Undergraduate Business Statistics Students to the "Real World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Heller, Nathan A.; Batchelor, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Continuing pressures are being placed on undergraduate business education to alter curriculum content and delivery. The anticipated product of these changes is a graduate that is capable of performing the higher order thinking skills needed to navigate a constantly changing, global business environment. This article describes the implementation of…

  2. Developing and Implementing a Reorganized Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Based on the Foundational Chemistry Topics of Structure, Reactivity, and Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Fazal, M. A.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2014-01-01

    The recent revision of undergraduate curricular guidelines from the American Chemical Society Committee on Professional Training (ACS-CPT) has generated interest in examining new ways of organizing course sequences both for chemistry majors and for nonmajors. A radical reconstruction of the foundation-level chemistry curriculum is presented in…

  3. Integrating Research-Informed Teaching within an Undergraduate Level 4 (Year 1) Diagnostic Radiography Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…

  4. "Epistemic Chaos": The Recontextualisation of Undergraduate Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice in a New University Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Norman

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a qualitative case study of undergraduate curriculum design and pedagogic practice in the new University Business School (UBS). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 24 academics from across a range of business sub-disciplines together with an extensive documentary review of materials relating to two…

  5. Development of national competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, R; Stausberg, J; Dugas, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a catalogue of competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education (abbreviated NKLM-MI in German). The development followed a multi-level annotation and consensus process. For each learning objective a reason why a physician needs this competence was required. In addition, each objective was categorized according to the competence context (A = covered by medical informatics, B = core subject of medical informatics, C = optional subject of medical informatics), the competence level (1 = referenced knowledge, 2 = applied knowledge, 3 = routine knowledge) and a CanMEDS competence role (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, professional, scholar). Overall 42 objectives in seven areas (medical documentation and information processing, medical classifications and terminologies, information systems in healthcare, health telematics and telemedicine, data protection and security, access to medical knowledge and medical signal-/image processing) were identified, defined and consented. With the NKLM-MI the competences in the field of medical informatics vital to a first year resident physician are identified, defined and operationalized. These competencies are consistent with the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The NKLM-MI will be submitted to the National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. The next step is implementation of these objectives by the faculties.

  6. Turning Microscopy in the Medical Curriculum Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Mortensen, Niels Werner; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2017-01-01

    Familiarity with the structure and composition of normal tissue and an understanding of the changes that occur during disease is pivotal to the study of the human body. For decades, microscope slides have been central to teaching pathology in medical courses and related subjects at the University...

  7. School of Medicine of Federal University of Rio Grande Do Norte: A traditional curriculum with innovative trends in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Daniel Fernandes Mello; Simas, Breno C C; Guimarães Caldeira, Adrian Lucca; Medeiros, Augusto De Galvão E Brito; Freitas, Marise Reis; Diniz, José; Diniz, Rosiane

    2018-02-28

    The Medical School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) is one of the biggest public medical schools in Northeast Brazil. In the last decade, significant investment in faculty development, innovative learning methodologies and student engagement has been key milestones in educational improvement at this medical school, harnessed to recent political changes that strengthened community-based and emergency education. This study describes how curriculum changes in UFRN Medical School have been responsible for major improvements in medical education locally and which impacts such transformations may have on the educational community. A group of students and teachers revised the new curriculum and established the key changes over the past years that have been responsible for the local enhancement of medical education. This information was compared and contrasted to further educational evidences in order to define patterns that can be reproduced in other institutions. Improvements in faculty development have been fairly observed in the institution, exemplified by the participation of a growing number of faculty members in programs for professional development and also by the creation of a local masters degree in health education. Alongside, strong student engagement in curriculum matters enhanced the teaching-learning process. Due to a deeper involvement of students and teachers in medical education, it has been possible to implement innovative teaching-learning and assessment strategies over the last ten years and place UFRN Medical School at a privileged position in relation to undergraduate training, educational research and professional development of faculty staff.

  8. Communication Skills Training in the Medical Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Branet Partric; Yasar Albushra Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an essential skill in the armory of any worker in the health field. It is an integral part of the skills required, not only in medical doctors, but in all health workers. Communication is more than history taking; it includes all methods of interaction with patients, patient's relatives, members of the health care team, and the public. Many studies stressed that the main complaints of patients are related to communication problems and not to clinical competency. This has cont...

  9. Cooperative learning in the first year of undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthan Rani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive research data indicating that cooperative learning promotes higher achievement, the creation of positive relationships, and greater psychological health for students at all levels in their education, cooperative learning as a teaching strategy is still underutilized in undergraduate medical education. Methods A cooperative learning task was introduced as part of the mandatory first Year undergraduate Pathology course. The task was to create an 8.5" × 11" poster summary of pre-assigned content in self-chosen groups of four or five students. On the designated "Poster Day," the posters were displayed and evaluated by the students using a group product evaluation. Students also completed an individual group process reflection survey. An objective evaluation of their understanding was gauged at the midterm examination by specific content-related questions. Results Majority (91–96% of students judged the group products to be relevant, effective, easy-to-understand, and clearly communicated. The majority of the students (90–100% agreed that their group process skills of time management, task collaboration, decision-making and task execution were effective in completing this exercise. This activity created a dynamic learning environment as was reflected in the students' positive, professional discussion, and evaluation of their posters. The content-related questions on the midterm examination were answered correctly by 70–92% of the students. This was a mutually enriching experience for the instructor and students. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that cooperative learning as a teaching strategy can be effectively incorporated to address both content and interpersonal skill development in the early years of undergraduate medical education.

  10. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1(st) seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students' capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education.

  11. Undergraduate Medical Education Research in Malaysia: Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Hamzah, Jemaima Che; Chin, Tan Geok; Siraj, Harlina Halizah; Idrus, Ruszymah; Mohamad, Nabishah; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Special Study Module (SSM) is a mandatory research module implemented in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the student research activities and to find out the outcome measures in terms of publication. Methods: It was a retrospective study done on SSM research projects at UKM. The SSM research is conducted from beginning of year-4 until 1st seven weeks of year-5. In year-4, students are assigned to a faculty-supervisor in small groups and spend every Thursday afternoon to plan and carry the research. Whole first seven weeks of year-5, students are placed with their supervisor continuously to collect data, do analysis, write report and present in the scientific conference. Outcomes of 5-years SSM research-projects starting from 2008/2009 to 2012/2013 academic session were analyzed. Results: Total 257 projects were completed and presented in annual scientific meetings from which 57 (22.2%) articles were published in peer reviewed journals. Conclusion: Mandatory undergraduate student research project brings an opportunity to develop students’ capacity building from conception to final report writing and thereby narrowing the gap between education and practice. Medical schools should implement research module to bring changes in research and publication culture of undergraduate medical education. PMID:26150832

  12. The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowson Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Discussion Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health – the ‘globalised doctor’, ‘humanitarian doctor’ and ‘policy doctor’ – and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. Summary We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the

  13. The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Mike; Smith, Abi; Hughes, Rob; Johnson, Oliver; Maini, Arti; Martin, Sophie; Martineau, Fred; Miranda, J Jaime; Pollit, Vicki; Wake, Rae; Willott, Chris; Yudkin, John S

    2012-11-13

    Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health - the 'globalised doctor', 'humanitarian doctor' and 'policy doctor' - and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the perspective of more disciplines than just biomedicine, in order to reflect

  14. Clinical skills temporal degradation assessment in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph; Viscusi, Rebecca; Ratesic, Adam; Johnstone, Cameron; Kelley, Ross; Tegethoff, Angela M; Bates, Jessica; Situ-Lacasse, Elaine H; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Amini, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Medical students' ability to learn clinical procedures and competently apply these skills is an essential component of medical education. Complex skills with limited opportunity for practice have been shown to degrade without continued refresher training. To our knowledge there is no evidence that objectively evaluates temporal degradation of clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal retention of clinical skills among third year medical students. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at four separate time intervals in the cadaver laboratory at a public medical school. Forty-five novice third year medical students were evaluated for retention of skills in the following three procedures: pigtail thoracostomy, femoral line placement, and endotracheal intubation. Prior to the start of third-year medical clerkships, medical students participated in a two-hour didactic session designed to teach clinically relevant materials including the procedures. Prior to the start of their respective surgery clerkships, students were asked to perform the same three procedures and were evaluated by trained emergency medicine and surgery faculty for retention rates, using three validated checklists. Students were then reassessed at six week intervals in four separate groups based on the start date of their respective surgical clerkships. We compared the evaluation results between students tested one week after training and those tested at three later dates for statistically significant differences in score distribution using a one-tailed Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test for non-parametric rank-sum analysis. Retention rates were shown to have a statistically significant decline between six and 12 weeks for all three procedural skills. In the instruction of medical students, skill degradation should be considered when teaching complex technical skills. Based on the statistically significant decline in procedural skills noted

  15. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  16. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  17. Need of implant dentistry at undergraduate dental curriculum in Indian dental colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chowdhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Edentulism is the major problem in the developing countries, and is widely spread in the current population, although the prevalence is declining and incidence of tooth loss is decreasing in the developed nations. The prevalence of edentulism in India varies from 60% to 69% of 25 years and above age group. It is obvious that the number of lost teeth increases with age leading to an increase in prevalence of partially edentulous patients. From a biological point of view, the replacement of a single missing tooth with an implant rather than a three-unit fixed partial denture, and the implant-supported complete denture has been proved more efficient in improving the mastication and maintaining the bone for a longer time and also more cost-effective treatment. Many dental schools throughout Europe and America have to a various extent introduced implant dentistry as part of the compulsory undergraduate curriculum. Thus, it becomes more essential to introduce implant dentistry at undergraduate level in Indian dental schools to manage the higher percentage of edentulism.

  18. Undergraduate curricula in palliative medicine: a systematic analysis based on the palliative education assessment tool.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Schiessi, C

    2013-01-01

    By law in 2013, palliative medicine will be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum as part of a mandatory training program and examinations at German medical schools. For this reason a national curriculum in palliative medicine has to be developed.

  19. Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine (SHARC-FM): Creating a national consensus on relevant and practical training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, David A; Scott, Ian; Sylvester, Michael; Tan, Amy; Horrey, Kathleen; Weston, W Wayne

    2017-04-01

    In 2006, leaders of undergraduate family medicine education programs faced a series of increasing curriculum mandates in the context of limited time and financial resources. Additionally, it became apparent that a hidden curriculum against family medicine as a career choice was active in medical schools. The Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine was developed by the Canadian Undergraduate Family Medicine Education Directors and supported by the College of Family Physicians of Canada as a national collaborative project to support medical student training in family medicine clerkship. Its key objective is to enable education leaders to meet their educational mandates, while at the same time countering the hidden curriculum and providing a route to scholarship. The Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine is an open-access, shared, national curriculum ( www.sharcfm.ca ). It contains 23 core clinical topics (determined through a modified Delphi process) with demonstrable objectives for each. It also includes low- and medium-fidelity virtual patient cases, point-of-care learning resources (clinical cards), and assessment tools, all aligned with the core topics. French translation of the resources is ongoing. The core topics, objectives, and educational resources have been adopted by medical schools across Canada, according to their needs. The lessons learned from mounting this multi-institutional collaborative project will help others develop their own collaborative curricula. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  20. Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional

  1. A pilot curriculum in international surgery for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren, Alexis; Cook, Mackenzie; McClain, Molly; Doberne, Julie; Kiraly, Laszlo; Perkins, Rosina Serene; Kwong, Karen

    2015-01-01

    As medical student interest in global surgical care grows, a comprehensive curriculum is necessary to understand surgical care in resource-limited environments. We developed a surgical elective encompassing a multiyear medical student curriculum, with the goal of improving students' understanding of global surgical care, consisting of a junior seminar and a senior clerkship. This student elective focused on the global burden of surgical disease, ethics of care in low-resource settings, and care of marginalized U.S. Students who participated in the fourth year clerkship at a tertiary center in Northern India completed a reflective essay on their experience. Qualitative analysis was conducted using constant comparison and axial coding to establish a grounded theory. Medical students showed a desire to serve the poor, build collaborative relationships, and integrate international health into their future career. This novel curriculum provides students a clinical and public health basis to understand challenges of surgical care in low-resource environments while laying the groundwork for students with a future career in global health. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  3. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation

  4. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001 (Australia); Brady, Carole [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, Queensland, 4101 (Australia); Dry, Allison [Cancer Care Services Royal Brisbane Women' s Hospital Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, 4029 (Australia); School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001 (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

  5. Ethics education in undergraduate pre-health programs. The contribution of undergraduate colleges and universities to the ethical and moral development of future doctors in the medical and dental professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erratt, Tamie D

    2011-08-01

    There are many barriers to ethics education of students attending medical and dental schools. The question is asked, "Should more attention be given to addressing students' ethics education during their undergraduate years of preparation for professional healthcare programs?" This qualitative study utilizes digitally recorded personal interviews with two undergraduate pre-healthcare students, one medical student, one recently matriculated dental student, one undergraduate pre-healthcare faculty member, three dental school faculty members, and three medical school faculty members. Interview participants discuss areas of personal knowledge and experience concerning: the admissions process and screening of potential medical/dental students for ethical traits and behaviors, influences on student ethical development, undergraduate pre-healthcare ethics training, and preferred college major for pre-healthcare students. The study concludes that undergraduate pre-healthcare programs should take the initiative to be proactive and deliberate in strengthening the positive influences on students. Strategies include: 1) humanities curricula to broaden perspectives and increase non-prejudice; 2) mentoring and modeling by older students, faculty, and community and professional volunteers; 3) ethical case study discussions in class or extracurricular activities; and 4) volunteer/service learning activities. Additionally, curriculum learning is enhanced by the use of reflection and writing, discussions, and media.

  6. How important is medical ethics and history of medicine teaching in the medical curriculum? An empirical approach towards students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE)--or the lack thereof--has on the judgement of these subjects. From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE

  7. How Important is Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Teaching in the Medical Curriculum? An Empirical Approach towards Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE) - or the lack thereof - has on the judgement of these subjects. Methods: From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). Results: 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Conclusion: Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative

  8. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2010-06-01

    The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  9. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Concepts of spirituality prevailing among undergraduate medical students in Delhi

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    Shantanu Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spirituality is considered one of the determinants of health. Various studies have documented its role in the management of psychological illnesses such as schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. Doctors often lack skills to do spiritual assessment of the patients. Aim: The current study was conducted among the 1st year undergraduate medical students to find out their ideas and thoughts about spirituality using self-administered questionnaire. Methodology: This was a college based cross sectional study wherein 168 students were interviewed using semistructured, self administered questionnaire. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional ethical committee.Results: Most of the students (93.5% believed in spirituality, but only about half (49% of them had complete knowledge about it. Only psychological disorders and chronic diseases were labeled by students who need spirituality as a modality of treatment. Girls linked spirituality with God more than boys. A formal training in spirituality is not essential according to 43% of the subjects. Conclusion: The undergraduates need to understand the importance of this dimension of health. A mere gain in knowledge about spiritual strength available in some of the textbooks would not be able to orient doctors sufficiently to apply it in their practice. Future Direction: Skill building and practicing the culture of spiritual counseling among health workers is the need of hour.

  11. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper

  12. Implant dentistry curriculum in undergraduate education: part 2-program at the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeplin, Birgit S; Strub, Joerg R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the didactic and clinical undergraduate implant dentistry program of the Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany, with emphasis on the clinical implant experience. A detailed description of the implant curriculum at Albert-Ludwigs University is given with documented exemplary cases and additional flow charts. All students participate in 28 hours of lectures and approximately 64 hours of seminars with hands-on courses and gain clinical experience. All undergraduate students are eligible to place and restore oral implants. Emphasis is placed on prosthetic-driven planning of implant positions, three-dimensional imaging, and computer-guided implant placement. Implant restorations performed by undergraduate students comprise single crowns and small multiunit fixed dental prostheses in partially edentulous posterior maxillae and anterior or posterior mandibles, implant-retained overdentures (snap attachment) in edentulous patients, and telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses on remaining teeth and strategically placed additional implants. Over the past 2.5 years, 51 patients were treated with 97 dental implants placed by students in the undergraduate program. Seventy-one restorations were inserted: 60.6% single crowns, 7% fixed dental protheses, 21.1% overdentures, and 11.3% telescopic fixed-removable dental prostheses. The implant survival rate was 98.9%. Because survival rates for dental implants placed and restored by students are comparable to those of experienced dentists, oral implant dentistry should be implemented as part of the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  13. Competence in the musculoskeletal system: assessing the progression of knowledge through an undergraduate medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhashis; Roberts, Chris; Newble, David I; Snaith, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Professional bodies have expressed concerns that medical students lack appropriate knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine despite its high prevalence of use within the community. Changes in curriculum and teaching strategies may be contributing factors to this. There is little evidence to evaluate the degree to which these concerns are justified. To design and evaluate an assessment procedure that tests the progress of medical students in achieving a core level of knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine during the course. A stratified sample of 136 volunteer students from all 5 years of the medical course at Sheffield University. The progress test concept was adapted to provide a cross-sectional view of student knowledge gain during each year of the course. A test was devised which aimed to provide an assessment of competence set at the standard required of the newly qualified doctor in understanding basic and clinical sciences relevant to musculoskeletal medicine. The test was blueprinted against internal and external guidelines. It comprised 40 multiple-choice and extended matching questions administered by computer. Six musculoskeletal practitioners set the standard using a modified Angoff procedure. Test reliability was 0.6 (Cronbach's alpha). Mean scores of students increased from 41% in Year 1 to 84% by the final year. Data suggest that, from a baseline score in Year 1, there is a disparate experience of learning in Year 2 that evens out in Year 3, with knowledge progression becoming more consistent thereafter. All final year participants scored above the standard predicted by the Angoff procedure. This short computer-based test was a feasible method of estimating student knowledge acquisition in musculoskeletal medicine across the undergraduate curriculum. Tested students appear to have acquired a satisfactory knowledge base by the end of the course. Knowledge gain seemed relatively independent of specialty-specific clinical training. Proposals from specialty

  14. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, V S; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-08-02

    In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for interventions like

  15. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

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    Mukhopadhyay Chiranjoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students. The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher

  16. Nationwide program of education for undergraduates in the field of disaster medicine: development of a core curriculum centered on blended learning and simulation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners

  17. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

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    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  18. Flipped classroom instructional approach in undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Enam, Syed Ather

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In this study we implemented the “flipped classroom” model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods: Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey. Results: Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04). Conclusion: Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools. PMID:29492071

  19. Flipped classroom instructional approach in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Arain, Fazal Manzoor; Enam, Syed Ather

    2017-01-01

    In this study we implemented the "flipped classroom" model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey. Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04). Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools.

  20. Correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression in medical students experiencing integrated curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min; Huang, In-Ting

    2007-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. The

  1. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  2. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

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    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  3. Rapid application design of an electronic clinical skills portfolio for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Tim; Lee, Catherine; Stopford, Adam; Hosie, Liam; Maredia, Neil; Rector, Alan

    2005-04-01

    The aim was to find how to use information and communication technology to present the clinical skills content of an undergraduate medical curriculum. Rapid application design was used to develop the product, and technical action research was used to evaluate the development process. A clinician-educator, two medical students, two computing science masters students, two other project workers, and a hospital education informatics lead, formed a design team. A sample of stakeholders took part in requirements planning workshops and continued to advise the team throughout the project. A university hospital had many features that favoured fast, inexpensive, and successful system development: a clearly defined and readily accessible user group; location of the development process close to end-users; fast, informal communication; leadership by highly motivated and senior end-users; devolved authority and lack of any rigidly imposed management structure; cooperation of clinicians because the project drew on their clinical expertise to achieve scholastic goals; a culture of learning and involvement of highly motivated students. A detailed specification was developed through storyboarding, use case diagramming, and evolutionary prototyping. A very usable working product was developed within weeks. "SkillsBase" is a database web application using Microsoft Active Server Pages, served from a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server operating system running Internet Information Server 5.0. Graphing functionality is provided by the KavaChart applet. It presents the skills curriculum, provides a password-protected portfolio function, and offers training materials. The curriculum can be presented in several different ways to help students reflect on their objectives and progress towards achieving them. The reflective portfolio function is entirely private to each student user and allows them to document their progress in attaining skills, as judged by self, peer and tutor assessment, and

  4. Development of undergraduate nuclear security curriculum at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nasri A.; Mujaini, Madihah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    The Center for Nuclear Energy (CNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) has a great responsibility to undertake educational activities that promote developing human capital in the area of nuclear engineering and technology. Developing human capital in nuclear through education programs is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in Malaysia in the near future. In addition, the educational program must also meet the nuclear power industry needs and requirements. In developing a certain curriculum, the contents must comply with the university's Outcomes Based Education (OBE) philosophy. One of the important courses in the nuclear curriculum is in the area of nuclear security. Basically the nuclear security course covers the current issues of law, politics, military strategy, and technology with regard to weapons of mass destruction and related topics in international security, and review legal regulations and political relationship that determine the state of nuclear security at the moment. In addition, the course looks into all aspects of the nuclear safeguards, builds basic knowledge and understanding of nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear forensics and nuclear safeguards in general. The course also discusses tools used to combat nuclear proliferation such as treaties, institutions, multilateral arrangements and technology controls. In this paper, we elaborate the development of undergraduate nuclear security course at the College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Since the course is categorized as mechanical engineering subject, it must be developed in tandem with the program educational objectives (PEO) of the Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering program. The course outcomes (CO) and transferrable skills are also identified. Furthermore, in aligning the CO with program outcomes (PO), the PO elements need to be emphasized through the CO-PO mapping. As such, all assessments and distribution of Bloom Taxonomy

  5. "Understanding" medical school curriculum content using KnowledgeMap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C; Smithers, Jeffrey D; Miller, Randolph A; Spickard, Anderson

    2003-01-01

    To describe the development and evaluation of computational tools to identify concepts within medical curricular documents, using information derived from the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The long-term goal of the KnowledgeMap (KM) project is to provide faculty and students with an improved ability to develop, review, and integrate components of the medical school curriculum. The KM concept identifier uses lexical resources partially derived from the UMLS (SPECIALIST lexicon and Metathesaurus), heuristic language processing techniques, and an empirical scoring algorithm. KM differentiates among potentially matching Metathesaurus concepts within a source document. The authors manually identified important "gold standard" biomedical concepts within selected medical school full-content lecture documents and used these documents to compare KM concept recognition with that of a known state-of-the-art "standard"-the National Library of Medicine's MetaMap program. The number of "gold standard" concepts in each lecture document identified by either KM or MetaMap, and the cause of each failure or relative success in a random subset of documents. For 4,281 "gold standard" concepts, MetaMap matched 78% and KM 82%. Precision for "gold standard" concepts was 85% for MetaMap and 89% for KM. The heuristics of KM accurately matched acronyms, concepts underspecified in the document, and ambiguous matches. The most frequent cause of matching failures was absence of target concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The prototypic KM system provided an encouraging rate of concept extraction for representative medical curricular texts. Future versions of KM should be evaluated for their ability to allow administrators, lecturers, and students to navigate through the medical curriculum to locate redundancies, find interrelated information, and identify omissions. In addition, the ability of KM to meet specific, personal information needs should be

  6. Radiology education: a radiology curriculum for all medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Laura; Kok, Ellen M; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2017-09-26

    Diagnostic errors in radiology are frequent and can cause severe patient harm. Despite large performance differences between radiologists and non-radiology physicians, the latter often interpret medical images because electronic health records make images available throughout the hospital. Some people argue that non-radiologists should not diagnose medical images at all, and that medical school should focus on teaching ordering skills instead of image interpretation skills. We agree that teaching ordering skills is crucial as most physicians will need to order medical images in their professional life. However, we argue that the availability of medical images is so ubiquitous that it is important that non-radiologists are also trained in the basics of medical image interpretation and, additionally in recognizing when radiological consultancy should be sought. In acute situations, basic image interpretations skills can be life-saving. We plead for a radiology curriculum for all medical students. This should include the interpretation of common abnormalities on chest and skeletal radiographs and a basic distinction of normal from abnormal images. Furthermore, substantial attention should be given to the correct ordering of radiological images. Finally, it is critical that students are trained in deciding when to consult a radiologist.

  7. Integrating Medical Simulation Into the Physician Assistant Physiology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Lopes, John; Zhou, Joseph Yi; Xu, Biao

    2016-12-01

    Medical simulation has recently been used in medical education, and evidence indicates that it is a valuable tool for teaching and evaluation. Very few studies have evaluated the integration of medical simulation in medical physiology education, particularly in PA programs. This study was designed to assess the value of integrating medical simulation into the PA physiology curriculum. Seventy-five students from the PA program at Central Michigan University participated in this study. Mannequin-based simulation was used to simulate a patient with hemorrhagic shock and congestive heart failure to demonstrate the Frank-Starling force and cardiac function curve. Before and after the medical simulation, students completed a questionnaire as a self-assessment. A knowledge test was also delivered after the simulation. Our study demonstrated a significant improvement in student confidence in understanding congestive heart failure, hemorrhagic shock, and the Frank-Starling curve after the simulation. Medical simulation may be an effective way to enhance basic science learning experiences for students and an ideal supplement to traditional, lecture-based teaching in PA education.

  8. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Sperling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simulation-based medical education (SBME is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods: AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results: A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42% attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001. Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05. They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03, know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01, and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003. Students who participated in a simulation session

  9. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Euathrongchit, Juntima

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student's learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3%) participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.

  10. Learning styles and academic achievement among undergraduate medical students in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichuda Jiraporncharoen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the associations between learning styles and high academic achievement and to ascertain whether the factors associated with high academic achievement differed between preclinical and clinical students. Methods: A survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The Index of Learning Styles questionnaire was used to assess each student’s learning style across four domains. High academic achievement was defined as a grade point average of at least 3.0. Results: Of the 1,248 eligible medical students, 1,014 (81.3% participated. Learning styles differed between the preclinical and clinical students in the active/reflective domain. A sequential learning style was associated with high academic achievement in both preclinical and clinical students. A reflective learning style was only associated with high academic achievement among preclinical students. Conclusion: The association between learning styles and academic achievement may have differed between preclinical and clinical students due to different learning content and teaching methods. Students should be encouraged to be flexible in their own learning styles in order to engage successfully with various and changing teaching methods across the curriculum. Instructors should be also encouraged to provide a variety of teaching materials and resources to suit different learning styles.

  11. Integration of Medical Imaging Including Ultrasound into a New Clinical Anatomy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscova, Michelle; Bryce, Deborah A.; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Young, Noel

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 a new clinical anatomy curriculum with integrated medical imaging component was introduced into the University of Sydney Medical Program. Medical imaging used for teaching the new curriculum included normal radiography, MRI, CT scans, and ultrasound imaging. These techniques were incorporated into teaching over the first two years of the…

  12. Use of a journal club and letter-writing exercise to teach critical appraisal to medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; White, M; Gray, J; Fischbacher, C

    2001-07-01

    There is growing interest in methods of teaching critical appraisal skills at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We describe an approach using a journal club and subsequent letter writing to teach critical appraisal and writing skills to medical undergraduates. The exercise occurs during a 3-week public health medicine attachment in the third year of the undergraduate curriculum. Students work in small groups to appraise a recently published research paper, present their findings to their peers in a journal club, and draft a letter to the journal editor. Evaluation took place through: informal and formal feedback from students; number of letters written, submitted and published, and a comparison of marks obtained by students submitting a literature review assignment with and without critical appraisal teaching during the public health attachment. Feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. In the first 3(1/2) years, 26 letters have been published or accepted for publication, and 58 letters published on the Internet. There were no significant differences in overall marks or marks for the critical appraisal component of the literature review assignments between the two student groups. We believe our approach is an innovative and enjoyable method for teaching critical appraisal and writing skills to medical students. Lack of difference in marks in the literature review between the student groups may reflect its insensitivity as an outcome measure, contamination by other critical appraisal teaching, or true ineffectiveness.

  13. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Pim A. de Ruijter; Heleen A. Biersteker; Jan Biert; Harry van Goor; Edward C. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in undergraduate medical students.Methods: One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected from first year (n=349) medical students who successfully followed a compulsory FA and BLS course. From thes...

  14. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  15. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John

    2017-08-01

    One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.

  16. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  17. The Academic Curriculum of Medical Radiation Technologists: Continuous Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergieva, K.; Gagova, P.; Bonninska, N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The purpose is to present the activities of Department of Radiation technologists at Medical College Sofia in knowledge management (KM) in human health applications and namely: continuous development of academic curriculum (AC) for medical radiation technologists (MRT) in sense of the conference motto “Nuclear Knowledge Management: Challenges and Approaches”. Our challenge is to realize, in practice, the important role of MRT professionals in healthcare. They are the front line in the patient safety and the last person with the patient before exposure. The existing AC has been periodically peer-reviewed: in 2011, 2014, and ongoing reviews, with the aim to guarantee that we are providing knowledge, skills and competencies that meet modern requirements for the training of radiation technologists. The AC compromises both academic and clinical education. The clinical component occurs throughout the academic course, accenting the role of MRT in radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. The approach of continuously developing the AC will meet the stringent requirements recently published by IAEA, with the goal that radiological medical practitioners, medical physicists, medical radiation technologists and other health professionals with specific duties in relation to protection and safety for patients in a given radiological procedure are specialized in the appropriate area. (author

  18. Non-academic attributes of hidden curriculum in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aamer Zaman

    2013-01-01

    To identify the non-academic attributes developed during 5 years of training in medical school. Sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on final year medical students of four medical colleges in the city of Lahore, from March to September 2010. Probability random sampling was employed to identify public sector medical colleges for inclusion in the study through Lottery method. In the first phase, survey was done with the help of questionnaires, distributed amongst 280 students, selected on the basis of convenience sampling. It was triangulated with data collected by in-depth structured interviews on 46 students selected using purposive sampling after formal informed consent. For quantitative data percentages of the categorical variables were calculated through SPSS version 10. For qualitative data, themes and patterns were identified using Content Analysis technique. Majority of the medical students (80%) learn the attributes of integrity, self-reliance, tolerance and independence during their schooling. Sixty five percent students thought that the values of humanity, forbearance, righteous attitude in face of adversities and sympathetic behaviour towards peers and patients helped them in being better medical students. Thirty five percent said they faced the negative influences of gender bias and gender discrimination which has led to their impaired professional growth. Eighty percent of the students believe that the teaching methodology employed is teacher centric which does not let them become problem solvers, team players, reflective learners and hampers development of effective communication skills. Medical schooling in our part of the world helps in developing untaught attributes such as integrity, selfreliance, tolerance, independence, sympathetic attitude and good communication skills which are the same as are developed in the medical students of advanced countries, which can be fostered further by formally addressing them in the curriculum.

  19. [Interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum "Medical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics." Experiences from the preclinical segment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüppel, R; Bayer, A; Hrabal, V; Hölzer, M; Allert, G; Tiedemann, G; Hochkirchen, B; Stephanos, S; Kächele, H; Zenz, H

    1998-05-01

    The departments of Medical Psychology, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy developed an interdisciplinary longitudinal curriculum in order to coach medical students for the whole length of their medical education. Experiences from the first four undergraduate semesters are reported. 46 students (33 females, 13 males), mean age 22.3 +/- 2.6 years, attended 60 hours of interdisciplinary group sessions. Frequent motives to join the course were interest in psychosocial disciplines and relevant previous experience. The students expected to benefit from this project in their study, their future practice as a physician, and in their personal development. Important educational goals that could be attained were the adoption of a patient-centred view in medicine as well as strengthening of the students' critical capacities and sensitivity. The students especially appreciated the possibility of group discussions and the opportunity to participate actively in the course. Based on a critical review of the evaluation, the possibility of a transfer of our model is considered and perspectives for the future are developed.

  20. Evaluating an evidence-based curriculum in undergraduate palliative care education: piloting a phase II exploratory trial for a complex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Christian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By 2013 Palliative Care will become a mandatory examination subject in the medical curriculum in Germany. There is a pressing need for effective and well-designed curricula and assessment methods. Debates are on going as how Undergraduate Palliative Care Education (UPCE should be taught and how knowledge and skills should be assessed. It is evident by this time that the development process of early curricula in the US and UK has led to a plethora of diverse curricula which seem to be partly ineffective in improving the care for the seriously ill and dying offered by newly qualified doctors, as is demonstrated in controlled evaluations. The goals of this study were to demonstrate an evidence-based approach towards developing UPCE curricula and investigate the change in medical students’ self-perceived readiness to deal with palliative care patients and their families. Methods To evaluate the effects of the UPCE curriculum we chose a prospective, controlled, quasi-experimental, pre, retrospective-pre, post study design. A total of n = 37 3rd and 4th –year medical students were assigned to the intervention group (n = 15; 4th -year and to the control group (n = 22; 3rd-year. Resting on the self-efficacy concept of Bandura the measurement was conducted by a refined test-battery based on two independent measurements (the revised Collet-Lester-Fear-of-Death-Scale and the instrument of the “Program in Palliative Care Education and Practice” at Harvard Medical School including 68 items altogether in a five-point Likert-scale. These items were designed to test elementary skills in caring for the dying and their relatives as perceived by medical undergraduates. Datasets from both groups were analysed by paired and independent two-sample t-test. The TREND statement for reporting non-randomized evaluations was applied for reporting on this quasi-experimental study. Results Three constructs showed statistically

  1. Ecological Literacy, Urban Green Space, and Mobile Technology: Exploring the Impacts of an Arboretum Curriculum Designed for Undergraduate Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoebus, Patrick E.

    Increasing individual ecological literacy levels may help citizens make informed choices about the environmental challenges facing society. The purpose of this study was to explore the impacts of an arboretum curriculum incorporating mobile technology and an urban greenspace on the ecological knowledge, environmental attitudes and beliefs, and environmental behaviors of undergraduate biology students and pre-service K-8 teachers during a summer course. Using a convergent parallel mixed-methods design, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, analyzed, and later merged to create an enhanced understanding of the impact of the curriculum on the environmental attitudes and beliefs of the participants. Quantitative results revealed a significant difference between pre- and post-survey scores for ecological knowledge, with no significant differences between pre- and post-scores for the other variables measured. However, no significant difference in scores was found between experimental and comparison groups for any of the three variables. When the two data sets were compared, results from the quantitative and qualitative components were found to converge and diverge. Quantitative data indicated the environmental attitudes and beliefs of participants were unaffected by the arboretum curriculum. Similarly, qualitative data indicated participants' perceived environmental attitudes and beliefs about the importance of nature remained unchanged throughout the course of the study. However, qualitative data supporting the theme connecting with the curriculum suggested experiences with the arboretum curriculum helped participants develop an appreciation for trees and nature and led them to believe they increased their knowledge about trees.

  2. Introducing quality assurance and medical audit into the UCSF medical center curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaccia, J C

    1976-05-01

    The experience gained by a medical school faculty in developing and piloting a course for undergraduate medical students in medical care evaluation led to a similar effort for house staff. It is recognized that if the profession is to fulfill the demand by society for social accountability in the use of resources for health care, medical care assessment and quality assurance mechanisms must become an intimate part of the clinical experience of medical students and house officers. Teaching these subjects requires a theoretical framework; introduction of content and skills appropriate to the level of the student and continuation of progressively more advanced training throughout medical education; use of assessment and quality assurance techniques by clinician-teachers themselves to provide models for the student; and continued evolution of pedagogic approach and course content based on developments in the area.

  3. Development of the ultrasonography learning model for undergraduate medical students: A case study of the Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limchareon, Sornsupha; Asawaworarit, Nattawat; Klinwichit, Wethaka; Dinchuthai, Pakaphun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound technology is generally considered to be reliable and widely used by physicians today. Therefore, given the efficacy and popularity of the technology, the need for quality ultrasound education is evident. Ultrasound training for undergraduate medical students has been increasingly incorporated into school curriculums, but the teaching methods can vary significantly among medical schools. Among many different choices, one effective teaching model was proposed which added hands-on ultrasound experience on live patients that was supervised by radiologists in the last clinical year. A 2-week radiology elective course was offered for 6(th)-year medical students at Burapha University Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand in the academic year 2014. Fourteen medical students participated in the elective course. Additionally, students who chose radiology as their elective were provided an ultrasound experience on live patients in real-life clinical settings. All 6(th)-year medical students then completed a 25-ultrasound image quiz, and completed a questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The ultrasound test scores were compared between the elective and nonelective students. The students' background characteristics were determined by a grade point average and the ultrasound experience was determined by the number of scans. These were collected, and analyzed to establish their relationship with the ultrasound test scores. The students' opinions were also surveyed. Fourteen medical students participated in the elective course. The ultrasound test scores in the elective group were significantly higher than those in the nonelective group (p=0.013). The students' background characteristics and ultrasound experience had no significant relationship with the ultrasound test scores. By adding hands-on ultrasound experience using live patients proctored by radiologists for final year medical students, in the space of 2 weeks, an effective ultrasound learning model for

  4. The masked educator-innovative simulation in an Australian undergraduate Medical Sonography and Medical Imaging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Bowman, Anita; McAllister, Margaret; Cowling, Cynthia; Spuur, Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Clinical learning experiences for sonography and medical imaging students can sometimes involve the practice of technical procedures with less of a focus on developing communication skills with patients. Whilst patient-based simulation scenarios have been widely reported in other health education programmes, there is a paucity of research in sonography and medical imaging. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) in the learning and teaching of clinical communication skills to undergraduate medical sonography and medical imaging students. Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) is a simulation technique where the educator is hidden behind wearable realistic silicone body props including masks. Focus group interviews were conducted with 11 undergraduate medical sonography and medical imaging students at CQUniversity, Australia. The number of participants was limited to the size of the cohort of students enrolled in the course. Prior to these interviews participants were engaged in learning activities that featured the use of the Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) method. Thematic analysis was employed to explore how the introduction of Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) contributed to students' learning in relation to clinical communication skills. Key themes included: benefits of interacting with someone real rather than another student, learning made fun, awareness of empathy, therapeutic communication skills, engaged problem solving and purposeful reflection. Mask-Ed™ (KRS Simulation) combined with interactive sessions with an expert facilitator, contributed positively to students' learning in relation to clinical communication skills. Participants believed that interacting with someone real, as in the Mask-Ed characters was beneficial. In addition to the learning being described as fun, participants gained an awareness of empathy, therapeutic communication skills, engaged problem solving and purposeful reflection.

  5. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-leased medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H. T.

    Purpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own performances in

  6. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.M. van der Molen

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own

  7. Junior doctors and undergraduate teaching: the influence of gender on the provision of medical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, David

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: International experience has demonstrated that the medical profession is becoming less dominated by men. This "feminization of medicine" has been a topic of much debate in the medical literature. As the gender ratio in the profession changes, it is likely that a greater proportion of undergraduate education will be provided by women. Whether this shift away from the male-dominated provision of medical education will have an effect on undergraduate education is unknown. PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to clarify whether there are differences between the attitudes and practices of male and female junior doctors regarding the practice of undergraduate teaching. METHOD: A survey methodology among a cohort of nonconsultant hospital doctors in a major Irish teaching hospital was utilized. The overall response rate was 93%. The cohort held a positive attitude toward teaching undergraduates, and the majority were actively engaged in this activity. Doctors of both genders expressed a willingness to undertake teacher training. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the genders regarding the self-reported quantity of teaching provided to undergraduates. Male doctors perceived themselves as more confident educators when compared to female doctors, but this is likely to reflect cohort demographics in which a greater proportion of male doctors were more senior. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that male and female doctors have similar attitudes toward, and practices in, voluntary undergraduate teaching. As a result, any gender shift in medicine is unlikely to result in a significant change in junior doctors\\' attitudes toward undergraduate medical education.

  8. Junior doctors and undergraduate teaching: the influence of gender on the provision of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, David; Collins, Niamh; Boohan, Mairead; Wall, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    International experience has demonstrated that the medical profession is becoming less dominated by men. This "feminization of medicine" has been a topic of much debate in the medical literature. As the gender ratio in the profession changes, it is likely that a greater proportion of undergraduate education will be provided by women. Whether this shift away from the male-dominated provision of medical education will have an effect on undergraduate education is unknown. The aim of this research was to clarify whether there are differences between the attitudes and practices of male and female junior doctors regarding the practice of undergraduate teaching. A survey methodology among a cohort of nonconsultant hospital doctors in a major Irish teaching hospital was utilized. The overall response rate was 93%. The cohort held a positive attitude toward teaching undergraduates, and the majority were actively engaged in this activity. Doctors of both genders expressed a willingness to undertake teacher training. There were no significant differences between the genders regarding the self-reported quantity of teaching provided to undergraduates. Male doctors perceived themselves as more confident educators when compared to female doctors, but this is likely to reflect cohort demographics in which a greater proportion of male doctors were more senior. This study demonstrates that male and female doctors have similar attitudes toward, and practices in, voluntary undergraduate teaching. As a result, any gender shift in medicine is unlikely to result in a significant change in junior doctors' attitudes toward undergraduate medical education.

  9. Short-term outcomes of a program developed to inculcate research essentials in undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Devi

    2015-01-01

    -institutional collaborations, 14 publications and 15 conference presentations. An area for improvement noted was to have the MSP implemented in the curriculum without increasing students′ overall workload and stress. Conclusion: The study identified strengths and weaknesses of the MSP program. Our model of undergraduate research project may be incorporated in undergraduate medical programs to foster positive attitude and knowledge base about scientific research and to instil research skills among students.

  10. Attitudes towards psychiatry of undergraduate medical students at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of mental health services to all citizens of Nigeria by the year 2000 and ... and clinic consultations. Undergraduate students' attitudes towards psychiatry potentially ..... peculiar or neurotic behaviours. 9 (36.0%). 16 (64.0%).

  11. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  12. Medical faculty and curriculum design - 'No, no, it's like this: You give your lectures...'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Eika, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to understand more completely the (tacit) curriculum design models of medical faculty. We report on two research questions: (1) Can medical faculty give an account of their curriculum design assumptions? and (2) What are their assumptions...... concerning curriculum design? Method: We conducted an explorative, qualitative case study. We interviewed educational decision makers at the three Danish medical schools and associate professors from different courses concerning curriculum design. We carried out four individual, in-depth interviews and four...... focus groups with 20 participants in all. Results and conclusions: Only one decision maker had an explicit curriculum design model. However, all participants had assumptions concerning curriculum design. We displayed their assumptions as five essentially different and increasingly complex models...

  13. Electronic health record training in undergraduate medical education: bridging theory to practice with curricula for empowering patient- and relationship-centered care in the computerized setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; George, Paul; Reis, Shmuel P; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2014-03-01

    While electronic health record (EHR) use is becoming state-of-the-art, deliberate teaching of health care information technology (HCIT) competencies is not keeping pace with burgeoning use. Medical students require training to become skilled users of HCIT, but formal pedagogy within undergraduate medical education (UME) is sparse. How can medical educators best meet the needs of learners while integrating EHRs into medical education and practice? How can they help learners preserve and foster effective communication skills within the computerized setting? In general, how can UME curricula be devised for skilled use of EHRs to enhance rather than hinder provision of effective, humanistic health care?Within this Perspective, the authors build on recent publications that "set the stage" for next steps: EHR curricula innovation and implementation as concrete embodiments of theoretical underpinnings. They elaborate on previous calls for maximizing benefits and minimizing risks of EHR use with sufficient focus on physician-patient communication skills and for developing core competencies within medical education. The authors describe bridging theory into practice with systematic longitudinal curriculum development for EHR training in UME at their institution, informed by Kern and colleagues' curriculum development framework, narrative medicine, and reflective practice. They consider this innovation within a broader perspective-the overarching goal of empowering undergraduate medical students' patient- and relationship-centered skills while effectively demonstrating HCIT-related skills.

  14. Student nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards domestic violence: results of survey highlight need for continued attention to undergraduate curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hutchinson, Marie

    2017-08-01

    To gain a comprehensive understanding of undergraduate nursing student attitudes and views towards domestic violence, and employ the findings to inform undergraduate curriculum development. Nurses have an important role in identifying people who are victims of domestic violence through screening and facilitating their access to assistance and support. Undergraduate nursing education is key to shaping attitudes and facilitating the development of a comprehensive understanding of domestic violence. Little research has been undertaken exploring nursing students' attitudes towards domestic violence. A cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a three-year Bachelor of Nursing programme across three campuses of a regional university in NSW, Australia. Students completed a pen and paper survey during class time and descriptive and comparative analysis was undertaken. The majority of respondents were female, first year students females aged 17-26 years. Many students understood the nature and consequences of domestic violence, yet others across the course of the programme demonstrate attitudes that reflect a lack of understanding and misconceptions of domestic violence. Stereotypical and gendered attitudes that normalise violence within intimate partner relationships and sustain victim-blaming attitudes were evident across the cohort. It is important for nurses to understand the relationship between exposure to violence and women's ill health, and be able to respond appropriately. Undergraduate programmes need to highlight the important role of nurses around domestic violence and address stereotypical conceptions about domestic violence. Continued effort is required to address domestic violence in undergraduate nursing education so that nursing graduates understand the association between violence exposure and poor health and are able to assess exposure and respond appropriately in the clinical environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Emergency Medical Technician Training During Medical School: Benefits for the Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Sellers, Rebecca; Blackwell, Thomas H

    2017-07-01

    Medical schools are encouraged to introduce students to clinical experiences early, to integrate biomedical and clinical sciences, and to expose students to interprofessional health providers and teams. One important goal is for students to gain a better understanding of the patients they will care for in the future and how their social and behavioral characteristics may affect care delivery. To promote early clinical exposure and biomedical integration, in 2012 the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville incorporated emergency medical technician (EMT) training into the curriculum. This report describes the program; outlines changes (made after year 1) to improve biomedical integration; and provides a brief analysis and categorization of comments from student reflections to determine whether particular themes, especially related to the hidden curriculum, appeared. Medical students wrote frequently about EMT-related experiences: 29% of reflections in the charter year (1.2 per student) and 38% of reflections in the second year (1.5 per student) focused on EMT-related experiences. Reflections related to patient care, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication/interpersonal skills. The frequency of themes in student reflections may provide insight into a medical program's hidden curriculum. This information may serve to inform curricula that focus on biosocial elements such as professionalism and communication with the goal of enhancing future physicians' tolerance, empathy, and patient-centeredness. The authors plan to conduct further qualitative analysis of student reflections to iteratively revise curricula to address gaps both in learning and in the differences between the explicit curriculum and actual experiences.

  16. Survey of Attitudes towards Curriculum Reforms among Medical Teachersin Different Socio-economic and Cultural Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum reforms in medical schools require cultural and conceptual changes from the faculty. We assessed attitudes towards curriculum reforms in different academic, economic, and social environments among 776 teachers from 2 Western European medical schools (Belgium and Denmark) and 7 medical...... schools in 3 countries in post-communist transition (Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina). The survey included a 5-point Likert-type scale on attitudes towards reforms in general and towards reforms of medical curriculum (10 items each). Teaching staff from medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina...... had more positive attitude towards reforms of medical curriculum (mean score 36.8 out of maximum 50 [95% CI 36.1 to 37.3]) than those from medical schools in Croatia or Slovenia (30.7 [29.8 to 31.6]) or Western Europe (27.7 [27.1 to 28.3]) (Pattitudes...

  17. Undergraduate medical student's perception about an integrated method of teaching at a medical school in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Sabane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective In recent years, there has been a gradual but definitive shift in medical schools all over the globe to promote a more integrated way of teaching. Integration of medical disciplines promotes a holistic understanding of the medical curriculum in the students. This helps them better understand and appreciate the importance and role of each medical subject. Method The study was conducted among the 5th year Pre-clinical students. Questionnaire consisted of 4 questions on the level of integration, 5 questions on various aspects of the assessment and some questions which tested the level of awareness of the integrated method. Result Out of a total of 72 students present on the day of data collection, 65 participated in the study giving a response rate of 90.27 %. After primary data cleansing 4 questionnaires had to be omitted. Most of the students opined as “good” or “very good” for the questions on integration and its attributes. Only 27 (44 % were aware of integrated curriculum being taught in other medical schools in the gulf. Similar findings were observed regarding assessment related questions. Reduction in the number of block exams is unpopular among the students and only 6% have agreed for 3, 4, or 5 non-summative block assessments. Opinion regarding the help of integrated teaching in IFOM based OMSB entrance examination was mixed with a greater variance in the responses. 43% students have indicated that they would like to spend more time with PDCI. Conclusion The students of our institution seem to have a favourable opinion regarding the integrated system of teaching. The satisfaction with the conduct of examinations and its related variables is found to be high. A reduction in the number of block exams however is unpopular among the target group and they would appreciate a greater time allocation for subjects of PDCI and Pharmacology.

  18. Attitudes of medical students to medical leadership and management: a systematic review to inform curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mark R; Quince, Thelma A; Wood, Diana F; Benson, John A

    2011-11-14

    There is a growing acknowledgement that doctors need to develop leadership and management competences to become more actively involved in the planning, delivery and transformation of patient services. We undertook a systematic review of what is known concerning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students regarding leadership and management. Here we report the results pertaining to the attitudes of students to provide evidence to inform curriculum development in this developing field of medical education. We searched major electronic databases and citation indexes within the disciplines of medicine, education, social science and management. We undertook hand searching of major journals, and reference and citation tracking. We accessed websites of UK medical institutions and contacted individuals working within the field. 26 studies were included. Most were conducted in the USA, using mainly quantitative methods. We used inductive analysis of the topics addressed by each study to identity five main content areas: Quality Improvement; Managed Care, Use of Resources and Costs; General Leadership and Management; Role of the Doctor, and Patient Safety. Students have positive attitudes to clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement techniques and multidisciplinary teamwork, but mixed attitudes to managed care, cost containment and medical error. Education interventions had variable effects on students' attitudes. Medical students perceive a need for leadership and management education but identified lack of curriculum time and disinterest in some activities as potential barriers to implementation. The findings from our review may reflect the relatively little emphasis given to leadership and management in medical curricula. However, students recognise a need to develop leadership and management competences. Although further work needs to be undertaken, using rigorous methods, to identify the most effective and cost-effective curriculum innovations, this

  19. Validation of the integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being in its fourth decade, HIV remains an epidemic that requires combined efforts for the global fight. The strategies planned and implemented in the fight against HIV include reversing and halting the spread of HIV, increasing health care access, and strengthening the health care system. South Africa has made the fight one of its top priorities, and has developed plans to increase the role of nurses in the management of HIV, demonstrating its willingness, commitment and progress in the fight against HIV. Objective: This article presents the validation process conducted to confirm the integration and mapping of the HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the four-year Bachelor of Nursing programme at a university in South Africa. Methods: This study adopted a constructivist paradigm, using a qualitative approach, applyingthe design step of the process model of curriculum development, to validate the inte gration of the mapped HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. Results: For each competency, outcomes were developed for each year. Participants confirmed completeness of outcomes and appropriateness of the mapping of the HIV and AIDS related outcomes into the nursing curriculum, as well as the feasibility and practicability of the integration. Conclusion: Required resources for integration of HIV and AIDS related nursing competencies, such as human resources and nurse educators’ continued personal development were identified, as well as barriers to integration, and measures to eliminate them were discussed. The importance of integration of HIV and AIDS nursing competencies into the curriculum was reiterated.

  20. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  1. Information literacy skills of undergraduate medical radiation students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Madeleine C. [Medical Radiations, School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)]. E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.au

    2007-08-15

    Undergraduate education is undergoing a shift away from the traditional transmission of a fixed body of knowledge to a learning approach where the emphasis is on supporting learners to learn. Central to this change is recognition that undergraduate education programmes should aim to develop independent learners who become effective lifelong learning practitioners. Successful independent learning as an undergraduate student or as a lifelong learner requires the learner to have well developed information literacy skills. An Online Electronic Information Skills (OEIS) intervention was designed to develop the information literacy skills in a cohort of second year undergraduate radiography students. An evaluation focused on learning outcomes was used to provide evidence of development of information literacy within the undergraduate course. The evaluation clearly demonstrated substantial skill development in students' ability to access scholarly information in their discipline area. The reported continued use of database searching by this cohort of students seven months after the OEIS intervention provides evidence that they are continuing to access and use scholarly information, information literacy skills necessary for their future work context.

  2. Information literacy skills of undergraduate medical radiation students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, Madeleine C.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate education is undergoing a shift away from the traditional transmission of a fixed body of knowledge to a learning approach where the emphasis is on supporting learners to learn. Central to this change is recognition that undergraduate education programmes should aim to develop independent learners who become effective lifelong learning practitioners. Successful independent learning as an undergraduate student or as a lifelong learner requires the learner to have well developed information literacy skills. An Online Electronic Information Skills (OEIS) intervention was designed to develop the information literacy skills in a cohort of second year undergraduate radiography students. An evaluation focused on learning outcomes was used to provide evidence of development of information literacy within the undergraduate course. The evaluation clearly demonstrated substantial skill development in students' ability to access scholarly information in their discipline area. The reported continued use of database searching by this cohort of students seven months after the OEIS intervention provides evidence that they are continuing to access and use scholarly information, information literacy skills necessary for their future work context

  3. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Bolinder, Gunilla; Held, Claes; Johansson, Bo-Lennart; Fors, Uno; Ostergren, Jan

    2008-04-23

    Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institute have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 - very good) they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16) by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03). Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and interactivity.

  4. Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Bo-Lennart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institutet have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. Methods A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. Results 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 – very good they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16 by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03. Conclusion Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and

  5. Discovering Innovation at the Intersection of Undergraduate Medical Education, Human Factors, and Collaboration: The Development of a Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Bamford, Thomas; Haindl, Cornelia; Cracknell, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Significant deficiencies exist in the knowledge and skills of medical students and residents around health care quality and safety. The theory and practice of quality and safety should be embedded into undergraduate medical practice so that health care professionals are capable of developing interventions and innovations to effectively anticipate and mitigate errors. Since 2011, Leeds Medical School in the United Kingdom has used case study examples of nasogastric (NG) tube patient safety incidents within the undergraduate patient safety curriculum. In 2012, a medical undergraduate student approached a clinician with an innovative idea after undertaking an NG tubes root cause analysis case study. Simultaneously, a separate local project demonstrated low compliance (11.6%) with the United Kingdom's National Patient Safety Agency NG tubes guideline for use of the correct method to check tube position. These separate endeavors led to interdisciplinary collaboration between a medical student, health care professionals, researchers, and industry to develop the Initial Placement Nasogastric Tube Safety Pack. Human factors engineering was used to inform pack design to allow guideline recommendations to be accessible and easy to follow. A timeline of product development, mapped against key human factors and medical device design principles used throughout the process, is presented. The safety pack has since been launched in five UK National Health Service (NHS) hospitals, and the pack has been introduced into health care professional staff training for NG tubes. A mixed-methods evaluation is currently under way in five NHS organizations.

  6. Multimedia applications in nursing curriculum: the process of producing streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K

    2014-07-01

    Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extending the theoretical framework for curriculum integration in pre-clinical medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergel, John; Stentoft, Diana; Montoya, Juny

    2017-01-01

    students' knowledge integration. Therefore, we aimed to uncover how curriculum integration is manifested through context. METHODS: We collected data from the official curriculum and interviewed ten participants (including curriculum designers, facilitators, and students) in the bachelor's medical program......INTRODUCTION: Curriculum integration is widely discussed in medical education but remains ill defined. Although there is plenty of information on logistical aspects of curriculum integration, little attention has been paid to the contextual issues that emerge from its practice and may complicate...... at Aalborg University. We observed various learning activities focused on pre-clinical education. Inspired by grounded theory, we analyzed the information we gathered. RESULTS: The following theoretical constructs emerged after the inductive analysis: 1) curriculum integration complexity is embedded...

  8. Incorporation of medical informatics and information technology as core components of undergraduate medical education - time for change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Anthony; Kushniruk, Andre

    2009-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Information Technology (IT) is a highly desirable and a very necessary ingredient of modern health care. Review of available literature reveals a paucity of medical informatics and information technology courses in undergraduate medical curricula and a lack of research to assess the effectiveness of medical informatics in undergraduate medical education. The need for such initiatives is discussed and a pilot project is described that evaluated the effectiveness of education in the use of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) applications. Educational activities, for example, could be medical students conducting virtual medical encounters or interacting with EMR applications. An EMR application, which was used in several related projects, has been adapted to the educational environment: standardized patient records can be created and cloned so that individual students can interact with a "standard" patient and alter the patient's data.

  9. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  10. A systematic review of factors influencing student ratings in undergraduate medical education course evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiekirka, Sarah; Raupach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Background Student ratings are a popular source of course evaluations in undergraduate medical education. Data on the reliability and validity of such ratings have mostly been derived from studies unrelated to medical education. Since medical education differs considerably from other higher education settings, an analysis of factors influencing overall student ratings with a specific focus on medical education was needed. Methods For the purpose of this systematic review, online databases (Pu...

  11. Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP): innovative program promoting undergraduate research in the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Michael M; Atieh, Jessica A; Soubra, Marwa K; Khoury, Samia J; Tamim, Hani; Kaafarani, Bilal R

    2016-06-06

    Most educational institutions lack a structured system that provides undergraduate students with research exposure in the medical field. The objective of this paper is to describe the structure of the Medical Research Volunteer Program (MRVP) which was established at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, as well as to assess the success of the program. The MRVP is a program that targets undergraduate students interested in becoming involved in the medical research field early on in their academic career. It provides students with an active experience and the opportunity to learn from and support physicians, clinical researchers, basic science researchers and other health professionals. Through this program, students are assigned to researchers and become part of a research team where they observe and aid on a volunteer basis. This paper presents the MRVP's four major pillars: the students, the faculty members, the MRVP committee, and the online portal. Moreover, details of the MRVP process are provided. The success of the program was assessed by carrying out analyses using information gathered from the MRVP participants (both students and faculty). Satisfaction with the program was assessed using a set of questions rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (lowest satisfaction) to 5 (highest satisfaction). A total of 211 students applied to the program with a total of 164 matches being completed. Since the beginning of the program, three students have each co-authored a publication in peer-reviewed journals with their respective faculty members. The majority of the students rated the program positively. Of the total number of students who completed the program period, 35.1 % rated the effectiveness of the program with a 5, 54.8 % rated 4, and 8.6 % rated 3. A small number of students gave lower ratings of 2 and 1 (1.1 % and 0.4 %, respectively). The MRVP is a program that provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to learn about research firsthand

  12. Do Undergraduate Engineering Faculty Include Occupational and Public Health and Safety in the Engineering Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Dianna; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and, if so, why engineering faculty include occupational and public health and safety in their undergraduate engineering courses. Data were collected from 157 undergraduate engineering faculty from 65 colleges of engineering in the United States. (LZ)

  13. Communicating across the Curriculum in an Undergraduate Business Program: Management 100--Leadership and Communication in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleja, Elizabeth A.; Greenhalgh, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Educating undergraduate business students in the 21st century requires more than addressing the quantitative side of business; rather, it calls for including the more qualitative "soft skills," such as speaking and writing. This article examines the design, delivery, and effectiveness of an undergraduate program dedicated to leadership,…

  14. Mentoring portfolio use in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Driessen, Erik; Ter Braak, Edith; Scheele, Fedde; Slaets, Joris; Van Der Molen, Thys; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Mentoring is widely acknowledged as being crucial for portfolio learning. The aim of this study is to examine how mentoring portfolio use has been implemented in undergraduate and postgraduate settings. Method: The results of interviews with six key persons involved in setting up portfolio use

  15. Improving Undergraduate Medical Education about Pain Assessment and Management: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Stakeholders’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Paul Tellier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most common reasons for individuals to seek medical advice, yet it remains poorly managed. One of the main reasons that poor pain management persists is the lack of adequate knowledge and skills of practicing clinicians, which stems from a perceived lack of pain education during the training of undergraduate medical students.

  16. Intellectual disability health content within medical curriculum: an audit of what our future doctors are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Ruffell, Beth; Tracy, Jane; Torr, Jennifer J; Durvasula, Seeta; Iacono, Teresa; Eagleson, Claire; Lennox, Nicolas

    2016-04-11

    There is a high burden of unmet health needs for people with intellectual disability. Despite experiencing significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population, this group faces greater barriers to accessing healthcare. While increasing workplace capacity is one way to reduce this inequitable access, previous research indicates a scarcity of undergraduate teaching in intellectual disability. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and nature of intellectual disability content currently offered within medical degree curricula. All Australian universities (n = 20) providing accredited medical training were invited to participate in a two-phase audit via an email invitation to the Dean of each medical school. The Dean's delegate from 14 medical schools completed Phase 1, which involved a questionnaire or telephone interview about the overall medical course structure. Unit coordinators and/or teaching staff from 12 medical schools completed Phase 2, which involved an online survey about intellectual disability content within the curriculum. In Australia, medical school curricula contain a median of 2.55 h of compulsory intellectual disability content. The majority of universities only offer a small amount of compulsory content. Of compulsory units, intellectual disability teaching is minimal in sexual health and emergency medicine (only one unit offered in one school for each). Topics of key relevance in intellectual disability health such as human rights issues, interdisciplinary team work and preventative health are poorly represented in intellectual disability teaching. Elective content varies markedly across universities (1 to 122 h), but emergency medicine, women's health, men's health and many other specialist medicine areas are not represented. Inclusive practice is inconsistent in degree and nature, but a majority of universities (nine) involve people with intellectual disability in the development or delivery

  17. [Undergraduate education of medical technologists to promote scientific and technological literacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Akizawa, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for today's medical technologists to receive proper training on the safety of medical treatment and healthcare in order to accommodate the rapid changes and advancement in medical technology. In particular, because of the increase of hospital-acquired infections, the role of medical technologists involved in infection control has become much more important. In addition, particularly in Japan, the career options available to students graduating with a degree in medical technology have become much more diverse, ranging from research laboratories to clinical services; however, undergraduate education for medical technologists is limited. It is therefore deemed necessary for undergraduate students to be provided with adequate training from their universities by offering a wider selection of classes in this subject area. In this paper, we summarize our preliminary findings on the trial lessons that are offered to medical technology students in their microbiology class. These lessons are designed to enhance students' academic potential and to engage their interest.

  18. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  19. Predicting undergraduates' academic achievement : the role of the curriculum, time investment and self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenbeek, Marjolein; Jansen, Ellen; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The time students invest in their studies and their resulting achievement is partly dependent on curriculum characteristics. Degree programmes differ greatly with respect to how the curriculum is organized, for example in the type (e.g. lectures, practicals) and the number of classes. The focus of

  20. Moral Philosophy in a Social Scientific Age: A Proposal to Reintegrate the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuttler, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    American higher education has been in almost perpetual crisis for several generations, with students experiencing fragmentation and loss of coherence across the curriculum. Most liberal arts colleges in the 19th century had a required senior course in "moral philosophy" to integrate the curriculum and prepare students for future leadership, but…

  1. Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin (NKLM für Deutschland: Zusammenarbeit der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA und des Medizinischen Fakultätentages (MFT [National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany: Cooperation of the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the Association of Medical Faculties in Germany (MFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn, Eckhart G.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] The Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA; Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF-LLL; Lisbon Process are competence-driven frameworks for vocational and higher education programmes in need for defined learning objectives. In the field of medical education, The Netherlands and Switzerland have developed national catalogues for undergraduate medical training, which are competence-based and compatible with a two-cycle curriculum comprised of a Bachelor in Medicine and a Master in Medicine. In Germany, virtually all medical organizations, last not least the Association of Medical Faculties (MFT, have voted against the application of the two-cycle (and the three-cycle curriculum to medical undergraduate education. A standstill of the European processes will not be accepted in the political arena, and a proposition was made by the Conference of German Ministers of Higher Education to develop a medical qualification framework for Germany, asking the Association for Medical Education (GMA and the MFT to join forces. This is not possible without consented national learning objectives derived from the professional context of physicians. The GMA has teamed up with the MFT to develop National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM in Germany (see Figure 1 to fulfill these needs.

  2. What Makes the Learning of Physiology in a PBL Medical Curriculum Challenging? Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Mark A.; Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Physiology is an integral component of any medical curriculum. Traditionally, the learning of physiology has relied heavily on systems-based didactic lectures. In 2001, the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine (NRMSM; Durban, South Africa) embarked on a problem-based curriculum in which the learning of physiology was integrated with relevant…

  3. Development and evaluation of a risk communication curriculum for medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Elwyn, G.; Mazor, K.M.; Thomson, R.; Sedgwick, P.; Ibison, J.; Wong, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students. METHODS: A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental

  4. Integration of Computers into the Medical School Curriculum: An Example from a Microbiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Mark W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    While the use of computers has become widespread in recent years, a unified, integrated approach to their use in the medical school curriculum has not yet emerged. Describes a program at the University of New Mexico that will phase-in computerization of its curriculum beginning in the fall of 1993. (LZ)

  5. Perception, awareness and practice of research-oriented medical education among undergraduate students of a medical college in Kolkata, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhankar; Adhikari, Anjan; Haldar, Dibakar; Biswas, Payel

    2016-01-01

    The addition of research-oriented medical education (ROME) to the existing curriculum could promote logical thinking, rapid literature search and a better understanding of research methodology. Creation of research temperament could lead to innovations in healthcare. We assessed the perception, awareness and practice of ROME among undergraduate students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 234 students of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata selected by the simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-designed, pre-tested, validated questionnaire by direct interviews. The mean (SD) perception score was 44.2 (5.03). Students from outside West Bengal (p=0.05), women (p=0.03) and students whose parents were doctors (p=0.01) had significantly higher scores. Students in the second and fourth semesters had a better perception than those in the sixth and eighth semesters. Awareness of research fellowships granted to undergraduate students such as the Indian Council of Medical Research-Short-term studentship (ICMR-STS) was low among the second semester students (13.9%), but more than half (59.3%) of the students in the eighth semester were aware (difference across semesters, pAwareness about journals, conferences and 'research bodies promoting student research' was low. Students in the senior semesters spent more time on research (6th semester 72.2% and 8th semester 88.9%) than those in the junior semesters (2nd: 66.7% and 4th: 77.8%; difference across semesters, p=0.03). About 3% of students participated in extracurricular research and/or had presented work at a conference. There is a good perception about the need for research but a lack of awareness of the why and how, as well as hardly any practice of ROME among medical students of this medical college.

  6. Student perceptions of evaluation in undergraduate medical education: A qualitative study from one medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiekirka Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation is an integral part of medical education. Despite a wide use of various evaluation tools, little is known about student perceptions regarding the purpose and desired consequences of evaluation. Such knowledge is important to facilitate interpretation of evaluation results. The aims of this study were to elicit student views on the purpose of evaluation, indicators of teaching quality, evaluation tools and possible consequences drawn from evaluation data. Methods This qualitative study involved 17 undergraduate medical students in Years 3 and 4 participating in 3 focus group interviews. Content analysis was conducted by two different researchers. Results Evaluation was viewed as a means to facilitate improvements within medical education. Teaching quality was believed to be dependent on content, process, teacher and student characteristics as well as learning outcome, with an emphasis on the latter. Students preferred online evaluations over paper-and-pencil forms and suggested circulating results among all faculty and students. Students strongly favoured the allocation of rewards and incentives for good teaching to individual teachers. Conclusions In addition to assessing structural aspects of teaching, evaluation tools need to adequately address learning outcome. The use of reliable and valid evaluation methods is a prerequisite for resource allocation to individual teachers based on evaluation results.

  7. Introducing Gross Pathology to Undergraduate Medical Students in the Dissecting Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew; Struthers, Kate; Whiten, Susan; Jackson, David; Herrington, C. Simon

    2010-01-01

    Pathology and anatomy are both sciences that contribute to the foundations of a successful medical career. In the past decade, medical education has undergone profound changes with the development of a core curriculum combined with student selected components. There has been a shift from discipline-based teaching towards problem-based learning.…

  8. Curriculum Model for Medical Technology: Lessons from International Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring-Valdez, Anacleta

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum is a crucial component of any educational process. Curriculum development and instructional management serve as effective tools for meeting the present and future needs of the local and national communities. In trying to strengthen the quality assurance system in Philippine higher education, institutions of higher learning were mandated…

  9. Integrating scientific research into undergraduate curriculum: A new direction in dental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Saleh Al Sweleh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The undergraduate research is a cumulative learning experience which requires the support of the institute and faculty. Establishing a dental student research journal would encourage students to conduct and publish their research.

  10. Fostering critical thinking and collaborative learning skills among medical students through a research protocol writing activity in the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Soumendra; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali

    2018-06-01

    This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken. A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.

  11. Fostering critical thinking and collaborative learning skills among medical students through a research protocol writing activity in the curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendra Sahoo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. Methods A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken.A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Results Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. Conclusion This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.

  12. Developing a Medical School Curriculum for Psychological, Moral, and Spiritual Wellness: Student and Faculty Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Bandini, Julia; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea; Noveroske, Sarah; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy; Balboni, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have addressed the integration of a religion and/or spirituality curriculum into medical school training, few describe the process of curriculum development based on qualitative data from students and faculty. The aim of this study is to explore the perspectives of medical students and chaplaincy trainees regarding the development of a curriculum to facilitate reflection on moral and spiritual dimensions of caring for the critically ill and to train students in self-care practices that promote professionalism. Research staff conducted semiscripted and one-on-one interviews and focus groups. Respondents also completed a short and self-reported demographic questionnaire. Participants included 44 students and faculty members from Harvard Medical School and Harvard Divinity School, specifically senior medical students and divinity school students who have undergone chaplaincy training. Two major qualitative themes emerged: curriculum format and curriculum content. Inter-rater reliability was high (kappa = 0.75). With regard to curriculum format, most participants supported the curriculum being longitudinal, elective, and experiential. With regard to curriculum content, five subthemes emerged: personal religious and/or spiritual (R/S) growth, professional integration of R/S values, addressing patient needs, structural and/or institutional dynamics within the health care system, and controversial social issues. Qualitative findings of this study suggest that development of a future medical school curriculum on R/S and wellness should be elective, longitudinal, and experiential and should focus on the impact and integration of R/S values and self-care practices within self, care for patients, and the medical team. Future research is necessary to study the efficacy of these curricula once implemented. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of course-related stressors in undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL) versus non-PBL medical programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alexander D; Menezes, Darryl A Braganza; McDermott, Helen E; Hibbert, Louise J; Brennan, Sarah-Louise; Ross, Elizabeth E; Jones, Lisa A

    2009-09-13

    Medical students report high levels of stress related to their medical training as well as to other personal and financial factors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in course-related stressors reported by medical students on undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional study of second-year medical students in two UK medical schools (one PBL and one non-PBL programme) was conducted. A 16-question self-report questionnaire, derived from the Perceived Medical Student Stress Scale and the Higher Education Stress Inventory, was used to measure course-related stressors. Following univariate analysis of each stressor between groups, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which stressors were the best predictors of each course type, while controlling for socio-demographic differences between the groups. A total of 280 students responded. Compared to the non-PBL students (N = 197), the PBL students (N = 83) were significantly more likely to agree that: they did not know what the faculty expected of them (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.38, p = 0.03); there were too many small group sessions facilitated only by students resulting in an unclear curriculum (OR = 0.04, p academic subjects of interest (OR = 0.40, p = 0.02). They were significantly more likely to disagree that: there was a lack of encouragement from teachers (OR = 3.11, p = 0.02); and that the medical course fostered a sense of anonymity and feelings of isolation amongst students (OR = 3.42, p = 0.008). There are significant differences in the perceived course-related stressors affecting medical students on PBL and non-PBL programmes. Course designers and student support services should therefore tailor their work to minimise, or help students cope with, the specific stressors on each course type to ensure optimum learning and wellbeing among our future doctors.

  14. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Spektor, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  15. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency

  16. The Financial and Non-Financial Aspects of Developing a Data-Driven Decision-Making Mindset in an Undergraduate Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Jeffrey; Krishnamoorthy, Anand; Larson, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Making data-driven decisions is becoming more important for organizations faced with confusing and often contradictory information available to them from their operating environment. This article examines one college of business' journey of developing a data-driven decision-making mindset within its undergraduate curriculum. Lessons learned may be…

  17. Instructional Complements for Undergraduate World History or Western Civilization Courses: Selected Topics in the Ancient, Medieval, and Modern History of India: A Curriculum Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Wayne Hamilton

    This curriculum supplement on India consists of three modules that have been used with undergraduates in introductory world civilization courses. Module 1, "Ancient Period: Hinduism and the Caste System in India: Origin, Development, and Social Functions" discusses the religious doctrines of Hinduism, the caste system, and its structure.…

  18. Founders' Weekend. North Country Workshop on Science, Technology and the Undergraduate Curriculum. Proceedings (Potsdam, New York, November 9-10, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Potsdam. Coll. at Potsdam.

    Proceedings of the North Country Workshop on Science, Technology, and the Undergraduate Curriculum are presented. The Sloan Foundation's call for reform of the liberal arts and coverage of mathematics, science, and technology is noted in welcoming remarks by State University of New York, Potsdam, President Humphrey Tonkin. Stephen H. Cutcliffe…

  19. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  20. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  1. Homelessness in the Medical Curriculum: An Analysis of Case-Based Learning Content From One Canadian Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; MacLeod, Anna; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Homelessness is a major public health concern. Given that homeless individuals have high rates of mortality and morbidity, are more likely to be users of the healthcare system, and often report unmet health needs, it is important to examine how homelessness is addressed in medical education. We wanted to examine content and framing of issues related to homelessness in the case-based learning (CBL) curriculum and provide insights about whether medical students are being adequately trained to meet the health needs of homeless individuals through CBL. CBL content at a Canadian medical school that featured content related to homelessness was analyzed. Data were extracted from cases for the following variables: curriculum unit (e.g., professionalism/ethics curriculum or biomedical/clinical curriculum), patient characteristics (e.g., age, sex), and medical and social conditions. A thematic analysis was performed on cases related to homelessness. Discrepancies in analysis were resolved by consensus. Homelessness was mentioned in five (2.6%) of 191 CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Homelessness was significantly more likely to be featured in professionalism/ethics cases than in biomedical/clinical cases (p = .03). Homeless patients were portrayed as socially disadvantaged individuals, and medical learners were prompted to discuss ethical issues related to homeless patients in cases. However, homeless individuals were largely voiceless in cases. Homelessness was associated with serious physical and mental health concerns, but students were rarely prompted to address these concerns. Insights: The health and social needs of homeless individuals are often overlooked in CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Moreover, stereotypes of homelessness may be reinforced through medical training. There are opportunities for growth in addressing the needs of homeless individuals through medical education.

  2. A comparison of course-related stressors in undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL versus non-PBL medical programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Elizabeth E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students report high levels of stress related to their medical training as well as to other personal and financial factors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in course-related stressors reported by medical students on undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL and non-PBL programmes in the UK. Method A cross-sectional study of second-year medical students in two UK medical schools (one PBL and one non-PBL programme was conducted. A 16-question self-report questionnaire, derived from the Perceived Medical Student Stress Scale and the Higher Education Stress Inventory, was used to measure course-related stressors. Following univariate analysis of each stressor between groups, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which stressors were the best predictors of each course type, while controlling for socio-demographic differences between the groups. Results A total of 280 students responded. Compared to the non-PBL students (N = 197, the PBL students (N = 83 were significantly more likely to agree that: they did not know what the faculty expected of them (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.38, p = 0.03; there were too many small group sessions facilitated only by students resulting in an unclear curriculum (OR = 0.04, p Conclusion There are significant differences in the perceived course-related stressors affecting medical students on PBL and non-PBL programmes. Course designers and student support services should therefore tailor their work to minimise, or help students cope with, the specific stressors on each course type to ensure optimum learning and wellbeing among our future doctors.

  3. Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Kroflič

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern curriculum theories emphasize that if we understand the curriculum as a real core substance of education. We have to bear in mind, when planning the curriculum, the whole multitude of factors (curricula which have an influence on the educational impact. In the field of andragogy, we especially have to consider educational needs, and linking the strategies of instruction with those of learning. The best way of realizing this principle is the open strategy of planning the national curriculum and process-developmental strategy of planning with the microandragogic situation. This planning strategy is S1m1lar to the system-integration strategy and Jarvis's model of negotiated curriculum, which derive from the basic andragogic principle: that the interests and capacities of adults for education increase if we enable them to cooperate in the planning and production of the curriculum.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Yoga & Oral Calcium Administration in Alleviating Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome in Medical Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bharati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical undergraduates are heavily burdened by their curriculum. The females, in addition, suffer from vivid affective or somatic premenstrual syndrome (PMS symptoms such as bloating, mastalgia, insomnia, fatigue, mood swings, irritability, and depression. The present study was proposed to attenuate the symptoms of PMS by simple lifestyle measures like yoga and/or oral calcium. Methods: 65 medical female students (18-22 years with a regular menstrual cycle were asked to self-rate their symptoms, along with their severity, in a validated questionnaire for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Fifty-eight students were found to have PMS. Twenty girls were given yoga training (45 minutes daily, five days a week, for three months. Another group of 20 was given oral tablets of calcium carbonate daily (500 mg, for three months and rest 18 girl served as control group. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: The yoga and calcium groups showed a significant decrease in number and severity of premenstrual symptoms whereas in the control group there was not the significant difference. Conclusion: Encouraging a regular practice of yoga or taking a tablet of calcium daily in the medical schools can decrease the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

  5. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

    OpenAIRE

    suvadip biswas; aritra ghosh; Krishnendu Mondal; Saikat Kumar Dalui; Mithilesh Haldar; Supreeti Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in ...

  6. What do medical students understand by research and research skills? Identifying research opportunities within undergraduate projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah; Drewery, Sarah; Elton, Sarah; Emmerson, Catherine; Marshall, Michelle; Smith, John A; Stark, Patsy; Whittle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research exposure leads to increased recruitment into academic medicine, enhanced employability and improved postgraduate research productivity. Uptake of undergraduate research opportunities is reported to be disappointing, and little is known about how students perceive research. To investigate opportunities for undergraduate participation in research, recognition of such opportunities, and associated skills development. A mixed method approach, incorporating student focus and study groups, and documentary analysis at five UK medical schools. Undergraduates recognised the benefits of acquiring research skills, but identified practical difficulties and disadvantages of participating. Analysis of 905 projects in four main research skill areas - (1) research methods; (2) information gathering; (3) critical analysis and review; (4) data processing - indicated 52% of projects provided opportunities for students to develop one or more skills, only 13% offered development in all areas. In 17%, project descriptions provided insufficient information to determine opportunities. Supplied with information from a representative sample of projects (n = 80), there was little consensus in identifying skills among students or between students and researchers. Consensus improved dramatically following guidance on how to identify skills. Undergraduates recognise the benefits of research experience but need a realistic understanding of the research process. Opportunities for research skill development may not be obvious. Undergraduates require training to recognise the skills required for research and enhanced transparency in potential project outcomes.

  7. Incorporating nuclear chemistry as an education tool in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. A description of the curriculum project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.; Robertson, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Although many areas of major national need depend critically on professionals trained in nuclear and radiochemistry, educational opportunities and student interest in this area have declined steadily for the last twenty years. One major contributing factor to the lack of student interest is that most students in science and chemistry courses are never introduced to these topics. This deficiency in sciences curricula, coupled with the negative public perception towards all things 'nuclear', has resulted in a serious shortage of individuals with a background in this area. We propose to address this problem by 'educating the educators' - providing faculty from two- and four-year colleges and high school science teachers with the curriculum materials, training, and motivation to incorporate these topics on a continuing basis in their curricula. Two advantages of this approach are; it will generate scientists with a basic understanding of this field and as teachers incorporate nuclear topics, many students will have the opportunity to reflect on the role of science in a technological society. (author)

  8. End-of-life practices: The opinions of undergraduate medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... illness, injury or other physical or mental condition that, in medical judgment, will .... was all the registered first- to fifth-year medical students at the School ..... patient should have sole responsibility in end-of-life decisions. The.

  9. Retention of first aid and basic life support skills in undergraduate medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, P.A. de; Biersteker, H.A.; Biert, J.; Goor, H. van; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate medical students follow a compulsory first aid (FA) and basic life support (BLS) course. Retention of BLS seems poor and only little information is provided on the retention of FA skills. This study aims at evaluating 1- and 2-year retention of FA and BLS training in

  10. Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawaz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A substantial proportion of medical undergraduate students was found to be depressed, anxious and stressed revealing a neglected area of the students′ psychology requiring urgent attention. Student counselling services need to be made available and accessible to curb this morbidity.

  11. The Importance of Undergraduate General and Organic Chemistry to the Study of Biochemistry in Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Anthony; Scimone, Angelina A.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates chemistry topics necessary to facilitate the study of biochemistry in U.S. medical schools. Lists topics considered especially important and topics considered especially unimportant in general chemistry and organic chemistry. Suggests that in teaching undergraduate general or organic chemistry, the topics categorized as exceptionally…

  12. Psychological Type and Undergraduate Student Achievement in Pharmacy Course in Military Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ru; Shan, Shou-qin; Tian, Jian-quan

    2007-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was given to 264 students in an undergraduate Pharmacy course at a military medical university. Selected MBTI personality types were compared for achievement in the course using a t-test to compare total points earned. High grades were earned by students stronger in the traits of introversion (I) and judgment…

  13. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health

  14. Online Dissection Audio-Visual Resources for Human Anatomy: Undergraduate Medical Students' Usage and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Cuellar, William A.; Williams, Anne-Marie M.

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection…

  15. Visitor or Inhabitant? Addressing the Needs of Undergraduate Transnational Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Jennifer; McCall, Louise; Abu-Arab, Adela

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify key issues for students in an undergraduate medical course with cross border delivery and the impact of these issues on the students' ability to learn. Data relating to the student experience and perceived student needs were collected from transnational students and teaching staff from Australia and Malaysia.…

  16. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2011-04-01

    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  17. An Exploratory Study of Cross-Functional Education in the Undergraduate Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Victoria L.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to calls from both business practitioners and educators, this research explores the extent to which undergraduate marketing education is delivered with a cross-functional perspective. Given that marketing is often recognized as a boundary-spanning role within companies, marketing department chairs were asked to report on…

  18. A Modular Approach to Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Biotechnology in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larripa, Kamila R.; Mazzag, Borbala

    2016-01-01

    Our paper describes a solution we found to a still existing need to develop mathematical modeling courses for undergraduate biology majors. Some challenges of such courses are: (i) relatively limited exposure of biology students to higher-level mathematical and computational concepts; (ii) availability of texts that can give a flavor of how…

  19. A Portable Bioinformatics Course for Upper-Division Undergraduate Curriculum in Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floraino, Wely B.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the challenges that bioinformatics education is facing and describes a bioinformatics course that is successfully taught at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, to the fourth year undergraduate students in biological sciences, chemistry, and computer science. Information on lecture and computer practice…

  20. Integration of Bioinformatics into an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum and the Impact on Development of Mathematical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Bruce; Hark, Amy T.

    2012-01-01

    The development of fields such as bioinformatics and genomics has created new challenges and opportunities for undergraduate biology curricula. Students preparing for careers in science, technology, and medicine need more intensive study of bioinformatics and more sophisticated training in the mathematics on which this field is based. In this…

  1. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  2. Rapid Growth of Psychology Programs in Turkey: Undergraduate Curriculum and Structural Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümer, Nebi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the other developing countries, undergraduate psychology programs in Turkish universities have rapidly grown in the last two decades. Although this sharp increment signifies the need for psychologists, it has also caused a number of challenges for effective teaching of psychology. The department chairs (N = 42) were interviewed with an…

  3. Students' Reflective Essays as Insights into Student Centred-Pedagogies within the Undergraduate Research Methods Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Anesa; Rao, Namrata

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, despite the emphasis on student-centred pedagogical approaches, undergraduate research methods pedagogy remains surprisingly teacher-directed. Consequently, it may lead to research methods students assuming that becoming a researcher involves gathering information rather than it being a continuous developmental process. To…

  4. The Relevance of Sport and Exercise Psychology in Undergraduate Course Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christopher T.; Robbins, Jamie E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the growth of Sport and Exercise Psychology (SEP) in recent decades, and the interdisciplinary nature of research and practice in the field, it may be particularly relevant in undergraduate courses and textbooks. However, no studies to date have examined the relative presence of the field. Accordingly, a primary aim of the study described in…

  5. Incorporating an Authentic Learning Strategy into Undergraduate Apparel and Merchandising Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hyun-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    An authentic learning strategy fostering students' active learning was studied using the scenario of a real-world project. Students from two different classes at two different universities worked as clients or consultants to develop an apparel sourcing strategy. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 44 undergraduates enrolled in…

  6. Incorporation of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…

  7. Research and Teaching: Encouraging Science Communication in an Undergraduate Curriculum Improves Students' Perceptions and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Train, Tonya Laakko; Miyamoto, Yuko J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effectively communicate science is a skill sought after by graduate and professional schools as well as by employers in science-related fields. Are content-heavy undergraduate science curricula able to incorporate opportunities to develop science communication skills, and is promoting these skills worth the time and effort? The…

  8. Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century: Recent Advances in Economic Theory and Undergraduate Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate economics lags behind cutting-edge economic theory. The author briefly reviews six related advances that profoundly extend and deepen economic analysis: game-theoretic modeling, collective-action problems, information economics and contracting, social preference theory, conceptualizing rationality, and institutional theory. He offers…

  9. Identification of Core Competencies for an Undergraduate Food Safety Curriculum Using a Modified Delphi Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lynette M.; Wiedmann, Martin; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Oliver, Haley F.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Moore, Christina M.; Stevenson, Clinton D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Identification of core competencies for undergraduates in food safety is critical to assure courses and curricula are appropriate in maintaining a well-qualified food safety workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify and refine core competencies relevant to postsecondary food safety education using a modified Delphi method. Twenty-nine…

  10. Effects of a research-infused botanical curriculum on undergraduates' content knowledge, STEM competencies, and attitudes toward plant sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jennifer Rhode; Clarke, H David; Horton, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education initiative, we infused authentic, plant-based research into majors' courses at a public liberal arts university. Faculty members designed a financially sustainable pedagogical approach, utilizing vertically integrated curricular modules based on undergraduate researchers' field and laboratory projects. Our goals were to 1) teach botanical concepts, from cells to ecosystems; 2) strengthen competencies in statistical analysis and scientific writing; 3) pique plant science interest; and 4) allow all undergraduates to contribute to genuine research. Our series of inquiry-centered exercises mitigated potential faculty barriers to adopting research-rich curricula, facilitating teaching/research balance by gathering publishable scholarly data during laboratory class periods. Student competencies were assessed with pre- and postcourse quizzes and rubric-graded papers, and attitudes were evaluated with pre- and postcourse surveys. Our revised curriculum increased students' knowledge and awareness of plant science topics, improved scientific writing, enhanced statistical knowledge, and boosted interest in conducting research. More than 300 classroom students have participated in our program, and data generated from these modules' assessment allowed faculty and students to present 28 contributed talks or posters and publish three papers in 4 yr. Future steps include analyzing the effects of repeated module exposure on student learning and creating a regional consortium to increase our project's pedagogical impact. © 2014 J. R. Ward et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http

  11. In Search of an Integrative Theme for the Undergraduate Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Business Core is typically a set of courses in the curriculum of many business schools which provides the student with a breadth of knowledge across all business disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a curricular model based upon the balanced scorecard (BSC) developed by Kaplan & Norton (1996). With its multi-dimensional…

  12. The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of creating a new program, no formal…

  13. Incorporating a Cross-Cultural Perspective in the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum: An Interview with David Matsumoto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. William, IV

    2000-01-01

    Provides an interview with David Matsumoto, Professor of Psychology and Director of the Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory at San Francisco State University. He has studied emotion, human interaction, and culture for more than 15 years. Focuses on cross-cultural psychology and perspectives in relation to the psychology curriculum. (CMK)

  14. Content of Curriculum in Physical Education Teacher Education: Expectations of Undergraduate Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; Spittle, Sharna

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of university physical education students of the importance of physical education curriculum content areas and how those perceptions related to the reasons for course choice and motivation. Physical education degree students (n = 188) completed measures of their perceptions of physical education content areas,…

  15. Merging Information Literacy and Evidence-Based Practice in an Undergraduate Health Sciences Curriculum Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Susan; Bannon, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The ACRL's "Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education" offers the opportunity to rethink information literacy teaching and curriculum. However, the ACRL's rescinded "Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education" correlate with the preferred research and decision-making model of the health…

  16. Bridging the Gap: Embedding Communication Courses in the Science Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandciu, Eric; Stewart, Jaclyn J.; Stoodley, Robin; Birol, Gülnur; Han, Andrea; Fox, Joanne A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a model for embedding science communication into the science curriculum without displacing science content. They describe the rationale, development, design, and implementation of two courses taught by science faculty addressing these criteria. They also outline the evaluation plan for these courses, which emphasize broad…

  17. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:24034906

  18. Health economics education in undergraduate medical training: introducing the health economics education (HEe) website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Mistry, Hema; Frew, Emma

    2013-09-13

    In the UK, the General Medical Council clearly stipulates that upon completion of training, medical students should be able to discuss the principles underlying the development of health and health service policy, including issues relating to health economics. In response, researchers from the UK and other countries have called for a need to incorporate health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula. The Health Economics education website was developed to encourage and support teaching and learning in health economics for medical students. It was designed to function both as a forum for teachers of health economics to communicate and to share resources and also to provide instantaneous access to supporting literature and teaching materials on health economics. The website provides a range of free online material that can be used by both health economists and non-health economists to teach the basic principles of the discipline. The Health Economics education website is the only online education resource that exists for teaching health economics to medical undergraduate students and it provides teachers of health economics with a range of comprehensive basic and advanced teaching materials that are freely available. This article presents the website as a tool to encourage the incorporation of health economics training into the undergraduate medical curricula.

  19. Academic Guidance for Undergraduate Students in a South African Medical School: Can we guide them all?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho P Jama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions, including medical schools, still grapple with the challenge of poor academic performance of students. Some studies report the positive results of providing academic guidance for common challenges such as poor and/or ineffective time management, study methods, test- and exam-taking techniques and management, and the high academic workload of undergraduate medical students. However, limited detailed insights and understanding of medical students who experience more complex challenges are available.  This study was conducted at a medical school in South Africa to determine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of factors affecting their academic performance. A total of 89 semi-structured interviews were held with undergraduate medical students who were identified as having academic problems between 2012 and 2015. According to the results, more blacks, males and first- and second year students experienced poor academic performance. Prominent findings included the harsh realities and implications of lack of accommodation for black students; how poor academic performance can lead to an array of other social and psychological problems, such as withdrawal of bursaries and negative achievement emotions that some students experience. Compared to the usual objective measures of individual ability, the rich qualitative data of cases presented in this study reveal critical, real insights and understanding of students’ challenges from their own perspective.

  20. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  1. Learning Effectiveness and Satisfaction of International Medical Students: Introducing a Hybrid-PBL Curriculum in Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiu; Ma, Li; Zhu, Lina; Zhang, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    A biochemistry course is a fundamental but important subject in medical education in China. In recent years, the number of international medical students has increased. Curriculum reform in biochemistry teaching is needed because of the knowledge limitations of students, a close linkage of biochemical content with clinics, the shortcomings of…

  2. Just fun or a prejudice? - physician stereotypes in common jokes and their attribution to medical specialties by undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harendza, Sigrid; Pyra, Martin

    2017-07-26

    Many jokes exist about stereotypical attributes of physicians in various specialties, which could lead to prejudices against physicians from a specific specialty. It is unknown whether and when medical students are aware of stereotypes about different specialties. The goal of this study was to analyze the degree of stereotypes that exist about medical specialties amongst undergraduate medical students at different stages of their education. One hundred fifty-two jokes with different content about attributes of physicians from different specialties were found by an internet search. In total, 36 characteristics of the five specialties of anesthesia, general surgery, internal medicine, orthopedics, and psychiatry were extracted from the jokes and they constituted the basis for the development of an online questionnaire. The questionnaire allowed each characteristic to be assigned to one of the five specialties and was sent to 999 undergraduate medical students from semester 1, 7, and 12 at the Medical Faculty of Hamburg University. Three hundred eight (30.8%) of the invited students completed the survey. The characteristics of general surgeons and psychiatrists were assigned congruently most frequently (>50%). For internists and orthopedics, there was a significantly more congruent assignment of the characteristics by final year students versus students in their first semester. Male students assigned the characteristics of anesthetists and internists significantly more congruently than female students. The three characteristics "…are a bit slow on the uptake", "…consider income to be relatively unimportant", and "...apologize a lot" were not assigned to any of the five specialties by more than 50% of the students. While stereotypes about physicians from certain specialties seem to exist commonly, medical educators need to be aware that stereotypes about specialties might develop during undergraduate medical training. In order to support students in their

  3. The integration of an anatomy massive open online course (MOOC) into a medical anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Bronwen J; Morris, Neil P; Hotchkiss, Stephanie; Pickering, James D

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are designed as stand-alone courses which can be accessed by any learner around the globe with only an internet-enabled electronic device required. Although much research has focused on the enrolment and demographics of MOOCs, their impact on undergraduate campus-based students is still unclear. This article explores the impact of integrating an anatomy MOOC in to the anatomy curriculum of a year 1 medical degree program at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The course did not replace any teaching that was already being delivered, and was used to supplement this teaching to support the students' consolidation and revision. Analysis of student feedback indicates a high level of usage, with evidence to suggest that female learners may have approached the course in a more personalized manner. Although the video based resources and quizzes were greatly appreciated as learning tools, significant evidence suggests the students did not engage, or were inclined to engage, with the discussion fora. Furthermore, a significant majority of students did not want the MOOC to replace the existing teaching they received. Given the feedback provided, this research suggests that although the student population believe there to be value in having access to MOOC material, their role as replacements to campus-based teaching is not supported. Details regarding the enrolment and engagement of the general public with the MOOC during the two runs are also documented, with the suggestion that graduates employed in the healthcare sector were the primary users of the course. Anat Sci Educ 10: 53-67. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. A students? survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing the cultural competence of medical students that have completed the curriculum provides indications on the effectiveness of cultural competence training in that curriculum. However, existing measures for cultural competence mostly rely on self-perceived cultural competence. This paper describes the outcomes of an assessment of knowledge, reflection ability and self-reported culturally competent consultation behaviour, the relation between these assessments and self-percei...

  5. Integrating geriatrics into medical school: student journaling as an innovative strategy for evaluating curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée R; Farrell, Timothy W; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E; Wetle, Terrie

    2012-02-01

    The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer preclerkship and clerkship students between 2007 and 2010. The journals were used to assess the quality of curricular integration of geriatrics didactic and clinical content, to gather information for shaping the evolving curriculum, and to elicit students' responses about their professional development and caring for older adults. Student "journalers" wrote narrative reactions to and evaluations of aging-related content and exposure to older patients in response to written semistructured questions. An interdisciplinary team (including a health services researcher, gerontologist, medical anthropologist, and 2 geriatricians) used qualitative analysis to code the 405 journal entries. The team identified 10 themes within the following domains: (a) evaluation of efforts to integrate geriatrics within the medical school curriculum, (b) recognition and application of geriatrics principles, (c) student attitudes and cultural experiences regarding aging and the care of older patients, and (d) personal and professional development over time. Themes emerging within these domains reflect the effectiveness of geriatrics integration within the new curriculum as well as students' professional development. Journaling provides a novel and effective method for capturing medical students' responses to curricular content in real time, allowing for midcourse corrections and identifying key components of their professional development.

  6. Evaluation of stereoscopic medical video content on an autostereoscopic display for undergraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Kawai, Takashi; Shibata, Takashi; Yamazoe, Takashi; Westhofen, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of surgical procedures are performed in a microsurgical and minimally-invasive fashion. However, the performance of surgery, its possibilities and limitations become difficult to teach. Stereoscopic video has evolved from a complex production process and expensive hardware towards rapid editing of video streams with standard and HDTV resolution which can be displayed on portable equipment. This study evaluates the usefulness of stereoscopic video in teaching undergraduate medical students. Material and methods: From an earlier study we chose two clips each of three different microsurgical operations (tympanoplasty type III of the ear, endonasal operation of the paranasal sinuses and laser chordectomy for carcinoma of the larynx). This material was added by 23 clips of a cochlear implantation, which was specifically edited for a portable computer with an autostereoscopic display (PC-RD1-3D, SHARP Corp., Japan). The recording and synchronization of left and right image was performed at the University Hospital Aachen. The footage was edited stereoscopically at the Waseda University by means of our original software for non-linear editing of stereoscopic 3-D movies. Then the material was converted into the streaming 3-D video format. The purpose of the conversion was to present the video clips by a file type that does not depend on a television signal such as PAL or NTSC. 25 4th year medical students who participated in the general ENT course at Aachen University Hospital were asked to estimate depth clues within the six video clips plus cochlear implantation clips. Another 25 4th year students who were shown the material monoscopically on a conventional laptop served as control. Results: All participants noted that the additional depth information helped with understanding the relation of anatomical structures, even though none had hands-on experience with Ear, Nose and Throat operations before or during the course. The monoscopic

  7. Teaching patient safety in the medical undergraduate program at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohomol, Elena; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the Educational Project of the undergraduate medical course to verify what is taught regarding Patient Safety and to enable reflections on the educational practice. A descriptive study, using document research as strategy. The document of investigation was the Educational Project of the medical course, in 2006, at the Escola Paulista de Medicina of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The theoretical framework adopted was the Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide of the World Health Organization, which led to the preparation of a list with 153 tracking terms. We identified 65 syllabus units in the Educational Project of the course, in which 40 (61.5%) addressed topics related to Patient Safety. Themes on the topic "Infection prevention and control" were found in 19 (47.5%) units and teaching of "Interaction with patients and caregivers" in 12 (32.5%); however content related to "Learning from errors to prevent harm" were not found. None of the framework topics had their proposed themes entirely taught during the period of education of the future physicians. Patient safety is taught in a fragmented manner, which values clinical skills such as the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, post-treatment, surgical procedures, and follow-up. Since it is a recent movement, the teaching of patient safety confronts informative proposals based on traditional structures centered on subjects and on specific education, and it is still poorly valued.

  8. Association Between Undergraduate Performance Predictors and Academic and Clinical Performance of Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Farshad; Speicher, Mark R; Cisek, Grace

    2018-02-01

    Medical schools use a variety of preadmission indices to select potential students. These indices generally include undergraduate grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and preadmission interviews. To investigate whether the admission indices used by Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine are associated with the academic and clinical performance of their students. Associations between the prematriculation variables of undergraduate science GPA, undergraduate total GPA, MCAT component scores, and interview scores and the academic and clinical variables of the first- and second-year medical school GPA, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation (CE) total and discipline scores, scores in clinical rotations for osteopathic competencies, COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation passage, and match status were evaluated. Two-tailed Pearson product-moment correlations with a Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine these relationships. The traditional predictors of science and total undergraduate GPA as well as total and component MCAT scores had small to moderate associations with first- and second-year GPA, as well as COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2-CE total scores. Of all predictors, only the MCAT biological sciences score had a statistically significant correlation with failure of the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation examination (P=.009). Average interview scores were associated only with the osteopathic competency of medical knowledge (r=0.233; n=209; P=.001), as assessed by clerkship preceptors. No predictors were associated with scores in objective structured clinical encounters or with failing to match to a residency position. The data indicate that traditional predictors of academic performance (undergraduate GPA, undergraduate science GPA, and MCAT scores) have small to moderate association with medical school grades and

  9. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. A Mandatory Course in Scientific Writing for Undergraduate Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Charles G.; Cox, Barbara G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course required for Mayo Medical School students that includes a self-instructional test on 15 common writing faults, a minithesis, and a clinical laboratory research project prepared as a paper submissible to a scientific journal and critiqued by professional editors. (JT)

  11. Dealing with emotions : medical undergraduates' preferences in sharing their experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy M.; Dornan, Tim; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Helmich, Esther

    ContextPatient care evokes emotional responses such as uncertainty, grief and pride in medical students. There is a need for opportunities to share and express such emotions because they influence students' professional development and well-being. There is a trend towards introducing mentor

  12. Dealing with emotions: medical undergraduates' preferences in sharing their experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy M.; Dornan, Tim; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Helmich, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Patient care evokes emotional responses such as uncertainty, grief and pride in medical students. There is a need for opportunities to share and express such emotions because they influence students' professional development and well-being. There is a trend towards introducing mentor programmes into

  13. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  14. How we established a new undergraduate firm on a Medical Admissions Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Tahir; Wallis, Simon; Higham, Jackie; Newton, Kate; Pugh, Mark; Woywodt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Medical Admission Units (MAUs) were introduced in the UK in the 1980s primarily driven by a governance and service improvement agenda. In the UK this has led to the development of Acute Medicine as a specialty in its own right, together with a strong role of this specialty in postgraduate teaching. In contrast, the role of MAUs, if any, in undergraduate medical education is currently unclear. Prompted by an expansion of our undergraduate student numbers, our aim was to establish a Year 3 undergraduate firm on a 33-bedded MAU in a large academic teaching hospital in the National Health Service (NHS). Despite initial scepticism from clinicians, managers, and educators, the new firm placement on MAU became an instant success and continues to attract excellent feedback from our Year 3 undergraduate students. Students enjoy the bedside teaching with a high percentage of consultant-delivered teaching and also liked the involvement of Foundation Doctors. Here, we report our experience on how to make such a firm work, based on student feedback and the tutors' experience. We provide an overview and a step-by-step guide of how to construct a successful new undergraduate firm on a busy MAU. We also discuss opportunities and challenges and discuss the relevant literature. We conclude that undergraduate teaching is feasible and rewarding in an extremely busy MAU setting. We note that identifying enthusiastic educators within the MAU team, utilisation of peripheral learning opportunities, structured timetables and induction, and a robust framework for quality assurance are all crucial to success.

  15. Self-medication with antibiotics among undergraduate nursing students of a government medical college in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    suvadip biswas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics serve very useful therapeutic purpose in eradicating pathogens. Unfortunately excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics results in antibiotic resistance. The consequences of inappropriate self-medication with antibiotics among healthcare professionals have severe implications which might be legal issues, ethical issues, negative impacts on patient and poor quality of health care delivery. The present study was conducted on self-medication by undergraduate nursing students in a government medical college of West Bengal, India. A pre designed questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Among the participants 54.2% had self-medicated in the last six months. The antibiotics most commonly used being metronidazole (67.4%, azithromycin (32.6% and norfloxacin (16.8%. Regarding the source of the antibiotics used for self-medication 41.6% participants went for leftover medicines at home, 34.8% participants obtained the drug from community pharmacies or drug stores. Hospital pharmacies and medicine samples were the source of the drugs for 19.2% and 4.4% participants respectively for this purpose. This study has shown that self-medication with antibiotics is common among undergraduate nursing students. There is a need for a rigorous mass enlightenment campaign to educate the population, including the health care professional about the disadvantages and possible complications of antibiotic self-medication

  16. Same admissions tools, different outcomes: a critical perspective on predictive validity in three undergraduate medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Friedman, Tim; Pearce, Jacob

    2013-12-27

    Admission to medical school is one of the most highly competitive entry points in higher education. Considerable investment is made by universities to develop selection processes that aim to identify the most appropriate candidates for their medical programs. This paper explores data from three undergraduate medical schools to offer a critical perspective of predictive validity in medical admissions. This study examined 650 undergraduate medical students from three Australian universities as they progressed through the initial years of medical school (accounting for approximately 25 per cent of all commencing undergraduate medical students in Australia in 2006 and 2007). Admissions criteria (aptitude test score based on UMAT, school result and interview score) were correlated with GPA over four years of study. Standard regression of each of the three admissions variables on GPA, for each institution at each year level was also conducted. Overall, the data found positive correlations between performance in medical school, school achievement and UMAT, but not interview. However, there were substantial differences between schools, across year levels, and within sections of UMAT exposed. Despite this, each admission variable was shown to add towards explaining course performance, net of other variables. The findings suggest the strength of multiple admissions tools in predicting outcomes of medical students. However, they also highlight the large differences in outcomes achieved by different schools, thus emphasising the pitfalls of generalising results from predictive validity studies without recognising the diverse ways in which they are designed and the variation in the institutional contexts in which they are administered. The assumption that high-positive correlations are desirable (or even expected) in these studies is also problematised.

  17. Assessing medical student knowledge and attitudes about shared decision making across the curriculum: protocol for an international online survey and stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Yen, Renata; Barr, Paul J; Cochran, Nan; Aarts, Johanna; Légaré, France; Reed, Malcolm; James O'Malley, A; Scalia, Peter; Painchaud Guérard, Geneviève; Elwyn, Glyn

    2017-06-23

    Shared decision making (SDM) is a goal of modern medicine; however, it is not currently embedded in routine care. Barriers include clinicians’ attitudes, lack of knowledge and training and time constraints. Our goal is to support the development and delivery of a robust SDM curriculum in medical education. Our objective is to assess undergraduate medical students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards SDM in four countries. The first phase of the study involves a web-based cross-sectional survey of undergraduate medical students from all years in selected schools across the United States (US), Canada and undergraduate and graduate students in the Netherlands. In the United Kingdom (UK), the survey will be circulated to all medical schools through the UK Medical School Council. We will sample students equally in all years of training and assess attitudes towards SDM, knowledge of SDM and participation in related training. Medical students of ages 18 years and older in the four countries will be eligible. The second phase of the study will involve semistructured interviews with a subset of students from phase 1 and a convenience sample of medical school curriculum experts or stakeholders. Data will be analysed using multivariable analysis in phase 1 and thematic content analysis in phase 2. Method, data source and investigator triangulation will be performed. Online survey data will be reported according to the Checklist for Reporting the Results of Internet E-Surveys. We will use the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research for all qualitative data. The study has been approved for dissemination in the US, the Netherlands, Canada and the UK. The study is voluntary with an informed consent process. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will help inform the inclusion of SDM-specific curriculum in medical education worldwide. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  18. Undergraduate medical students' perceptions and intentions regarding patient safety during clinical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2018-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate medical students' perceptions and intentions regarding patient safety during clinical clerkships. Cross-sectional study administered in face-to-face interviews using modified the Medical Student Safety Attitudes and Professionalism Survey (MSSAPS) from three colleges of medicine in Korea. We assessed medical students' perceptions of the cultures ('safety', 'teamwork', and 'error disclosure'), 'behavioural intentions' concerning patient safety issues and 'overall patient safety'. Confirmatory factor analysis and Spearman's correlation analyses was performed. In total, 194(91.9%) of the 211 third-year undergraduate students participated. 78% of medical students reported that the quality of care received by patients was impacted by teamwork during clinical rotations. Regarding error disclosure, positive scores ranged from 10% to 74%. Except for one question asking whether the disclosure of medical errors was an important component of patient safety (74%), the percentages of positive scores for all the other questions were below 20%. 41.2% of medical students have intention to disclose it when they saw a medical error committed by another team member. Many students had difficulty speaking up about medical errors. Error disclosure guidelines and educational efforts aimed at developing sophisticated communication skills are needed. This study may serve as a reference for other institutions planning patient safety education in their curricula. Assessing student perceptions of safety culture can provide clerkship directors and clinical service chiefs with information that enhances the educational environment and promotes patient safety.

  19. Assessment of incidental learning of medical terminology in a veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, A Jerald; Hardin, Laura; Robertson, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether students in a veterinary curriculum at Mississippi State University would gain an understanding of medical terminology, as they matriculate through their courses, comparable to that obtained during a focused medical terminology unit of study. Evaluation of students' incidental learning related to medical terminology during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 academic years indicated that 88.7% and 81.9% of students, respectively, scored above 70% on a medical terminology exam by the end of the first year of the curriculum. For the 2004/2005 academic, 67.6% increased their percentage of correct answers above 70% from the first medical terminology exam to the third. For the 2005/2006 academic year, 61.1% of students increased their score above 70% from the first to the third exam. Our data indicate that students can achieve comprehension of medical terminology in the absence of a formal terminology course.

  20. Implementing a Course Review Process for a Continuous Quality Improvement Model for a Medical School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cassandra S; Andrade, Amy; Walker-Winfree, Lena

    2018-01-01

    In 1901, Abraham Flexner, a research scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, visited 155 medical schools in the United States and Canada to assess medical education. Flexner's recommendations became the foundation for the Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation, a voluntary, peer-reviewed quality assurance process to determine whether a medical education program meets established standards. The Meharry Medical College School of Medicine, a historically Black college/university (HBCU) established the Office of Curriculum Evaluation and Effectiveness in 2013 to ensure the consistent monitoring of the medical education program's compliance with accreditation standards. The motto and logo, LCME 24/7, highlight the school's emphasis on meeting accreditation standards. The school uses the 1994 Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle for Learning and Improvement for continuous review of course content, outcomes, and evaluations. This process identifies strengths, challenges, and opportunities for innovative steps for continuous quality improvements to the curriculum.

  1. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  2. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  3. The prevalence and characterization of self-medication for obtaining pain relief among undergraduate nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Layz Alves Ferreira; Silva,Camila Damázio da; Ferraz,Gisely Carvalho; Sousa,Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira,Lílian Varanda

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of self-medication among undergraduate nursing students seeking to relieve pain and characterizes the pain and relief obtained through the used medication. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was carried out with 211 nursing students from a public university in Goiás, GO, Brazil. A numerical scale (0-10) measured pain intensity and relief. The prevalence of self-medication was 38.8%. The source and main determining factor of this practice were...

  4. The efficacy and usefulness of problem based learning in undergraduate medical school education of radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Minako; Itazawa, Tomoko; Someya, Masanori; Nakamura, Satoaki

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese Association for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) holds a seminar for medical students every summer, which has developed into a joint program with a session addressing radiation treatment planning. To clarify this topic for medical students, we have incorporated Problem Based Learning skills into the session. Not only has the students' comprehension improved but the instructors have also found this teaching experience valuable and productive in advancing their own clinical skills. Our experience suggests that the application of this Problem Based Learning session for radiation treatment planning in undergraduate medical school education has proven to be effective. (author)

  5. Why nutrition education is inadequate in the medical curriculum: a qualitative study of students' perspectives on barriers and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Stevens, Fred C J; Aryee, Paul A; Amalba, Anthony; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2018-02-12

    The provision of nutrition care by doctors is important in promoting healthy dietary habits, and such interventions can lead to reductions in disease morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, medical students and doctors report inadequate nutrition education and preparedness during their training at school. Previous studies investigating the inadequacy of nutrition education have not sufficiently evaluated the perspectives of students. In this study, students' perspectives on doctors' role in nutrition care, perceived barriers, and strategies to improve nutrition educational experiences are explored. A total of 23 undergraduate clinical level medical students at the 5th to final year in the School of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University for Development Studies in Ghana were purposefully selected to participate in semi-structured individual interviews. Students expressed their opinions and experiences regarding the inadequacy of nutrition education in the curriculum. Each interview was audio-recorded and later transcribed verbatim. Using the constant comparison method, key themes were identified from the data and analysis was done simultaneously with data collection. Students opined that doctors have an important role to play in providing nutrition care to their patients. However, they felt their nutrition education was inadequate due to lack of priority for nutrition education, lack of faculty to provide nutrition education, poor application of nutrition science to clinical practice and poor collaboration with nutrition professionals. Students opined that their nutrition educational experiences will be improved if the following strategies were implemented: adoption of innovative teaching and learning strategies, early and comprehensive incorporation of nutrition as a theme throughout the curriculum, increasing awareness on the importance of nutrition education, reviewing and revision of the curriculum to incorporate nutrition, and involving

  6. Exploring reflective 'critical incident' documentation of professionalism lapses in a medical undergraduate setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan John C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.

  7. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...... demonstrated remarkable advantages to peer-learning in skills-lab. Thus, peer-learning activities could be essential to providing high-quality medical training in the face of limited clinical teacher resources in future undergraduate medical education.......This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate....... The Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator framework was used to reflect this change and construct validity was explored for RIME-based evaluations of single-patient encounters. In the third study the effects of training in pairs--also known as dyad practice--examined. This study showed that the students...

  8. Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Wathurapatha, W S; Mathangasinghe, Y; Ponnamperuma, G

    2017-02-20

    Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates. This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Students were rated on self administered Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SEIT). Examination results were used as the dichotomous outcome variable in a logistic regression analysis. Females had higher mean EI scores (p = 0.014). A positive correlation was found between the EI score and the number of extracurricular activities (r = 0.121, p = 0.008). Those who were satisfied regarding their choice to study medicine, and who were planning to do postgraduate studies had significantly higher EI scores and lower PSS scores (p <0.001). Among final year undergraduates, those who passed the Clinical Sciences examination in the first attempt had a higher EI score (p <0.001) and a lower PSS score (p <0.05). Results of the binary logistic-regression analysis in the entire study population indicated that female gender (OR:1.98) and being satisfied regarding their choice of the medical undergraduate programme (OR:3.69) were significantly associated with passing the examinations. However, PSS Score and engagement in extracurricular activities were not associated with 'Examination Results'. Higher EI was associated with better academic performance amongst final year medical students. In addition a higher EI was observed in those who had a higher level of self satisfaction. Self-perceived stress was lower in those with a higher EI. Enhancing EI might help to improve academic performance among final year medical student and also help to reduce the stress levels and cultivate

  9. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  10. Self-Perception of Medical Students' Knowledge and Interest in Disaster Medicine: Nine Years After the Approval of the Curriculum in German Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Robert; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Grundgeiger, Jan; Bickelmayer, Jens Werner; Domres, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Following the recommendations of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) to develop standards for training the undergraduates in disaster-relevant fields (2004), a German curriculum was approved in 2006. This paper aims to describe the level of training and interest of medical students nine years later. Problem The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of medical students' knowledge and interest in disaster medicine nine years after the implementation of a standardized disaster medicine curriculum in German medical schools. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with medical students in Germany using a web-based, purpose-designed questionnaire consisting of 27 mandatory and 11 optional questions. Nine hundred ninety-two students from 36 of 37 medical schools in Germany participated. More than one-half of medical students were aware of the field of disaster medicine. One hundred twenty-one students undertook training internally within their university and 307 undertook training externally at other institutions. Only a small content of the curriculum was taught. A difference in self-perception of knowledge between trained and untrained participants was found, despite the level of training being low in both groups. Participants were generally highly motivated to learn disaster medicine in a variety of institutions. German students are still largely not well educated regarding disaster medicine, despite their high motivation. The curriculum of 2006 was not implemented as originally planned and the number of trained students still remains low as the self-perception of knowledge. Currently, there is no clear and standardized training concept in place. A renewal in the agreement of implementation of the curriculum at medical schools should be targeted in order to follow the recommendation of WADEM. Wunderlich R Ragazzoni L Ingrassia PL Della Corte F Grundgeiger J Bickelmayer JW

  11. Team Based Learning (TBL) in Undergraduate Medical Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if modified Team Based Learning (TBL) was more effective than Traditional Didactic Lecture (TDL) in improving knowledge outcomes about Diabetes management in fourth year medical students and to check the students view about the TBL method in comparison with their earlier experience with TDL. Study Design: A comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from January to February 2011 in 4 weeks. Methodology: Modification of the original TBL method as described by Michaelsen was done to accommodate the educational system. A total of 7 sessions were allotted to teach non-communicable diseases to fourth year MBBS students. Session which was scheduled for teaching Diabetes mellitus was conducted first by TDL and three weeks later with the TBL session. MCQ based tests were administered to self paired groups of students first after the TDL session and then after the TBL session. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare post-TDL and post-TBL test scores of the students. Students views about the TBL session compared to the TDL session were checked by using pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Seventy two, fourth year MBBS students participated in this TBL session. Majority were females 49 (68.1%). There was improvement of test scores of students after the TBL session when compared to the test scores after TDL session (p < 0.001). Majority of the respondents noted that TBL session was a better learning strategy compared to TDL. Conclusion: The 72 students included in the study achieved higher mean test scores on test questions that assessed their knowledge of Diabetes mellitus content learned using the TBL strategy compared with TDL method (p < 0.001). TBL learning method was favoured by a majority of medical students compared to the TDL session. (author)

  12. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  13. Evaluation of a task-based community oriented teaching model in family medicine for undergraduate medical students in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Taee Waleed G

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inclusion of family medicine in medical school curricula is essential for producing competent general practitioners. The aim of this study is to evaluate a task-based, community oriented teaching model of family medicine for undergraduate students in Iraqi medical schools. Methods An innovative training model in family medicine was developed based upon tasks regularly performed by family physicians providing health care services at the Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC in Mosul, Iraq. Participants were medical students enrolled in their final clinical year. Students were assigned to one of two groups. The implementation group (28 students was exposed to the experimental model and the control group (56 students received the standard teaching curriculum. The study took place at the Mosul College of Medicine and at the Al-Hadba PHCC in Mosul, Iraq, during the academic year 1999–2000. Pre- and post-exposure evaluations comparing the intervention group with the control group were conducted using a variety of assessment tools. Results The primary endpoints were improvement in knowledge of family medicine and development of essential performance skills. Results showed that the implementation group experienced a significant increase in knowledge and performance skills after exposure to the model and in comparison with the control group. Assessment of the model by participating students revealed a high degree of satisfaction with the planning, organization, and implementation of the intervention activities. Students also highly rated the relevancy of the intervention for future work. Conclusion A model on PHCC training in family medicine is essential for all Iraqi medical schools. The model is to be implemented by various relevant departments until Departments of Family medicine are established.

  14. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Raising awareness of the hidden curriculum in veterinary medical education: a review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L

    2014-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.

  16. [Design and implementation of a competency-based curriculum for medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco de Domínguez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based education is a form of designing, developing, delivering and documenting instruction based on a set of objectives and results that have been recommended for medical education. This article describes the steps in the process of designing and implementing a competency-based curriculum at a new medical school in a Peruvian university. We present the process followed including context analysis, mission design, the professional profile, the content and organization of the curriculum as well as the evaluation and resources for the training. Finally, issues and challenges faced, as well as lessons learned are summarized.

  17. A survey on internet usage and online learning behaviour among medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Soma; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Dhandapany, Gunasekaran; Palanisamy, Soundararajan; Sadagopan, Srinivasan

    2017-05-01

    To determine the magnitude and pattern of internet usage by undergraduate medical students t