WorldWideScience

Sample records for under-utilized process leading

  1. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  2. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    The Ph.D. thesis contributes to a relational orientation to leading, emphasizing leadership as a shared, collaborative and co-creative activity. In this paradigm major emphasis is put on dialogue and interaction. Inspired by social constructionist ideas, the thesis considers approaches to learning...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  3. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  4. Processes That Leading to Medical Malpractice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yıldırım

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Turkish Penal Code which came into force in June 2005 has brought some changes in the definitions of the legal and penal responsibilities of physicians. On the other hand, the changing conditions of the current health practices and the commercial concerns taking the lead have brought serious doubts about a physician-patient relationship based on trust. As a result, in our country, medical malpractice claims against physicians have significantly increased in recent years. In the last 10 years, the subject has been discussed in various platforms and there is a dynamic process that continues the search for solutions. To date, considering the emerging cases of medical malpractice statistics, it is remarkable that the most frequent claim against both physicians and other health personnel is the complaint about "not fulfilling their obligation of duty of care". In this review, we examined the basic concepts and processes leading to medical malpractice, which has become a serious threat to physicians, in order to improve physicians' knowledge about this phenomenon. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 78-81

  5. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  6. Processes Leading to Beaded Channels Formation in Central Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbeeva, A. M.; Lebedeva, L.; Efremov, V. S.; Krylenko, I. V.; Surkov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Beaded channels, consisting of deepened and widened pools and connecting narrow runs, are common fluvial forms in permafrost regions. Recent studies have shown that beaded channels are very important for connecting alluvial rivers with headwater lakes allowing fish passage and foraging habitats, as well as regulating river runoff. Beaded channels are known as typical thermokarst landforms; however, there is no evidence of their origin and formative processes. Geomorphological analyzes of beaded channels have been completed in several permafrost regions including field observations of Shestakovka River in Central Yakutia. The study aims to recognize the modern exogenic processes and formative mechanisms of beaded river channels. We show that beaded channel of Shestakovka River form in the perennially frozen sand with low ice content, leading us to hypothesize that thermokarst is not the main process of formation. Due to the significant volume of water, the pools don't freeze over entirely during winters, even under harsh climatic conditions. As a result, lenses of pressurized water remain under surface ice underlain by perennially thawed sediments. The presence of thawed sediments under the pools and frozen sediments under the runs leads to uneven thermoerosion of the riverbed during floods, providing the beaded form of the channel. In addition, freezing of pools during winter leads to pressure increasing under ice cover and formation of ice mounds, which crack several times during winter leading to disturbance of riverbanks. Many 1st to 3rd order streams have a specific transitional meandering-to-beaded form resembling the shape of unconfined meandering rivers, but consisting of pools and runs. However, such channels exhibit no evidences of present-day erosion of concave banks and sediment accumulation at the convex banks as typically being observed in normally meandering rivers. Such forms of channels indicates that their formation occurred by the greater channel

  7. The process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stige, Signe Hjelen; Træen, Bente; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In this article we explore the process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma among women who were currently in treatment. We interviewed 13 participants from six treatment groups for clients exposed to human-inflicted traumas. Transcripts were analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. Help seeking was initiated after a prolonged period of time (13 to 58 years after first trauma exposure), during which participants relied heavily on a strategy of managing on their own. Self-management contributed to delays in help seeking, but was also an important resource. High levels of distress were reported prior to help seeking, often without help seeking being considered as an option. The participants sought help when encountering situational demands exceeding available resources, resulting in experiences of exhaustion and loss of control. We present a model of the help-seeking process, underlining the importance of respecting and exploring the individual process of seeking help when offering trauma-specific treatment.

  8. Transformation of Food Habits through Promotion of Under-Utilized Cereals in High Hills of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Pramod; Bajracharya, Keshari; Chalise, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition is a persistent social setback in Nepal. High hills in Nepal is considered as the headquarter of the malnourished people as it holds almost the twice of stunted children than the national average. Food insecurity is the major causes of malnutrition as there is low agriculture production followed by difficult terrain and poor road connectivity. Nevertheless, there are several types of locally produced cereals that are under-utilized because of the traditional food-habit of eating rice. In order to bring a change in local food habit by the high-hill residents, attempts were made in processing of under-utilized cereals. Six different cereals were processed into super flour, porridge, cookies, flakes and traditional sweets for which locally accessible home level processing technology was used. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Porso Millet (Panicum miliaceum), Buck Wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Amaranth (Amaranth caudatus) and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) were processed into diverse products that suit to the local taste. The processing steps were standardized and laboratory analysis was carried out. It was then distributed to local development partners through trainers' training. Now, local people have started processing and consuming these products. It is anticipated that processed products promotion helps in solving food insecurity to some extent, and contributes in reducing malnutrition for the children below two. (author)

  9. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S., E-mail: ligsfaria@gmail.com, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: jbsb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where {sup 210}Pb is produced at {sup 222}Rn decay) or without support, as {sup 210}Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g{sup -1} and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  10. Determination of lead 210 in scales from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Lígia S.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Barbosa, João B.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial processes such as oil and gas extraction and groundwater exploitation are examples of installations that can accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) during the extraction and production. Lead-210 deposits in the production can be formed by the same mechanisms that occur in the environment through the support of Radon-222, (where 210 Pb is produced at 222 Rn decay) or without support, as 210 Pb. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mineralogical characteristics and determine the activity of lead-210 in the scales using the X-Ray Diffraction and Gamma Spectrometry techniques. Were analyzed fifteen samples, four scales from oil industry, ten scales from groundwater conductors and one for groundwater supply pipe. The highest activity found in the oil scale and groundwater conductors scale was 0.30 ± 0.06 Bq g -1 and 3.80 ± 0.20 Bq g -1 , respectively. (author)

  11. Temporal processing deficit leads to impaired multisensory binding in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Parisi, Carmen; Mathiak, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterised by neurodevelopmental dysconnectivity resulting in cognitive and perceptual dysmetria. Hence patients with schizophrenia may be impaired to detect the temporal relationship between stimuli in different sensory modalities. However, only a few studies described deficit in perception of temporally asynchronous multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia. We examined the perceptual bias and the processing time of synchronous and delayed sounds in the streaming-bouncing illusion in 16 patients with schizophrenia and a matched control group of 18 participants. Equal for patients and controls, the synchronous sound biased the percept of two moving squares towards bouncing as opposed to the more frequent streaming percept in the condition without sound. In healthy controls, a delay of the sound presentation significantly reduced the bias and led to prolonged processing time whereas patients with schizophrenia did not differentiate between this condition and the condition with synchronous sound. Schizophrenia leads to a prolonged window of simultaneity for audiovisual stimuli. Therefore, temporal processing deficit in schizophrenia can lead to hyperintegration of temporally unmatched multisensory stimuli.

  12. Direct laser processing of bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) has been used to fabricate dense, net shape melt-cast structures of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in a single step, directly on a metallic substrate by complete melting and resolidification of PZT powders. From our results, it appears that reasonable dielectric properties can be obtained in LENS{sup TM} processed PZT structures without post-fabrication heat treatments. Our results also demonstrate potential application of LENS{sup TM} towards direct fabrication of PZT based embedded sensors and transducers on structural components.

  13. Formation of lead dioxide electrodes by the Plante process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E.; Edwards, W.H.; Hampson, N.A.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of forming agents (aggressive ions) on the electro-oxidation of massive lead (the Plante electrode process) in sulfuric acid solution are reported. Linear sweep voltametric measurements corresponding to the most effective forming agents, ClO/sub 4//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, BF/sub 4//sup -/, and CH/sub 3/ COO/sup -/, are presented. Other methods of Plante electrode production involving ''ac/dc'' and ''immediate post-deposition oxidation'' are described.

  14. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the health effects of lead in drinking water The law mandates no-lead products for drinking water after ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement ...

  15. Optimal Residential Load Scheduling Under Utility and Rooftop Photovoltaic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hafeez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, electrical energy consumption is increasing rapidly. Especially, in the residential sector, more than 80% of electrical energy is being consumed because of consumer negligence. This brings the challenging task of maintaining the balance between the demand and supply of electric power. In this paper, we focus on the problem of load balancing via load scheduling under utility and rooftop photovoltaic (PV units to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR in demand-side management. For this purpose, we adopted genetic algorithm (GA, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, wind-driven optimization (WDO, and our proposed genetic WDO (GWDO algorithm, which is a hybrid of GA and WDO, to schedule the household load. For energy cost estimation, combined real-time pricing (RTP and inclined block rate (IBR were used. The proposed algorithm shifts load from peak consumption hours to off-peak hours based on combined pricing scheme and generation from rooftop PV units. Simulation results validate our proposed GWDO algorithm in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while considering all three scenarios which we have considered in this work: (1 load scheduling without renewable energy sources (RESs and energy storage system (ESS, (2 load scheduling with RESs, and (3 load scheduling with RESs and ESS. Furthermore, our proposed scheme reduced electricity cost and PAR by 22.5% and 29.1% in scenario 1, 47.7% and 30% in scenario 2, and 49.2% and 35.4% in scenario 3, respectively, as compared to unscheduled electricity consumption.

  16. Growth processes leading to a large or small adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Sheehy, A; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    2001-01-01

    The way in which a large size in anthropometric variables is achieved is a longstanding problem, since the pubertal spurt shows statistically and clinically little association with adult size (mostly studied for height). By analysing longitudinal growth of groups of subjects with a large or a small adult size separately for height, leg and sitting height, and bihumeral and biiliac width, we studied this problem in some detail. Of interest are growth patterns specific for these variables and for boys or girls. The data consist of 120 boys and 112 girls followed longitudinally from 4 weeks until adulthood. Statistically, structural average velocity curves were computed for each variable and each subgroup separately for comparison. This velocity curve represents the average intensity and the average tempo of growth. Since the area under the velocity curve is adult size, differences in the growth process can be visualized. Both sexes show similar patterns in reaching a small or large adult size. The different variables, however, show marked differences. Only for legs is the pubertal spurt delayed for the large groups (with additional gains in prepubertal years). For sitting height and biiliac width, a slightly elevated velocity all along development (after 2 years) leads to a larger size and for bihumeral width the size of the pubertal peak is decisive. The steering of growth to a certain target size is qualitatively similar for boys and girls, but quite different for different anthropometric variables. This leads to questions about endocrinological control for various parts of the body and differential bone growth in development.

  17. A possible dynamical process leading to fractal structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic evolution of the early Universe which can lead to a fractal correlation in galactic distribution in the Universe. The stochastic equation of state, due to fluctuating creation rates of various components in a many-component fluid, leads to a fluctuating expansion rate for the Universe in the ...

  18. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  19. Biochemical Evaluation Of Seeds Of An Under Utilized Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potassium and iron were the most abundant minerals while the least were sodium and copper. Germination caused a reduction in the levels of all minerals while heat treatment also caused a reduction in the levels of the minerals but with the exception of. Ca, Mg and Zn. Processing caused a reduction in all the levels of ...

  20. Radiometric on-line-determination of lead in lead-zinc ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubecki, A.; Wiese, K.; Gralher, M.

    1983-01-01

    By the example of Pb determination in PbS-ZnS flotation liquids the advancement of the radionuclide (Co-57) excited X-ray fluorescence assay technique Graf is reported. The technique of measurement, previously tested in analyzing baryte contained in the fluorsphar flotation liquid was adapted to the conditions prevailing in the PbS-ZnS flotation liquid by modification of theory, principle of measurement, and measuring technique. Testing on an industrial scale was performed in the flotation facility of Preussag AG Metall at Bad Grund, more particularly in the process streams of strategic importance such as ''total tailings'', ''Pb tailings'', and ''lotation feed''. Correspondence between the on-line analytical values and the comparable values from conventional operating analysis was fair. For 31 reference samples from ''total tailings'' and for 20 reference samples from ''Pb tailings'' the mean scattering was calculated to be approx. 0,04%, for 20 reference samples from ''flotation feed'' it amounted to 0,14% Pb. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Electromagnetic processes in ultra peripheral lead-lead collisions with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Marcin Pawel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The large equivalent-photon fluxes accompanying Pb ion beams at the LHC initiate photon-photon and photo-nuclear interactions which dominate when the colliding nuclei have large impact parameter (ultra-peripheral collisions). These electromagnetically-induced processes are sensitive to the nuclear wave-function and in particular the nuclear modifications of the nucleon parton distribution functions (nPDFs). As such, they are complementary to the ongoing p+A program at RHIC and the LHC, as well as the upcoming electron-ion collider (EIC) program in the US. The absolute rates of single and multiple neutron emission into one or both zero-degree calorimeters (ZDCs) will be presented, to test theoretical predictions for the photon fluxes as well as the photonuclear absorption. High-mass dilepton pair continuum rates have been measured and compared with theoretical predictions to test expectations for two-photon interactions, and good agreement with model calculations is obtained. Finally, evidence for the elastic ...

  2. Feasibility of lead extraction from waste Cathode-Ray-Tubes (CRT) funnel glass through a lead smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Ma, Zhiyuan; Song, Yan

    2016-11-01

    A novel and effective process for extracting lead from the hazardous waste Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) funnel glass is presented. The technological breakthrough of this process is introducing the discarded CRT funnel glass to traditional lead smelting. In this study, the influences of amount of carbon addition, calcium-silicate ratio, temperature, holding time and funnel glass addition on lead extraction efficiency were investigated to determine the optimal operational parameters. With a glass addition of less than 30wt%, a high extraction yield of 97.5% of lead from the mixture of funnel glass and lead slag was successfully obtained by controlling the C/PbO molar ratio, CaO/SiO 2 ratio, temperature, treatment time at 0.9, 0.8, 1200°C, 60min, respectively. The main crystalline phases of the residues were calcium silicate slag, and an amorphous glass phase appears at a glass addition more than 30wt%. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the proportion of liquid phase in the slag first increased and then decreased, when the addition of glass is increased, while the viscosity of the slag exhibited a continuous decrease. Thus, based on all the results, it is concluded that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Xi to Part 266 - Lead-Bearing Materials That May be Processed in Exempt Lead Smelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... Materials When Generated or Originally Produced By Lead-Associated Industries 1 Acid dump/fill solids 1 Lead-associated industries are lead smelters, lead-acid battery manufacturing, and lead chemical manufacturing (e...

  4. Leading processes of patient care and treatment in hierarchical healthcare organizations in Sweden--process managers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Sandoff, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the roles and functions of process managers by describing Swedish process managers' experiences of leading processes involving patient care and treatment when working in a hierarchical health-care organization. This study is based on an explorative design. The data were gathered from interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals. These data underwent qualitative and interpretative analysis with a modified editing style. The process managers' experiences of leading processes in a hierarchical health-care organization are described under three themes: having or not having a mandate, exposure to conflict situations and leading process development. The results indicate a need for clarity regarding process manager's responsibility and work content, which need to be communicated to all managers and staff involved in the patient care and treatment process, irrespective of department. There also needs to be an emphasis on realistic expectations and orientation of the goals that are an intrinsic part of the task of being a process manager. Generalizations from the results of the qualitative interview studies are limited, but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which, in turn, can be transferred to similar settings. This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leading care and treatment processes in a functional, hierarchical health-care organization from process managers' experiences, a subject that has not been investigated earlier.

  5. Relationship between lead in the blood and performance in the abilities from hearing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, Thaís dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The contamination by lead affects all the nervous systems from the human body, mostly the nervous system. Objective: Investigate if there is correlation between the blood lead levels and the performance in tests of hearing process. Method: Retrospective study. 73 children, with ages between 7 to 15 years, residents in a area where happened emission of lead above the permitted, with level of blood lead level bigger or equal to 10 micrograms/dL, audiological exams (audiometry and tympanometry inside the normality patterns. To evaluate the hearing process were used the Auditory Fusion Test-Revised (AFT-R, subtest 1, and the dichotic test of digits (binaural integration stage. Was used the Spearman test to verify the correlation between the data. Results: The blood lead level varieties from 10 to 30,2 micrograms/dL, being the average corresponding to 15,8 micrograms/dL (standard deviation of 4,8. From those children, 60,3% presented a bad performance for the right ear and 67,3% presented a bad performance of the left ear. According to the results of the tests of correlation of Spearman, there were no significant statistical between the level of lead and the results of hearing processing tests. Conclusion: There were no correlation between the blood lead level and the performance in the abilities of the hearing process; however the contaminated children by the lead presented a lower performance in the abilities of the hearing processing.

  6. Lead recovery from waste CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2018-02-05

    In this research, a novel and effective process for waste CRT funnel glass treatment was developed. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process. Sodium carbonate powder was used as a fusion agent, sodium sulfide serves as a catalytic agent and carbon powder acts as reducing agent. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time initially, and then reached a stable value. The maximum lead recovery rate was approximately 94%, when the optimum adding amount of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfide, carbonate, temperature and holding time were 25%, 8%, 3.6%, 1200°C and 120min, respectively. In the high-temperature melting process, lead silicate in the funnel glass was firstly reduced, and then removed. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis process. This study proposed a practical and economical process for recovery of lead and utilization of waste glass slag. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process of Fragment-Based Lead Discovery—A Perspective from NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD has proven fruitful during the past two decades for a variety of targets, even challenging protein–protein interaction (PPI systems. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy plays a vital role, from initial fragment-based screening to lead generation, because of its power to probe the intrinsically weak interactions between targets and low-molecular-weight fragments. Here, we review the NMR FBLD process from initial library construction to lead generation. We describe technical aspects regarding fragment library design, ligand- and protein-observed screening, and protein–ligand structure model generation. For weak binders, the initial hit-to-lead evolution can be guided by structural information retrieved from NMR spectroscopy, including chemical shift perturbation, transferred pseudocontact shifts, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. This perspective examines structure-guided optimization from weak fragment screening hits to potent leads for challenging PPI targets.

  8. A novel process utilizing mechanochemical sulfidization to remove lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio; Yang, Bo

    2013-04-01

    A novelprocess ofmechanochemical sulfidization for the treatment of cathode ray tube (CRT)funnel glass has been investigated by co-grinding with the element sulfur The ground samples were characterized by means of a set of analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The analytical results showed that during the co-grinding of the CRTfunnel glass with sulfur, the Si-O-Pb bond in glass and S-S bond broke and recombined into lead sulfide (PbS). The sulfidizing reaction proceeded with an increase in grinding time and the amount of the added sulfur. The sulfidizing rate increased rapidly from 16.6%for the JO-min ground sample to 96.7% for the 120-min ground sample. Using this process, current mineralprocessing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS. The proposed technology could also be used to treat other leaded glass and even other lead-containing wastes. In this research, a mechanochemical sulfidization method was proposed to recover lead from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. CRT funnel glass was co-ground with sulfur in N2 atmosphere by mechanical milling. After milling, lead in CRT funnel glass was transferred into lead sulfide (PbS). Using this process, current nfiineral processing technology, such as flotation separation, might be used to recover PbS from the ground sample. The process can be applied to treat other leaded glass or lead-containing wastes.

  9. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  10. Development of laser bonding as a manufacturing process for inner-lead bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, James D.

    1991-12-01

    The conventional thermo-compression bonding processes for bonding tape-automated-bonding (TAB) leadframes to silicon die has inherent reliability drawbacks due to the high pressures and temperatures necessary to produce a good metallurgical joint. Whether tin- or gold-plated tape is used, the bonding process can cause damage to the underlying structure of the device which results in device failures. The use of a laser source for inner lead bonding (ILB) has the advantage of providing a very localized temperature input to the bonding site with minimal contact force. The resulting mechanical stresses on the device are consequently low and the overall temperature extreme to which the device is subjected is similarly low. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., has undertaken a program to qualify a gold/tin laser bonded ILB process as a viable manufacturing alternative to thermo-compression bonding. The initial evaluation has defined thresholds for laser input energy necessary to produce a good fillet around the TAB beam and a void-free interface. This is the first necessary step to provide the degree of gold/tin alloying necessary to prevent Kirkendall voiding during subsequent high temperature storage. Among the parameters critical to the bonding process is the wafer bump surface topography. The quality of the bonding process has been monitored using bond strength data and visual examination before and after high temperature storage and temperature cycling tests. The test samples used were 154 and 160 lead production TAB tape and device designs with approximately equals 200 (mu) lead pitch and a 410 lead experimental tape with 102 (mu) lead pitch.

  11. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling.

  12. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Tachikawa, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Mito, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I c ) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy TM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 . The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I c ), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  13. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by combined thermal treatment and leaching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumihiro; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The reduction melting process is useful to recover toxic lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass; however, this process generates SiO2-containing residues that are disposed in landfill sites. To reduce the volume of landfill waste, it is desirable to recycle the SiO2-containing residues. In this study, SiO2 powder was recovered from the residue generated by reduction melting. The funnel glass was treated by a process combining reduction melting at 1000°C and annealing at 700°C to recover a large quantity of lead from the glass. The oxide phase generated by the thermal treatment was subjected to water leaching and acid leaching with 1M hydrochloric acid to wash out unwanted non-SiO2 elements for SiO2 purification. In the water washing, the oxide phase was microparticulated, and porous structures formed on the oxide surfaces. This increased the surface area of the oxide phase, and the unwanted elements were effectively washed out during the subsequent acid leaching. By controlling the acid leaching time and the amount of added acid, porous and amorphous SiO2 (purity >95 wt%) was recovered. In the obtained SiO2-concentrated product, unrecovered lead remained at concentrations of 0.25-0.79 wt%. When the Na2CO3 dosage in the thermal treatment was increased, the lead removal by acid leaching was enhanced, and the lead concentration in the obtained product decreased to 0.016 wt%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing Mineralogy Study on Lead and Zinc Oxide Ore in Sichuan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The processing mineralogy characteristics of an oxidized lead-zinc ore from Sichuan were studied systematically using numerous modern instruments. Results showed that lead and zinc oxide content in the ore exceeded the minimum industrial grade, and also included a relatively high concentration of silver and iron. This ore is composed of many different minerals. Major zinc-containing minerals include sphalerite, hemimorphite, smithsonite, hydrozincite, zinc-containing baileychlore, and zinc-containing dolomite and calcite. Lead-containing minerals are primarily galena and cerussite with small amounts of dechenite, cesaronite, anglesite, limonite and coronadite. Gangue minerals include dolomite and calcite. Dissemination size for the main minerals ranges from medium (0.04 mm to fine (0.02 mm. All the valuable minerals are well liberated, including galena, sphalerite, cerussite, calamine, and smithsonite. However, the dissemination relationships are complex. Lead is concentrated mainly in galena and cerussite, while zinc occurs primarily in sphalerite, calamine, and smithsonite. The theoretical recovery for lead and zinc were estimated at 72% and 67%, respectively.

  15. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  16. On the description of exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-01-04

    We describe hard exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation in a framework based on the Taylor expansion of the amplitude around the dominant light-cone directions. This naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators whose number is minimalized after taking into account QCD equations of motion and the invariance under rotation on the light-cone. We exemplify this method at the twist 3 level and show that the coordinate and momentum space descriptions are fully equivalent.

  17. Energy-saving management modelling and optimization for lead-acid battery formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Chen, Z.; Xu, J. Y.; Wang, F. Y.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this context, a typical lead-acid battery producing process is introduced. Based on the formation process, an efficiency management method is proposed. An optimization model with the objective to minimize the formation electricity cost in a single period is established. This optimization model considers several related constraints, together with two influencing factors including the transformation efficiency of IGBT charge-and-discharge machine and the time-of-use price. An example simulation is shown using PSO algorithm to solve this mathematic model, and the proposed optimization strategy is proved to be effective and learnable for energy-saving and efficiency optimization in battery producing industries.

  18. Application of six sigma and AHP in analysis of variable lead time calibration process instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimantho, Dino; Rahman, Tomy Abdul; Cahyadi, Bambang; Tina Hernawati, S.

    2017-02-01

    Calibration of instrumentation equipment in the pharmaceutical industry is an important activity to determine the true value of a measurement. Preliminary studies indicated that occur lead-time calibration resulted in disruption of production and laboratory activities. This study aimed to analyze the causes of lead-time calibration. Several methods used in this study such as, Six Sigma in order to determine the capability process of the calibration instrumentation of equipment. Furthermore, the method of brainstorming, Pareto diagrams, and Fishbone diagrams were used to identify and analyze the problems. Then, the method of Hierarchy Analytical Process (AHP) was used to create a hierarchical structure and prioritize problems. The results showed that the value of DPMO around 40769.23 which was equivalent to the level of sigma in calibration equipment approximately 3,24σ. This indicated the need for improvements in the calibration process. Furthermore, the determination of problem-solving strategies Lead Time Calibration such as, shortens the schedule preventive maintenance, increase the number of instrument Calibrators, and train personnel. Test results on the consistency of the whole matrix of pairwise comparisons and consistency test showed the value of hierarchy the CR below 0.1.

  19. Studies on mathematical modeling of the leaching process in order to efficiently recover lead from the sulfate/oxide lead paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzatu, Traian; Ghica, Gabriel Valeriu; Petrescu, Ionuţ Mircea; Iacob, Gheorghe; Buzatu, Mihai; Niculescu, Florentina

    2017-02-01

    Increasing global lead consumption has been mainly supported by the acid battery manufacturing industry. As the lead demand will continue to grow, to provide the necessary lead will require an efficient approach to recycling lead acid batteries. In this paper was performed a mathematical modeling of the process parameters for lead recovery from spent lead-acid batteries. The results of the mathematical modeling compare well with the experimental data. The experimental method applied consists in the solubilisation of the sulfate/oxide paste with sodium hydroxide solutions followed by electrolytic processing for lead recovery. The parameters taken into considerations were NaOH molarity (4M, 6M and 8M), solid/liquid ratio - S/L (1/10, 1/30 and 1/50) and temperature (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). The optimal conditions resulted by mathematical modeling of the electrolytic process of lead deposition from alkaline solutions have been established by using a second-order orthogonal program, in order to obtain a maximum efficiency of current without exceeding an imposed energy specific consumption. The optimum value for the leaching recovery efficiency, obtained through mathematical modeling, was 89.647%, with an error of δ y =3.623 which leads to a maximum recovery efficiency of 86.024%. The optimum values for each variable that ensure the lead extraction efficiency equal to 89.647% are the following: 3M - NaOH, 1/35 - S/L, 70°C - temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple synergistic effects of emotion and memory on proactive processes leading to scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Visual scene recognition is a proactive process through which contextual cues and top-down expectations facilitate the extraction of invariant features. Whether the emotional content of the scenes exerts a reliable influence on these processes or not, however, remains an open question. Here, topographic ERP mapping analysis and a distributed source localization method were used to characterize the electrophysiological correlates of proactive processes leading to scene recognition, as well as the potential modulation of these processes by memory and emotion. On each trial, the content of a complex neutral or emotional scene was progressively revealed, and participants were asked to decide whether this scene had previously been encountered or not (delayed match-to-sample task). Behavioral results showed earlier recognition for old compared to new scenes, as well as delayed recognition for emotional vs. neutral scenes. Electrophysiological results revealed that, ~400 ms following stimulus onset, activity in ventral object-selective regions increased linearly as a function of accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to recognition of old scenes. The emotional content of the scenes had an early influence in these areas. By comparison, at the same latency, the processing of new scenes was mostly achieved by dorsal and medial frontal brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. In the latter region, emotion biased recognition at later stages, likely corresponding to decision making processes. These findings suggest that emotion can operate at distinct and multiple levels during proactive processes leading to scene recognition, depending on the extent of prior encounter with these scenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the machinability of leaded free cutting steel through process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamurthy, P.; Vetrivelmurugan, R.; Sooryaprakash, J.

    2018-02-01

    Free cutting steel grades are high sulphur grades which can be classified under two categories as Leaded and Non-Leaded. These grades are used for manufacturing components like Nuts, bolts, studs, hydraulic fittings, brake pistons where higher machining is required to get intricate shape. Machinability of these grades are affected by hard oxide inclusions and highly deformed manganese sulphide inclusions. At JSW, machinability of leaded free cutting steel is improved by various process modifications namely deoxidation through carbon and manganese, Tellurium (Rare earth element) addition and maintaining the oxygen level at 80- 120ppm. Former one avoids the formation of hard SiO2 and Al2O3 compounds, Tellurium addition forms PbTe compound at the tail of MnS inclusions which resists the deformation of MnS inclusions and increased oxygen level favours the formation of less deformable oxy- sulphide inclusions. Above process modifications have resulted in achieving the low silicate content, better aspect ratio of MnS inclusions in the final rolled product. They are assessed by the characteristics of chip formation and surface roughness of machined part.

  2. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  3. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  4. Spectrometric gamma investigations concerning zinc-lead ores and the products of their processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girczys, J.; Skowronek, J.; Zrodlowski, B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc-lead ore and products of its enrichment were investigated using gamma spectrometry for the content of uranium, thorium and potassium 40. It was stated that the mean content of these elements in a deposit does not diverge from their mean concentration in the lithosphere. They also accompany the surrounding rocks. As a result of mechanical processing of this ore radionuclides pass discards in which they do not form concentrations dangerous for life, either. In the exploitation areas and in the surroundings there is no state of ecological hazard. (author)

  5. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.b, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao. Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  6. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  7. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab's set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions

  8. Analisis Penerapan Lean Production Process untuk Mengurangi Lead Time Process Perawatan Engine (Studi Kasus PT.GMF AEROASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Adrianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Engine maintenance strives to always improve its service excellence with tools such as gate system where the system is expected to realize the lead time for 60days. In the implementation of the gate system is still not able to meet the expected target. During maintenance or overhaul the engine is still encountered waste or waste that causes the target cannot be met. Lean Manufacturing is an approach that aims to minimize waste that occurs in the process flow.Understanding the conditions of the process described in Value Stream Mapping for further elaborate activities that have the value-added and non-value added.Through seven waste concept, then be weighted to determine the most dominant type of waste.From the data processing is obtained that through the Value Stream Mapping is known gate 1 and gate 3 is the point that there are many wastes. Weighting and ranking of seven existing waste in the process of the activity obtained results in the form of a waste critical sequence of seven existing waste. Highest weights on the type of waste waiting with a weight of 0.38. Results of Root Cause Analysis in mind that the root cause of waste waiting for that data is maintained, the lack of attention to people development, There are still bugs in the system and miscommunication.

  9. The possibility of using 5-aminolevulinic acid in lead phytoextraction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Jarosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the greenhouse involving a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown in medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 which were designed to evaluate the impact of foliar nutrition with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA on the chemical composition of sunflower in reference to possible use of this plant in the process of induced phytoextraction. The study revealed from 4.8% to 34.1% increase in aboveground matter of sunflower which was sprayed by 5-ALA solution at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ppm in comparison with plants grown in a medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 with no 5-ALA spraying. The sunflower leaves sprayed by 5-ALA solution contained from 3.78% to 27.1% more lead in comparison to plants not sprayed by this agent. As well as remarkable decrease in lead content from 17.4 to 33.4% was recorded in the roots of sunflower sprayed by 5-ALA solution. The lead content in plant shoots was independent from foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

  10. Application of risk analysis and quality control methods for improvement of lead molding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gołaś

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the significance of implication of risk analysis and quality control methods for the improvement of parameters of lead molding process. For this reason, Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA was developed in the conceptual stage of a new product TC-G100-NR. However, the final product was faulty (a complete lack of adhesion of brass insert to leak regardless of the previously defined potential problem and its preventive action. It contributed to the recognition of root causes, corrective actions and change of production parameters. It showed how these methods, level of their organization, systematic and rigorous study affect molding process parameters.

  11. Radiotracer investigations of the shaft processes in Polish zinc and lead metallurgy. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.S.; Bazaniak, Z.; Palige, J.

    1990-01-01

    The principal phenomena and processes occurring in the ISP furnace as well as the radiotracer methods for the investigation of charge flow dynamics have been discussed. 65 Zn was applied for investigations of the batch movement dynamics. The tracer was obtained on the way of direct neutron activation of the zinc/lead sinter in the nuclear reactor. The activity distribution measurements were performed by taking samples. Three series of experiments were carried out in order to examine the batch material movement and its dependence on the furnace charging manner. The influence of the process parameters on the batch movement has also been discussed. The shortest descent time of the charge material is strongly favoured by the joint system of charging the furnace (i.e. coke and sinter together). (author)

  12. UNDER-UTILIZATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS IN PURWOREJO REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Triratnawati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic strategy of the Ministry of Health to achieve Health For All In Indonesia 2010 is through health paradigm, decentralization, professionalism and health service management. Community health centers play an important role to achieve the goal. Unfortunately, underutilization of community health centers is still a problem in Purworejo. The purpose of this study was to know the utilization of community health centers using a sociological health approach. Qualitative research by observation, in-depth interview and focus group discussion were done among different types of group. The study was done in Purworejo District on February and March 2000. The main problems related to underutilization of community health centers are mostly on administration (less quality services, un-efficient, long hours waiting, strong bureaucratic system (physician has a dominant power, overlapping programs, poor coordination and integration with other divisions and cultural behavior of the community (labeling/stigma, self-care dominant, lack of community participation. To overcome under-utilization of community health centers the administration and bureaucracy should be changed into more efficient, not bureaucratic management. In addition social changes of the community culture is needed. As a consequence through these changes the staff of the health centers will be more efficient and effective.

  13. Epidemiology of meningitis with a negative CSF Gram stain: under-utilization of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, L; Hadi, C M; Salazar, L; Wootton, S H; Garey, K W; Lasco, T; Luce, A M; Hasbun, R

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis with a negative cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain (CSF-GS) poses a diagnostic challenge as more than 50% of patients remain without an aetiology. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arboviral serologies have increased diagnostic capabilities, yet large scale epidemiological studies evaluating their use in clinical practice are lacking. We conducted a prospective observational study in New Orleans between November 1999 and September 2008 (early era) when PCR was not widely available, and in Houston between November 2008 and June 2013 (modern era), when PCR was commonly used. Patients presenting with meningitis and negative CSF-GS were followed for 4 weeks. All investigations, PCR used, and results were recorded as they became available. In 323 patients enrolled, PCR provided the highest diagnostic yield (24·2%) but was ordered for 128 (39·6%) patients; followed by serology for arboviruses (15%) that was ordered for 100 (31%) of all patients. The yield of blood cultures was (10·3%) and that of CSF cultures was 4%; the yield for all other tests was meningitis and a negative CSF-GS, but both tests are being under-utilized.

  14. DETERMINATION OF IMPURITIES IN LEAD AND ALUMINIUM SAMPLES USED IN IRRADIATION PROCESSES IN THE NUCLEAR REACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-FATTAH, A.A.; SANAD, W.A.; ALLAN, K.F.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Non-destructive instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been exploited for studying the elemental composition of one lead and three aluminium samples used in the irradiation processes in the Egyptian nuclear reactor; ETRR-1 (Pb is used as a gravitational mass for diving the aluminium cans in cooling water during irradiation and enclosed in the outer Al can, two Al samples as inner irradiation cans and one Al sample as outer irradiation can). The induced radioactivities of the detected elements were measured using the computerized multi-channel analyzer connected with a high purity Co-axial germanium detector. It was found that lead sample gave the highest radioactivity levels after irradiation with respect to other samples. This observation was explained by the cooling and moderating effects caused by water, in which Pb sample was dived, on the neutrons of irradiation which facilitates the nuclear reaction with Pb. The relevant nuclear data has been tabulated. The SD's of the measured activities has been provided. Moreover, a group separation scheme (flow chart) has been suggested for the detected elements. The study aims to investigate the radioactive hazards of these materials used in the irradiation processes in the reactor in order to achieve the efficient protection from their radiations and to attain the safe disposal and treatment of their radioactive wastes

  15. Influence of processing temperature and precursor composition on phase region of solution processed methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Hodges, D.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2017-09-01

    Solution processed organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite and its derivatives are promising in the development of efficient thin film photovoltaic devices. In the context of increasing the efficiency and sustainability of perovskite solar cells (PSC) devices, we have attempted to experimentally develop phase diagram for solution processed methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3)) perovskite. The phase diagram emphasized the role of processing parameters (precursor composition and crystallization temperature) on the crystallographic functionality and optical band gap of perovskite. The phase dynamics of low dimensional perovskite, which has emerged as a potential candidate for absorber layer in perovskite solar cells (PSC) with higher stability in ambient conditions is also discussed. We observed that crystallization via non-equilibrium annealing introduced lattice strain in perovskite which affected the crystallographic properties of perovskite. A highly crystalline perovskite, with large grain size was obtained by optimizing the crystallization parameters and precursor composition together with nucleation of perovskite crystal and its growth dynamics.

  16. Radiochemical characterization and environmental radiological impact in tin and lead processing from cassiterite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcia Aparecida Antico

    2009-01-01

    The tin and lead industry located in Pirapora do Bom Jesus in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is responsible for the production of about 7000 ton year-1 of tin and 350 ton year-1 of lead. The raw material used in this facility is cassiterite, which presents in its composition concentrations of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series up to 660 kBq kg -1 and 450 kBq kg -1 , respectively. The smelting and refining processes may lead to concentrations of these radionuclides, mainly in the precipitated dust and in slag. In the operational process, intermediate refining and final slag are obtained and are stored in piles in open air. It is estimated that the amount of waste stored is about 600000 ton. This work aims to study the environmental radiological impact of the operation of this facility and to establish its Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. In order to accomplish this task the content of radioactivity was determined in the raw material, products, byproducts, residue, deposition pond and exhausting systems. Although in the raw material the radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series are almost in equilibrium, during the processing this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides migrate according to their chemical properties. Concentrations up to 31 kBq kg -1 for 238 U, 69 kBq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 2.5 kBq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 130 kBq kg -1 for 232 Th and 120 kBq kg -1 for 228 Ra were obtained in the slag. The environmental radiological impact was established by measuring the radionuclides in the critical compartments that is the ones that may cause exposure to the public. If the residue pile is considered, the critical pathways are the internal exposition from the dust inhalation and the water ingestion, due to re suspension and dispersion of the pile dust and groundwater contamination, respectively; and external exposure due to immersion in the radioactive cloud and soil contamination. For the emission of gaseous and particulate

  17. Exploring the Process of Implementing Healthy Workplace Initiatives: Mapping to Kotter's Leading Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Stacie; Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Roche, Dee; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Kotter's leading change model to explore the implementation of workplace health and wellbeing initiatives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 workplace representatives with a healthy workplace initiative. None of the workplaces used a formal change management model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives. Not all of the steps in Kotter model were considered necessary and the order of the steps was challenged. For example, interviewees perceived that communicating the vision, developing the vision, and creating a guiding coalition were integral parts of the process, although there was less emphasis on the importance of creating a sense of urgency and consolidating change. Although none of the workplaces reported using a formal organizational change model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives, there did appear to be perceived merit in using the steps in Kotter's model.

  18. Processes involved in charging of discharged lead-acid battery electrodes by pulse methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alkaine, C.V. [Group of Electrochemistry and Polymers/DQ/UFSCar, C.P. 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos (SP) (Brazil); de Souza, L.M.M.; Impinnisi, P.R.; de Andrade, J. [Group of Battery and Cells/DPMA-LACTEC/Centro Politecnico da UFPR, C.P. 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba (PR) (Brazil)

    2006-08-25

    In general, a relatively large part of the PbSO{sub 4} of lead-acid battery electrode discharge products can be seen as particles at the end of the discharge and thus their reduction, on the negative electrode, or oxidation, on the positive electrode, must involve the dissolution of the Pb{sup 2+}. In this paper, the processes occurring on flat negative electrodes during the galvanostatic charge transients are studied in detail, especially in relation to where and how much the PbSO{sub 4} and Pb{sup 2+} are reduced. The understanding of these processes is fundamental for the understanding of any pulse charging process. Thus, it is shown for a single discharge/charge cycle, that during the charging process a disruption of the PbSO{sub 4} film, giving rise to a continuous glued non-disrupted film and to a disrupted film attached by surface tension forces to the electrode surface can occur. Further, it is shown that the amount of disruption depends on the charging current conditions and it decreases with decreasing charging currents. It is also demonstrated that the reduction of the Pb{sup 2+} dissolved from the disrupted particles takes place simultaneously to the reduction of the non-disrupted glued part of the film. On the basis of these facts, it is finally shown, for the case of multiple discharge/charge cycles, how the charge associated with the disrupted film changes with cycling and why and how it is possible to determine the amount disrupted PbSO{sub 4} film formed. (author)

  19. Enzyme activity as an indicator of soil-rehabilitation processes at a zinc and lead ore mining and processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The activities of soil enzymes in relation to the changes occurring in the soil on a degraded area in southern Poland after zinc and lead mining were analyzed. An evaluation of the usefulness of urease and invertase activities for estimating the progress of the rehabilitation processes in degraded soil was performed. The data show that the soil samples differed significantly in organic carbon (0.68-104.0 g kg(-1)) and total nitrogen (0.03-8.64 g kg(-1)) content in their surface horizons. All of the soil samples (apart from one covered with forest) had very high total concentrations of zinc (4050-10,884 mg kg(-1)), lead (959-6661 mg kg(-1)) and cadmium (24.4-174.3 mg kg(-1)) in their surface horizons, and similar concentrations in their deeper horizons. Nevertheless, the amounts of the soluble forms of the above-mentioned heavy metals were quite low and they accounted for only a small percentage of the total concentrations: 1.4% for Zn, 0.01% for Pb and 2.6% for Cd. Urease activities were ranked as follows: soil from flotation settler (0.88-1.78 μg N-NH4(+) 2h(-1) g(-1))inverted sugar, but they were much lower in soil from the flotation settler (0.12-6.95 mg of the inverted sugar). The results demonstrated that heavy pollution with Zn, Pb and Cd slightly decreased the activities of urease and invertase. It is thought that it resulted from the enzyme reactions occurring in slightly acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Under such conditions, heavy metals occur mainly in insoluble forms. The activities of these enzymes are strongly dependent on the content and decomposition of organic matter in the soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive process simulation of cryogenic implants for leading edge transistor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Zographos, Nikolas; Park, Hugh; Colombeau, Benjamin; Parrill, Thomas; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Borges, Ricardo; Gull, Ronald; Erokhin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Two cryogenic implant TCAD-modules have been developed: (i) A continuum-based compact model targeted towards a TCAD production environment calibrated against an extensive data-set for all common dopants. Ion-specific calibration parameters related to damage generation and dynamic annealing were used and resulted in excellent fits to the calibration data-set. (ii) A Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model including the full time dependence of ion-exposure that a particular spot on the wafer experiences, as well as the resulting temperature vs. time profile of this spot. It was calibrated by adjusting damage generation and dynamic annealing parameters. The kMC simulations clearly demonstrate the importance of the time-structure of the beam for the amorphization process: Assuming an average dose-rate does not capture all of the physics and may lead to incorrect conclusions. The model enables optimization of the amorphization process through tool parameters such as scan speed or beam height.

  1. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, E.; Ojczyk, C.

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored. All three builders commonly seek ENERGY STAR certification on their homes and implement strategies that would allow them to meet the requirements for the Building America Builders Challenge program. Their desire for continuous improvement, willingness to seek outside assistance, and ambition to be leaders in their field are common themes. Problem solving to overcome challenges was accepted as part of doing business. It was concluded that crossing the gap from code-based building to high performance based building was a natural evolution for these leading builders.

  2. Factors responsible for under-utilization of postnatal care services in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Usman Takai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Maiduguri, the utilization of available postnatal care services is still very low. This may be influenced by demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and obstetric factors among others. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand the current status of utilization of maternal postnatal health care services and identify factors responsible for under.utilization of available postnatal care services in Maiduguri. Materials and Methods: A. cross.sectional, questionnaire.based study was conducted involving 350 women in their reproductive age group. (15.49. years, who had delivered previously, residing in Maiduguri and who came to access any of the available maternal health care services at the State Specialist Hospital, Maiduguri over a 3.month period. The Chi.squared statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: Out of the grand total of 350 questionnaires that were distributed during the study period, 18 questionnaires were excluded from analysis due to incomplete responses, 332 with complete responses were therefore analyzed, giving a response rate of 94.9%. The results showed that only 16.9% of the respondents attended postnatal care services within 42. days after delivery. Most of the mothers. (60.9% were not knowledgeable about postnatal care services. A. very high proportion of participants. (69.4% did not attend antenatal clinics, and over. 70% of the study population had delivered at home. The study has identified some factors that have an important influence on utilization of postnatal care services in Maiduguri. These included awareness of postnatal care services. (odds ratio. [OR] 12.04, 95% confidence interval. [CI]: 10.26, P =. 0.000, higher educational status of the woman. (OR 7.15, 95% CI: 5.19, P =0.000, lower parity. (OR 5.22, 95% CI: 3.21, P = 0.001 and marital status. (married woman.OR 3.44, 95% CI: 2.17, P =0.002. Educational attainment of the husband also significantly affected the

  3. Toxicological analysis of the risk of lead exposure in metal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicological risks for workers who are exposed to lead in their work environment. Methods: Since it is an important indicator of toxicological risk, a statistical analysis of lead concentration and biological lead toxicity markers in blood and urine were performed for both exposed and control groups.

  4. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limame, K. [Centre Régional des Metiers de l' Education et de la Formation (CRMEF) de Fès, Rue deKuwait, BP 49, Fès (Morocco); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Sayouri, S., E-mail: ssayouri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Yahyaoui, M.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Housni, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et Techniques de Santé (ISPITS), Fès (Morocco); Jaber, B. [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Angle Avenue Allal El Fassi avenue des FAR, Quartie Hay Ryad, BP8027 Nation Unies, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-08-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x/4}O{sub 3} (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T{sub m}, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T{sub m}.

  5. An In Vitro Evaluation of Biochemical Processes Involved in Lead-Induced Changes on Ram Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, P; Maroto-Morales, A; García-Álvarez, O; Garde, J J; Mateo, R

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb(2+) ) is a toxic heavy metal which interferes with several physiological processes regulated by Ca(2+) , including those characterized by changes of the membrane stability and the motility of spermatozoa necessary for the fertilization of the oocyte. In this study, ejaculated sperm from six rams (Ovis aries) have been incubated in vitro with or without 50 ng Pb(2+) /ml during 30 min and in the presence or absence of three different potential modulators of the effects of Pb(2+) on changes in the sperm membrane before fertilization: charybdotoxin, quinacrine and staurosporine. Sperm samples incubated with Pb(2+) have shown significant reductions in acrosome integrity and sperm viability and an increase in progressive movement. None of the studied potential modulators had a protective effect against Pb(2+) action. On the contrary, Pb(2+) -incubated sperm in the presence of staurosporine had lower acrosome integrity, and lower sperm viability was observed when spermatozoa were incubated with Pb(2+) + charybdotoxin. Quinacrine was the only tested substance capable of increasing the concentration of Pb(2+) in spermatozoa; thus, the enhancement of Pb(2+) effects produced by staurosporine and charybdotoxin was not produced by an increased uptake of Pb(2+) by spermatozoa. However, the increase of intracellular Pb(2+) in those spermatozoa incubated with quinacrine did not result in an adverse effect on sperm motility or viability although the acrosome integrity was negatively affected. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limame, K.; Sayouri, S.; Yahyaoui, M.M.; Housni, A.; Jaber, B.

    2016-01-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb 1−x La x Ti 1−x/4 O 3 (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T m , of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T m .

  7. Effects of operating parameters on efficiency of lead removal by complexation-microfiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of lead content found in the environment is the result of human activities. Heavy metals can be hazardous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Complexation-microfiltration process for the removal of Pb(II ions was studied. The aim of microfiltration of the model wastewater containing heavy metal ions was finding an optimum ratio between the concentrations of the complexing agent and metal, and determining the most favorable pH value. The microfiltration experiments were carried out in a stirred dead-end cell. Diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE 23 was selected as the complexing agent. Versapor membranes were used to separate formed polymer-metal complex. The concentration of heavy metal ions after microfiltration in aqueous solution was determined using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Effects on the amount of complexing agent, concentration of metal ion, pH value and operating pressure on the flux, J, and rejection coefficient, R, were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the pH of the solution has considerable influence on the rejection coefficient. An increase in pH and the amount of complexing agents enabled us to obtain very high retention coefficient (99%.

  8. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Various Solar Energy Conversion Processes Leading to the Photolysis of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergene, T.

    1995-12-31

    In the application of solar energy, hydrogen is likely to be used as an energy carrier and a storage medium. Production of molecular hydrogen and oxygen from water requires energy input, which may come from solar energy in various ways. This thesis begins with a literature survey of the different conversion processes and the efficiencies, which is an introduction to a series of enclosed papers. These papers are: (1) Trapping of Minority Charge Carriers at Irradiated Semiconductor/Electrolyte Heterojunctions, (2) Model Calculations on Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells, and (3) Efficiencies and Physical Principles of Photolysis of Water By Microalgae. In the papers, The qualitative features of the ``illumination-current``-characteristic curve are deduced. The hypothesis is that trapping originates in some specific cases because of confinement, which leads to charge injections into energy states above that corresponding to the band edge. The quantitative features of certain hybrid photovoltaic/thermal configuration are deduced. An analysis of the theoretical and realizable efficiencies of the photolysis of water by micro algae is given. 151 refs., 18 figs., 1 table

  10. Development of an eco-friendly material recycling process for spent lead glass using a mechanochemical process and Na2EDTA reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Kubo, Hisashi; Kamiya, Masahiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2008-06-01

    To develop a novel nonheating method with lower energy consumption and higher efficiency for recovering both lead and SiO2 glass matrix from spent lead-glass powder, we attempted to treat the spent lead glass by the mechanochemical method using the metal chelate reagent, sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA). As a result of the wet ball-milling treatment of spent lead-glass powder sealed in a polypropylene bottle with zirconia balls, Na2EDTA, and water at room temperature, we found that more than 99 mass % of lead contained in the spentlead-glass powder was extracted as a lead-EDTA species from the solid silica glass network matrix. This separation phenomenon was accelerated by the enlargement of the solid-liquid interface area due to ball-milling atomization and by the high stability constant of lead-EDTA. High extraction yield suggests that Pb-O-Pb bonds in lead glass are weakened or are broken down by the wet ball-milling treatment, i.e., the strong mechanical energy such as the potential and/ or friction energy provided by ball-milling may be high enough to elute lead ions from silica matrix. Moreover, we succeeded in recovering both lead ions as lead sulfate, which is the main compound of anglesite, and the EDTA as sodium-EDTA, which is reusable as the metal chelate reagent in wet chemical process using the ferric sulfate.

  11. Global Warming Leading to Phenological Responses in the Process of Urbanization, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Don Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current studies are either region-limited, sole-species, or have short researching periods; so, studies about various species are necessary throughout South Korea. In this study, trends of changes in the budding and flowering dates of spring plants by climate factors served to explore the process of urbanization. Four common species, such as Forsythia koreana (forsythia, Rhododendron mucronulatum (azalea, Prunus yedoensis (Yoshino cherry and Prunus mume (Japanese apricot, are examined during the period from 1973 to 2008 due to the limitation of recent datasets. Budding of forsythia, azalea, Yoshino cherry and the flowering of Japanese apricot are defined as Type I (inland, of reverse letter ‘L’ and flowering of forsythia, azalea and Yoshino cherry were grouped as Type II (inland and south coastline. Prunus mume budding was different from others, so it was defined as Type III (subtropical climate. The inland phonological response is relatively cold and dry and areas are affected by the Siberian high atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, the south and east coastlines are humid and warm areas even in the winter season due to the southeastern wind. There were advancements for 3.1 days of forsythia, 5.5 days of azalea, 6.5 days of Yoshino cherry and 18.6 days of Japanese apricot during the research period. The greatest changes occurred with respect to the minimum temperature in January and the maximum temperature in February, while the precipitation change was not significant. However, in Type II, the precipitation significantly impacted plant flowering events. Precipitation was the lowest in early spring in South Korea and especially the flowering of plants was impacted by the small amount of precipitation in this region. Additionally, if precipitation after budding was over 1 mm for forsythia and azalea, 2 mm for Yoshino cherry and 7 mm for apricot, flowering occurred in over 80% of the region. South Korea is characterized as having a small

  12. Lead recovery and the feasibility of foam glass production from funnel glass of dismantled cathode ray tube through pyrovacuum process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mengjun; Zhang Fushen; Zhu Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Cathode ray tube (CRT) is the first and foremost problem that must be solved in electronic waste disposal, and Key of which lies in the detoxification and reutilization of lead-contained funnel glass. In this study, a novel and effective process for funnel glass of dismantled CRT treatment was developed. Key point of the process was to recover metallic lead from the funnel glass and to prepare foam glass synchronously. Experimental results showed that lead recovery rate increased first with the increase of temperature, carbon adding amount, and holding time, then reached a plateau value, but pressure was on the contrary. The optimum temperature, pressure, carbon adding amount and holding time for lead recovery were 1000 deg. C, 1000 Pa, 5% and 4 h, respectively, and the maximum lead recovery rate was 98.6%. In the pyrovacuum process, lead in the funnel glass was firstly detached and changed to PbO, then reduced and evaporated, and was recovered in the form of pure metal with a purity of 99.3%. The residue porous glass was environmentally acceptable for construction application

  13. All Sequential Dip-Coating Processed Perovskite Layers from an Aqueous Lead Precursor for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2018-02-01

    A novel, sequential method of dip-coating a ZnO covered mesoporous TiO 2 electrode was performed using a non-halide lead precursor in an aqueous system to form a nanoscale perovskite film. The introduction of a ZnO interfacial layer induced significant adsorption in the non-halide lead precursor system. An efficient successive solid-state ion exchange and reaction process improved the morphology, crystallinity, and stability of perovskite solar cells. Improved surface coverage was achieved using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction processes. When all sequential dipping conditions were controlled, a notable power conversion efficiency of 12.41% under standard conditions (AM 1.5, 100 mW·cm -2 ) was achieved for the perovskite solar cells fabricated from an aqueous non-halide lead precursor solution without spin-casting, which is an environmentally benign and low-cost manufacturing processes.

  14. 76 FR 70833 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Primary Lead Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... were changes to our cancer, acute, and PB-HAP multipathway screening analyses for non-lead HAP as a... pollutants (HAP) from stationary sources. In the first stage, after the EPA has identified categories of sources emitting one or more of the HAP listed in section 112(b) of the CAA, section 112(d) calls for us...

  15. Toxicological analysis of the risk of lead exposure in metal processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia. 2.41. The aim of the present study is to evaluate toxicological risks for the workers who are exposed to lead in their work environment. (NISSAL factory, Niš, Serbia; hereinafter. "Nissal"). The values of this toxic metal and the biological markers (δ-aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin) in the blood and urine were.

  16. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Vukić, Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process migh...

  17. Process optimization of batch biosorption of lead using Lactobacillius bulgaricus in an aqueous phase system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Hassan, Sedky H A; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ismail, Manal; Abdallah, Elgorban

    2012-05-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the effects of operating variable, mainly, pH, weight of biomass, and initial lead ion concentration on the lead adsorption capacity at ambient temperature using dried cells of Lactobacillius bulgaricus. Using RSM, quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for predicting the percent of lead ion removal. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of pH and weight of dried biomass were concluded to be the key factors influencing the capacity of lead ion removal. At pH lower than 2 (high acidic condition) and in alkaline condition, there is no significant biosorption. The optimum percent of lead ion removal was found at pH of 6.78, biomass concentration of 6.58 g/l and initial lead concentration 36.22 ppm. In this condition, percent of lead ion removal was 86.21%. This study showed RSM effectiveness for modeling of biosorption process.

  18. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  20. Leading nucleons from peripheral processes in lepton deep inelastic scattering and the nucleon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, A

    1999-01-01

    The experimental information on nucleon production in lepton deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is rather scarce. Recently there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanism of the production of baryons in DIS, stimulated by recent results on leading protons and neutrons from electron-proton scattering at HERA. I review on different peripheral mechanisms of nucleon (proton or neutron) production in lepton DIS and discuss their role in understanding the spectra of nucleons for both fixed target and collider experiments. In DIS ep to e'Xh, the QCD hardness scale gradually diminishes from the hard scale, Q/sup 2/, in the virtual photon (current) fragmentation region to the soft, hadronic, scale in the proton (target) fragmentation region. This suggests a similarity of the inclusive spectra of leading protons and neutrons, h=p, n, in high energy hadron-proton collisions and in lepton DIS at small Bjorken-x. The semi-inclusive cross section for production of slow protons in charged-current deep inelastic (ant...

  1. Stress leads to aberrant hippocampal involvement when processing schema-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding schema-unrelated information but not for schema-related information. A recent study indicated that stress mediators may affect schema-related memory, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we thus tested the impact of acute stress on neural processing of schema-related information. We exposed healthy participants to a stress or control manipulation before they processed, in the MRI scanner, words related or unrelated to a preexisting schema activated by a specific cue. Participants' memory for the presented material was tested 3-5 d after encoding. Overall, the processing of schema-related information activated the mPFC, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus. Stress resulted in aberrant hippocampal activity and connectivity while participants processed schema-related information. This aberrant engagement of the hippocampus was linked to altered subsequent memory. These findings suggest that stress may interfere with the efficient use of prior knowledge during encoding and may have important practical implications, in particular for educational settings. © 2018 Vogel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Jovian Substorms: A Study of Processes Leading to Transient Behavior in the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Solar system magnetospheres can be divided into two groups: induced and intrinsic. The induced magnetospheres are produced in the solar wind interaction of the magnetized solar wind with planetary obstacles. Examples of these magnetospheres are those of comets, Venus and Mars. Intrinsic magnetospheres are the cavities formed in the solar wind by the magnetic fields produced by dynamo current systems inside the planets: Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are known to have intrinsic magnetospheres. Intrinsic magnetospheres can be further subdivided as to how the circulating plasma is driven by external or internal processes. The magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth are driven by the solar wind. The magnetospheres of Jupiter and possibly of Saturn are principally driven by internal processes. These processes provide the energy for the powerful jovian radio signals that can be detected easily on the surface of the Earth.

  3. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  4. Influence of lead-doped hydroponic medium on the adsorption/bioaccumulation processes of lead and phosphorus in roots and leaves of the aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes

    2013-11-30

    In this study, lead bioaccumulation by the living free-floating aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes in different hydroponic conditions with variations in phosphorus and lead concentrations was investigated. A set of growth experiments in hydroponic media doped with lead and phosphorus within a wide concentration range was performed for 32 days in a greenhouse. All experiments were carried out with periodic replacement of all nutrients and lead. The concentration of lead and nutrients in biomass was determined by synchrotron radiation-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence. By increasing the lead concentration in the medium, a reduction in biomass growth was observed, but a higher phosphorus retention in roots and leaves was shown at lower lead concentrations. In addition, an increase in the amount of bioaccumulated lead and phosphorus in roots was observed for higher lead and phosphorus concentrations in the medium, reaching saturation values of 4 mg Pb g(-1) and 7 mg P g(-1), respectively. Four non-structural kinetic models were tested, to represent the bioaccumulation of lead and phosphorus in roots. Pseudo-second order and irreversible kinetic models described the lead bioaccumulation data well, however, an irreversible kinetic model better fitted phosphorus uptake in roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leading research on brain functional information processing; No kino joho shori no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This research aims at searching the concept of an information processing device with a fully different architecture from a previous ones based on the study on human brain function, sense and perception, and developing the basic fabrication technology for such system, and realizing the human-like information processing mechanism of memorization, learning, association, perception, intuition and value judgement. As an approach deriving biological and technological models from experimental brain studies, the model was derived from the brain functional information processing based on brain development/differentiation mechanism, the control mechanism/material of brain activities, and the knowledge obtained from brain measurement and study. In addition, for understanding a brain oscillation phenomenon by computational neuroscience, the cerebral cortex neural network model composed of realistic neuron models was proposed. Evaluation of the previous large-scale neural network chip system showed its ability of learning and fast processing, however, the next-generation brain computer requires further R and D of some novel architecture, device and system. 184 refs., 41 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  7. Stress Leads to Aberrant Hippocampal Involvement When Processing Schema-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding…

  8. Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

    2014-11-01

    Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. The Impact of the Self-Awareness Process on Learning and Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Patricia Steiner describes a research problem that took considerable time and energy to investigate: the study of the "self-awareness" process. Steiner states that, if we believe in the concept of lifelong learning and development, then we must acknowledge the value of self-awareness as an important precursor to learning…

  10. The CIX uranium process: Blyvoors leads the way with full conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Board has developed a promising technique - the continuous ion exchange(CIX) process - for the recovery of uranium. The Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mining Company, which accommodated the highly successful demonstration plant is now spending R10 500 000 on extentions and conversions to full CCD/CIX. This article outlines the system and its advantages

  11. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  12. Practices and Processes of Leading High Performance Home Builders in the Upper Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Thoma, Ed [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Ojzcyk, Cindy [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2012-12-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team proposed this study to gain insight into the business, sales, and construction processes of successful high performance builders. The knowledge gained by understanding the high performance strategies used by individual builders, as well as the process each followed to move from traditional builder to high performance builder, will be beneficial in proposing more in-depth research to yield specific action items to assist the industry at large transform to high performance new home construction. This investigation identified the best practices of three successful high performance builders in the upper Midwest. In-depth field analysis of the performance levels of their homes, their business models, and their strategies for market acceptance were explored.

  13. QCD factorization beyond leading twist in exclusive processes: rhoT-meson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.; Anikin, I.; ); Ivanov, D.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2009-01-01

    Exclusive processes in hard electroproduction with asymptotic γ * p center of mass energy is one of the best place for understanding QCD in the perturbative Regge limit. The HERA experiment recently provided precise data for rho electroproduction, including all spin density matrix elements. From QCD, it is expected that such a process should factorize between a hard (calculable) coefficient function, and hadronic (P and ρ) matrix elements. Such a factorization is up to now only proven for a longitudinally polarized rho. Within the kt-factorization approach (valid at large s γ * p), we evaluate the impact factor of the transition γ * → ρT taking into account the twist 3 contributions. We show that a gauge invariant expression is obtained with the help of QCD equations of motion. More generally, relying on these equations and on the gauge invariance of the factorized amplitude, the non-perturbative Distribution Amplitudes can be reduced to a minimal set. This opens the way to a consistent treatment of factorization for exclusive processes with a transversally polarized vector meson. (author)

  14. The Empathic Process and Misconceptions that Lead to Burnout in Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacieros, Marta; Olmos, Ricardo; Bermejo, José Carlos

    2017-12-04

    Empathy has been identified as a relevant variable in order to predict burnout in healthcare professionals. In addition, assertiveness and self-esteem have been considered relevant variables to develop empathic capacity. In the other hand, misconceptions surrounding empathy constitute a risk factor for burnout. Two adult samples (N = 252 and N = 275) were used to explore and confirm the underlying structure of two questionnaires. The Exercise of Process of Empathy (EPE) scale (18 items) confirmatory factor analysis including 5 dimensions (cognitive and emotional comprehension, attention, clarity and assertiveness), showed reasonable goodness- of-fit indices χ2(130) = 269.63, p Misconceptions (EH) of empathy scale (16 items) confirmatory factor analysis, including 3 dimensions (feeling, confluence and character misconceptions) also obtained reasonable goodness-of-fit indices χ 2 (101) = 250.59, p misconceptions) a risk factor (b* = .171), EPE (empathy process) a protection factor (b* = -.183). The model partially explains how misconceptions empathy process and self-esteem (b* = -.334) relate to burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals; what is more, it heralds a potential means to prevent it.

  15. Processing and optical characterization of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, C. R.; Das, Sangeeta; Gautam, S. S.; Madheshiya, Abhishek; Singh, Anod Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, various compositions of lead calcium titanate borosilicate glass doped with a fixed amount of germanium were synthesized using the rapid melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of the synthesized glass was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The structural and optical properties were deduced using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of borate groups in triangular and tetrahedral coordination. Infrared and Raman analyses detected the vibrational bonds of Gesbnd Osbnd Ge, Bsbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Ge, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, and Pbsbnd Osbnd Ge. The energy band gaps were evaluated for the prepared glass samples based on Tauc plots of the UV-Vis spectra. The calculated values of the optical band gap decreased from 2.91 to 2.85 eV as the PbO content increased from x = 0.0 to x = 0.7. Furthermore, the Urbach energy was studied based on the UV-Vis results to confirm the disordered structure of the glass. The calculated densities of the glass samples (1.5835 g/cm3 to 3.9184 g/cm3) increased as the concentration of PbO increased, whereas they decreased with the molar volume.

  16. Characterization of highly crystalline lead iodide nanosheets prepared by room-temperature solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Island, Joshua O.; Lado, Jose L.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Gant, Patricia; Nagler, Philipp; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.; Schüller, Christian; Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Korn, Tobias; Niño, Miguel Angel; Perez de Lara, David; Pérez, Emilio M.; Fernandéz-Rossier, Joaquín; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials are particularly appealing for many applications. Although theory predicts a large number of 2D materials, experimentally only a few of these materials have been identified and characterized comprehensively in the ultrathin limit. Lead iodide, which belongs to the transition metal halides family and has a direct bandgap in the visible spectrum, has been known for a long time and has been well characterized in its bulk form. Nevertheless, studies of this material in the nanometer thickness regime are rather scarce. In this article we demonstrate an easy way to synthesize ultrathin, highly crystalline flakes of PbI2 by precipitation from a solution in water. We thoroughly characterize the produced thin flakes with different techniques ranging from optical and Raman spectroscopy to temperature-dependent photoluminescence and electron microscopy. We compare the results to ab initio calculations of the band structure of the material. Finally, we fabricate photodetectors based on PbI2 and study their optoelectronic properties.

  17. Food advertising on Argentinean television: are ultra-processed foods in the lead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemandi, Lorena; Castronuovo, Luciana; Tiscornia, M Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Schoj, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    To describe the number of processed and ultra-processed food (PUPF) advertisements (ads) targeted to children on Argentinean television (TV), to analyse the advertising techniques used and the nutritional quality of the foods advertised, and to determine the potential exposure of children to unhealthy food advertising in our country. Five free-to-air channels and the three most popular children's cable networks were recorded from 07.00 to 22.00 hours for 6 weeks. Ads were classified by target audience, type of product, advertised food categories and advertising strategies used. The NOVA system was used to classify food products according to industrial food processing level. Nutritional quality was analysed using the Pan American Health Organization's nutrient profile model. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Results are considered applicable to most of the country. The study did not involve human subjects. Of the sample of food ads, PUPF products were more frequently advertised during children's programmes (98·9 %) v. programmes targeted to the general audience (93·7 %, χ 2=45·92, Pfood categories were desserts, dairy products, non-alcoholic sugary beverages, fast-food restaurants, and salty snacks. Special promotions and the appearance of cartoon characters were much more frequent in ads targeting children. Argentinean children are estimated to be exposed to sixty-one ads for unhealthy PUPF products per week. Our study showed that Argentinean children are exposed to a high number of unhealthy PUPF ads on TV. The Argentinean Government should build on this information to design and implement a comprehensive policy to reduce exposure to unhealthy food marketing that includes TV and other communication channels and places.

  18. Defining progressive stages in the commitment process leading to embryonic lens formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The commitment of regions of the embryo to form particular tissues or organs is a central concept in development, but the mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. The well-studied model of lens induction is ideal for dissecting key phases of the commitment process. We find in Xenopus tropicalis, at the time of specification of the lens, i.e. when presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) can be isolated, cultured and will differentiate into a lens, that the PLE is not yet irreversibly committed, or determined, to form a lens. When transplanted into the posterior of a host embryo lens development is prevented at this stage, while approximately 3 hr later, using the same assay, determination is complete. Interestingly, we find that specified lens ectoderm, when cultured, acquires the ability to become determined without further tissue interactions. Further, we show that specified PLE has a different gene expression pattern than determined PLE, and that determined PLE can maintain expression of essential regulatory genes (e.g. foxe3, mafB) in an ectopic environment while specified PLE cannot. These observations set the stage for a detailed mechanistic study of the genes and signals controlling tissue commitment. PMID:22566346

  19. Noble-metal intercalation process leading to a protected adatom in a graphene hollow site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan Nair, M.; Cranney, M.; Jiang, T.; Hajjar-Garreau, S.; Aubel, D.; Vonau, F.; Florentin, A.; Denys, E.; Bocquet, M.-L.; Simon, L.

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that gold deposited on a monolayer (ML) of graphene on SiC(0001) is intercalated below the ML after an annealing procedure and affects the band structure of graphene. Here we prove experimentally and theoretically that some of the gold forms a dispersed phase composed of single adatoms, being intercalated between the ML and the buffer layer and in a hollow position with respect to C atoms of the ML on top. They are freestanding and negatively charged, due to the partial screening of the electron transfer between SiC and the ML, without changing the intrinsic n-type doping of the ML. As these single atoms decouple the ML from the buffer layer, the quasiparticles of graphene are less perturbed, thus increasing their Fermi velocity. Moreover, the hollow position of the intercalated single Au atoms might lead to spin-orbit coupling in the graphene layer covering IC domains. This effect of spin-orbit coupling has been recently observed experimentally in Au-intercalated graphene on SiC(0001) [D. Marchenko, A. Varykhalov, J. Sánchez-Barriga, Th. Seyller, and O. Rader, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 172405 (2016), 10.1063/1.4947286] and has been theoretically predicted for heavy atoms, like thallium, in a hollow position on graphene [C. Weeks, J. Hu, J. Alicea, M. Franz, and R. Wu, Phys. Rev. X 1, 021001 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevX.1.021001; A. Cresti, D. V. Tuan, D. Soriano, A. W. Cummings, and S. Roche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 246603 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.246603].

  20. Improved Signal Processing Technique Leads to More Robust Self Diagnostic Accelerometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) is a sensor system designed to actively monitor the health of an accelerometer. In this case an accelerometer is considered healthy if it can be determined that it is operating correctly and its measurements may be relied upon. The SDA system accomplishes this by actively monitoring the accelerometer for a variety of failure conditions including accelerometer structural damage, an electrical open circuit, and most importantly accelerometer detachment. In recent testing of the SDA system in emulated engine operating conditions it has been found that a more robust signal processing technique was necessary. An improved accelerometer diagnostic technique and test results of the SDA system utilizing this technique are presented here. Furthermore, the real time, autonomous capability of the SDA system to concurrently compensate for effects from real operating conditions such as temperature changes and mechanical noise, while monitoring the condition of the accelerometer health and attachment, will be demonstrated.

  1. Alternative Processing Method Leads to Stronger Sapphire-Reinforced Alumina Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1997-01-01

    The development of advanced engines for aerospace applications depends on the availability of strong, tough materials that can withstand increasingly higher temperatures under oxidizing conditions. The need for such materials led to the study of an oxide-based composite composed of an alumina matrix reinforced with zirconia-coated sapphire fibers. Because the nonbrittle behavior of this system depends on the interface and its ability to prevent fiber-to-matrix bonding and reduce interfacial shear stress, the microstructure of the zirconia must be carefully controlled during both coating application and composite processing. When it was both porous and unstabilized, zirconia (which does not react easily with alumina) was found to be the most effective material tested in reducing interfacial shear strength between the fiber and matrix.

  2. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Gabrielle, E-mail: gabrielle.zammit@gmail.com [Dept. of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta (Malta); Sanchez-Moral, Sergio [Dept. de Geologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Albertano, Patrizia [Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO{sub 3}) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. - Research highlights: {yields} Mineral structures formed by subaerial biofilms growing in hypogea were examined. {yields} Efflorescences and mineral deposits were often formed from gypsum, halite, and calcite. {yields} Biogenic carbonates assumed different forms e.g. vaterite spherulite, calcite fibres. {yields} The formation of rare minerals e.g. struvite was mediated by bacteria. {yields} Understanding biomineralisation processes facilitates the conservation of artworks.

  3. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)

  4. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Gabrielle; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Albertano, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO 3 ). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO 3 ) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. - Research highlights: → Mineral structures formed by subaerial biofilms growing in hypogea were examined. → Efflorescences and mineral deposits were often formed from gypsum, halite, and calcite. → Biogenic carbonates assumed different forms e.g. vaterite spherulite, calcite fibres. → The formation of rare minerals e.g. struvite was mediated by bacteria. → Understanding biomineralisation processes facilitates the conservation of artworks.

  5. Bacterially mediated mineralisation processes lead to biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese catacombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Gabrielle; Sánchez-Moral, Sergio; Albertano, Patrizia

    2011-06-15

    Mineral structures formed by bacterial and microalgal biofilms growing on the archaeological surface in Maltese hypogea were studied using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), X-ray micro-diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These techniques have shown that mineral structures having different morphologies and chemical composition were associated with the microorganisms in the subaerophytic biofilm. Salt efflorescences and mineral deposits on the archaeological surface were often formed from gypsum (CaSO(4)∙2H(2)O), halite (NaCl) and calcite (CaCO(3)). Biogenic carbonates produced by microbial activities were a common occurrence. These assumed different forms, such as the production of mineral coats around cyanobacterial sheaths and the occurrence of calcite fibres with different morphologies on the surface of the biofilms. Moreover, vaterite (CaCO(3)) spherulites which appeared hollow in cross-section were observed. The presence of struvite was recorded from one catacomb site. These investigations have facilitated the study of the neoformation of metastable minerals by microbially mediated processes, which potentially contribute to a better understanding of the biodeterioration of artworks in Maltese palaeo-Christian catacombs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylammonium lead mixed halide films processed with a new composition for planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ban-Suk; Lee, Seojun; Yoon, Saemon; Ha, Tae-Jun; Kang, Dong-Won

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new mixed halide precursor composition for MAPbI3-xClx organic/inorganic perovskite (PRV) solar cells. PRV films made with a new precursor composition of (MAI: PbCl2: PbI2 = 2 : 1 : 1) could be crystallized at lower temperature (70 °C) and shorter annealing duration (60 min), whereas previous standard composition (MAI: PbCl2 = 3 : 1) requires multi-step and high temperature (from 75 °C to 130 °C) annealing for longer durations (∼100 min). By adopting the suggested composition, much uniform surface morphology of PRV light harvester was obtained even though non-polar solvent washing was not introduced yet. Also, when the suitable toluene washing treatment was introduced, PRV surfaces of highly compact and large crystallites with regular distribution were achieved without any pinhole, which offered significant improvements in fill factor (41 → 65%) and power conversion efficiency (5.85 → 9.39%) of PRV cells. The suggested new precursor composition contributing for surface topography can be widely utilized for inverted planar PRV devices with low-temperature and simple processing.

  7. Transition process leading to microbubble emission boiling on horizontal circular heated surface in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ichiro; Ando, Jun; Horiuchi, Kazuna; Saiki, Takahito; Kaneko, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) produces a higher heat flux than critical heat flux (CHF) and therefore has been investigated in terms of its heat transfer characteristics as well as the conditions under which MEB occurs. Its physical mechanism, however, is not yet clearly understood. We carried out a series of experiments to examine boiling on horizontal circular heated surfaces of 5 mm and of 10 mm in diameter, in a subcooled pool, paying close attention to the transition process to MEB. High-speed observation results show that, in the MEB regime, the growth, condensation, and collapse of the vapor bubbles occur within a very short time. In addition, a number of fine bubbles are emitted from the collapse of the vapor bubbles. By tracking these tiny bubbles, we clearly visualize that the collapse of the vapor bubbles drives the liquid near the bubbles towards the heated surface, such that the convection field around the vapor bubbles under MEB significantly differs from that under nucleate boiling. Moreover, the axial temperature gradient in a heated block (quasi-heat flux) indicates a clear difference between nucleate boiling and MEB. A combination of quasi-heat flux and the measurement of the behavior of the vapor bubbles allows us to discuss the transition to MEB. This work was financially supported by the 45th Research Grant in Natural Sciences from The Mitsubishi Foundation (2014 - 2015), and by Research Grant for Boiler and Pressurized Vessels from The Japan Boiler Association (2016).

  8. Biosorption of aqueous lead (II) on rice straws (oryza sativa) by flash column process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, H.N.; Hassan, M.U.; Jamil, N.; Ahmad, D.; Bushra, H.; Khatoon, S.

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb (II) on rice straws has been studied with the variation in the parameters and on modified rice straws by flash column process. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, initial concentration of metal ions, length and width of columns were studied. A comparative study of modification of adsorbent was also done for which rice straws were modified with EDTA, acids, bases, and volatile organic solvents. Base modified adsorbents have shown an increase in adsorption capacity while acid modified adsorbents proved to be the poor adsorbents for metal ions similarly ash of rice straws used as adsorbent given higher adsorption and EDTA modified adsorbents have shown least adsorption of metal ions. Polar volatile organic solvents modified adsorbent gave less adsorption efficiency and non polar adsorbent shown no influence on Pb (II) uptake capacity of rice straws. Rice straws proved to be the best biosorbent for Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The biosorption characteristics fit well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  9. Abstract: Within-Person Processes Leading to Quarrelsome Behavior in Interactions Between Romantic Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C

    2011-11-30

    This study used multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM; Preacher, Zyphur, & Zhang, 2010) to examine within-person processes that give rise to quarrelsome behavior in interactions between romantic partners. Based on Interpersonal Theory and Adult Attachment Theory, we hypothesized that a person's quarrelsome behavior would be predicted by (a) the direct effect of the partner's quarrelsome behavior, (b) an indirect effect mediated by the person's perceptions of the partner's quarrelsome behavior, and (c) an indirect effect mediated by the person's felt security. Using an event-contingent recording methodology, both partners in 93 cohabiting community couples reported independently on their quarrelsome behavior, felt security, and perceptions of the partner's quarrelsome behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Findings (see Figure 1 ) supported a direct effect of partner's increases in quarrelsome behavior on person's increases in quarrelsome behavior. This association was partly accounted for by perceptions of partner's behavior and felt security following these perceptions. The more a person perceived the partner as engaging in quarrelsome behavior, the more the person engaged in quarrelsome behavior [indirect effect = .016, 95% CI (.009 - .022)]. Furthermore, the person's perception of greater quarrelsomeness in the partner's behavior was associated with decreases in the person's felt security, which in turn were related to increases in a person's quarrelsome behavior [indirect effect = .009, 95% CI (.005 - .013)]. No gender differences were found. Findings indicate that a partner's increase in quarrelsome behavior is partly related to a person's increase in quarrelsome behavior in part to the extent that the person perceives the behavior as quarrelsome and consequently feels insecure during the interaction. Findings illustrate an application of MSEM for assessing multilevel mediation in the dyadic context. Moreover, the results

  10. Evaluation of possible physical-chemical processes that might lead to separations of actinides in ORNL waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Bond, W.D.; Dai, S.

    1997-09-01

    The concern that there might be some physical-chemical process which would lead to a separation of the poisoning actinides ( 232 Th, 238 U) from the fissionable ones ( 239 Pu, 235 U) in waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to a paper study of potential separations processes involving these elements. At the relatively high pH values (>8), the actinides are normally present as precipitated hydroxides. Mechanisms that might then selectively dissolve and reprecipitate the actinides through thermal processes or additions of reagents were addressed. Although redox reactions, pH changes, and complexation reactions were all considered, only the last type was regarded as having any significant probability. Furthermore, only carbonate accumulation, through continual unmonitored air sparging of the tank contents, could credibly account for gross transport and separation of the actinide components. From the large amount of equilibrium data in the literature, concentration differences in Th, U, and Pu due to carbonate complexation as a function of pH have been presented to demonstrate this phenomenon. While the carbonate effect does represent a potential separations process, control of long-term air sparging and solution pH, accompanied by routine determinations of soluble carbonate concentration, should ensure that this separations process does not occur

  11. Are stressful developmental processes of youths leading to health problems amplified by genetic polymorphisms? The case of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Oshri, Assaf

    2014-07-01

    Although previous research has documented the adverse influence of early socioeconomic disadvantage on youths' physical health outcomes and the increase in health inequalities over the early life course, little is known about genetically informed sequential life course developmental processes leading to health outcomes. Consistent with the life course-stress process perspective, we hypothesized that early socioeconomic adversity initiates a stress process over the early life course. This process involves the disrupted transition from adolescence to young adulthood, which increases the risk of health problems during young adulthood. Behavioral, psychosocial, and genetic data were collected from 12,424 adolescents (53 % female) over a period of 13 years participating in the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and the polygenic influence were measured using composite indices. The study provided evidence for stressful developmental processes of adolescents, involving parental rejection, depressive symptoms, and adolescents' precocious transition. This longitudinal process was initiated by early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and eventuated with young adults' increased body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, the study provided evidence for the influence of life context-gene interactions (G × E) on adolescents' precocious development and young adult BMI (after controlling for the lagged measure) amplifying the stress process over the early life course. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating individual genetic characteristics in a longitudinal context into life course stress research. Furthermore, policies focused on eradicating childhood/adolescent adversities are necessary as well as youth programs and policies that promote youth competencies that aid in their successful transition to young adulthood.

  12. Evaluation of Integrated Time-Temperature Effect in Pyrolysis Process of Historically Contaminated Soils with Cadmium (Cd and Lead (Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmău C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that heavy metals pollution causes important concern to human and ecosystem health. Heavy metals in soils at the European level represents 37.3% between main contaminates affecting soils (EEA, 2007. This paper illustrates results obtained in the framework of laboratory experiments concerning the evaluation of integrated time-temperature effect in pyrolysis process applied to contaminated soil by two different ways: it is about heavy metals historically contaminated soil from one of the most polluted areas within Romania, and artificially contaminated with PCB-containing transformer oil. In particular, the authors focused on a recent evaluation of pyrolysis efficiency on removing lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd from the contaminated soil. The experimental study evaluated two important parameters related to the studied remediation methodology: thermal process temperature and the retention time in reactor of the contaminated soils. The remediation treatments were performed in a rotary kiln reactor, taking into account three process temperatures (400°C, 600°C and 800°C and two retention times: 30 min. and 60 min. Completed analyses have focused on pyrolysis solids and gas products. Consequently, both ash and gas obtained after pyrolysis process were subjected to chemical analyses.

  13. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of spectromicroscopic methods. 4. Artificial aging of model samples of co-precipitates of lead chromate and lead sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Miliani, Costanza; Van der Snickt, Geert; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Cestelli Guidi, Mariangela; Radepont, Marie; Cotte, Marine

    2013-01-15

    Previous investigations about the darkening of chrome yellow pigments revealed that this form of alteration is attributable to a reduction of the original Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and that the presence of sulfur-containing compounds, most often sulfates, plays a key role during this process. We recently demonstrated that different crystal forms of chrome yellow pigments (PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4)) are present in paintings by Vincent van Gogh. In the present work, we show how both the chemical composition and the crystalline structure of lead chromate-based pigments influence their stability. For this purpose, oil model samples made with in-house synthesized powders of PbCrO(4) and PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4) were artificially aged and characterized. We observed a profound darkening only for those paint models made with PbCr(1-x)S(x)O(4), rich in SO(4)(2-) (x ≥ 0.4), and orthorhombic phases (>30 wt %). Cr and S K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure investigations revealed in an unequivocal manner the formation of up to about 60% of Cr(III)-species in the outer layer of the most altered samples; conversely, independent of the paint models' chemical composition, no change in the S-oxidation state was observed. Analyses employing UV-visible diffuse reflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on unaged and aged model samples in order to obtain additional information on the physicochemical changes induced by the aging treatment.

  14. Controlling the Color of Lead-Free Red Overglaze Enamels and a Process for Preparing High-Quality Red Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Inada, Hirofumi; Okazaki, Yuki; Takaishi, Taigo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Takada, Jun

    2016-05-04

    Akae porcelain, an artistic Japanese traditional overglaze ceramic typically known for Kakiemon-style ware, has fascinated porcelain lovers around the world for over 400 years because of the graceful red color displayed by akae that matches so well with white porcelain bodies. In this work, we clarified the factors that control the color of akae and those that are conventionally controlled by artisans based on empirical experience. Inspired by a recent particle-design method, we also developed a practical facile process to prepare red paints that yields high-quality akae. Various akae samples were prepared from a combination of lead-free alkali borosilicate glass frits with different particle sizes and hematite powders with differing dispersibilities. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that considering only the dispersibility of hematite powders is not sufficient, but the frit-particle size must be controlled to obtain high-quality akae with a high reflectance value for ≥580 nm visible light. In addition, we developed a process for preparing high-quality red paints that uses a large-particle frit powder and a strongly aggregated-hematite powder, both of which are easily obtainable. The red paint composed of frit, hematite, and the solvent is mixed until the paint is drying. By adding more solvent and repeating this process three times, we obtained high-quality akae with a higher reflectance value than for the akae prepared from a frit with submicron-sized particles and weakly aggregated-hematite powder. On the basis of transmission electron microscopic observations, we consider the red paint to consist of a core/shell-like composite structure of frit and hematite, forming a three-dimensional network in the akae glass layer. The good dispersibility of these particles leads to high-quality akae.

  15. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  16. Determination of regression functions for the charging and discharging processes of valve regulated lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a deep discharge of AGM SVT 300 valve-regulated lead-acid batteries using the ten-hour discharge current, the batteries were charged using variable current. In accordance with the obtained results, exponential and polynomial functions for the approximation of the specified processes were analyzed. The main evaluation instrument for the quality of the implemented approximations was the adjusted coefficient of determination R-2. It was perceived that the battery discharge process might be successfully approximated with both an exponential and the second order polynomial function. On all the occasions analyzed, values of the adjusted coefficient of determination were greater than 0.995. The charging process of the deeply discharged batteries was successfully approximated with the exponential function; the measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination being nearly 0.95. Apart from the high measured values of the adjusted coefficient of determination, polynomial approximations of the second and third order did not provide satisfactory results regarding the interpolation of the battery charging characteristics. A possibility for a practical implementation of the procured regression functions in uninterruptible power supply systems was described.

  17. A geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miaomiao; Tang, Yinghui; Fu, Yonghong

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we consider a geometric process model for M/PH(M/PH)/1/K queue with new service machine procurement lead time. A maintenance policy (N - 1, N) based on the number of failures of the service machine is introduced into the system. Assuming that a failed service machine after repair will not be 'as good as new', and the spare service machine for replacement is only available by an order. More specifically, we suppose that the procurement lead time for delivering the spare service machine follows a phase-type (PH) distribution. Under such assumptions, we apply the matrix-analytic method to develop the steady state probabilities of the system, and then we obtain some system performance measures. Finally, employing an important Lemma, the explicit expression of the long-run average cost rate for the service machine is derived, and the direct search method is also implemented to determine the optimal value of N for minimising the average cost rate.

  18. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine No. 31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) {mu}S/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 {mu}S/cm; mean 48h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness, suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. The results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded about to 3,700 {mu}S/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  19. Process development for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions using red mud--an aluminium industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V K; Gupta, M; Sharma, S

    2001-04-01

    Red mud, an aluminium industry waste, has been converted into an inexpensive and efficient adsorbent and used for the removal of lead and chromium from aqueous solutions. Effect of various factors on the removal of these metal ions from water (e.g. pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.) has been studied and discussed. The effect of presence of other metal ions/surfactants on the removal of Pb2+ and Cr6+ has also been studied. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the data follow both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Thermodynamic parameters indicate the feasibility of the process. Kinetic studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of adsorption. Dynamic modelling of lead and chromium removal on red mud has been undertaken and found to follow first-order kinetics. The rate constant and mass transfer coefficient have also been evaluated under optimum conditions of removal in order to understand the mechanism. Column studies have been carried out to compare these with batch capacities. The recovery of Pb2+ and Cr6+ and chemical regeneration of the spent column have also been tried.

  20. Exclusive processes beyond leading twist: {gamma}*T {yields} {rho}T impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland); Anikin, Igor V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Joliot-Curie st., 6, Moskovskaya obl., 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Acad. Koptyug pr., 4, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method is based on the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light-cone. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised {rho}-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy. (Phys.Lett.B682:413-418,2010 and Nucl.Phys.B828:1-68,2010.). (authors)

  1. The process leading to affirmation of life with cleft lip and cleft palate: the importance of acquiring coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Tomoko; Ito, Mikiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the experiences of people with cleft lip and cleft palate (CLCP) and to describe the processes and factors leading to the acquisition of high self-esteem. Semi-structured interviews were conducted of 19 subjects with CLCP recruited via hospitals and through snowball sampling, and the results were analyzed qualitatively, comparing high and low self-esteem groups. Participants with high self-esteem had gone through the phases of "noticing their difference from others", "knowing about and deepening their understanding of CLCP", "no denial of their life with CLCP" and "affirmation of life with CLCP". Seven factor categories including "received sufficient explanation of CLCP condition (from parents) in the early stage", "have not received negative messages about CLCP" and "feeling the presence of someone who accepts their feelings and supports them" were extracted as factors promoting these processes. Knowing about and understanding CLCP enables individuals to acquire a sense of coherence in their lives, which may be related to gaining a feeling of control over their cleft condition, acquiring a sense of autonomy, and finding a meaning for their lives. Thus, medical professionals should provide explanations that enable patients to understand CLCP, and also facilitate interaction between patients with the same condition. © 2011 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2011 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  2. [Clinical manifestations of lead levels in children exposed to automobile battery recycling processes in Soacha and Bogotá, D.C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Myriam; Echeverry, Jairo

    2008-03-01

    Lead is a harmless metal if not handled directly in the industrial process. Even thought lead has been eliminated from the gasoline in many countries, automobile battery recycling continues to be a potential source of exposure and intoxication for the workers and their families, particularly of low income. The current investigation was initiated after an index case of lead poisoning was reported from Soacha, Cundinamarca, in central Colombia. Clinical investigation established lead levels and lead poison frequency in children with para-occupational lead exposure in the process of recycling automobile batteries. This was designed as a descriptive study, with selection of subjects with high risk of possible lead exposure. Minors, mostly of school age were recruited based on referral by relatives, neighbors or acquaintances, all of whom were involved in para-occupational exposure. Thirty two children, less than 12 years old (majority school age), were included. General and specific examinations of the children were made, and blood samples were taken for lead and hematological determinations. All subjects showed high levels of lead (2-9 times the maximum acceptable value) and, according to established criteria, two-thirds were rated as severely poisoned. The children with high levels of lead had tendency toward more specific hematological compromise and showing black gingival bordering (Burton border). This study communicates to the sanitary authorities and government a clear sign of alarm in that measures must be taken to diminish the occupational or para-occupational lead exposure of children by way of the automobile battery recycling industry.

  3. Evidence for the Involvement of Membranous Bodies in the Processes Leading to Genetic Transformation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, David R.; Vermeulen, Cornelius A.; Venema, Gerhardus

    1966-01-01

    Wolstenholme, David R. (Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Tübingen, Germany), Cornelius A. Vermeulen, and Gerhardus Venema. Evidence for the involvement of membranous bodies in the processes leading to genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1111–1121. 1966.—Data obtained from electron microscopic autoradiographs of profiles of cells of a Bacillus subtilis population exposed to H3-thymidine-labeled donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during the phase of maximal competence indicated that molecules originating from absorbed DNA are closely associated with membranous bodies, particularly with those situated in the cytoplasm, but that most if not all of the radioactive molecules are outside the bodies. It is suggested that membranous bodies produce enzymes essential to the eventual incorporation of transforming DNA into the bacterial genome, or to the breakdown and utilization or expulsion of absorbed DNA not incorporated as transformant (or to both processes). During the phase of maximal competence, the total number of membranous bodies seen in profiles increased continuously to as much as 2.3 times the numbers found during earlier stages of culture. This increase was not accounted for by a decrease in bacterial cell volume, but resulted from an actual increase in total volume of membranous bodies. The number of membranous bodies visibly connecting plasma membrane and nuclear region increased during maximal competence to as much as 30 times the numbers found in earlier stages. As both increases were found in the absence of donor DNA and only began after maximal competence was attained, it seemed most probable that they were an expression of a physiological state influenced by the continuing deficiency of nutrients in the growth medium during this phase of culture. Images PMID:4959042

  4. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain): Risk assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ricardo; García, M Ángeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2018-01-29

    Currently, metal bioaccumulation in fish is increasing and is a cause of concern due to toxicity. Total arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry. The average concentrations of As and Cd, 3.78 and 0.024 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively, in fresh tuna were statistically significantly higher than those in processed tuna (p  natural > pickled sauce. Of the two species studied in canned tuna, Thunnus alalunga showed statistically significant higher levels both for As 1.28 mg kg -1 (p < 0.001) and Pb 0.013 mg kg -1 (p = 0.0496) than Thunnus albacares. No samples surpassed the limits set by the EU for Cd and Pb. The limit for As in fish has not been established, but the arsenic contents in fresh tuna reported here are important, as they are among the highest reported in the literature. Considering public health in children and adults with respect to the investigated metals, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) did not exceed the tolerable intakes. No chronic systemic risk was found since all the target hazard quotients (THQs-TTHQs) were far below 1 (critical value), and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for As did not exceed the acceptable value of 10 -5 . Thus, tuna consumption in the Galician diet does not pose a risk for different population groups in terms of these studied metals/metalloids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. QCD factorization of exclusive processes beyond leading twist: γT*→ρT impact factor with twist three accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I.V.; Ivanov, D.Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the ρ T distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised ρ-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.

  6. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  7. Inside the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions by De-Oiled Allspice Husk in batch and continuous processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Olivares, J.; Perez-Alonso, C. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon interseccion Paseo Tollocan S/N. C.P. 50120, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Barrera-Diaz, C., E-mail: cbarrera@uaemex.mx [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez, G.; Balderas-Hernandez, P. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    A new adsorbent material for removing lead ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The residue of the allspice extraction process (De-Oiled Allspice Husk) was used on the removal of Pb(II) from water solutions. The lead sorption capacity of De-Olied Allspice Husk (DOAH) was studied in batch and continuous processes. It was found that percentage removals of Pb(II) depend on the pH and the initial lead concentrations. The Pb(II) uptake process was maximum at pH 5 in a range concentrations of 5-25 mg L{sup -1}. The overall sorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model under conditions of pH 5 (0.1 g adsorbent per 100 mL of contaminated solution) 0.001 mass/volume ratio and 25 deg. C. The sorption capacity of lead(II) onto DOAH in batch process was 5.00, 8.02, 11.59, 15.23 and 20.07 mg g{sup -1}, when the concentration solutions were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L{sup -1} respectively. These values are lower than obtained in continuous process, where lead was removed by 95% and the experimental results were appropriately fitted by the Yoon-Nelson model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides information regarding the interactions between lead ions and the adsorbent surface indicating that the formation of 2 complexes depends on the functional groups associated.

  8. Mechanistic study of lead desorption during the leaching process of ion-absorbed rare earths: pH effect and the column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Q.; Tang, J., Sr.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    High concentrations of ammonium sulfate, often used in the in-situ mining process, can result in a decrease of pH in the environment and dissolution of rare earth metals. Ammonium sulfate can also cause desorption of toxic heavy metals, leading to environmental and human health implications. In this study, the desorption behavior and fraction changes of lead in the ion-absorbed rare earth ore were studied using batch desorption experiments and column leaching tests. Results from batch desorption experiments showed that the desorption process of lead included fast and slow stages, and followed an Elovich model well. The desorption rate and the proportion of lead content in the solution to the total lead in the soil were observed to increase with a decrease in the initial pH of the ammonium sulfate solution. The lead in soil included an acid extractable fraction, reducible fraction, oxidizable fraction, and a residual fraction, with the predominant fractions being the reducible and acid extractable fractions. 96% of the extractable fraction in soil were desorbed into solution at pH=3.0, and the content of the reducible fraction was observed to initially increase (when pH>4.0) and then decrease (when pHsoil followed the trend of reducible fraction > oxidizable fraction > acid extractable fraction > residual fraction after the simulating leaching mining process. The change in pH was also found to have a larger influence on the acid extractable and reducible fractions than the other two fractions. The proportion of the extractable fraction being leached was ca. 86%, and the reducible fraction was enriched along the migration direction of the leaching liquid. These results suggest that certain lead fractions may desorb again and contaminate the environment via acid rain, which provides significant information for environmental assessment and remediation after mining process.

  9. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael

    2014-07-31

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. 3D simulation of the cold extrusion process of non-symmetric section of tellurium-lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Eskandari Jam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, making use of the ABAQUS software, an extrusion simulation is made with Tellurium-lead alloy. In this respect, two kinds of die land and their effects on extrusion force are investigated. The results are compared with available experimental ones in some references. The results show that a straight-line product is achieved by adding die lands to the die (with two statements, which increases the extrusion load and the deformation of the metal significantly. Also is investigated that the amount of force increase in the second state decreased in comparison with the first state.

  11. Error-Induced Blindness: Error Detection Leads to Impaired Sensory Processing and Lower Accuracy at Short Response-Stimulus Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Beatty, Paul J; Paquette, Natalie A; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G

    2017-03-15

    Empirical evidence indicates that detecting one's own mistakes can serve as a signal to improve task performance. However, little work has focused on how task constraints, such as the response-stimulus interval (RSI), influence post-error adjustments. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the time course of error-related processing while humans performed a difficult visual discrimination task. We found that error commission resulted in a marked reduction in both task performance and sensory processing on the following trial when RSIs were short, but that such impairments were not detectable at longer RSIs. Critically, diminished sensory processing at short RSIs, indexed by the stimulus-evoked P1 component, was predicted by an ERP measure of error processing, the Pe component. A control analysis ruled out a general lapse in attention or mind wandering as being predictive of subsequent reductions in sensory processing; instead, the data suggest that error detection causes an attentional bottleneck, which can diminish sensory processing on subsequent trials that occur in short succession. The findings demonstrate that the neural system dedicated to monitoring and improving behavior can, paradoxically, at times be the source of performance failures. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The performance-monitoring system is a network of brain regions dedicated to monitoring behavior to adjust task performance when necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that activation of the performance monitoring system following incorrect decisions serves to improve future task performance. However, the present study provides evidence that, when perceptual decisions must be made rapidly (within approximately half a second of each other), activation of the performance-monitoring system is predictive of impaired task-related attention on the subsequent trial. The data illustrate that the cognitive demands imposed by error processing

  12. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  13. Adsorption of aluminum and lead from wastewater by chitosan-tannic acid modified biopolymers: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and process mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, M A; Negm, N A; Abou Kana, M T H; Hefni, H H; Abdel Moneem, M M

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan was reacted by tannic acid to obtain three modified chitosan biopolymer. Their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis. The prepared biopolymers were used to adsorb Al(III) and Pb(II) metal ions from industrial wastewater. The factors affecting the adsorption process were biosorbent amount, initial concentration of metal ion and pH of the medium. The adsorption efficiency increased considerably with the increase of the biosorbent amount and pH of the medium. The adsorption process of biosorbent on different metal ions was fitted by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetics was followed Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process occurred according to diffusion mechanism which was confirmed by the interparticle diffusion model. The modified biopolymers were efficient biosorbents for removal of Pb(II) and Al(III) metal ions from the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS: Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa D. Pfeifer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow. This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity. No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more

  15. Signal Processing in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): Methodological Differences Lead to Different Statistical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Mischa D; Scholkmann, Felix; Labruyère, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Even though research in the field of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been performed for more than 20 years, consensus on signal processing methods is still lacking. A significant knowledge gap exists between established researchers and those entering the field. One major issue regularly observed in publications from researchers new to the field is the failure to consider possible signal contamination by hemodynamic changes unrelated to neurovascular coupling (i.e., scalp blood flow and systemic blood flow). This might be due to the fact that these researchers use the signal processing methods provided by the manufacturers of their measurement device without an advanced understanding of the performed steps. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different signal processing approaches (including and excluding approaches that partially correct for the possible signal contamination) affect the results of a typical functional neuroimaging study performed with fNIRS. In particular, we evaluated one standard signal processing method provided by a commercial company and compared it to three customized approaches. We thereby investigated the influence of the chosen method on the statistical outcome of a clinical data set (task-evoked motor cortex activity). No short-channels were used in the present study and therefore two types of multi-channel corrections based on multiple long-channels were applied. The choice of the signal processing method had a considerable influence on the outcome of the study. While methods that ignored the contamination of the fNIRS signals by task-evoked physiological noise yielded several significant hemodynamic responses over the whole head, the statistical significance of these findings disappeared when accounting for part of the contamination using a multi-channel regression. We conclude that adopting signal processing methods that correct for physiological confounding effects might yield more realistic results

  16. Determination of lead and cadmium contaminations in UF-Cheese and yoghurt produced in Esfahan and GolpayeganPegah Dairy Processing Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jaberi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk is a complicated liquid that contains necessary components for the growth of mammalian neonate. Milk can get polluted by heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, the concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in 12 yoghurt and 12 UF cheese samples produced in each of the Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah Dairy Processing Establishments. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry by furnace according to AOAC instruction. According to the results, lead concentrations (Mean ± SD in yoghurt and UF cheese samples produced in Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah were estimated at 54.96 ± 35.21, 61.65 ± 19.62, 105.38 ± 59.09, 141.94 ± 63.44 μg/Kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the concentrations were determined as 19.03 ± 1.23, 16.84 ± 8.08, 53.79 ± 19.29, 37.67 ± 22.58 μg/Kg, respectively. Results revealed a significant difference (P≥0.05 in lead and cadmium concentrations among the cheese samples of the two Dairy Processing Establishments. However, lead and cadmium concentrations in all samples were within the international approved limit (200 ppb.

  17. An experimental analysis of critical factors involved in the breakdown process of leading edge vortex flows. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental crosswire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Survey grids were taken normal to the platform at a series of chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core as well as on chordwise location was examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data was made. The circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows approximately linearly in the chordwise direction. For regions of the flow outside of the vortex subcore, the circulation at any chordwise station was observed to vary logarithmically with distance from the vortex axis. The circulation was also found to increase linearly with angle of incidence at a given chordwise station. A reduction in the local circulation about the vortex axis occurred at breakdown. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity was severely altered through the breakdown region and the spanwise distribution of axial vorticity present appeared to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The local concentration of axial vorticity about the vortex axis was reduced while the magnitude of the azimuthal vorticity decreased throughout the breakdown zone. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, found in the secondary vortex, remained unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. The inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter indicated that the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows were similar at corresponding radii from the vortex axis. It was concluded that the flow over a delta wing, upstream of the breakdown regions and away from the apex and trailing edge regions, is conical. In addition, the dominating

  18. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  19. Lead extraction and glass-ceramics synthesis from waste cathode ray tube funnel glass through cooperative smelting process with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Zhao, Minglei

    2018-03-14

    In this study, a novel process was developed for extracting lead from the hazardous waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass and simultaneously producing glass-ceramics. CRT funnel glass was mixed with coal fly ash and subjected to carbon thermal reduction with the addition of CaO. The homogeneous glass melt and reduced metallic lead were quenched in water. Glass-ceramics were produced from the parent glass through an appropriate heat treatment. The optimum carbon loading amount (calculated as the molar ratio of C/PbO), CaO/SiO 2 ratio, smelting temperature and holding time for lead recovery were 1.0, 0.3-0.6, 1450 °C and 2 h, respectively. Under these conditions, more than 95% of lead can be extracted from the funnel glass and a low lead content of the resultant parent glass below 0.6 wt% was successfully achieved. CaO behaved as a network modifier to reduce the viscosity of the glass and also acted as a substitution to release lead oxide from the silicate network structure, resulting in a high lead separation efficiency. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase was gehlenite when 50-70 wt% funnel glass was added. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that well-crystallized crystals occurred in the specimens with 50-70 wt% funnel glass additions, whereas the specimens with 40 wt% and 80 wt% glass additions exhibited a relative low crystallization degree. Furthermore, property measurements, chemical resistance tests and leaching characteristics of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the superior glass-ceramic products. Overall results indicate that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  1. When the Second Language Takes the Lead: Neurocognitive Processing Changes in the First Language of Adult Attriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce. Moreover, most event-related-potential (ERP) studies of second language processing have focused on L1 influence on the L2, while cross-linguistic influence in the reverse direction has been underexplored. Using ERPs, we examined the real-time processing of Italian relative-clauses in 24 Italian-English adult migrants with predominant use of English since immigration and reporting attrition of their native-Italian (Attriters), compared to 30 non-attriting monolinguals in Italy (Controls). Our results showed that Attriters differed from Controls in their acceptability judgment ratings and ERP responses when relative clause constructions were ungrammatical in English, though grammatical in Italian. Controls' ERP responses to unpreferred sentence constructions were consistent with garden path effects typically observed in the literature for these complex sentences. In contrast, due to L2-English influence, Attriters were less sensitive to semantic cues than to word-order preferences, and processed permissible Italian sentences as outright morphosyntactic violations. Key factors modulating processing differences within Attriters were the degree of maintained L1 exposure, length of residence in the L2 environment and L2 proficiency - with higher levels of L2 immersion and proficiency associated with increased L2 influence on the L1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that

  2. Effects of improved process for CuO-doped NKN lead-free ceramics on high-power piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Ling; Tsai, Cheng-Che; Liou, Yi-Cheng; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Li, Bing-Jing; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the electrical proper- ties of CuO-doped (Na(0.5)K(0.5))NbO(3) (NKN) ceramics prepared separately using the B-site oxide precursor method (BO method) and conventional mixed-oxide method (MO method) on high-power piezoelectric transformers (PTs) were investigated. The performances of PTs made with these two substrates were compared. Experimental results showed that the output power and temperature stability of PTs could be enhanced because of the lower resonant impedance of the ceramics prepared using the BO method. In addition, the output power of PTs was more affected by the resonant impedance than by the mechanical quality factor (Q(m)) of the ceramics. The PTs fabricated with ceramics prepared using the BO method showed a high efficiency of more than 94% and a maximum output power of 8.98 W (power density: 18.3 W/cm(3)) with temperature increase of 3°C under the optimum load resistance (5 kΩ) and an input voltage of 150 V(pp). This output power of the lead-free disk-type PTs is the best reported so far.

  3. Impact ionization processes in the steady state of a driven Mott-insulating layer coupled to metallic leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorantin, Max E.; Dorda, Antonius; Held, Karsten; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    We study a simple model of photovoltaic energy harvesting across a Mott-insulating gap consisting of a correlated layer connected to two metallic leads held at different chemical potentials. We address, in particular, the issue of impact ionization, whereby a particle photoexcited to the high-energy part of the upper Hubbard band uses its extra energy to produce a second particle-hole excitation. We find a drastic increase of the photocurrent upon entering the frequency regime where impact ionization is possible. At large values of the Mott gap, where impact ionization is energetically not allowed, we observe a suppression of the current and a piling up of charge in the high-energy part of the upper Hubbard band. Our study is based on a Floquet dynamical mean-field theory treatment of the steady state with the so-called auxiliary master equation approach as impurity solver. We verify that an additional approximation, taking the self-energy diagonal in the Floquet indices, is appropriate for the parameter range we are considering.

  4. Seed priming with KNO3mediates biochemical processes to inhibit lead toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Akram, Asim; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Ahmad, Khawaja S; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Sardar, Hasan; Shabbir, Rana N; Majeed, Sadia; Shehzad, Muhammad A; Anwar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of lead (Pb) in agricultural soils has become a major factor for reduced crop yields and poses serious threats to humans consuming agricultural products. The present study investigated the effects of KNO 3 seed priming (0 and 0.5% KNO 3 ) on growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to Pb toxicity (0, 1300 and 2550 mg kg -1 Pb). Pb exposure markedly reduced the growth of maize seedlings and resulted in higher Pb accumulation in roots than shoots. Pretreatment of seeds with KNO 3 significantly improved the germination percentage and increased physiological indices. A stimulating effect of KNO 3 seed priming was also observed on pigments (chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents) of Pb-stressed plants. Low translocation of Pb from roots to shoots caused an increased accumulation of total free amino acids and higher activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase in roots as compared to shoot, which were further enhanced by exogenous KNO 3 supply to prevent Pb toxicity. Maize accumulates more Pb in roots than shoot at early growth stages. Priming of seeds with KNO 3 prevents Pb toxicity, which may be exploited to improve seedling establishment in crop species grown under Pb contaminated soils. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other parts ... 800-424-5323) • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Lead Awareness Program http: / / www. epa. gov/ lead • EPA publication “ ...

  6. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. One-step, solution-processed formamidinium lead trihalide (FAPbI(3-x)Cl(x)) for mesoscopic perovskite-polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Siliu; Pang, Shuping; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Padture, Nitin P; Hu, Hao; Wang, Li; Zhou, Xinhong; Zhu, Huimin; Zhang, Lixue; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Guanglei

    2014-09-28

    Formamidinium (FA) lead triiodide perovskite with chlorine addition (NH2CH=NH2PbI(3-x)Clx) is employed as a light harvester in mesoscopic solar cells for the first time. It is demonstrated that a phase-pure FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskite layer can be synthesized using a one-step solution-process at 140 °C, and the resultant solar cells deliver a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.51%, which is the most efficient formamidinium-lead-halide perovskite mesoscopic solar cell employing a polymer hole-transporting layer. The effects of the thermal annealing temperature on the quality/morphology of the perovskite layer and the solar cells performance are discussed. The advantages offered by the one-step solution-processing method and the reduced bandgap make FAPbI(3-x)Clx perovskites an attractive choice for future hybrid photovoltaics.

  8. Evaluation of influence of the locality, the vintage year, wine variety and fermentation process on volume of cooper and lead in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jedlička

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have focused on the influence evaluation of the locality, the vintage year and fermentation process on the volume of copper and lead into grape must and wine. First of all copper and lead volume was assessed into fresh grape musts. Subsequently the musts were fermented. During the wines analyses we found great decrease of copper by the fermentation process. Assessed Cu2+ values vary from 0.07 to 0.2 mg.L-1 and represent a decrease of the original copper volume from 90 to 97%. On the copper content into grape has probably the significant influence also the precipitation amount, which falling in the second part of the vegetation half a year. Total rainfall in the period before the grape harvesting (the months of August - September was for the first year 153 mm and for second year 137,5 mm. During both observed vintage years it was concerning to the above average values. Copper is not possible to eliminate totally in the protection of the vine against fungal diseases, because against it does not come into existence resistance into a pathogen. For resolution of this problem it is suitable to combine the copper and organic products. Fermentation affect as a biological filter and influence also lead volume. Into analysed wines we found the decrease of the lead volume from 25 to 94%. Maximal assessed Pb2+ value into wine was 0.09 mg.L-1. The linear relationship between lead and copper into grape must in relationship to the lead and copper into wine was not statistically demonstrated. We found the statistically significant relationship in lead content into grape must by the influence of the vintage year, which as we supposed, it was connected with the atmospheric precipitation quantity and distribution during the vegetation. On the base of the assessed results of the lead and copper volume into wine, we state that by using of the faultless material and appropriate technological equipment during the wine production, it is possible to eliminate almost

  9. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingfei; Fu, Zegang; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B 2 O 3 in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na 2 O, K 2 O, Al 2 O 3, BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5mol/L HNO 3 . The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO 2 purity >95wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B 2 O 3 added amount and holding time at 1000°C, 20% and 30mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Processed data for CHMS 2007–2009: Bisphenol A, phthalates and lead and learning and behavioral problems in Canadian children 6–19 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tye E. Arbuckle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents processed data from an analysis of cross-sectional data from Cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS to examine the potential association between urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites and child learning and behavioral problems, considering important covariates such as gender, blood lead and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. These processed data are related to the research on a subset of the children (Arbuckle et al., 2016 [1]. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ outcomes of interest were emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, and a total difficulties SDQ score, with borderline and abnormal scores grouped together and compared with children with normal scores. Other outcomes studied included reported learning disability, ADD/ADHD (attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and use of psychotropic medications to treat behavioral disorders in the past month. Data are presented for all children 6–19 years of age combined.Weighted simple logistic regression estimates for important covariates of each of the outcomes from CHMS Cycle 1 children are reported. Odds ratios based on weighted multiple logistic regression estimates for urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites (including specific gravity as a covariate and blood lead are presented for the reported outcomes ADD/ADHD, learning disability and psychotropic medications, as well as the SDQ outcomes emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention and total difficulties. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Lead, Phthalates, Behavior, Children

  11. Ultrafine particles derived from mineral processing: A case study of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore with emphasis on lead-bearing colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Vorobyev, Sergey; Romanchenko, Alexander; Karasev, Sergey; Karacharov, Anton; Zharkov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Although mining and mineral processing industry is a vast source of heavy metal pollutants, the formation and behavior of micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles and their aqueous colloids entered the environment from the technological media has received insufficient attention to date. Here, the yield and characteristics of ultrafine mineral entities produced by routine grinding of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore (Gorevskoe ore deposit, Russia) were studied using laser diffraction analysis (LDA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement, microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with most attention given to toxic lead species. It was revealed, in particular, that the fraction of particles less that 1 μm in the ground ore typical reaches 0.4 vol. %. The aquatic particles in supernatants were micrometer size aggregates with increased content of zinc, sulfur, calcium as compared with the bulk ore concentrations. The hydrodynamic diameter of the colloidal species decreased with time, with their zeta potentials remaining about -12 mV. The colloids produced from galena were composed of 20-50 nm PbS nanoparticles associated with lead sulfate and thiosulfate, while the surface oxidation products at precipitated galena were largely lead oxyhydroxides. The size and zeta potential of the lead-bearing colloids decreased with time down to about 100 nm and from -15 mV to -30 mV, respectively. And, conversely, lead sulfide nanoparticles were mobilized before the aggregates during redispersion of the precipitates in fresh portions of water. The potential environmental impact of the metal-bearing colloids, which is due to the large-scale production and relative stability, is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of respirable particulate exposure and its effect to public health around lead smelter and e-waste processing industry in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselina, M.; Roosmini, D.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ayu A, M.; Cahyadi, W.

    2016-03-01

    Respirable particulate exposure strongly affects human health, especially for children who lived around industrial area. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of respirable particulate exposure to lung capacity of children. Study location in this study was Parung Panjang District, area of lead smelter industry and also in Astana Anyar District, area of e-waste processing industry. Thirty children were involved in Astana Anyar District and also thirty children in Parung Panjang District. The control groups were also studied in both areas. Predicted average daily intake (ADD) of respirable particulate was estimated and lung or respiration condition of children was measured by using spirometer. The lung condition of respondents was estimated by FEV1.0 and FVC values. As the result, the predicted ADD of children in lead smelter area is 3 times higher than the predicted ADD of children in e-waste processing area. It was correlated positively with the higher PM2.5 concentration in Parung Panjang District than the PM2.5 concentration in Astana Anyar District. Metals concentration in Parung Panjang was also measured with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in this study and it was clearly state that metals concentration in location study were higher than metals concentration in control area.

  13. THE EFFICIENCY OF USING MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum FOR ADJUSTING THE INTENSITY OF OXIDATIVE PROCESSES IN CARP IN THE CONDITIONS OF LEAD CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Opalynskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of milk thistle on the intensity of oxidative processes in carp under the conditions of experimental toxic contamination with lead. Methodology. Experimental works were conducted in laboratory conditions. The object of the study was age-1+ carp, which were divided into three groups of 12–15 fish in each. Carp of the group 1 (intact, which received 3% starch paste through a probe, were used as a control. Carp of the group 2 were kept during a month in water, in which lead salts (PbNO3 were introduced at quantities corresponding to 10 maximum allowable levels calculated as metal ions. Carp of the group 3 during a month were kept in the same environment of dissolved lead salts and received 3% starch paste through a probe together with ground seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum at a quantity of 80 mg/kg of fish body weight. We examined the effect of milk thistle on lipid peroxidation (LPO and enzyme activity of antioxidant defense system (ADS in carp organism under conditions of lead contamination. TBA-active products were assessed baed on the content of products which reacted with 2-thiobarbituric acid (malondialdehyde. The level of oxidative damage to lipids was also evaluated based on the content of accumulated lipid hydroperoxide. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was determined in the reaction of quercetine oxidation. Catalase activity was assessed in the reaction with ammonium molybdate. Numeric data were processed by biometric method of variation nonparametric analysis using Microsoft Excel and Statistica 6.0. Differences between the values were considered statistically significant: p <0.05; 0.01 and 0.001. Findings. Toxic contamination with heavy metals in conjunction with the physiological stress are the most significant factors, which stimulate the peroxidation and oxidative disorders in the body. This fact was proved in the study using the salts of lead that increased the intensity of the

  14. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  15. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Mingfei [Henan Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Mine Environmental Protection and Ecological Remediation, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Fu, Zegang [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Wang, Yaping, E-mail: wangyp326@163.com [School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan China (China); Wang, Jingyu [Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 Henan China (China); Zhang, Zhiyuan [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. • A part of PbO was reduced into Pb and detached from the glass phase. • The rest of PbO and other metal oxides were mainly concentrated in the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. • PbO enriched in the interconnected B{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase can be completely leached out by HNO{sub 3}. • High silica glass powder(SiO{sub 2} purity >95%) was obtained after the leaching process. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3,} BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO{sub 2} purity >95 wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} added amount and holding time at 1000 °C, 20% and 30 mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste.

  16. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS. Final Technical Report (October 2000 - December 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the work conducted under the program: ''Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells'' under contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The program goal is to advance materials and processes that can be used to produce economical, high-performance solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) capable of achieving extraordinary high power densities at reduced temperatures. Under this program, anode-supported thin electrolyte based on lanthanum gallate (LSMGF) has been developed using tape-calendering process. The fabrication parameters such as raw materials characteristics, tape formulations and sintering conditions have been evaluated. Dense anode supported LSGMF electrolytes with thickness range of 10-50 micron have been fabricated. High performance cathode based on Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 (SSC) has been developed. Polarization of ∼0.23 ohm-cm 2 has been achieved at 600 C with Sr 0.5 Sm 0.5 CoO 3 cathode. The high-performance SSC cathode and thin gallate electrolyte have been integrated into single cells and cell performance has been characterized. Tested cells to date generally showed low performance because of low cell OCVs and material interactions between NiO in the anode and lanthanum gallate electrolyte

  17. FADD cleavage by NK cell granzyme M enhances its self-association to facilitate procaspase-8 recruitment for auto-processing leading to caspase cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Xia, P; Shi, L; Fan, Z

    2012-04-01

    Granzyme M (GzmM), an orphan Gzm, is constitutively and abundantly expressed in innate effector natural killer cells. We previously demonstrated that GzmM induces caspase (casp)-dependent apoptosis and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. We also resolved the crystal structure for GzmM and generated its specific inhibitor. However, how GzmM causes casp activation has not been defined. Here we found that casp-8 is an initiator caspase in GzmM-induced casp cascade, which causes other casp activation and Bid cleavage. GzmM does not directly cleave procaspase-3 and Bid, whose processing is casp dependent. Casp-8 knockdown or deficient cells attenuate or abolish GzmM-induced proteolysis of procaspase-3 and Bid. Extrinsic death receptor pathway adaptor Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) contributes to GzmM-induced casp-8 activation. GzmM specifically cleaves FADD after Met 196 to generate truncated FADD (tFADD) that enhances its self-association for oligomerization. The oligomerized tFADD facilitates procaspase-8 recruitment to promote its auto-processing leading to casp activation cascade. FADD-deficient cells abrogate GzmM-induced activation of casp-8 and apoptosis as well as significantly inhibit lymphokine-activated killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. FADD processing by GzmM can potentiate killing efficacy against tumor cells and intracellular pathogens.

  18. Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout: can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Hammarlund, Dan; Kokfelt, Ulla; Vonk, Jorien E; Bigler, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment records were used as archives of past Pb inputs to the lakes, where the difference in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio between atmospheric contaminants ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio 1.22) were used to trace fluxes of Pb contaminants. Lead contaminants were found in sediments deposited since Roman times. A significant export of Pb from the soil contaminant pool is indicated in two of the lakes surrounded by near-shore permafrost soils. Here, levels of Pb contaminants and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of sediments deposited after the 1970s appear not to have been strongly affected by the >or=90% reduction in atmospheric deposition rates and increasing (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of atmospheric Pb since the 1990s. We concluded that soil processes stimulated by the ongoing climate change at high latitudes might work counteractive to efforts to reduce contaminant levels in subarctic lakes.

  19. Methanol oxidation at platinized lead coatings prepared by a two-step electrodeposition-electroless deposition process on glassy carbon and platinum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, S.; Tegou, A.; Pavlidou, E.; Kokkinidis, G.; Sotiropoulos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Platinized lead deposits, Pt(Pb), have been formed on glassy carbon (GC) and platinum electrodes by a two-step process, whereby a controlled amount of Pb was electrodeposited onto the substrates and was subsequently coated with a thin Pt layer upon immersion of the Pb/GC or Pb/Pt electrodes into a chloroplatinic acid solution. The spontaneous surface replacement of Pb by Pt resulted in Pt(Pb)/GC or Pt(Pb)/Pt electrodes which consisted of dispersed Pt(Pb) particles and displayed typical Pt surface electrochemistry in deaerated acid solutions. When tested as methanol oxidation anodes, these electrodes exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity both during voltammetric and constant potential experiments. This behaviour is attributed to an electronic effect of the underlying Pb onto the Pt surface layer

  20. Patterns of genetic variability and habitat occupancy in Crepis triasii (Asteraceae) at different spatial scales: insights on evolutionary processes leading to diversification in continental islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, Maria; Palau, Carles; Rosselló, Josep A; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Molins, Arántzazu; Riba, Miquel

    2012-02-01

    Archipelagos are unique systems for studying evolutionary processes promoting diversification and speciation. The islands of the Mediterranean basin are major areas of plant richness, including a high proportion of narrow endemics. Many endemic plants are currently found in rocky habitats, showing varying patterns of habitat occupancy at different spatial scales throughout their range. The aim of the present study was to understand the impact of varying patterns of population distribution on genetic diversity and structure to shed light on demographic and evolutionary processes leading to population diversification in Crepis triasii, an endemic plant from the eastern Balearic Islands. Using allozyme and chloroplast markers, we related patterns of genetic structure and diversity to those of habitat occupancy at a regional (between islands and among populations within islands) and landscape (population size and connectivity) scale. Genetic diversity was highly structured both at the regional and at the landscape level, and was positively correlated with population connectivity in the landscape. Populations located in small isolated mountains and coastal areas, with restricted patterns of regional occupancy, were genetically less diverse and much more differentiated. In addition, more isolated populations had stronger fine-scale genetic structure than well-connected ones. Changes in habitat availability and quality arising from marine transgressions during the Quaternary, as well as progressive fragmentation associated with the aridification of the climate since the last glaciation, are the most plausible factors leading to the observed patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Our results emphasize the importance of gene flow in preventing genetic erosion and maintaining the evolutionary potential of populations. They also agree with recent studies highlighting the importance of restricted gene flow and genetic drift as drivers of plant evolution in Mediterranean

  1. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  2. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  3. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  4. Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Module: Phase I Annual Report, October 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R. C.; Meyers, P. V.

    2004-02-01

    Work under this subcontract contributes to the overall manufacturing operation. During Phase I, average module efficiency on the line was improved from 7.1% to 7.9%, due primarily to increased photocurrent resulting from a decrease in CdS thickness. At the same time, production volume for commercial sale increased from 1.5 to 2.5 MW/yr. First Solar is committed to commercializing CdTe-based thin-film photovoltaics. This commercialization effort includes a major addition of floor space and equipment, as well as process improvements to achieve higher efficiency and greater durability. This report presents the results of Phase I of the subcontract entitled''Research Leading to High Throughput Processing of Thin-Film CdTe PV Modules.'' The subcontract supports several important aspects needed to begin high-volume manufacturing, including further development of the semiconductor deposition reactor, advancement of accelerated life testing methods and understanding, and improvements to th e environmental, health, and safety programs. Progress in the development of the semiconductor deposition reactor was made in several areas. First, a new style of vapor transport deposition distributor with simpler operational behavior and the potential for improved cross-web uniformity was demonstrated. Second, an improved CdS feed system that will improve down-web uniformity was developed. Third, the core of a numerical model of fluid and heat flow within the distributor was developed, including flow in a 3-component gas system at high temperature and low pressure and particle sublimation.

  5. QCD factorization of exclusive processes beyond leading twist: gamma{sub T}*->rho{sub T} impact factor with twist three accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pire, B., E-mail: pire@cpht.polytechnique.f [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, faculte de physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a consistent approach to factorization of scattering amplitudes for exclusive processes beyond the leading twist approximation. The method involves the Taylor expansion of the scattering amplitude in the momentum space around the dominant light-cone direction and thus naturally introduces an appropriate set of non-perturbative correlators which encode effects not only of the lowest but also of the higher Fock states of the produced particle. The reduction of original set of correlators to a set of independent ones is achieved with the help of equations of motion and invariance of the scattering amplitude under rotation on the light cone. We compare the proposed method with the covariant method formulated in the coordinate space, based on the operator product expansion. We prove the equivalence of two proposed parametrizations of the rho{sub T} distribution amplitudes. As a concrete application, we compute the expressions of the impact factor for the transition of virtual photon to transversally polarised rho-meson up to the twist 3 accuracy within these two quite different methods and show that they are identical.

  6. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  7. Isotopic Composition as a Signature for Different Processes Leading to Fragment Production in Midperipheral Ni+Al, Ni, Ag Collisions at 30 MeV/Nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Rui, R.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.

    2007-01-01

    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃4 MeV, E* ≃4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features suggest that this production comes from material which is "surface-like" (since it originates from the overlap of the two nuclei). To investigate the neutron content in both processes the 4He and 6He experimental yields were studied.

  8. Detection of simultaneous processes leading to multifragmentation in central collisions of the system 86Kr + 197Au, at 60 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, O.

    1993-06-01

    Multi-fragments production in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions is the most important deexcitation process for hot nuclei produced in small impact-parameter collisions (central collisions). The study of the 60 A.MeV Kr+Au system, performed at GANIL with a 4π and low threshold experimental setup including the fragments and light charged particles multidetectors DELF, XYZt, MUR and TONNEAU associated with 6 solid state detectors, has allowed to measure the global characteristics of dissipative reactions leading to a large amount (up to 6) of fragments with charge greater than 5. The events analysis has been performed by using global variables and has shown that there was the formation of a equilibrated composite system when one looked at kinematical observables (velocities) in the center-of-mass frame. The use of two models, one corresponding to multifragmentation, the other to sequential binary fission, has allowed to conclude for the existence of a simultaneous breakup of the composite system (multifragmentation). Last, no effect related to nuclear matter compressibility (compression/expansion stage) has been found for the most important part of the fragments (charge greater than 10). (orig.)

  9. Variable charge molecular dynamics studies of oxygen diffusion processes in nickel leading to the formation of internal oxide nano-clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garruchet, S.; Politano, O.; Vignal, V.; Arnoux, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New materials are under development for numerous applications in 4. generation reactor (Supercritical water reactor for example) and will have to operate at high temperature and in corrosive environments. Nickel and nickel based alloys are one of the most important candidate because of their good mechanical properties on a wide variety of severe environments (corrosive, irradiative, high temperatures,...). In this work, we simulated a model system of nickel to study the diffusivity of atomic oxygen and the formation of internal oxide nano-clusters by variable charge molecular dynamics techniques. Oxidation of nickel surfaces proceeds by cationic diffusion. In that sense, the governing parameter is the diffusion of Nickel in the oxide scale. However, it is also experimentally observed that some oxygen atoms are trapped within the metal. At high temperature, those atoms can diffuse and form internal oxide clusters in nano-voids within the metallic bulk. To characterize such processes, many experimental approaches have determined the O diffusion coefficient in Ni. However recent experimental studies expressed doubts about these values as the role played by impurities and/or vacancies during the diffusion processes was not addressed. Recently, some authors showed that O couldn't diffuse in Ni in absence of defects. As a consequence, new O diffusion coefficient has to be determined and correlated to the defects concentration in the system. To our knowledge, only a few numbers of theoretical investigations are dedicated to this topic. In particular all the numerical studies were performed by using the density functional theory (DFT)]. These approaches permitted to calculate migration energy and diffusion path at 0 K. However, a complete study of O diffusion at high temperature is still missing. This last leads us to develop variable charge molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the diffusion of atomic O in Ni in the range 950 K to 1600 K

  10. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    . and the .reduction of lead in gasoline has resulted in lower tissue lead concentrations in humans and wildlife from many, particularly urban, locations. However, it has been suggested that increasing use of organic lead compounds as catalysts for the production of plastics and as wood preservatives and biocides could adversely affect wildlife. The most significant source of direct wildlife mortality from lead is spent gunshot and fishing sinkers. Elevated mortality from shot ingestion in avian species resulted in the introduction of nontoxic (steel) shot zones along certain flyways in the United States in the mid-1970s and a total ban on the use of lead for waterfowl and coot hunting nationwide by 1992. Several other countries are now following suit and have either banned or are in the process of restricting the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting. In the United States it has been estimated that since the 1986 hunting season. when the use of nontoxic shot became widespread. over 6 million ducks have not been lost to lead poisoning. Raptors, especially eagles, have also apparently benefited. although lead poisoning from ingestion of bullet fragments remains a problem for the critically threatened California condor. Quantifying reductions in lead mortality rates would be difficult since eagle populations throughout North America are rapidly recovering from other anthropogenic perturbations, especially organochlorine pesticides.

  11. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders are effectively able to

  12. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate! physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkinson Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate! peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders

  13. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  14. Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout : Can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing Climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonatan, Klaminder; Dan, Hammarlund; Ulla, Kokfelt; Vonk And, Jorien E.; Christian, Bigler

    2010-01-01

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment

  15. A novel one-pot de-blocking and conjugation reaction step leads to process intensification in the manufacture of PEGylated insulin IN-105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Partha; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Shabandri, Qais; Adhikary, Laxmi; Dave, Nitesh; Buddha, Madhavan

    2012-10-01

    Bio-catalytic in vitro multistep reactions can be combined in a single step in one pot by optimizing multistep reactions under identical reaction condition. Using this analogy, the process of making PEGylated insulin, IN-105, was simplified. Instead of taking the purified active insulin bulk powder as the starting material for the conjugation step, an insulin process intermediate, partially purified insulin ester, was taken as starting material. Process intensification (PI) was established by performing a novel de-blocking (de-esterification) of the partially purified insulin ester and conjugation at B-29 Lys residue of B chain with a short-chain methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) in a single-pot reactor. The chromatographic profile at the end of the reaction was found similar irrespective of whether both the reactions were performed sequentially or simultaneously. The conjugated product of interest, IN-105 (conjugation at LysB(29)), was purified from the heterogeneous mixture of conjugated products. The new manufacturing process was deduced to be more simplified and economical in making the insulin conjugates as several downstream purification steps could be circumvented. The physicochemical characteristics of IN-105 manufactured through this economic process was found to be indifferent from the product formed through the traditional process where the conjugation starting material was purified from bulk insulin.

  16. Social entrepreneurship based on unmet personal needs : a closer investigation of how lead user chracteristics influence the business development process and social mission of latent social entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, Dieke Marlies; Groen, Arend J.; Englis-Englis, Paula Danskin

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurs are said to be innovative change agents that create social impact in various industries. Little is known about the specific knowledge endowments they use in starting their business. To provide more insight into the entrepreneurial process of social entrepreneurs, we used

  17. Differences in Stem Cell Processing Lead to Distinct Secretomes Secretion-Implications for Differential Results of Previous Clinical Trials of Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernly, Bernhard; Gonçalves, Inês; Kiss, Attila; Paar, Vera; Mösenlechner, Tobias; Leisch, Michael; Santer, David; Motloch, Lukas Jaroslaw; Klein, Klaus U; Tretter, Eva V; Kretzschmar, Daniel; Podesser, Bruno; Jung, Christian; Hoppe, Uta C; Lichtenauer, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) seemed to be a promising therapy, however, large clinical trials brought differential outcome. It has been shown that paracrine effects of secretomes of stem cells rather than cell therapy might play a fundamental role. The present study seeks to compare cell processing protocols of clinical trials and investigate effects of differential cell culture conditions on chemokine secretion and functional effects. Different secretomes are compared regarding IL-8, VEGF, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha secretion. Secretome mediated effects are evaluated on endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation and migration. Cardioprotective signaling kinases in human cardiomyocytes are determined by Western immunoblotting. Cells processed according to the REPAIR-AMI protocol secrete significantly higher amounts of IL-8 (487.3 ± 1231.1 vs 9.1 ± 8.2 pg mL -1 ; p Cell processing conditions have a major impact on the composition of the secretome. The REPAIR-AMI secretome significantly enhances proangiogenic chemokine secretion, angiogenesis, cell migration, and cardioprotective signaling pathways. These results might explain differential outcomes between clinical trials. Optimizing cell processing protocols with special regards to paracrine factors, might open a new therapeutic concept for improving patient outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. J.; Lim, S. S.

    The increase in the number of vehicles and, subsequently, the volume of batteries made by manufacturers in Malaysia have seen a dramatic rise in lead demand over the last five years. Without any lead mines, the only source of lead in Malaysia has been from the recycling of lead/acid batteries. Metal Reclamation (Industries) has commenced the design of a new and advanced secondary lead plant at West Port, Malaysia to meet the increasing demand for lead and the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The plant is designed to produce up to 75 000 t of lead and lead alloys per year. The plant will also produce, as by-products: polypropylene chips, wallboard-grade gypsum, non-leachable slag for use in construction. A discussion of the process and the products from the new secondary smelter is outlined.

  19. WETTABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    . Lead-bearing sol- ders are no longer used in the fabrication of food- processing equipment and the use of lead pipes for drinking water is now discouraged due to the possibility of lead poisoning from drinking water. [1].

  20. Filling the gap: using non-invasive geophysical methods to monitor the processes leading to enhanced carbon turnover induced by periodic water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellage, A.; Pronk, G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Furman, A.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface transition environments such as the capillary fringe are characterized by steep gradients in redox conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in electron acceptor and donor availability - driven by hydrological changes - may enhance carbon turnover, in some cases resulting in pulses of CO2-respiration. Filling the mechanistic knowledge gap between the hydrological driver and its biogeochemical effects hinges on our ability to monitor microbial activity and key geochemical markers at a high spatial and temporal resolution. However, direct access to subsurface biogeochemical processes is logistically difficult, invasive and usually expensive. In-line, non-invasive geophysical techniques - Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Electrodic Potential (EP), specifically - offer a comparatively inexpensive alternative and can provide data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The challenge lies in linking electrical responses to specific changes in biogeochemical processes. We conducted SIP and EP measurements on a soil column experiment where an artificial soil mixture was subjected to monthly drainage and imbibition cycles. SIP responses showed a clear dependence on redox zonation and microbial abundance. Temporally variable responses exhibited no direct moisture dependence suggesting that the measured responses recorded changes in microbial activity and coincided with the depth interval over which enhanced carbon turnover was observed. EP measurements detected the onset of sulfate mineralization and mapped its depth zonation. SIP and EP signals thus detected enhanced microbial activity within the water table fluctuation zone as well as the timing of the development of specific reactive processes. These findings can be used to relate measured electrical signals to specific reaction pathways and help inform reactive transport models, increasing their predictive capabilities.

  1. Application of Image Processing Algorithms for Brain Tumor Analysis in 2D and 3D Leading to Tumor’s Positioning in Skull: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYESHA AMIR SIDDIQI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain tumors has been found challenging throughout in the field of image processing. Different algorithms have been applied to the segmentation of solid or cystic tumors individually but little work has been done for solid cum cystic tumor. The papers reviewed in this article only deal with the case study of patients suffering from solid cum cystic brain tumor as this type of tumor is rarely found for the purpose of research. The research work conducted so far on this topic has been reviewed. The study begins with 2D (Two Dimensional segmentation of tumor using MATLAB. It is then extended to study of slices of tumor and its volume calculation using open source software named 3D Slicer which represents the tumor in 3D. This software can intake the 2D slices and process them to give a combined 3D view. Various techniques are available in the software. According to the particular requirement an appropriate algorithm can be chosen. This paper gives a promising hierarchy for volume calculation of tumor and the three dimensional view. Further we can also find the position of tumor in the skull using the same software. This piece of work is a valuable guideline for the researchers interested in segmentation and three dimensional representations of different areas of human body. The models extracted out using the given algorithms can also be treated for matching and comparison of any future research. This will also aid surgeons and physicians in efficient analysis and reporting techniques.

  2. Different isotopic composition as a signature for different processes leading to fragment production in midperipheral 58Ni/+58Ni collisions at 30 MeV//nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, P. M.; Vannini, G.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; Coniglione, R.; D'Agostino, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Fabbietti, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Sisto, M.

    2002-05-01

    We report on the results of experiments performed to investigate the 58Ni+ 58Ni 30 MeV/nucleon reaction. In midperipheral collisions a massive fragment (4⩽ Z⩽12) production has been observed. The emission patterns exhibit features consistent with dynamical fragmentation of a neck zone between the interacting nuclei, while in addition and at the same time, the projectile-like and target-like residues are subject to statistical decay. The nature of the fragments produced via the two different mechanisms differ both for what concerns charge distribution and isotopic composition. In particular, neutron rich fragments can be produced in dynamical processes, even if the starting nuclear matter presents a N/ Z ratio close to the unity.

  3. Different isotopic composition as a signature for different processes leading to fragment production in midperipheral 58Ni+58Ni collisions at 30 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, P.M.; Vannini, G.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; Coniglione, R.; D'Agostino, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Fabbietti, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Mastinu, P.F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Sisto, M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of experiments performed to investigate the 58 Ni+ 58 Ni 30 MeV/nucleon reaction. In midperipheral collisions a massive fragment (4≤Z≤12) production has been observed. The emission patterns exhibit features consistent with dynamical fragmentation of a neck zone between the interacting nuclei, while in addition and at the same time, the projectile-like and target-like residues are subject to statistical decay. The nature of the fragments produced via the two different mechanisms differ both for what concerns charge distribution and isotopic composition. In particular, neutron rich fragments can be produced in dynamical processes, even if the starting nuclear matter presents a N/Z ratio close to the unity

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1025 - Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section. (7) Additional monitoring. Whenever there has been a production, process, control or personnel... production, process, or control which might result in a change in employee exposure to lead. (ii... occupations, including primary and secondary lead smelting, lead storage battery manufacturing, lead pigment...

  5. LEAD SEVERING CONTRIVANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmaier, W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for breaking an electrical circuit within an electronic tube during the process of manufacture is described. Frequently such circuits must be employed for gettering or vapor coating purposes, however, since an external pair of corector pins having no use after manufacture, is undesirable, this invention permits the use of existing leads to form a temporary circuit during manufacture, and severing it thereafter. One portion of the temporary circuit, made from a springy material such as tungsten, is spot welded to a fusable member. To cut the circuit an external radiant heat source melts the fusable member, allowing the tensed tungsten spring to contract and break the circuit. This inexpensive arrangement is particularly useful when the tube has a great many external leads crowded into the tube base.

  6. Deletion of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer in POMC-expressing cells leads to pituitary dysfunction, neurodegeneration and development of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Marc; Altirriba, Jordi; García, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Castaño, Carlos; García-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Alvarez, Clara V; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of metabolism. However, their potential role in the central regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis is still unknown. In this study we show that the expression of Dicer, an essential endoribonuclease for miRNA maturation, is modulated by nutrient availability and excess in the hypothalamus. Conditional deletion of Dicer in POMC-expressing cells resulted in obesity, characterized by hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, defective glucose metabolism and alterations in the pituitary-adrenal axis. The development of the obese phenotype was paralleled by a POMC neuron degenerative process that started around 3 weeks of age. Hypothalamic transcriptomic analysis in presymptomatic POMCDicerKO mice revealed the downregulation of genes implicated in biological pathways associated with classical neurodegenerative disorders, such as MAPK signaling, ubiquitin-proteosome system, autophagy and ribosome biosynthesis. Collectively, our results highlight a key role for miRNAs in POMC neuron survival and the consequent development of neurodegenerative obesity.

  7. Different processes lead to similar patterns: a test of codivergence and the role of sea level and climate changes in shaping a southern temperate freshwater assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura) and catfish (Trichomycterus arealatus: Trichomycteridae: Teleostei) exhibited similar levels of genetic divergences of mitochondrial lineages between species of crabs and phylogroups of the catfish, suggesting a shared evolutionary history among the three clades in this species assemblage. Results A phylogeny was constructed for Trichomycterus areolatus under the following best-fit molecular models of evolution GTR + I + R, HKY + I, and HKY for cytochrome b, growth hormone, and rag 1 respectively. A GTR + I + R model provided the best fit for both 28S and mitochondrial loci and was used to construct both Aegla phylogenies. Three different diversification models were observed and the three groups arose during different time periods, from 2.25 to 5.05 million years ago (Ma). Cladogenesis within Trichomycterus areolatus was initiated roughly 2.25 Ma (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene) some 1.7 - 2.8 million years after the basal divergences observed in both Aegla clades. These results reject the hypothesis of codivergence. Conclusions The similar genetic distances between terminal sister-lineages observed in these select taxa from the freshwater Chilean species assemblage were formed by different processes occurring over the last ~5.0 Ma. Dramatic changes in historic sea levels documented in the region appear to have independently shaped the evolutionary history of each group. Our study illustrates the important role that history plays in shaping a species assemblage and argues against assuming similar patterns equal a shared evolutionary history. PMID:22118288

  8. Different processes lead to similar patterns: a test of codivergence and the role of sea level and climate changes in shaping a southern temperate freshwater assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Brian R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura and catfish (Trichomycterus arealatus: Trichomycteridae: Teleostei exhibited similar levels of genetic divergences of mitochondrial lineages between species of crabs and phylogroups of the catfish, suggesting a shared evolutionary history among the three clades in this species assemblage. Results A phylogeny was constructed for Trichomycterus areolatus under the following best-fit molecular models of evolution GTR + I + R, HKY + I, and HKY for cytochrome b, growth hormone, and rag 1 respectively. A GTR + I + R model provided the best fit for both 28S and mitochondrial loci and was used to construct both Aegla phylogenies. Three different diversification models were observed and the three groups arose during different time periods, from 2.25 to 5.05 million years ago (Ma. Cladogenesis within Trichomycterus areolatus was initiated roughly 2.25 Ma (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene some 1.7 - 2.8 million years after the basal divergences observed in both Aegla clades. These results reject the hypothesis of codivergence. Conclusions The similar genetic distances between terminal sister-lineages observed in these select taxa from the freshwater Chilean species assemblage were formed by different processes occurring over the last ~5.0 Ma. Dramatic changes in historic sea levels documented in the region appear to have independently shaped the evolutionary history of each group. Our study illustrates the important role that history plays in shaping a species assemblage and argues against assuming similar patterns equal a shared evolutionary history.

  9. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie’s induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  10. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Jyoti; Tandon, Simran; Gupta, Varun; Nayyar, Jasamrit; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C), time (h) and solid: liquid ratio (S: L) on the extraction yield (%) and protein content (mg/g) of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4), revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15) proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In the light

  11. Response surface methodology based extraction of Tribulus terrestris leads to an upsurge of antilithiatic potential by inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kaushik

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris has significant antilithiatic efficacy established via both in vitro as well as in vivo studies and is used in numerous anti-urolithiatic herbal formulations viz. Cystone, Uriflow, Uritone and Neeri. However, to fully utilize its antilithiatic potential, the influence of different extraction parameters on antilithiatic ability of T. terrestris aqueous extract needs elucidation. Thus, the current study was undertaken using statistically optimized extraction conditions for aqueous extract preparation. Response surface methodology was employed to observe the influence of three variables i.e. temperature (°C, time (h and solid: liquid ratio (S: L on the extraction yield (% and protein content (mg/g of T. terrestris aqueous extract. RSM results revealed that the high S:L ratio, low temperature and reduced incubation time were optimal conditions for aqueous extraction. Under such extraction conditions the protein content reached the value of 26.6±1.22 mg/g and the obtained extraction yield was 27.32±1.62%. The assessment of antilithiatic activity of 4 selected extracts (AE1-4, revealed enhanced nucleation and aggregation inhibition of calcium oxalate crystals with AE1 and AE2, which in addition significantly altered the size and morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals compared to AE3 and AE4. In vitro cell culture based studies on renal epithelial cells (MDCK, NRK-52E and PK 15 proved that the AE1 showed higher cytoprotective potency by increasing cell viability as compared to the oxalate treated group. The free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract lowered the reactive oxygen specie's induced damage and potentially reduced the signals of programmed cell death due to oxalate injury. In addition, modulation of the COM crystal morphology was enhanced by AE1 as compared to AE2. The FTIR and GC-MS analysis of AE1, showed the presence of biomolecules which could aid in the attenuation of lithiatic process. In

  12. Lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  13. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dust-free Clean around painted areas where friction can generate dust, such as doors, windows, and ... Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Lead Lead Home Learn About Lead ...

  14. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  15. WETTABILITY STUDIES OF LEAD-FREE SOLDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... produced and characterized for possible replacement of Tin-Lead solders. The solder alloys produced are: 91Sn–9Zn, 60Sn–40Zn, 42Sn–58Bi, and 90Sn–10Bi. Tin-lead ... processing equipment and the use of lead pipes for drinking water is now discouraged due to the possibility of lead poisoning from ...

  16. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake a...

  17. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  18. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-02-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion.

  19. Lead in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, J C; Pickford, C J; White, G F

    1986-01-01

    Following the finding that blood lead concentrations in middle-aged men were positively associated with alcohol consumption, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution recommended that information on lead in alcoholic beverages be obtained. The results reported here were obtained in response to the Royal Commission's request. About 90% of canned and bottled beers contained less than or equal to 10 micrograms/l of lead, whereas nearly half the draught beers sampled contained greater than 10 micrograms/l and 4% contained greater than 100 micrograms/l. Opening the cans and bottles and pouring the contents into a glass had no significant effect on the lead concentration in the beer. All wines sampled directly from the bottle, that is without pouring, contained less than 250 micrograms/l of lead. However the lead concentration in some wines contained in lead-capped bottles increased significantly when the wine was poured from the bottle, in one instance the increment was 1890 micrograms/l. It is concluded that consumption of beer containing 50 micrograms/l of lead could make a substantial contribution to blood lead concentrations in man. Consumption of 1 l/day of wine containing 150 micrograms/l of lead could also make a major contribution to blood lead concentrations. Lead contamination of wine when it is poured from a bottle, which had been lead-capped, can sometimes greatly increase lead concentrations in the wine.

  20. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  1. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  2. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dua, S.K.; Roelant, David; Kumar, Sachin

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  3. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, ...

  4. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  6. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  7. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: RECLAMATION OF LEAD FROM SUPERFUND WASTE MATERIAL USING SECONDARY LEAD SMELTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This process involves incorporating lead-contaminated Superfund waste with the regular feed to a secondary lead smelter. Since secondary lead smelters already recover lead from recycled automobile batteries, it seems likely that this technology could be used to treat waste from ...

  8. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  9. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  10. Blood lead concentrations age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Henderson, Charles R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Parsons, Patrick J; Canfield, Richard L

    2008-02-01

    Few studies provide data directly relevant to the question of whether blood lead concentrations affect children's cognitive function. We examined the association between blood lead concentrations assessed throughout early childhood and children's IQ at 6 years of age. Children were followed from 6 months to 6 years of age, with determination of blood lead concentrations at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. At 6 years of age, intelligence was assessed in 194 children using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. We used general linear and semiparametic models to estimate and test the association between blood lead concentration and IQ. After adjustment for maternal IQ, HOME scale scores, and other potential confounding factors, lifetime average blood lead concentration (mean = 7.2 microg/dL; median = 6.2 microg/dL) was inversely associated with Full-Scale IQ (p = 0.006) and Performance IQ scores (p = 0.002). Compared with children who had lifetime average blood lead concentrations IQ (91.3 vs. 86.4, p = 0.03). Nonlinear modeling of the peak blood lead concentration revealed an inverse association (p = 0.003) between peak blood lead levels and Full-Scale IQ down to 2.1 microg/dL, the lowest observed peak blood lead concentration in our study. Evidence from this cohort indicates that children's intellectual functioning at 6 years of age is impaired by blood lead concentrations well below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood lead level.

  11. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    A significant (P<0.05) increase was recorded in GPT, creatinine and uric acid levels ... chemical composition of the compound containing lead, ... their body weight. Each group comprised five chicks. Treatment. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were treated once a day with lead acetate at a dose rate of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and ...

  12. Leadership, Leaders, and Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Arguably, the most important need in society today is to create individuals who will take action positively and progressively to lead in the private organization, in the the public institution, or in the governmental agency. Leadership action should not be held hostage by the notion that only those in formal positions of leadership can lead.…

  13. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  14. Lead/acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; Peters, K.; Prengaman, R. D.; Valeriote, E. M.

    Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences, the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: grain structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; cast-on-strap; terminal-post attack; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead-cadmium alloys. Leady oxide: α-PbO:β-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve-regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive.

  15. Drowning: a leading killer!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Domingos Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drowning kills at least 372,000 people worldwide every year and is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional death, accounting for 7% of all deaths stemming from accidents (WHO, 2014. Conceptually, “drowning” is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, characterized as a chain of events (Bierens, 2006. Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from immersion or submersion in liquid. Research on drowning as a phenomenon presents several difficulties - most of all, that global data concerning the number of occurrences are not accurate. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the registered incidents allows the identification of risk factors of drowning. An in-depth analysis of the risk factors is the basis for the creation of targeted and effective strategies to prevent drowning. Due to variability of situations which could lead to a drowning episode, experts suggest the adoption of a multi-layer prevention model, rather than opting for isolated measures, since no single measure can prevent all deaths and injuries caused by submersion. Among the preventive measures we would like to emphasize instruction in swimming and water safety. So, what does "knowing how to swim" really mean? Some authors define mastery of this competence as swimming a given distance, while others put the emphasis on how this/any given distance is swum (Stallman, Junge, & Blixt, 2008. It has long been realized that there is no contradiction between learning those competencies which make a person less susceptible to drowning and those competencies which prepare the path towards higher levels of performance and competition. Aquatic movement researchers and practitioners and drowning prevention researchers and practitioners, share in the responsibility for drowning prevention though they are often unaware of it. The question “What should be taught to children?” is too infrequently asked. There remains great variation in what is taught and programs

  16. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  17. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create......, deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case...

  18. Lead in Construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Although Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for occupational lead exposure have been in effect since 1971 for the construction and general industries, the agency regulations for general industry in 1978...

  19. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  20. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  1. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  2. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  3. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of spectromicroscopic methods. Part 5. Effects of nonoriginal surface coatings into the nature and distribution of chromium and sulfur species in chrome yellow paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Vanmeert, Frederik; Cotte, Marine; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Van der Snickt, Geert; Leeuwestein, Margje; Salvant Plisson, Johanna; Menu, Michel; Miliani, Costanza

    2014-11-04

    The darkening of lead chromate yellow pigments, caused by a reduction of the chromate ions to Cr(III) compounds, is known to affect the appearance of several paintings by Vincent van Gogh. In previous papers of this series, we demonstrated that the darkening is activated by light and depends on the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the pigments. In this work, the results of Part 2 are extended and complemented with a new study aimed at deepening the knowledge of the nature and distribution of Cr and S species at the interface between the chrome yellow paint and the nonoriginal coating layer. For this purpose, three microsamples from two varnished paintings by Van Gogh and a waxed low relief by Gauguin (all originally uncoated) have been examined. Because nonoriginal coatings are often present in artwork by Van Gogh and contemporaries, the understanding of whether or not their application has influenced the morphological and/or physicochemical properties of the chrome yellow paint underneath is relevant in view of the conservation of these masterpieces. In all the samples studied, microscopic X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) investigations showed that Cr(III)-based alteration products are present in the form of grains inside the coating (generally enriched of S species) and also homogeneously widespread at the paint surface. The distribution of Cr(III) species may be explained by the mechanical friction caused by the coating application by brush that picked up and redistributed the superficial Cr compounds, likely already present in the reduced state as result of the photodegradation process. The analysis of the XANES profiles allowed us to obtain new insights into the nature of the Cr(III) alteration products, that were identified as sulfate-, oxide-, organo-metal-, and chloride-based compounds. Building upon the knowledge acquired through the examination of original paint samples and from the

  4. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  5. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  6. Lead toxicity in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Pallavi; Dubey, Rama Shanker

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soils by heavy metals is of widespread occurrence as a result of human, agricultural and industrial activities. Among heavy metals, lead is a potential pollutant that readily accumulates in soils and sediments. Although lead is not an essential element for plants, it gets easily absorbed and accumulated in different plant parts. Uptake of Pb in plants is regulated by pH, particle size and cation exchange capacity of the soils as well as by root exudation and other physico-che...

  7. Solubility of iron in liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Khan, I.

    1981-01-01

    The use of liquid lead in high temperature chemical and metallurgical processes is well known. The structural materials applied for the containment of these processes are either iron base alloys or possess iron as an alloying element. Besides that, lead itself is alloyed in some steels to achieve some very useful properties. For understanding the effect of liquid lead in such structural materials, it is important to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead which would also be indicative of the stability of these alloys. At the institute of reactor materials of KFA Juelich, investigations have been conducted to determine the solubility of iron in liquid lead up to a temperature of about 1000 0 C. In this presentation the data concerning the solubility of iron in liquid lead are brought up to date and discussed including the results of our previous investigations. (orig.)

  8. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  9. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...

  10. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  11. Scientometry Leading us Astray

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 82 (2010), s. 8-8 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : scientometry Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en82/european-scene/ scientometry -leading-us-astray

  12. Pb-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on sources and processes of lead contamination in well waters and soil from former fruit orchards, Pennsylvania, USA: A legacy of anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, PA, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb (n = 144) and Sr (n = 40) isotopic data and REE (n = 29) data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed (n = 94), together with locally used Pb-As pesticide (n = 5). Waters from residential and test wells show overlapping values of 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. Larger negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) distinguish residential wells from test wells. Results show that residential and test well waters, sediments from residential water filters in water tanks, and surface waters display broad linear trends in Pb isotope plots. Pb isotope data for soils, bedrock, and pesticides have contrasting ranges and overlapping trends. Contributions of Pb from soils to residential well waters are limited and implicated primarily in wells having shallow water-bearing zones and carrying high sediment contents. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to sediment build up in residential water tanks. Redox reactions, triggered by influx of groundwater via wells into the residential water systems and leading to subtle changes in pH, are implicated in precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides

  13. Lead removal via soil washing and leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

  14. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  15. The article presents the analysis results of the production processes aimed at service production. The main features of service production are described and the terms of service production are formulated. It has been demonstrated, that airports can be considered as a service production enterprise. The specific features of the production peculiar to airports are noted. The production process at the airport is associated with the need to fulfill certain processes in real time, the presenceof random factors affecting the process (weather conditions, schedule changes, etc., special safety requirements, which lead to increase of the role of production informatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis results of the production processes aimed at service production. The main features of service production are described and the terms of service production are formulated. It has been demonstrated, that air- ports can be considered as a service production enterprise. The specific features of the production peculiar to airports are noted. The production process at the airport is associated with the need to fulfill certain processes in real time, the presenceof random factors affecting the process (weather conditions, schedule changes, etc., special safety requirements, which lead to increase of the role of production informatization.

  16. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  18. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  19. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  20. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  1. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems.24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS.There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group.The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  3. MYC leads the way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice

    2017-11-25

    Members of the MYC family of proto-oncogenes are the most commonly deregulated genes in all human cancers. MYC proteins drive an increase in cellular proliferation and facilitate multiple aspects of tumor initiation and progression, thereby controlling all hallmarks of cancer. MYC's ability to drive metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells leading to biomass accumulation and cellular proliferation is the most studied function of these oncogenes. MYC also regulates tumor progression and is often implicated in resistance to chemotherapy and in metastasis. While most oncogenic functions of MYC are attributed to its role as a transcription factor, more recently, new roles of MYC as a pro-survival factor in the cytoplasm suggest a previously unappreciated diversity in MYC's roles in cancer progression. This review will focus on the role of MYC in invasion and will discuss the canonical functions of MYC in Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and the cytoplasmic functions of MYC-nick in collective migration.

  4. When municipalities lead co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the role played by municipalities as ‘key leaders’ in co-production processes initiated by local governments. The aim is to produce new insights into the challenges faced by public agencies leading co-production processes in practice. Drawing on an analytical framework derived...

  5. Improving the utilization of silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix) and other under-utilized fish species : fact finding and goal establishing mission to the Islamic Republic of Iran (31 january - 5 february 2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.; Bartels, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years a scientific cooperation between Wageningen-UR and the Iranian Fisheries Research Organisation (IFRO), related to the Iran Fishery Organisation Shilat about processing has been started. In February 1999 a draft memorandum of understanding on fisheries co-operation has been signed.

  6. Lead (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change ... Lead The Basics Lead is a soft, bluish-white metal that exists naturally in the environment. When lead combines with other chemical elements, it ...

  7. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). There are significant differences (pblood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204)Pb/(206)Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204)Pb/(206)Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  8. Biological Fractionation of Lead Isotopes in Sprague-Dawley Rats Lead Poisoned via the Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Duojian; Xie, Qing; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. Methods 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces) were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance) and the low-lead animal feed (diet) administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results There are significant differences (pisotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of 204Pb/206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when 204Pb/206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. Conclusions The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for 204Pb/206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure. PMID:23300678

  9. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  10. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  11. Beyond dualism: leading out of oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To reexamine our beliefs about our gender identity in order to identify new possibilities for leading in nursing. Leadership is complex. This article is the result of a lengthy iterative process of exploring the empowerment, image, leadership, feminist, and oppression literature. All of this was distilled in the context of the author's experience as a nurse and nurse leader. Moving beyond dualism creates new possibilities for leading nurses out of oppression.

  12. Lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levander, O.A.

    1979-04-01

    Recent data concerning lead toxicity and nutritional deficiencies are summarized. Lead poisoning can be exacerbated by consumption of either deficient or excessive levels of protein. Mineral deficiencies also exaggerate lead poisoning. Evidence for antagonism between lead and nutritional levels of selenium is inconclusive. Vitamin E deficiency and lead poisoning interact to produce an anemia in rats that is more severe than that caused by either treatment alone. A pro-oxidant stress of lead on red blood cells is hypothesized to cause their accelerated destruction. In addition, disruption of normal membrane structure, leading to peroxidative damage, may occur. Calcium deficiencies in children are negatively correlated with lead concentrations in their blood. Other examples of interactions between minerals and lead poisoning are provided. Nutritional deficiencies have been shown to have an additive effect in potentiating lead toxicity in some cases. (112 references, 4 tables)

  13. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  14. Can You Lead Me Now? Leading in the Complex World of Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Nola

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on a theory of leading and the activities and processes used to move a bureaucratic, public agency to a higher level of fitness in the contexts of dynamic equilibrium and the edge of chaos...

  15. Research of lead extract method from accumulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Юрійович Кушнеров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of production and consumption of lead from primary and secondary raw material is executed. It is determined that approximately 56 % general world lead production consists of lead-content secondary raw material processing – scrap and wastes of lead and accumulator scrap. Using thermodynamic analysis, it is determined that potassium bicarbonate has an advantage at processing of sulfate constituent of secondary raw material

  16. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 μg g -1 . Linear regression of whole tooth lead (μg g -1 ) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r 2 =0.647 (p -1 , were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead (μg g -1 ) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r 2 =0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats

  17. The lead industry and lead water pipes "A Modest Campaign".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Lead pipes for carrying drinking water were well recognized as a cause of lead poisoning by the late 1800s in the United States. By the 1920s, many cities and towns were prohibiting or restricting their use. To combat this trend, the lead industry carried out a prolonged and effective campaign to promote the use of lead pipes. Led by the Lead Industries Association (LIA), representatives were sent to speak with plumbers' organizations, local water authorities, architects, and federal officials. The LIA also published numerous articles and books that extolled the advantages of lead over other materials and gave practical advice on the installation and repair of lead pipes. The LIA's activities over several decades therefore contributed to the present-day public health and economic cost of lead water pipes.

  18. Lead exposure in two pottery handicraft populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ballesteros, G; Zuñiga-Charles, M A; García-de Alba, J E; Cárdenas-Ortega, A; Solis-Camara, P

    1980-01-01

    Lead poisoning studies were carried out in the populations of two potter towns in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. The first population in Tonalá included 198 people who use lead monoxide (PbO) in making pottery. The second population in El Rosario included 187 people who do not use any lead salt in the pottery-making process. The studies included children, adolescents and adults of both sexes. Analyses for lead in the blood (Pb-B), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA U) were carried out. In the population exposed to lead, abnormally high lead concentrations in blood and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid were found in both sexes and in all age groups studied. When compared to the control group, the differences are statistically significant. The Hb and Ht results fell within the lower normal limits in both populations. No cases of acute lead poisoning were found, but the high amount of lead absorption in the Tonalá population may be caused by the rudimentary means of manufacturing their products.

  19. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  20. Leading with charisma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Human potential has endless possibilities. Can charisma be taught? What else makes a leader charismatic in the eyes of the followers? Purpose: Purpose and goal of this research paper is to investigate if charisma is human potential that can be learned so leaders could use it to help the population in situations like crisis. We would like to confirm, that charisma is a capability and trait, which can be developed by who ever decides to do so. Method: A descriptive approach was used to examine the theoretical content. Results: To be charismatic means to influence others, connect with them, evoke trust. Charisma is efficient if the leader knows his mission, looks on life difficulties and problems as challenges, is able to be self critic, respects and appreciates others. In the eyes of the followers leader is perceived as charismatic when personal and business vision and goals are established, when present and in control of him/herself and others and in control of the situation. When the leader is showing respect to others and if necessary is decisive and consistent. Organization and society: To unveil the charisma myth, as something god given and unattainable, to the leaders and general public was the aim of this paper. Charisma is not a privilege of some individuals. Leaders have to be aware that it is of most importance to discover this potential and us it for the greater good. Originality: Development of personal charisma is a process, learned from early childhood onwards; some less acquainted with this set of skills can be helped with methods, technique and different approaches. Approaches from various authors are introduced. Limitations/Future Research: This research paper was conducted on articles and books with the key word in title and abstract.

  1. Do leading indicators lead peaks more than troughs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); R. Segers (René); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a formal statistical approach to investigate the possibility that leading indicator variables have different lead times at business cycle peaks and troughs. For this purpose, we propose a novel Markov switching vector autoregressive model, where economic growth and leading

  2. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin. City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest ...

  3. Blood lead level as biomarker of environmental lead pollution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideal blood lead level is now considered to be zero. Lead pollution of the study area has serious consequences on aquatic fauna and humans who consume such contaminated fish. It is therefore recommended that human and animal health surveillance and environmental monitoring of lead should be initiated.

  4. Lead Contamination and Microbial Lead Tolerance in Soils at Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead pollution and lead tolerance levels of microbes in soil at major road junctions in Benin City were investigated. Results revealed that distance from the road junctions affected the concentrations of lead in soil, as well as the microbial population density and types of microbes present in the soil. The highest concentrations ...

  5. Technical Status and Progress of Lead Recycling of Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-hua; Zhan, Jing; Zhang, Chuan-fu

    The characteristics of various components in waste lead acid battery are analyzed in this paper. The present status and the study progress situation in industry production and research field of recycling of waste lead acid battery and lead paste used broken-separation technology are introduced. The comparison of advantages and disadvantages in different industry processes is carried. The advantages of redox bath smelting of lead concentrate and lead paste are analyzed. The method of redox bath smelting will be a low-carbon, environmentally friendly and efficient processes of secondary lead production and can be intensive to desulfurize for high temperature pool.

  6. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica

    2001-01-01

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  7. Jóvenes de origen extranjero y participación social. ¿Diferentes procesos migratorios conducen a diferentes modelos de participación? Young migrants and social participation. Different migration processes lead to different patterns of participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dueñas i Cid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos autores coinciden en señalar la participación social como un elemento central en la integración de la población inmigrada. Los jóvenes inmigrantes, como grupo específico, presentan una importante heterogeneidad interna, no sólo en cuanto a orígenes culturales o geográficos, sino también en relación con las características del proceso migratorio vivido que, además, configuran perfiles comunes que articulan grupos con problemáticas similares en relación a la participación. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar estos elementos comunes y diferenciales entre los distintos grupos de jóvenes en función de las condiciones de su proceso migratorio.Many authors consider social participation to be a key feature of immigrant integration. Young migrants form specific social groups that have considerable  internal heterogeneity, not only because of their cultural or geographical origins, but also because of the similarities of their migration process. However, although they belong to different groups, they have similar problems of social participation. The main aim of the paper is to analyze the features that are common to various groups and those that are different on the basis of the conditions of their migration process.

  8. Safety and Health Topics: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enters the body primarily through inhalation and ingestion. Today, adults are mainly exposed to lead by breathing ... can provide a snapshot of industry sectors and business subcategories where lead air concentrations have been found. ...

  9. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  10. Different isotopic composition as a signature for different processes leading to fragment production in midperipheral {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni collisions at 30 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, P.M. E-mail: milazzo@trieste.infn.it; Vannini, G.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; Coniglione, R.; D' Agostino, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Fabbietti, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Mastinu, P.F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Sisto, M

    2002-05-20

    We report on the results of experiments performed to investigate the {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni 30 MeV/nucleon reaction. In midperipheral collisions a massive fragment (4{<=}Z{<=}12) production has been observed. The emission patterns exhibit features consistent with dynamical fragmentation of a neck zone between the interacting nuclei, while in addition and at the same time, the projectile-like and target-like residues are subject to statistical decay. The nature of the fragments produced via the two different mechanisms differ both for what concerns charge distribution and isotopic composition. In particular, neutron rich fragments can be produced in dynamical processes, even if the starting nuclear matter presents a N/Z ratio close to the unity.

  11. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the distribution of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. 210 Po and 210 Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of 210 Po and complements the 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.) [de

  12. Response Surface Optimization of Lead Azide for Explosive Detonators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCulloh, Ian; Massie, Darrell; Cordaro, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny (ARDEC) has been tasked with developing a new chemical process to produce lead azide, the key explosive ingredient in detonators...

  13. Estrategias de posicionamiento de una empresa líder en el mercado doméstico del sector agroalimentario - Positioning strategies of a leading company in the domestic market of the processed food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Jesús Covarrubias Casco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo de investigación el principal objetivo es identificar las estrategias que RYC-alimentos puede implementar para mantenerse como la empresa líder en el mercado doméstico del sector agroalimentario a partir de la revisión de la literatura teórica y empírica. Por lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo y comparativo que describe los conceptos relacionados con los elementos antes mencionados, y compara a las dos principales empresas mexicanas del mercado doméstico, así como las estrategias de mercado que pueden tener mayor impacto. Dentro de los principales resultados que se obtienen son las estrategias que puede implementar la empresa como el generar alianzas o convenios con los proveedores, distribuidores y cliente, otra de ellas es el fusionarse con empresas más pequeñas del mismo sector. Se puede concluir que, ante la globalización de los mercados, las empresas deben de aplicar estrategias que les permitan ser líder en su sector. Abstract In this research article the main objective is to identify the strategies that RYC-foods can implement to remain as the leading company in the domestic market of the agro-food sector from theoretical and empirical literature review. Therefore, a descriptive and comparative study was carried out describing the concepts related to the aforementioned elements, comparing the two main Mexican companies in the domestic market, as well as the market strategies that may have a greatest impact. Among the main results obtained are the strategies that can be implemented by the company such as the generation of alliances or agreements with suppliers, distributors and customers; being one of them to merge with smaller companies in the same sector. It can be concluded that facing the globalization of the markets, the companies must apply strategies that allow them to be leader in their sector.

  14. Presence of lead in opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee-Afshar, Mahmoud; Khazaeli, Payam; Behnam, Behzad; Rezazadehkermani, Mohammad; Ashraf-Ganjooei, Narges

    2008-09-01

    Opium addiction is a common form of addiction in Middle East countries such as Iran. Recently several reports suggested some kinds of pathologic findings such as abdominal pain, nephropathy, and anemia in opium addict patients. Such pathologic findings suggest lead poisoning in the patients. In this study, the concentration of lead in 10 opium samples was evaluated. The mean concentration of lead in the opium samples was 1.88 ppm. This may explain some of the pathologic findings found in addict patients. The authors would suggest further investigations to evaluate the lead concentration in opium addicts' sera and also routine screening for lead poisoning in opium addict patients.

  15. Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.; Wildt, K.; Gullberg, B.; Berlin, M.

    1983-10-01

    A series of neurophysiological variables was measured for men occupationally exposed to lead. The results were related to the degree of lead exposure and to the concentrations of lead and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between lead exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibers in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. It is suggested that a neurophysiological examination should be considered in the surveillance of the health of lead workers.

  16. Load Dependent Lead Times and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    if possible or discarded. But return flows of products for rework or remanufacturing actions significantly complicate the production planning process. We analyze sustainability options with respect to lead time management by formulating a comprehensive mathematical model. We consider a deterministic, mixed...

  17. Physics of ridge and hard processes in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Spousta, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this short report, we provide an overview of selected new results from the heavy-ion physics program of the ATLAS experiment with the emphasis on jet quenching, quarkonia suppression and long range azimuthal correlations.

  18. Blood lead and lead-210 origins in residents of Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.; Delapart, M.

    1981-01-01

    Blood lead and lead-210 analyses were performed on blood samples from non-smoking residents of Toulouse (city of 400,000 inhabitants). Simultaneous surface soil lead content determinations were carried out by the same procedure on rural zone samples of southwestern France. The observed isotopic ratios were compared in order to evaluate food chain contamination. For an average of 19.7 +- 5.8 μg 100 cc -1 of lead in blood, atmospheric contamination amounts to 20%, estimated as follows: 6% from direct inhalation and 14% from dry deposits on vegetation absorbed as food. The natural levels carried over by the food chain reach 14.9 μg 100 cc -1 and have a 210 Pb/Pb concentration ratio of 0.055 dpmμg -1 . These results lead to a maximum value of 15 μg 100 cc -1 for natural lead in human blood according to the ICRP model. (author)

  19. Lead content of calcium supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E A; Szabo, N J; Tebbett, I R

    2000-09-20

    Substantial quantities of lead have been reported in some over-the-counter calcium supplement preparations, including not only bone-meal and dolomite, but also over-the-counter natural and refined calcium carbonate formulations. Examination of this issue is warranted given recent increases in physician recommendations for calcium supplements for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. To determine the lead content of calcium supplements and to quantify the lead exposure from popular brands of calcium in dosages used for childhood recommended daily allowance, osteoporosis, and phosphate binding in dialysis patients. Analysis of lead content in 21 formulations of nonprescription calcium carbonate (including 7 natural [ie, oyster shell] and 14 refined), 1 brand of prescription-only calcium acetate, and 1 noncalcium synthetic phosphate binder conducted in March 2000. Lead content, assayed using electrothermal atomic absorption, expressed as micrograms of lead per 800 mg/d of elemental calcium, per 1500 mg/d of calcium, and for a range of dosages for patients with renal failure. Six microg/d of lead was considered the absolute dietary limit, with no more than 1 microg/d being the goal for supplements. Four of 7 natural products had measurable lead content, amounting to approximately 1 microg/d for 800 mg/d of calcium, between 1 and 2 microg/d for 1500 mg/d of calcium, and up to 10 microg/d for renal dosages. Four of the 14 refined products had similar lead content, including up to 3 microg/d of lead in osteoporosis calcium dosages and up to 20 microg/d in high renal dosages. No lead was detected in the calcium acetate or polymer products. Lead was present even in some brand name products from major pharmaceutical companies not of natural oyster shell derivation. Despite increasingly stringent limits of lead exposure, many calcium supplement formulations contain lead and thereby may pose an easily avoidable public health concern. JAMA. 2000;284:1425-1429.

  20. Do Adaptive Comanagement Processes Lead to Adaptive Comanagement Outcomes? A Multicase Study of Long-term Outcomes Associated with the National Riparian Service Team's Place-based Riparian Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Smedstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive comanagement (ACM is a novel approach to environmental governance that combines the dynamic learning features of adaptive management with the linking and network features of collaborative management. There is growing interest in the potential for ACM to resolve conflicts around natural resource management and contribute to greater social and ecological resilience, but little is known about how to catalyze long lasting ACM arrangements. We contribute to knowledge on this topic by evaluating the National Riparian Service Team's (NRST efforts to catalyze ACM of public lands riparian areas in seven cases in the western U.S. We found that the NRST's approach offers a relatively novel model for integrating joint fact-finding, multiple forms of knowledge, and collaborative problem solving to improve public lands riparian grazing management. With this approach, learning and dialogue often helped facilitate the development of shared understanding and trust, key features of ACM. Their activities also influenced changes in assessment, monitoring, and management approaches to public lands riparian area grazing, also indicative of a transition to ACM. Whereas these effects often aligned with the NRST's immediate objectives, i.e., to work through a specific issue or point of conflict, there was little evidence of long-term effects beyond the specific issue or intervention; that is, in most cases the initiative did not influence longer term changes in place-based governance and institutions. Our results suggest that the success of interventions aimed at catalyzing the transformation of governance arrangements toward ACM may hinge on factors external to the collaborative process such as the presence or absence of (1 dynamic local leadership and (2 high quality agreements regarding next steps for the group. Efforts to establish long lasting ACM institutions may also face significant constraints and barriers, including existing laws and regulations

  1. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for Environmental Health , Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  2. Modeling stochastic lead times in multi-echelon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; van der Heijden, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In many multi-echelon inventory systems, the lead times are random variables. A common and reasonable assumption in most models is that replenishment orders do not cross, which implies that successive lead times are correlated. However, the process that generates such lead times is usually not well

  3. Under Utilization of Local Anesthetics in Infant Lumbar Punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchynski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar Puncture (LP is an invasive procedure frequently used to diagnose meningitis among the pediatric population. Neonates and infants have not routinely received local anesthesia prior to LP. Study Objective: To determine whether emergency medicine physicians and pediatricians use local analgesics on neonates and infants prior to performing an LP and to identify which local anesthetics, if any, were used. Methods: Prospective, cohort study of all infants, six months of age or less, that received an LP in the emergency department (ED or inpatient pediatric units for suspected meningitis during a period of year at a university tertiary care hospital. Results: A total sample population of 111 infants that received an LP within the study period. A control population of 42 adults received an LP. Only 40.4% (45/111 of the infants received local analgesia prior to LP: either 1% lidocaine, EMLA or a combination of the two. Infants were less likely to receive lidocaine or EMLA prior to LP compared to adult subjects (OR= 0.27; 95% CI0.12 to 0.62. No neonates that were less than one month of age received local procedural anesthesia by emergency medicine or pediatric physicians. ED physicians’ use of local anesthesia prior to LP increased with increasing age of the infant. The pediatricians in this study used local anesthesia prior to LP when the infant was at least five months of age. Discussion: The data objectively support recent literature regarding the under use or lack of use of analgesia prior to LP among neonates and infants. Local anesthetics should be used routinely without exception prior to performing an LP in the pediatric population.

  4. Under-utilized Important Data Sets from Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. M.; Misarti, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Barrow region has a number of high resolution data sets of high quality and high scientific and stakeholder relevance. Many are described as being of long duration, yet span mere decades. Here we highlight the fact that there are data sets available in the Barrow area that span considerably greater periods of time (centuries to millennia), at varying degrees of resolution. When used appropriately, these data sets can contribute to the study and understanding of the changing Arctic. However, because these types of data are generally acquired as part of archaeological projects, funded through Arctic Social Science and similar programs, their use in other sciences has been limited. Archaeologists focus on analyzing these data sets in ways designed to answer particular anthropological questions. That in no way precludes archaeological collaboration with other types of scientists nor the analysis of these data sets in new and innovative ways, in order to look at questions of Arctic change over a time span beginning well before the Industrial Revolution introduced complicating factors. One major data group consists of zooarchaeological data from sites in the Barrow area. This consists of faunal remains of human subsistence activities, recovered either from middens (refuse deposits) or dwellings. In effect, occupants of a site were sampling their environment as it existed at the time of occupation, although not in a random or systematic way. When analyzed to correct for biases introduced by taphonomic and human behavioral factors, such data sets are used by archaeologists to understand past people's subsistence practices, and how such practices changed through time. However, there is much additional information that can be obtained from these collections. Certain species have fairly specific habitat requirements, and their presence in significant numbers at a site indicates that such conditions existed relatively nearby at a particular time in the past, and contributes to the reconstruction of past ecosystems. Ancient DNA (aDNA) from faunal samples can be used to understand past stock structures, as well as to detect bottlenecks in the population of a particular species. Stable isotopes can contribute to food web and ecosystem stability analyses. Several archaeological projects in the Barrow area have collected macro-botanical and pollen samples which can be used to understand both conditions near the site (macro-botanical) and in the broader area (pollen). Many plants have highly specific habitat requirements, allowing for quite detailed reconstruction of local microenvironments, as well as contributing to the study of climate change through time. Archaeological work at the Nuvuk site included a geomorphological component, which led to the understanding of the Point Barrow spit as a beach ridge complex. Data on the developmental sequence of the point can contribute to study of changing storm direction and intensity through time. Collections excavated with tight stratigraphic and provenience control, and subjected to a reverse program of radiochronometric and dendrochronological (where possible) dating, can provide fairly high-resolution data. There are several sites in the Barrow area where midden exposures due to coastal erosion make recovery of additional high-resolution column samples for specific types of research feasible at relatively reasonable costs.

  5. Taking the Lead : Gender, Social Context and Preference to Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, A.P.C.I.; Schaafsma, J.; van der Wijst, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that women tend to emerge as leaders less often than men. In the present study, we examined to what extent women's and men's preference to lead is influenced by social context. It was hypothesized that women have a less strong preference to lead than men in a

  6. Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Onalaja, A O; Claudio, L

    2000-01-01

    Major strides have been taken in the regulation of lead intoxication in the general population, but studies using genetic markers of susceptibility to environmental toxicants raise the question of whether genes can make certain individuals more vulnerable to environmental toxins such as lead. At least three polymorphic genes have been identified that potentially can influence the bioaccumulation and toxicokinetics of lead in humans. The first gene to be discussed in this review is the gene co...

  7. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  8. Safe leads and lead changes in competitive team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  9. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  11. Enhanced Leads and Appointment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The data asset contains information on current or upcoming appointments, individuals who will be attending the appointment, potential intent to file a claim (lead),...

  12. Leading logarithms in four fermion theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koschinski, Julia

    2016-06-02

    In this thesis we examine leading logarithm in four-fermion theories. For this aim we consider exemplary the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We constrain ourselves for these considerations to effective field theories in the massless case. For this we use especially properties of analyticity, unitarity and crossing. In this process the Roy equation is consulted as a dispersion relation. In addition, we study the behavior of a nonrenormalizable recursive equation for leading logarithms in the large N limit of the special unitary group SU(N).

  13. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gremse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. METHODS: We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. RESULTS: All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. CONCLUSION: The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion

  14. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  15. Leading change: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Ford, Debra J

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations, and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. Concept analysis. CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change. Literature published in English from 2001 - 2015 in the fields of nursing, medicine, organizational studies, business, education, psychology or sociology were included. Walker and Avant's method was used to identify descriptions, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of the concept. Model, related and contrary cases were developed. Five defining attributes of leading change were identified: (a) individual and collective leadership; (b) operational support; (c) fostering relationships; (d) organizational learning; and (e) balance. Antecedents were external or internal driving forces and organizational readiness. The consequences of leading change included improved organizational performance and outcomes and new organizational culture and values. A theoretical definition and conceptual model of leading change were developed. Future studies that use and test the model may contribute to the refinement of a middle-range theory to advance nursing leadership research and education. From this, empirically derived interventions that prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health may be realized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Lead What's ... español Análisis de sangre: plomo What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  17. Biosorption of lead phosphates by lead-tolerant bacteria as a mechanism for lead immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Viridiana; Guzmán-Moreno, Jesús; Rodríguez-González, Vicente; Flores-de la Torre, Juan Armando; Ramírez-Santoyo, Rosa María; Vidales-Rodríguez, Luz Elena

    2017-08-01

    The study of metal-tolerant bacteria is important for bioremediation of contaminated environments and development of green technologies for material synthesis due to their potential to transform toxic metal ions into less toxic compounds by mechanisms such as reduction, oxidation and/or sequestration. In this study, we report the isolation of seven lead-tolerant bacteria from a metal-contaminated site at Zacatecas, México. The bacteria were identified as members of the Staphylococcus and Bacillus genera by microscopic, biochemical and 16S rDNA analyses. Minimal inhibitory concentration of these isolates was established between 4.5 and 7.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in solid and 1.0-4.0 mM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in liquid media. A quantitative analysis of the lead associated to bacterial biomass in growing cultures, revealed that the percentage of lead associated to biomass was between 1 and 37% in the PbT isolates. A mechanism of complexation/biosorption of lead ions as inorganic phosphates (lead hydroxyapatite and pyromorphite) in bacterial biomass, was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, the ability of the lead-tolerant isolates to transform lead ions into stable and highly insoluble lead minerals make them potentially useful for immobilization of lead in mining waste.

  18. Experimental model of lead nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil-Manesh, F.; Gonick, H.C. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Cohen, A. (UCLA-Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, CA (United States)); Bergamaschi, E.; Mutti, A. (Univ. of Parma (Italy))

    1992-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high-dose (0.5%) lead acetate for periods ranging from 1 to 9 months; then lead exposure was discontinued, and animals were sacrificed after 12 months. Two additional groups of low-dose (0.01%) and high-dose (0.5%) rats were exposed to lead for 6 months, then lead was discontinued and the rats were treated with three 5-day courses of 0.5% DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) over the next 6 months. Low-dose lead-treated rats showed no significant pathological changes with or without DMSA treatment, but exhibited a significant increase in GFR after DMSA. High-dose lead-treated animals showed no functional or pathological changes when lead exposure was discontinued after 1 month. However, when duration of exposure was 6 or 9 months, GFR was decreased and serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were increased as compared to controls. Tubulointerstitial disease was severe. Administration of DMSA resulted in an improvement in GFR and a decrease in albuminuria, together with a reduction in size and number of nuclear inclusion bodies in proximal tubules. However, tubulointerstitial scarring was only minimally reduced. It may be concluded that, except for brief initial exposure, discontinuation of high-dose lead exposure fails to reverse lead-induced renal damage. Treatment with the chelator, DMSA, improves renal function but has less effect on pathological alterations. As GFR improved after DMSA treatment in both low-dose and high-dose lead-treated rats, irrespective of the degree of pathological alterations, it may be concluded that the DMSA effect is most likely mediated by hemodynamic changes.

  19. Innovation Management, Lead Users and Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, M.; Brem, Alexander; Voigt, K.-I.

    2013-01-01

    to the strategic potential of social media in innovation management. For this, a conceptual framework will be introduced. Design/methodology/approach — In this chapter, we compare established concepts of knowledge management to potentials of social media in this field, which offer more efficient and promising ways......Purpose — With the rise of social media, the practice of innovation management is changing rapidly as well. While the opening up of corporate innovation processes can be observed in literature as well as in practice (commonly known as “Open Innovation”), we draw the reader’s attention....... Mounting on our reflections, we show the potentials of social media for integrating Lead-Users and develop a conceptual framework for the integration of Lead-Users using different social media applications. Findings — In this paper, a conceptual framework for integrating Lead-Users by using different...

  20. Leading Millennials Motivating And Leading Millennial Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-20

    mentioned, compared to Baby Boomers and many in Generation X, Millennials have grown up with instantaneous access to limitless information from...www.eremedia.com/ere/helicopter-parents/ Internet ; accessed 12December 2015. 14 Cheryl R. Sturko Grossman, “Gen Y,” Youthwork Information Brief, No...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY LEADING MILLENNIALS MOTIVATING AND LEADING MILLENNIAL SERVICE MEMBERS by Joanne MacGregor, LTC

  1. Highly reversible lead-carbon battery anode with lead grafting on the carbon surface

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Jian

    2018-03-27

    A novel C/Pb composite has been successfully prepared by electroless plating to reduce the hydrogen evolution and achieve the high reversibility of the anode of lead-carbon battery (LCB). The deposited lead on the surface of C/Pb composite was found to be uniform and adherent to carbon surface. Because lead has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite, the embedded structure suppresses the hydrogen evolution of lead-carbon anode and strengthens the connection between carbon additive and sponge lead. Compared with the blank anode, the lead-carbon anode with C/Pb composite displays excellent charge–discharge reversibility, which is attributed to the good connection between carbon additives and lead that has been stuck on the surface of C/Pb composite during the preparation process. The addition of C/Pb composite maintains a solid anode structure with high specific surface area and power volume, and thereby, it plays a significant role in the highly reversible lead-carbon anode.

  2. Process optimization and mechanistic studies of lead (II): Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorbed Pb was stripped out (85.5%) using 0.01 M HCl and about 12% loss in Pb(II) sorption capacity was observed after five sorption-desorption cycles. High Pb (II) uptake (351.7 ± 5.7 mg/g biomass) by A. caespitosus proved it to be an outstanding biomaterial until now reported in literature for accumulating from ...

  3. The oceanography of winter leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, J. H.; McPhee, M. G.; Curtin, T. B.; Paulson, C. A.

    1992-07-01

    Leads in pack ice have long been considered important to the thermodynamics of the polar regions. A winter lead affects the ocean around it because it is a density source. As the surface freezes, salt is rejected and forms more dense water which sinks under the lead. This sets up a circulation with freshwater flowing in from the sides near the surface and dense water flowing away from the lead at the base of the mixed layer. If the mixed layer is fully turbulent, this pattern may not occur; rather, the salt rejected at the surface may simply mix into the surface boundary layer. In either event the instability produced at the surface of leads is the primary source of unstable buoyancy flux and, as such, exerts a strong influence on the mixed layer. Here as many as possible of the disparate and almost anecdotal observations of lead oceanography are assembled and combined with theoretical arguments to predict the form and scale of oceanographic disturbances caused by winter leads. The experimental data suggest the velocity disturbances associated with lead convection are about 1-5 cm s-1. These appear as jets near the surface and the base of the mixed layer when ice velocities across the lead are less than about 5 cm s-1. The salinity disturbances are about 0.01 to 0.05 psu. Scaling arguments suggest that the geostrophic currents set up by the lead density disturbances are also of the order of 1-5 cm s-1. The disturbances are most obvious when freezing is rapid and ice velocity is low because the salinity and velocity disturbances in the upper ocean are not smeared out by turbulence. In this vein, lead convection may be characterized at one extreme as free convection in which the density disturbance forces the circulation. At the other extreme, lead convection may be characterized as forced convection in which the density disturbance is mixed rapidly by boundary layer turbulence. The lead number Lo, which is the ratio of the pressure term to the turbulence term in the

  4. Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2014-12-15

    An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.

  5. Lead Corrosion in Exhibition Ship Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegner, Dana

    1997-01-01

    .... However, lead fittings frequently corrode. Corrosion may be so severe as to completely consume the piece, leaving behind a white or gray residue popularly, and aptly, called "lead disease," "lead rot," "lead cancer," or "lead bloom...

  6. From virtuality to reality - Virtual screening in lead discovery and lead optimization: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rester, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Drug discovery and development is an interdisciplinary, expensive and time-consuming process. Scientific advancements during the past two decades have altered the way pharmaceutical research produces novel bio-active molecules. Advances in computational techniques and hardware solutions have enabled in silico methods, and in particular virtual screening, to speed up modern lead identification and lead optimization. Recent successes have proven the power of combining virtual screening with complementary and synergistic biophysical methods, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). This review addresses key issues, challenges and recent improvements of virtual screening methods and strategies. Examples highlighting the impact of an integrated virtual screening and biophysical characterization platform in the lead identification and optimization process are presented and discussed.

  7. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Charles Arthur [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  8. Lead-vacancy-related hole centers in lead tungstate crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin; Zazubovich, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 11 (2012), s. 2161-2166 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hole centers * lead tungstate * thermally stimulated luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  9. Agroindustrial Waste for Lead and Chromium Biosorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana P. Boeykens

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to re-evaluate the residues generated in industrial processes for the production of new raw material, reducing the volume of waste. In this regard, the biosorption is a low-cost alternative method for treating effluents compared to conventional methods. The main objectives of this research were: the evaluation of the biosorbent capacity of six waste materials for the extraction of chromium(VI and lead(II ions from aqueous solutions and, the determination of the adsorption and kinetic parameters for the more efficient system. The materials evaluated were: peanut shell (Arachis hypagaea, sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum, avocado peel (Persea americana, pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis, wheat bran (Triticum aestivum and banana peel (Mussa paradisiaca. The highest percentage of lead removal was obtained with wheat bran (89%. For chromium, the percentage was generally much lower compared with lead for all tested biosorbents, the banana peel being the most efficient with a 10% removal. The models that better describe the adsorption processes were: Langmuir and Freundlich. The pseudo-second order kinetic model allowed obtaining the parameters for both systems. The equilibrium time, in both systems, was reached after 60 minutes. The study of Fourier Transformed Infrared spectra and the results of desorption experiments allowed to hypothesize on the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of these metals.

  10. Recent ATLAS results on flow measurements in lead-lead and proton-lead collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Trzupek, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    A detailed measurement of the ATLAS experiment of azimuthal anizotropy in lead-lead and p-lead collisions at the LHC will be presented. Recently, the Fourier coefficients, v2-v4, of the azimuthal angle distribution of charged particles measured in the ATLAS inner detector (|eta| < 2.5) were extracted on event-by-event basis in each of 48 milion minimum-bias Pb+Pb collisions. In particular, the measurements of the vn distributions, unfolded for experimental resolution will be presented. The relationship between the shapes of the vn distributions and the collision geometry and initial-state fluctuations will be discussed. The results will be compared with theoretical calcualtions of initial-state eccentricity distributions. We will also report on a measurement of the anisotropy of charged particle flow in lead-lead collisions using multi-particle cumulant method. The transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependence of the elliptic flow obtained from the two- and four-particle cumulants will be shown. Event-...

  11. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  12. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  13. Discontinuous Change: Leading Organizational Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A.; And Others

    This book provides insights into the dynamics of organizational transformation and presents a diagnostic framework for leading organizations through periods of radical change. Part 1 provides a framework for looking at the different types of change and the action strategies for dealing with them. Chapters include: (1) "Change Leadership: Core…

  14. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  15. Leading in a Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  16. Maritime Load Dependent Lead Times - An Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia; Voss, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    steps and increased container lead times. Proposed solutions to fight congestion range from extend-ing port capacities to process optimization of parts of the maritime supply chain. The potential that lies in information sharing and integrated planning using IT has received some attention, but mainly...... on the operational level concerning timely information sharing. Collaborative planning approaches for the maritime supply chain are scarce. The production industry already implemented planning and in-formation concepts. Problems related to the maritime supply chain have great similarities with those encountered...... in production. Inspired by supply chain planning systems, we analyze the current state of (collaborative) planning in the maritime transport chain with focus on containers. Regarding the problem of congestion, we particularly emphasize on load dependent lead times (LDLT) which are well studied in production....

  17. [Lead poisoning: towards a paleo-epidemiologic re-interpretation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a major public health issue. Its use has been increasing since Neolithic times, climaxing in the Ancient Rome and the nineteenth century. Defining the frequency of plumbism before modern times proves to be a difficult matter because of its various and delayed symptoms, and of diagenetic processes affecting bones. After reviewing various methods of lead measurement in bone and tooth, we will expose ways to ascertain lead measurement interpretation in order to estimate the epidemiology of plumbism in ancient times.

  18. Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solution by Palm Kernel Fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption of lead on palm kernel fibre, an agricultural waste product, has been studied. The sorption process was studied as a function of initial lead concentration and initial solution pH. The percentage lead removal was found to increase with increasing initial solution pH up to pH 5 and then to decrease as pH was ...

  19. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  20. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  1. Leading curriculum change: Reflections on how Abakhwezeli stoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delport, Aletta (Prof) (Summerstrand Campus South)

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... Leading curriculum change: Reflections on how Abakhwezeli stoked the fire. Deidre Geduld and Heloise ... Engaging and leading educators in a process of curriculum change is not easy: it can be a difficult, and sometimes chaotic journey ...... influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and ...

  2. Lead stress effects on physiobiochemical activities of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Rakesh Singh; Gautam, Madhu; Sengar, Rajesh Singh; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Sengar, Kalpana; Chaudhary, Reshu

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a metallic pollutant emanating from various environmental sources including industrial wastes, combustion of fossil fuels, and use of agrochemicals. Lead may exist in the atmosphere as dusts, fumes, mists, and vapors, and in soil as a mineral. Soils along roadsides are rich in lead because vehicles burn leaded gasoline, which contributes to environmental lead pollution. Other important sources of lead pollution are geological weathering, industrial processing of ores and minerals, leaching of lead from solid wastes, and animal and human excreta. Lead is nondegradable, readily enters the food chain, and can subsequently endanger human and animal health. Lead is one of the most important environment pollutants and deserves the increasing attention it has received in recent decades. The present effort was undertaken to review lead stress effects on the physiobiochemical activity of higher plants. Lead has gained considerable attention as a potent heavy metal pollutant because of growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Lead-contaminated soils show a sharp decline in crop productivity. Lead is absorbed by plants mainly through the root system and in minor amounts through the leaves. Within the plants, lead accumulates primarily in roots, but some is translocated to aerial plant parts. Soil pH, soil particle size, cation-exchange capacity, as well as root surface area, root exudation, and mycorrhizal transpiration rate affect the availability and uptake of lead by plants. Only a limited amount of lead is translocated from roots to other organs because there are natural plant barriers in the root endodermis. At lethal concentrations, this barrier is broken and lead may enter vascular tissues. Lead in plants may form deposits of various sizes, present mainly in intercellular spaces, cell walls, and vacuoles. Small deposits of this metal are also seen in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome, and dictyosome-derived vesicles. After entering the cells, lead

  3. Leading hadron production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e' γ X) as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of di-jets (ep → ejjXn). The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated. (authors)

  4. Leading Indian Business-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandrovna Vorobyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the leading Indian business-groups under the conditions of economical liberalization. It is shown that the role of modern business-groups in the Indian economy is determined by their high rate in the gross domestic product (GDP, huge overall actives, substantial pert in the e[port of goods and services, as well as by their activities in modern branch structure formatting, and developing labor-intensive and high-tech branches. They strongly influence upon economical national strategies, they became a locomotive of internationalization and of transnationalization of India, the basis of the external economy factor system, the promoters of Indian "economical miracle" on the world scene, and the dynamical segment of economical and social development of modern India. The tendencies of the development of the leading Indian business groups are: gradual concentration of production in few clue sectors, "horizontal" structure, incorporation of the enterprises into joint-stock structure, attraction of hired top-managers and transnationaliziation. But against this background the leading Indian business-groups keep main traditional peculiarities: they mostly still belong to the families of their founders, even today they observe caste or communal relations which are the basis of their non-formal backbone tides, they still remain highly diversificated structures with weak interrelations. Specific national ambivalence and combination of traditions and innovations of the leading Indian business-groups provide their high vitality and stability in the controversial, multiform, overloaded with caste and confessional remains Indian reality. We conclude that in contrast to the dominant opinion transformation of these groups into multisectoral corporations of the western type is far from completion, and in the nearest perspective they will still possess all their peculiarities and incident social and economical

  5. Mortality of lead smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selevan, S.G.; Landrigan, P.J.; Stern, F.B.; Jones, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    To examine patterns of death in lead smelter workers, a retrospective analysis of mortality was conducted in a cohort of 1,987 males employed between 1940 and 1965 at a primary lead smelter in Idaho. Overall mortality was similar to that of the United States white male population (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 98). Excess mortality, however, was found from chronic renal disease (SMR = 192; confidence interval (CI) = 88-364), and the risk of death from renal disease increased with increasing duration of employment, such that after 20 years employment, the standardized mortality ratio reached 392 (CI = 107-1,004). Excess mortality was also noted for nonmalignant respiratory disease (SMR = 187, CI = 128-264). Eight of 32 deaths in this category were caused by silicosis; at least five workers who died of silicosis had been miners for a part of their lives. An additional 11 deaths resulted from tuberculosis (SMR = 139; CI = 69-249); in six of these cases, silicosis was a contributory cause of death. Cancer mortality was not increased overall (SMR = 95; CI = 78-114). An increase, however, was noted for deaths from kidney cancer (six cases; SMR = 204; CI = 75-444). Finally, excess mortality was noted for injuries (SMR = 138; CI = 104-179); 13 (23%) of the 56 deaths in this category were caused by mining injuries. The data from this study are consistent with previous reports of increased mortality from chronic renal disease in persons exposed occupationally to lead.

  6. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates was investi......The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...

  7. Leading practice water monitoring in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.; Turner, K.

    2010-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine is undergoing an environmental impact statement assessment process to develop a Heap Leach facility to treat low grade ore on site. The facility is proposed to be located in the relatively unimpacted Gulungul catchment within the Ranger Project Area which itself is surrounded by, but excluded from, the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. The Supervising Scientist Division (SSD) acts to ensure the downstream environment is protected from mine-related impacts. To achieve this SSD will develop a leading practice monitoring program for Gulungul Creek to monitor potential impacts to this catchment from the Heap Leach facility. (author)

  8. Leading practice water monitoring in northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, M.; Turner, K., E-mail: michelle.bush@environment.gov.au [Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Supervising Scientist Div., Darwin, NT (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine is undergoing an environmental impact statement assessment process to develop a Heap Leach facility to treat low grade ore on site. The facility is proposed to be located in the relatively unimpacted Gulungul catchment within the Ranger Project Area which itself is surrounded by, but excluded from, the World Heritage listed Kakadu National Park. The Supervising Scientist Division (SSD) acts to ensure the downstream environment is protected from mine-related impacts. To achieve this SSD will develop a leading practice monitoring program for Gulungul Creek to monitor potential impacts to this catchment from the Heap Leach facility. (author)

  9. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  10. Leading the implementation of ICT innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the associations between leadership, implementation of information and communications technology (ICT) innovations, and performance. Reviewing theories and empirical evidence from the literature on leading change, ICT innovations and performance hypotheses are formulated...... and tested in an analysis of the implementation of an ICT innovation in a Danish multi-site hospital. In a quasi-experimental research design using panel data, survey responses from more than 2000 employees before and after the implementation were generated as well as qualitative interviews with change...... agents. The findings indicate how differences in leadership during the ICT implementation process can have an important impact on performance after the ICT implementation process. The mobilization of initial support; directive leadership through information and technical assistance; participative...

  11. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  12. Current practices in generation of small molecule new leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, R A

    2001-01-01

    The current drug discovery processes in many pharmaceutical companies require large and growing collections of high quality lead structures for use in high throughput screening assays. Collections of small molecules with diverse structures and "drug-like" properties have, in the past, been acquired by several means: by archive of previous internal lead optimization efforts, by purchase from compound vendors, and by union of separate collections following company mergers. More recently, many drug discovery companies have established dedicated efforts to effect synthesis by internal and/or outsourcing efforts of targeted compound libraries for new lead generation. Although high throughput/combinatorial chemistry is an important component in the process of new lead generation, the selection of library designs for synthesis and the subsequent design of library members has evolved to a new level of challenge and importance. The potential benefits of screening multiple small molecule compound library designs against multiple biological targets offers substantial opportunity to discover new lead structures. Subsequent optimization of such compounds is often accelerated because of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) information encoded in these lead generation libraries. Lead optimization is often facilitated due to the ready applicability of high-throughput chemistry (HTC) methods for follow-up synthesis. Some of the strategies, trends, and critical issues central to the success of lead generation processes are discussed below. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Correlations in particle production in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00361447

    In high-energy heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a hot and dense state of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is formed. The initial collision geometry and the subsequent expansion during the QGP stage result in the correlations of produced particles, through which the properties of the QGP can be investigated. Two analyses based on the geometrical correlations of produced particles, one in proton-lead (p–Pb) collisions and the other in lead-lead (Pb–Pb) collisions, are presented in this thesis. The data analyzed in this thesis were collected with the ALICE detector at the LHC in p– Pb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV, and Pb–Pb collisions at a nucleon–nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV. In the forward-central two-particle correlation analysis in p–Pb collisions, two-particle an- gular correlations between trigger particles in the forward pseudorapidity range (2.5 < |η| < 4.0) and associated particles in the central ran...

  14. Lead reactor strategy economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: • A first attempt to evaluate LFR power plant electricity production cost has been performed; • Electricity price is similar to Gen III + plants; • The estimation accuracy is probably low; • Possible costs reduction could arise from coolant characteristics that may improve safety and simplicity by design; • Accident perception, not acceptable by public opinion, may be changed with low potential energy system (non exploding coolant); • Sustainability improvement could open to a better Public acceptance, depending on us. • Problems may arise in coupling a high capital cost low fuel cost plant in a grid with large amount of intermittent sources with priority dispatch. • Lead fast reactors can compete

  15. The Self-Leading Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to a Ph.D. design research, conducted in a medium sized Danish bank. The research demonstrates a human-centred perspective and resulted in a radical new type of banking service represented in the MoneyWorkshop. The MoneyWorkshop helps customers uncover their dominant values...... and emotions and makes them increasingly aware of their preferred personal values related to money. Participation in this workshop made customers increasingly empowered and ‘self-leading’. People even changed their ‘money behaviour’ – now in accordance with their values. The paper explains the Money......-Leading Customer...

  16. The art of leading meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, C B

    1987-05-01

    The ability to skillfully lead meetings can contribute to a manager's effectiveness. There are four types of meetings, each serving different needs and requiring different leadership. A manager must know when to hold meetings, what leadership style is appropriate, how and when to use participative management, and how to facilitate a consensus. Considerable planning must be done before a meeting is held. Various leadership and communication skills are required to effectively open, conduct, and close a meeting. Finally, the leader needs to know how to deal with participants who become problems.

  17. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  18. Soft mode of lead zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, G.F.; Prisedskij, V.V.; Klimov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusional scattering of electrons on PbZrO 3 crystal in the temperature range of phase transition has been recorded. As a result of its analysis it has been established that in lead zirconate the rotational vibrational mode G 25 plays the role of soft mode. The experiment is carried out using PbZrO 3 monocrystals in translucent electron microscope EhM-200, operating in the regime of microdiffraction at accelerating voltage of 150 kV and beam current 50 μA; sample preparation is realized using the method of shearing and fragmentation

  19. Making and Breaking of Lead Halide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Manser, Joseph S.

    2016-02-16

    A new front-runner has emerged in the field of next-generation photovoltaics. A unique class of materials, known as organic metal halide perovskites, bridges the gap between low-cost fabrication and exceptional device performance. These compounds can be processed at low temperature (typically in the range 80–150 °C) and readily self-assemble from the solution phase into high-quality semiconductor thin films. The low energetic barrier for crystal formation has mixed consequences. On one hand, it enables inexpensive processing and both optical and electronic tunability. The caveat, however, is that many as-formed lead halide perovskite thin films lack chemical and structural stability, undergoing rapid degradation in the presence of moisture or heat. To date, improvements in perovskite solar cell efficiency have resulted primarily from better control over thin film morphology, manipulation of the stoichiometry and chemistry of lead halide and alkylammonium halide precursors, and the choice of solvent treatment. Proper characterization and tuning of processing parameters can aid in rational optimization of perovskite devices. Likewise, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the degradation mechanism and identifying components of the perovskite structure that may be particularly susceptible to attack by moisture are vital to mitigate device degradation under operating conditions. This Account provides insight into the lifecycle of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites, including (i) the nature of the precursor solution, (ii) formation of solid-state perovskite thin films and single crystals, and (iii) transformation of perovskites into hydrated phases upon exposure to moisture. In particular, spectroscopic and structural characterization techniques shed light on the thermally driven evolution of the perovskite structure. By tuning precursor stoichiometry and chemistry, and thus the lead halide charge-transfer complexes present in solution, crystallization

  20. LEAD BIOSORPTION USING BIOMASS FROM KETAPANG LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mulyawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste containing of lead (Pb is very dangerous for the environment. However, waste treatment process has been introduced to minimize the waste, either by precipitation process or ionic exchange resin. In addition, researchers have shown that ketapang leaves (Terminalia catappa can be potentially used in waste water treatment. It has been used as water treatment media for fresh water aquarium. Moreover, this research was aimed to find out the potential of ketapang leaves biosorption for waste treatment that has been polluted by heavy metal, such as lead, by investigating the characteristics of biosorption, kinetics and thermodynamics. Maximum conditions of pH, ketapang leaves dose, contact time, and temperature were also investigated in this research. The result showed that biomass of ketapang leaves has potential as biosorbent. Nevertheless, the absorbtion was highly affected by dependent to pH, Pb concentration, adsorbent mass, contact time, and temperature, in which the maximum limits are 3; 5 mg/L; 0.5 gram; 4 hours; 40 ºC; respectively. Reaction rate, moreover, was running on order one and was fulfilled the principle of Langmuir. Ketapan leaves have a low activation energy making it suitable to be used as an alternative adsorbent Pb absorption of waste containing Pb.

  1. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  2. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  3. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m 3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m 3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  4. Multi-lead heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, L.D.

    1982-08-25

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  5. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-04-17

    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic drugs

  6. Forest development leading to disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton E. Carlson; Stephen F. Arno; Jimmie Chew; Catherine A. Stewart

    1995-01-01

    Natural disturbance in western U.S.A. forest ecosystems is related to forest succession, growth, and structural development. Natural disturbance may be biotic (insects and diseases) or abiotic (fire, wind, avalanche, etc.). Natural disturbances are more appropriately thought of as natural processes; disturbance is a social connotation implicating economic loss. Forest...

  7. Does rhinitis lead to asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cauwenberge, Paul; Watelet, Jean-Baptiste; van Zele, Thibaut; Wang, De-Yun; Toskala, Elina; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Lau, Susanne; Leynaert, Benedicte; Wickman, Magnus; Salapatas, Marianella; Burney, Peter; Mullol, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Rhinitis and asthma are commonly linked even if the precise pathological mechanisms explaining the relationship are not fully understood. Although there is increasing evidence that rhinitis may influence the development of asthma, there remain many gaps in our understanding of the processes

  8. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... An evaluation of the kinetics and capacity of chitosan to trap lead and cadmium ions in aqueous solution was carried out at 25oC using concentration and contact time as parameters. The experiments were done as batch process. Our results show that the adsorption process is concentration-driven with.

  9. Extrusion and properties of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, S.; Millar, C.E.; Pedersen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure for fabricating electroceramic actuators with good piezoelectric properties. The preparation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic rods and tubes by extrusion processing is described. The microstructure of extrudates...... was investigated in comparision with different processing conditions. Finally, the measuremental results of density, dielectric and piezoelectric properties are reported and analyzed....

  10. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan | Bamgbose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the kinetics and capacity of chitosan to trap lead and cadmium ions in aqueous solution was carried out at 25oC using concentration and contact time as parameters. The experiments were done as batch process. Our results show that the adsorption process is concentration-driven with high capacity of ...

  11. Lead-Based Paint and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Rule does not apply to total demolition of a structure. Learn about EPA recommended lead-safe practices during total demolition activities to prevent and minimize exposure to lead.

  12. Analysis of the sources and dynamic processes leading to the increase of atmospheric CO2, black carbon and other trace species during recent urban pollution events in the Paris megacity region : a synergy of resources provided by the IPSL OCAPI platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Foret, G.; Beekmann, M.; Brégonzio-Rozier, L.; Favez, O.; Gros, V.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Vogel, F. R.; Belviso, S.; Ghersi, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Bodichon, R.; Cailteau-Fischbach, C.; Baisnee, D.; Peinado, F.; Haeffelin, M.; DeCola, P.; Turnbull, J. C.; Chelin, P.; Te, Y. V.; Formenti, P.; Doussin, J. F.; Gratien, A.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Ramage, K.; Jeseck, P.; Delmotte, M.; Ramonet, M.; Michoud, V.; Ravetta, F.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 50% of the global population leave in urban centers which activities generate large anthropogenic emissions of CO2 (more than 70% of fossil fuel CO2 comes from urbanized/industrialized areas) and reactive gases that endanger our climate, the health of human beings and surrounding ecosystems. The worst situations are encountered during urban pollution events that usually form under anticyclonic conditions. Analyzing the contribution of the local and regional sources of urban CO2 and co-emitted species vs the remote ones, as well as the nature of these sources and the dynamical processes that lead to the building of such events can provide interesting knowledge for helping urban policy makers to better identify the role of anthropogenic/biogenic sources on the urban air composition and to take proper decisions in matter of CO2 and pollutants sources mitigation. With 12 million of people, Paris (France) is the second megacity in Europe. In 2016, two pollution events occured in the Paris region during which the instrumental platform OCAPI (http://observations.ipsl.fr/composition-atmospherique-en-idf.html) from IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) was mobilized in collaboration with air quality governing actors (AIRPARIF, INERIS) to collect a bunch of observations. Five sites located in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Paris were equiped with in-situ analyzers (CO2, CO, black carbon, 13CO2, COS) ; Fourier transform spectrometers for column measurements (XCO2, XCO, XCOS), particle filters (for aerosols size and content analysis) ; air samples (levoglucosan, 14CO2, VOCs) ; and Lidar profilers (boundary layer height ; wind profiles). These data, combined with a backtrajectories analysis, give information about the dynamical processes that lead to the formation of the pollution events and on the contribution of local, regional and remote sources. The analysis of the correlations between the trace species and of the isotopic content of carbon in

  13. LEAD POISONING IN ANCIENT ROME 1. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of organic lead compounds such as tetra-ethyl lead, found in modern times in leaded petrol.2 Significant absorption of lead can take place .... of the Empire period consumed 250 mg of lead a day, as against 35 mg for plebeians and 15 mg for slaves. He compares this with cur- rent figures of 30-50 mg lead a day for the ...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of PID, Lead, Lag, Lead-Lag, and Cascaded Lead Controllers for a Drug Infusion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Zuwwar Khan; Shakeel, Sobia; Saleem, Abeera; Shuja, Sana; ul-Hasan, Qadeer; Ali Riaz, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Goal The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis between five different controllers for a drug infusion system in total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) administration. Methods The proposed method models a dilution chamber with first order exponential decay characteristics to represent the pharmacokinetic decay of a drug. The dilution chamber is integrated with five different control techniques with a simulation-based comparative analysis performed between them. The design process is conducted using MATLAB SISOTOOL. Results The findings show that each controller has its own merits and demerits. The results generated using MATLAB signify and confirm the effectiveness of PI and cascaded lead controllers, with cascaded lead controller as the best control technique to automate and control the propofol delivery. Conclusion In this paper, different control techniques for measurement-based feedback-controlled propofol delivery is confirmed with promising results. Significance The comparative analysis showed that this drug infusion platform, merged with the proper control technique, will perform eminently in the field of total intravenous anesthesia. PMID:29312654

  15. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  16. A Repeatable Collaboration Process for Exploring Business Process Improvement Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, H G; Amiyo, Mercy; Nabukenya, J.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic nature of organisations has increased demand for business process agility leading to the adoption of continuous Business Process Improvement (BPI). Success of BPI projects calls for continuous process analysis and exploration of several improvement alternatives. These activities are

  17. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  18. Electrorheology Leads to Efficient Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.; Tang, H.; Bell, D.

    2009-03-01

    Improving engine efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions are important. Since combustion starts at the interface between fuel and air and most harmful emissions come from incomplete burning, reducing the size of fuel droplets for the fuel injection would increase the total surface area to start burning, leading to a cleaner and more efficient engine. While most efforts are focused on ultra-dilute mixtures at extremely high pressure to produce much finer mist of fuel for combustion, the new technology is still under development and only for next generation vehicles. Here we report our fuel injection technology based on new physics principle that proper application of electrorheology can reduce the viscosity of petroleum fuels. A small device is thus introduced just before the fuel injection for the engine, producing a strong electric field to reduce the fuel viscosity, resulting in much smaller fuel droplets in atomization. Both lab tests and road tests confirm our theory and indicate that such a device improves fuel mileage significantly and reduces emission. The technology is expected to have broad applications, applicable to current internal combustion engines and future engines as well. Supported by STWA and RAND.

  19. Leading local politicians visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Left to right:  Professor Maiani, Ernest Nycollin, Anne-Marie Comparini, and Jean Pépin surrounded by young PRAC. On the 13th of November leading local politicians : Mme Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhône-Alpes, M. Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie et M. Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain took part in a ceremony which featured the insertion of one of the first LHC magnets into its cryostat.  The department of l'Ain financed a large part of the contruction of building SMA 18 which will see intense activity during the assembly of LHC magnets over the next four years. The department of Haute-Savoie helped in the development of the ultrasonic welding machine for the superconducting cables and the conception of integrated circuits that will be used to measure temperature and pressure inside the magnets. T...

  20. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  1. Did Globalization Lead to Segmentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Enflo, Kerstin Sofia

    . Interestingly, when three historical epochs are analyzed separately (1870-1913; 1913-1950; and 1950-2003), the dynamics which come to dominate over the whole period emerged only during the post-1950 years. In contrast, the First Global Wave was marked by global divergence. Therefore, history does not provide......Economic historians have stressed that income convergence was a key feature of the 'OECD-club' and that globalization was among the accelerating forces of this process in the long-run. This view has however been challenged, since it suffers from an ad hoc selection of countries. In the paper...... unambiguous evidence about globalization and convergence....

  2. The Prevalence of Longevity Among Leading Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of brands is embedded in scholarship involving brand processes that evolve over time such as brand equity, loyalty, nostalgia, and lifecycle. It is also an important conceptual element in the emerging topic of brand heritage. This paper offers new insight regarding the prevalence of brand longevity in a variety of industries, based on historical research about 148 leading brands ranked in prior studies by the consulting firm Interbrand. The author finds that a significant proportion (64 brands representing 43% of the total number are aged 100 years or more. The oldest brands are grouped in the food industry, while some of the youngest brands are grouped in the hospitality industry. The author applies the principles of scale and scope from the work of business historian Alfred Chandler to explain the timing of this industry emergence. The advanced age of many leading brands suggests the need for stewardship to preserve and protect the equity that resides in historic brands, and supports the argument that further attention should be directed toward the study of brand heritage effects.

  3. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  4. Learning, Leading and Letting go of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annie Aarup; Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh; Iversen, Ann-Merete

    Learning, leading and letting go of control – Learner Led Approaches in Education Annie Aarup Jensen, Lone Krogh Kjær-Rasmussen, Ann-Merete Iversen and Anni Stavnskær Pedersen Abstract The aim of the paper is to introduce a new term in teaching in Higher Education: Learner Led Approaches in Educa......Learning, leading and letting go of control – Learner Led Approaches in Education Annie Aarup Jensen, Lone Krogh Kjær-Rasmussen, Ann-Merete Iversen and Anni Stavnskær Pedersen Abstract The aim of the paper is to introduce a new term in teaching in Higher Education: Learner Led Approaches...... or her own unique pool of knowledge, and the formal educational system as merely one among a broad variety of legitimate learning contexts. The learner is ”in the control room” and driven by intrinsic motivation. Learner Led Approaches (LED) are not one approach or dogma to replace existing dogmas...... processes that are meaningful for him or her. We thereby remove the focus from the teacher and the teaching to the learner and the learning, and build on the student’s motivation as a driving force, hence the term learner led. Rogers (1983) defines meaningful learning as a quality of personal involvement...

  5. Lead plating of the low beta resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.; Corcoran, D.; Coughlin, R.; Goliak, T.; Hodgkins, D.; James, P.; Seamster, A.G.; Secora, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Plating operations were performed at the lead plating facility at SUNY, Stony Brook. Initial procedures were based on the previous experience of prototype development by Ben-Zvi and Brennan. Several attempts were made to produce satisfactory results, however the lead surfaces were consistently stained and lacked the bright metallic finish routinely achieved with the split loop resonator at SUNY. The development of a new set of procedures was initiated, aided by reports of plating success from Ben-Zvi. Controlled tests were conducted which suggested several changes in the plating parameters. Based on these results and suggestions from the staff at SUNY a new process was defined which was successful in producing the smooth reflective metallic surface known to be necessary forla optimum resonator performance. Following a successful repair of the the crack, the prototype was plated and chemically polished with the new techniques. The resultant surface was highly reflective and free of stains and particulates. The subsequent prototype cold test was successful

  6. Agrochemical lead optimization by scaffold hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    Scaffold hopping, the exchange of a specific portion of a potential active ingredient with another substructure with the aim of finding isofunctional molecular structures with significantly different molecular backbones, often offers the chance in lead discovery or optimization to mitigate problems related to toxicity, intellectual property, and insufficient potency or stability. Scaffold hopping tools such as isosteric ring replacement including 1,3 nitrogen shift and cyclic imine-amide isosterism, but also ring opening and ring closure approaches, functional group isosterism, reversion of functional groups, chain shortening, chain lengthening, and scaffolds delivered by natural products, have become a permanent fixture of the innovation and optimization process in crop protection research. Their appropriate use will be explained through examples of success stories in the field of agrochemistry. Analogies to, but also differences from, the main categories of scaffold hopping in medicinal drug discovery are discussed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  8. Lead (Pb) in Drinking Water

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  9. Dietary exposure to lead in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon PE; te Biesebeek JD; van Donkersgoed G; VVH; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    Uptake from the soil is the main route by which lead ends up in food. Lead in soil has its origin in both natural and anthropogenic sources. The lead concentration in food has decreased over the last decennia by the use of unleaded petrol and paint, and the replacement of lead water pipes.

  10. Multijet final states: exact results and the leading pole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Owens, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    Exact results for the process gg → ggg are compared with those obtained using the leading pole approximation. Regions of phase space where the approximation breaks down are discussed. A specific example relevant for background estimates to W boson production is presented. It is concluded that in this instance the leading pole approximation may underestimate the standard QCD background by more than a factor of two in certain kinematic regions of physical interest

  11. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  12. Lead poisoning of industrial origin in the horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghergariu, S.; Kadar, L.; Boehm, B.; Grindeanu, I.; Teucean, M.

    1978-01-01

    In an industrial area polluted by fumes from a lead processing plant, the following symptoms were observed in horses: anemia, leanness, wind sucking at inspiration due to laryngeal paralysis, running at the nostrils due to pharyngeal paralysis (2 horses), intense dyspnea, latent asphyxia and incoordinate locomotion. A high rate of contamination of the hay, by lead (hay 837 +/- 714 ppm/dry; pasture grass 919 +/- 455 ppm/dry) was demonstrated. In the tissues of a slaughtered filly impregnation was found to be mild for lead, excessively high for cadmium.

  13. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  14. Deployment Support Leading to Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E E

    1997-10-01

    The following paragraphs summarize the progress of each research project funded under the WVU Cooperative Agreement during the third quarter of 1997 (July - September 1997). The projects are arranged according to their 1997 WVU task number. WVU Focus Area 1.0: Subsurface Contaminants, Containment and Remediation Task No. 1.1: Project discontinued. Task No. 1.2: Development of Standard Test Protocols and Barrier Design Models for Desiccation Barriers (K. Amininan & S. Ameri): A number of experiments were preformed this period to evaluate the ability of the dried sand-packs to act as a barrier to liquids. Water infiltration tests were done with a constant head, dispersing 80 ml of water, and by adding water in small increments. Results indicate that when the water is spilled over the sand-pack, it has the tendency to channel through the sand-pack, significantly reducing the capacity of the dried zone to retain liquid contaminants. This appears to be largely influenced by particle size. As the particle size is reduced, the capillary forces spread the water and prevent/delay channels from forming. The measured permeability values were in agreement with those measured with air. The water retention capacity and capillary rise were largely influenced by time and showed no sensitivity to channeling. The water retention capacity tests suggest the sand-packs can retain more water than the expected. Two sets of water infiltration and drying experiments were designed to evaluate the CAB's ability to prevent spills from spreading. Ten ml of water was injected every 20 minutes and 80 ml of water was added at one time. When injected slowly, results showed the drying process to be similar to the original drying process. The second set indicted the drying process follows a slowly declining drying with no break through. Results also suggested that air flow through the sand-pack can remove water infiltration. The air flow appeared to prevent any water channeling and thus should

  15. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  16. Surface ordering during underpotential deposition of lead on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa

    Recently there has been an increased fundamental and practical interest in studies of ultra-thin films in systems with large atomic size mismatch. For those systems interesting surface stress-driven phenomena are observed, such as surface-confined alloying resulting in self-assembly and ordering of domain structures. The system of interest in the present study is the electrochemical deposition of lead on copper that has an atomic size mismatch of 37%. This system shows no bulk alloying and has been thoroughly examined in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Electrodeposition of lead on copper starts by formation of one epitaxial monolayer in the potential region positive with respect to the reversible potential of bulk lead deposition, a phenomenon known in electrochemistry as underpotential deposition (UPD). On copper (111), in-situ STM results have shown (4 x 4) Moire structure of the complete lead monolayer, a structure identical to that observed in UHV. Following stripping of the lead monolayer, STM results revealed nano-organization of the topmost copper layer. Depending on the solution pH value, different types of nanoscale organization have been observed: (i) a Moire pattern of anion-induced reconstruction of the top copper layer, and (ii) a star pattern dislocation network. Additional experiments in lead-free aerated and deaerated solutions at different pH values suggest that observed structures are results of lead-assisted oxy-anion adsorption in which lead plays a catalytic role. On copper (100), the lead UPD process features coverage-dependent phase behavior identical to that observed in UHV. As a function of lead coverage, phases corresponding to a dilute random alloy phase and ordered surface alloy phase that appears at a surface coverage ratio of three lead atoms to eight copper atoms are observed. With increasing lead coverage, lead dealloys from this ordered phase resulting in the formation of a c(2 x 2) lead overlayer phase that transforms with increasing lead

  17. Leading the Team You Inherit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Most leaders don't have the luxury of building their teams from scratch. Instead they're put in charge of an existing group, and they need guidance on the best way to take over and improve performance. Watkins, an expert on transitions, suggests a three-step approach: Assess. Act quickly to size up the personnel you've inherited, systematically gathering data from one-on-one chats, team meetings, and other sources. Reflect, too, on the business challenges you face, the kinds of people you want in various roles, and the degree to which they need to collaborate. Reshape. Adjust the makeup of the team by moving people to new positions, shifting their responsibilities, or replacing them. Make sure that everyone is aligned on goals and how to achieve them--you may need to change the team's stated direction. Consider also making changes in the way the team operates (reducing the frequency of meetings, for example, or creating new subteams). Then establish ground rules and processes to sustain desired behaviors, and revisit those periodically. Accelerate team development. Set your people up for some early wins. Initial successes will boost everyone's confidence and reinforce the value of your new operating model, thus paving the way for ongoing growth.

  18. Designing Lead Optimisation of MMP-12 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Borrotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of new molecules with desired properties is in general a very difficult problem, involving heavy experimentation with high investment of resources and possible negative impact on the environment. The standard approach consists of iteration among formulation, synthesis, and testing cycles, which is a very long and laborious process. In this paper we address the so-called lead optimisation process by developing a new strategy to design experiments and modelling data, namely, the evolutionary model-based design for optimisation (EDO. This approach is developed on a very small set of experimental points, which change in relation to the response of the experimentation according to the principle of evolution and insights gained through statistical models. This new procedure is validated on a data set provided as test environment by Pickett et al. (2011, and the results are analysed and compared to the genetic algorithm optimisation (GAO as a benchmark. The very good performance of the EDO approach is shown in its capacity to uncover the optimum value using a very limited set of experimental points, avoiding unnecessary experimentation.

  19. Prevention of lead toxicity in US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphear, Bruce P; Dietrich, Kim N; Berger, Omer

    2003-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the proportion of US children who have blood lead concentrations of 10 microg/dL or higher declined by over 80% after the elimination of leaded gasoline and lead solder from canned foods, and a ban on leaded paint used in housing and other consumer products. Fatalities and symptomatic lead poisoning are now rare. Residential lead hazards, which are exceedingly difficult to control, are currently the major source of lead intake for children. Undue lead exposure has retreated into 2 major risk groups; impoverished children who live in older, poorly maintained rental housing and more affluent children who live in older housing undergoing renovation. Despite the dramatic decline in children's blood lead levels, lead toxicity remains epidemic among impoverished children who live in older rental housing, especially those who live in the northeastern and midwestern regions of the United States. There are increasing data linking lead exposure with other systemic effects including delinquency, dental caries, and learning problems. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that there is no discernible threshold for lead-associated cognitive deficits. Thus, it is increasingly important to shift our efforts toward the primary prevention of childhood lead exposure from residential hazards. This article reviews the epidemiology and control of childhood lead exposure, focusing especially on steps necessary to shift toward primary prevention.

  20. Kinetics of oil saponification by lead salts in ancient preparations of pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, M; Checroun, E; Susini, J; Dumas, P; Tchoreloff, P; Besnard, M; Walter, Ph

    2006-12-15

    Lead soaps can be found in archaeological cosmetics as well as in oil paintings, as product of interactions of lead salts with oil. In this context, a better understanding of the formation of lead soaps allows a follow-up of the historical evolution of preparation recipes and provides new insights into conservation conditions. First, ancient recipes of both pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums, mixtures of oil and lead salts, were reconstructed. The ester saponification by lead salts is determined by the preparation parameters which were quantified by FT-IR spectrometry. In particular, ATR/FT-IR spectrometer was calibrated by the standard addition method to quantitatively follow the kinetics of this reaction. The influence of different parameters such as temperature, presence of water and choice of lead salts was assessed: the saponification is clearly accelerated by water and heating. This analysis provides chemical explanations to the historical evolution of cosmetic and painting preparation recipes.

  1. Exciton-relaxation dynamics in lead halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Hayashi, Tetsusuke

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent comprehensive studies of exciton relaxation in the crystals of lead halides. The luminescence and electron-spin-resonance studies have revealed that excitons in lead bromide spontaneously dissociate and both electrons and holes get self-trapped individually. Similar relaxation has been also clarified in lead chloride. The electron-hole separation is ascribed to repulsive correlation via acoustic phonons. Besides, on the basis of the temperature profiles of self-trapped states, we discuss the origin of luminescence components which are mainly induced under one-photon excitation into the exciton band in lead fluoride, lead chloride, and lead bromide

  2. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  3. Lead poisoning in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table.

  4. Biological conversion of anglesite (PbSO4) and lead waste from spent car batteries to galena (PbS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Hoop, de K.; Bosma, W.; Dijkman, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2 precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted

  5. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  6. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  7. A Public Health Approach to Addressing Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes EPA’s achievements in reducing childhood lead exposures and emphasizes the need to continue actions to further reduce lead exposures, especially in those communities where exposures remain high.

  8. Observations on lead pollution in milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffeo, G.; Renon, P.

    1976-08-01

    The problem of lead pollution in milk in highly industrialized areas (district of Milan) has been evaluated. Potentially dangerous rates of lead have been checked in milk, agricultural fields, fodders and entrails of slaughtered animals.

  9. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  10. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  11. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eid...

  12. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  13. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  14. An exploratory study of lead recovery in lead-acid battery lifecycle in US market: An evidence-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genaidy, A.M.; Sequeira, R.; Tolaymat, T.; Kohler, J.; Rinder, M.

    2008-01-01

    opportunities for maximizing lead recovery and recycling are centered on spent batteries left with consumers, mishandled LAB sent to auto wreckers, slag resulting from recycling technology process inefficiencies, and lead lost in municipal waste

  15. Cask dismantlement at the INEL for lead recovery and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, E.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is successfully recycling radiologically clean metallic scrap lead and steel separated from obsolete lead shielded casks and devices. These casks and devices have low level radiological surface contamination and, because of the characteristic toxicity of the lead shielding, were previously declared a mixed hazardous waste and placed in Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) storage. This paper highlights the unique capabilities available at the INEL to perform dismantlement and recycling of casks and devices weighing from a few pounds to over 40 tons. Issues and results associated with the INEL's recycling of lead as free-released scrap metal are presented and discussed. Dismantlement process methods and equipment are described

  16. Dynamics of radioactive lead isotopes in the global environmental atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental information of radioactive lead isotopes, which used as the atmospheric tracer in the global environmental atmosphere, is reviewed. Emanation and exhalation of Rn and Tn, parent nuclide, is stated. Some reports on measurement and application of short-lived lead isotopes are reported. Transfer of radioactive lead isotopes in the atmosphere, vertical profiles of radon, thoron, and short-lived lead isotopes for different turbulent mixing conditions, deposition to aerosol, basic processes of Rn decay product behavior in air defining 'unattached' and 'aerosol-attached' activities, seasonal variation of atmospheric 210 Pb concentration at Beijing and Chengdu, seasonal variation of atmospheric 212 Pb concentration at several observation sites in Japan Islands, and variation in the atmospheric concentration of 212 Pb along with SO 2 are shown. (S.Y.)

  17. Pilot study dismantlement of 20 lead-lined shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes a pilot study conducted at the INEL to dismantle lead-lined casks and shielding devices, separate the radiologically contaminated and hazardous materials, and recycle resultant scrap lead. The facility areas where the work was performed, dismantlement methods, and process equipment are described. Issues and results associated with recycling the lead as a free-released scrap metal are presented and discussed. Data and results from the pilot study are summarized and presented. The study concluded that cask dismantlement at the INEL can be performed as a legitimate recycling activity for scrap lead. Ninety-one percent of the lead recovered passed free-release criteria. The value of the 50,375 lb of recovered lead is approximately $0.45/lb. Resultant waste streams can be satisfactorily treated and disposed. Only very low levels of bulk radiological contamination (47 picocuries/gram of 137 Cs and 3.2 picocuries/gram of 6O Co) were detected in the lead rejected for free release

  18. Development of lead-bismuth coolant technology for nuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kin-ya; Kitano, Teruaki; Ono, Mikinori

    2004-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth is a promising material as a future fast reactor coolant or an intensive neutron source material for accelerator driven transmutation system (ADS). To develop nuclear plants and their installations using lead-bismuth coolant for practical use, both coolant technologies, inhabitation process of steels and quality control of coolant, and total operation system for liquid lead-bismuth plants are required. Based on the experience of liquid metal coolant, Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. (MES) has completed the liquid lead-bismuth forced circulation loop and has acquired various engineering data on main components including economizer. As a result of tis operation, MES has developed key technologies of lead-bismuth coolant such as controlling of oxygen content in lead-bismuth and a purification of lead-bismuth coolant. MES participated in the national project, ''The Development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation System'', together with JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and started corrosion test for beam window of ADS. (author)

  19. Learning through Leading: A Self-Study in District Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christina

    2016-01-01

    There is little research in the area of understanding educational leaders' psychological processes. This lack of understanding leaves educational leaders to develop their own sense-making practices while in the complex and stressful act of leading. This self-study, conducted over more than half a school year in 2014-2015, was my own effort to do…

  20. Sorption of lead from aqueous solution by modified activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were based on using powdered activated carbon (PACI), which was prepared from olive stones generated, as plant wastes, and modified with aqueous oxidizing agent such as (NH 4)2S2O8. The main parameters (pH, sorbent, lead concentrations, stirring times and temperature) influencing the sorption process in ...

  1. Lead-containing solid "oxygen reservoirs" for selective hydrogen combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Rothenberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-containing catalysts can be applied as solid "oxygen reservoirs" in a novel process for propane oxidative dehydrogenation. The catalyst lattice oxygen selectively burns hydrogen from the dehydrogenation mixture at 550 degrees C. This shifts the dehydrogenation equilibrium to the desired

  2. Leading curriculum change: Reflections on how Abakhwezeli stoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engaging and leading educators in a process of curriculum change is not easy: it can be a difficult, and sometimes chaotic journey which is often characterised by philosophical debate, the calling into question of current practices, fear, and even openly acknowledged resistance. In order for change to succeed, leaders of ...

  3. Determination of lead and cadmium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Backhaus, F.; Dahl, R.; Hagedorn-Goetz, H.; Hilpert, K.; Klahre, P.; Rutzel, H.; Valenta, P.; Nuernberg, H.W.; Dumont, M.

    1975-01-01

    Sampling techniques and experience, and decomposition methods are presented. The processes used in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (including the method using automatic insertion of samples), pulse polarography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are described. Finally, the results of lead and cadmium measurements in bovine liver, blood, urine and hair samples are reported and discussed with a comparison of methods in some cases

  4. Integrated Communications at America's Leading Total Quality Management Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstedt, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Examines how to create organizational processes that allow communication professionals with a variety of expertise to support each other through coordination and integration. Studies eight of America's leading total quality management corporations, including AT&T, Federal Express, Saturn, and Xerox. Explores how various total quality…

  5. Removal of chromium and lead from drill cuttings using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2009-07-14

    Jul 14, 2009 ... disposal of drill cuttings normally requires transport of the cuttings to a suitable landfill or shore-based processing system. Presently in Nigeria, drill ..... Kinetics and Thermodynamic Study of Lead Adsorption onto Acti- vated Carbon from Coconut and Sea Hull of the Palm Tree. J. Environ. Sci and Tech.

  6. Characterization and microstructure of porous lead zirconate titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics are widely used because of their low acoustic im- pedance, high figure of merit and high ... made by combining a PZT ceramic with a passive polymer or air phase. These materials greatly ... study of optimization of processing parameters and novel porous ceramics structures ...

  7. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, T. L.; Nixon, W. E.; Bucelot, T. J.; Deaver, B. S., Jr.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by ˜0.1 K.

  8. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 μm, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K

  9. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance........9% (95% CI: 85.2-90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78-0.86) representing an almost perfect match. CONCLUSION: The validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead......AIMS: The validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified...

  10. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations...... of approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  12. Macroencapsulation of lead and steel SWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.; Thiesen, T.; Tyson, D.; Beitel, G.

    1995-01-01

    The treatability study to macroencapsulate radioactively contaminated lead and steel swarf (cuttings and/or chips)and chunks, a low level mixed waste, from the dismantlement of excess surplus uranium fuel handling and transfer casks was successful. Macroencapsulation is the land disposal restriction treatment standard for this waste form per 40 CFR 268.42 Table 3. An epoxy-based thermoset system was employed due to cracking failures of other types of thermoset systems. Bench scale tests were performed with a two-part epoxy (resin and hardener) using cast iron chips as a surrogate waste media. A two stage encapsulation process was employed in treating the swarf. Two liters of epoxy were added to a 2.8 ell (3 qt) container of swarf under 51K Pa vacuum (-15-inch of Hg) during the first stage of the process. In this stage each individual particle or chip was wetted by epoxy and allowed to harden into an initial monolith. The second stage encapsulated the initial monolith with a secondary layer of epoxy forming a larger final monolith. By evacuating the air from the swarf and epoxy during the initial monolith encapsulation, a higher density (higher swarf to epoxy ratio) was achieved. Tensile and compressive strength tests were performed on samples and without any media (cast iron chips). The coupons were prepared from a series of monoliths featuring various mixtures ratios and vacuum levels. The tensile strength of epoxy without chips averaged 41M Pa (6000 psi) and 1.4M Pa (2000 psi) with cast iron chips. Compression strengths averaged 140M Pa (20,000 psi) without chips and 66.2M Pa (9600 psi) with cast iron chips

  13. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001. Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88% children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029. No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children.

  14. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  15. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  16. Predictors of dimercaptosuccinic acid chelatable lead and tibial lead in former organolead manufacturing workers

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, B. S.; Stewart, W. F.; Todd, A. C.; Links, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of tibial and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) chelatable lead in 543 organolead manufacturing workers with past exposure to organic and inorganic lead. METHODS: In this cross sectional study, tibial lead (by 109Cd K-shell x ray fluorescence), DMSA chelatable lead (4 hour urinary lead excretion after oral administration of 10 mg/kg), and several exposure measures were obtained on study participants, mean (SD) age 57.6 (7.6) years. RESULTS: Tibial lead co...

  17. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Joanne P I; Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Lee, Nadine; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Dörr, P Joep; Scheele, Fedde

    2012-04-01

      Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead consultants approach educational change.   This study was conducted to explore lead consultants' approaches to educational change in specialty training and factors influencing these approaches.   From an interpretative constructivist perspective, we conducted a qualitative exploratory study using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 16 lead consultants in the Netherlands between August 2010 and February 2011. The study design was based on the research questions and notions from corporate business and social psychology about the roles of change managers. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using template analysis.   The lead consultants described change processes with different stages, including cause, development of content, and the execution and evaluation of change, and used individual change strategies consisting of elements such as ideas, intentions and behaviour. Communication is necessary to the forming of a strategy and the implementation of change, but the nature of communication is influenced by the strategy in use. Lead consultants differed in their degree of awareness of the strategies they used. Factors influencing approaches to change were: knowledge, ideas and beliefs about change; level of reflection; task interpretation; personal style, and department culture.   Most lead consultants showed limited awareness of their own approaches to change. This can lead them to adopt a rigid approach, whereas the ability to adapt strategies to circumstances is considered important to effective change management. Interventions and research should be aimed at enhancing the awareness of lead consultants of approaches to change in PGME.

  18. 42 CFR 137.305 - May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating, or joint lead agencies for environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...

  19. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2017-09-01

    Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value. The maximum lead sulfide recovery rate was approximately 93%, at the optimum sodium carbonate level, sodium sulfide level, temperature, and holding time of 25%, 8%, 1200°C, and 2h, respectively. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  1. Sulfide precursor concentration and lead source effect on PbS thin films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddek, L.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N. [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Aida, M.S., E-mail: aida_salah2@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Bougdira, J. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Vandoeuvre 54506 (France)

    2016-05-05

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD). Bath solutions are formed of various concentrations of thiourea, sulfide source, ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 M and two different salts as Pb source (lead acetate and lead nitrate). From the growth mechanism, we inferred that PbS is formed through the ion by ion process when using acetate lead source, while, using nitrate source yields to films growth through the complex-decomposition process. Due to the difference in the involved growth process, lead acetate produces films with larger crystallite size (from 4 to 16 nm), smooth and dense films. However, lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size (from 1 to 4 nm). Increasing the thiourea concentration results in crystallinity improvement when using lead acetate and, oppositely, in crystallinity degradation when using lead nitrate. Due to the quantum effect caused by the small crystallite sizes, the films optical gap is varied from 0.5 to 0.9 eV. - Highlights: • PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. • Ion by ion is the growth process when using the acetate lead source. • Deposition process is by complex-decomposition when using nitrate source. • Lead acetate yields to dense films with larger crystallite size. • Lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size.

  2. Biosorption of copper and lead ions by waste beer yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Runping; Li, Hongkui; Li, Yanhu; Zhang, Jinghua; Xiao, Huijun; Shi, Jie

    2006-10-11

    Locally available waste beer yeast, a byproduct of brewing industry, was found to be a low cost and promising adsorbent for adsorbing copper and lead ions from wastewater. In this work, biosorption of copper and lead ions on waste beer yeast was investigated in batch mode. The equilibrium adsorptive quantity was determined to be a function of the solution pH, contact time, beer yeast concentration, salt concentration and initial concentration of copper and lead ions. The experimental results were fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich model isotherms. According to the parameters of Langmuir isotherm, the maximum biosorption capacities of copper and lead ions onto beer yeast were 0.0228 and 0.0277 mmol g(-1) at 293 K, respectively. The negative values of the standard free energy change (DeltaG degrees ) indicate spontaneous nature of the process. Competitive biosorption of two metal ions was investigated in terms of sorption quantity. The amount of one metal ion adsorbed onto unit weight of biosorbent (q(e)) decreased with increasing the competing metal ion concentration. The binding capacity for lead is more than for copper. Ion exchange is probably one of the main mechanism during adsorptive process.

  3. Diffusion of lead in automobile exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, S.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, H.; Tanizaki, A.

    1970-01-01

    The pattern of diffusion of lead from automobile exhaust gas was investigated by studying the amount of lead adhering to or contained in leaves of ginkgo trees growing along less-travelled roads that cross a busy highway. Samples were dried at 100 C, then pulverized, and a definite portion wet-digested. After extraction by dithizone, lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same routine was followed for surface soil at the root of the trees. Leaves at heights of 3 and 6 m were examined. At one of the two sampling sites, the lead content in surface soil tended to decrease with distance from the trunk highway. At both sites, the amount of lead in leaves was found in larger amounts in the leaves at the lower level. Also, those leaves collected in October contained more lead than those assembled earlier in the year.

  4. Exploring How Lead Users Develop Radical Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Hienerth, Christoph; Gemuenden, Hans Georg

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explore how lead users develop radical innovations outside of manufacturing firms. We analyze the transition from a very early stage of activities to the ultimate commercialization of these innovations. The focus in this context is on the initiatives undertaken by lead users...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  5. Isolation of radioactive thallium from lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlova, M.D.; Sevast'yanova, A.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Kurenkov, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods of thallium-201 preperation from Pb-targets irradiated with protons: precipitation-extraction (1) and extraction (2) - are developed. When the target irraiated is extracted during the time necessary for bismuth-201 transformation into lead-201, lead macroquantity containing lead-201 was separated from undesirable thallium radionuclides, which are formed in direct nuclear reactions. The lead fraction was extracted to accumulate thallium-201, and it was separated from lead mocroquantity. The target was dissolved in the nitric acid. The 1st method differs from the 2nd one by the fact that before thallium-201 extraction, lead was precipitaed by the nitric acid. The 1st method permits to separate thallium-201 with chemical yield not less than 90 %, the 2nd one - ≥95 %. 2 refs

  6. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  7. Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading Edge Protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    APPLICATIONS OF HYDROFOILS WITH LEADING EDGE PROTUBERANCES Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract...To) 03/30/2012 Final Technical Report 01-08-2008 to 31-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The leading edge modified hydrofoils

  8. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  9. Production Planning with Load Dependent Lead Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, Julia

    2005-01-01

    that take lead times into consideration, there have been only few papers describing models at the aggregate planning level that recognize the relationship between the planned utilization of capacity and lead times. In this paper we provide an in-depth discussion of the state-of-the art in this literature......, with particular attention to those models that are appropriate at the aggregate planning level.......Lead times impact the performance of the supply chain significantly. Although there is a large literature concerning queuing models for the analysis of the relationship between capacity utilization and lead times, and there is a substantial literature concerning control and order release policies...

  10. Lead in wild blackberries from suburban roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    A mean lead content of 0.79 mg kg/sup -1/ was found for wild blackberries from roadside hedgerows in a suburban area of Glasgow. This represents a five-fold enhancement in lead content relative to blackberries from non-roadside environments and can be attributed to the emission of lead-containing compounds from car exhaust. Washing typically removed less than or equal to 0.1 mg kg/sup -1/. However, M.A.F.F. (1975) recommended limits for lead in fresh food (1 mg kg/sup -1/) and canned fruits and preserves (2 mg kg/sup -1/) were not, in general, exceeded.

  11. Lead nephropathy due to Sindoor in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; shrimali, Jigar D; Balwani, Manish R; Godhani, Umesh R; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of lead nephropathy due to Sindoor treated successfully with steroid, hemodialysis and chelating agent. Diagnosis of lead nephropathy was confirmed by identification of potential sources of lead exposure (Sindoor, 5-10 gm per year for 11 years) indicated by high blood lead level, 95 µg/dL and presence of extrarenal features of lead poisoning (hypertension, anemia, lead line, hyperuricemia). A search for the underlying systemic causes of renal failure yielded no results. A kidney biopsy showed acute or chronic tubule-interstitial nephritis with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with no immune deposit on immunofluorescence consistent with lead nephropathy. He was discharged in good health after psychiatric consultation and continued with oral D-Penicillamine with normal renal function tests and urine output. This case identifies Sindoor as a potential lead exposure among Indians and clinicians should be aware of this risk factor and enquire about it when searching a source of lead exposure in high-risk population.

  12. Characterizing Soil Lead Contamination Near Streams in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanouye, D.

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of soils, groundwater, and surface waters is a major concern because of the potential health risks related to accumulation of high levels of lead in blood. This is a pervasive issue in many low-income neighborhoods throughout the United States, and is documented to be particularly acute in West Oakland, California. The fate and transport of lead in the environment is largely dependent on how it will bind to various solids and compounds in solution. These adsorption mechanisms are a principal aspect of metal dissolution and chemical speciation. Stream channels are natural drainage areas for urban runoff, and may represent a hot spot for increased levels of lead. This study evaluates the environmental conditions at 15 sites near streams in West Oakland using in-situ soil sampling with the handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to measure concentrations of lead in soil. Results from this study suggest that the levels of lead in soils near stream channels are generally lower than the regional regulatory screening level of 80 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), but the highest concentrations are found near stream banks. The spatial distribution can be explained by a contaminant transport process related to the presence of fluvial channels.

  13. Lead Poisoning in Opium Abuser in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts. PMID:29416839

  14. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  15. A systems approach to risk management through leading safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of leading indicators for safety is to identify the potential for an accident before it occurs. Past efforts have focused on identifying general leading indicators, such as maintenance backlog, that apply widely in an industry or even across industries. Other recommendations produce more system-specific leading indicators, but start from system hazard analysis and thus are limited by the causes considered by the traditional hazard analysis techniques. Most rely on quantitative metrics, often based on probabilistic risk assessments. This paper describes a new and different approach to identifying system-specific leading indicators and provides guidance in designing a risk management structure to generate, monitor and use the results. The approach is based on the STAMP (System-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) model of accident causation and tools that have been designed to build on that model. STAMP extends current accident causality to include more complex causes than simply component failures and chains of failure events or deviations from operational expectations. It incorporates basic principles of systems thinking and is based on systems theory rather than traditional reliability theory. - Highlights: • Much effort has gone into developing leading indicators with only limited success. • A systems-theoretic, assumption-based approach may be more successful. • Leading indicators are warning signals of an assumption’s changing vulnerability. • Heuristic biases can be controlled by using plausibility rather than likelihood

  16. Lead poisoning in opium abuser in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Soltaninejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and its consequences are major health hazards in the world. Opium addiction is a common form of substance abuse in Iran. Adulteration of illegal substances in the process of production and distribution of the drug in black market with many types of materials have been reported. One of the main goals of the adulteration of illegal substances is cutting of the substance for deal and increase of the weight for more benefit. However, adding of adulterating agents to illegal drugs could be considered as a cause of nonspecific and rare toxicity during substance abuse. Although the presence of lead in street-level heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines has been reported from some countries previously, recently, several reports suggested lead poisoning in Iranian opium addicts. Adulteration of opium with lead is a new source of lead poisoning in Iran in which the opium abuse is frequent and it could be a new health problem in the future. In this regard, evaluation of blood lead level would be important for early diagnosis of lead poisoning in opium addicts.

  17. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  18. Removal of Chromium and Lead from Industrial Wastewater Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hilal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research an attempt is made on the ability of aerobic treatment of synthetic solutions containing lead and chromium using effective microorganisms within the reactor. To achieve the desired objectives of the research, synthetic aqueous solutions of lead and chromium was used in the concentration of chromium and lead ions of 5, 10,50 and 100 mg / l .The work was done at constant pH equal to 4.5 and temperature of 30 ± 1 º C. Effective microorganisms solutions was added to the reactor at Vol.% of 1/50 ,1/100 ,1/500 and 1/1000, with retention time was 24 hours to measure the heavy metals concentration the atomic absorption device was used. The experimental results showed that each 1mg / l of lead and chromium ions need 24 mg of effective microorganisms to achieve removal of 92.0% and 82.60% for lead and chromium respectively. Increasing the concentration of effective microorganisms increases the surface of adsorption and thus increasing the removal efficiency. It is found that the microorganisms activity occur in the first five hours of processing and about 94% of adsorption capacity of biomass will take place. It is also found the selectivity of microorganisms to lead ions is higher than for chromium ions.

  19. Assessing Leading ERP-SAP Implementation in Leading Firms in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, B.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) enables to bring critical capabilities to an organisation, however, the implementation of such capabilities is often surrounded with problems. The implementing ERP-SAP in Indonesian enterprises are still facing tremendous challenges with the failure rate can reach more than 80% of the cases. The article examines the common problems faced by the consultants whenever they deal with their clients, from the practical perspectives. The article takes the multiple case studies of the leading enterprises in Indonesia, such as: KS (largest steel producer), GEM (large mining producer), and HS (large retailer), with the aim to identify the root of problems of SAP implementation. The outcome of the study is expected to provide the consultants with the guideline to understand the ERP implementation process in their clients and effective solutions to cope with it.

  20. The Agent of extracting Internet Information with Lead Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zan; Huang, Chuliang; Liu, Aijun

    In order to carry out e-commerce better, advanced technologies to access business information are in need urgently. An agent is described to deal with the problems of extracting internet information that caused by the non-standard and skimble-scamble structure of Chinese websites. The agent designed includes three modules which respond to the process of extracting information separately. A method of HTTP tree and a kind of Lead algorithm is proposed to generate a lead order, with which the required web can be retrieved easily. How to transform the extracted information structuralized with natural language is also discussed.

  1. Sparse Matrix for ECG Identification with Two-Lead Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kun Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograph (ECG human identification has the potential to improve biometric security. However, improvements in ECG identification and feature extraction are required. Previous work has focused on single lead ECG signals. Our work proposes a new algorithm for human identification by mapping two-lead ECG signals onto a two-dimensional matrix then employing a sparse matrix method to process the matrix. And that is the first application of sparse matrix techniques for ECG identification. Moreover, the results of our experiments demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing methods.

  2. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children : a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.
    Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at

  3. Lead dust in Broken Hill homes: effect of remediation on indoor lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lyle, D M

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether home remediation effectively reduced indoor lead levels in Broken Hill, a long-established silver-lead-zinc mining town in outback Australia. A before-after study of the effect of home remediation on indoor lead levels was embedded into a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of remediation for reducing elevated blood lead levels in young children. Moist towelettes were used to measure lead loading (microg/m2) on internal windowsills and internal and entry floors of 98 homes; samples were collected before, immediately after, and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months after remediation. Data were log(10) transformed for the analysis. Remediation reduced average indoor lead levels by approximately 50%, and lead levels remained low for the duration of the follow-up period (10 months). The greatest gains were made in homes with the highest initial lead levels; homes with low preremediation lead levels showed little or no benefit. Before remediation, homes located in areas with high soil lead levels or with "poor" dust proofing had higher lead levels than those in areas with lower soil lead levels or with "medium" or "good" dust proofing; these relative differences remained after remediation. There was no evidence that lead loading was reduced by an increased opportunity to become aware of lead issues. We conclude that remediation is an effective strategy for reducing the lead exposure of children living in homes with high indoor lead levels.

  4. Lead levels in Maryland construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokas, R K; Simmens, S; Sophar, K; Welch, L S; Liziewski, T

    1997-02-01

    A cross-sectional study of unionized construction workers not currently known to be performing lead work was conducted. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire obtaining information about demographics, work history, other possible sources of lead exposure and health status (including hypertension, noise-induced hearing loss and renal disease). Blood was then obtained via venipuncture for whole blood lead level, hematocrit and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin determination. Two hundred and sixty-four Maryland construction workers had median whole blood lead determinations of 7 micrograms/dl and mean values of 8.0 micrograms/dl, with a skewed distribution ranging from 2 to 30 micrograms/dl. None were currently engaged in known lead work. Blood lead levels were significantly higher for the 124 who had 'ever' worked in demolition (8.8 micrograms/dl vs. 7.2 micrograms/dl, p = .004), and for the 79 who had ever burned paint and metal and welded on outdoor structures compared to the 48 who had done none of these activities (8.6 micrograms/dl vs. 6.8 micrograms/dl, p = .01). The 58 workers who had ever had workplace lead monitoring performed had higher lead levels (9.7 vs. 7.5 micrograms/dl, p = .003). Blood lead levels increased with age, and cigarette smoking. African Americans (N = 68) had higher lead levels (9.1 vs. 7.5 micrograms/dl, p = .01). There were only two women in the study, one with a lead level of 21 micrograms/dl and one, 7 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels did not predict either systolic or diastolic blood pressure in this population. However, there was a significant interaction between race and lead as predictors of blood pressure, with blacks demonstrating a trend-significant correlation, and whites showing a nonsignificant but negative association. Demolition and hotwork on outdoor structures are known to cause acute episodes of lead poisoning. They also appear to cause slight but persistent increases in blood lead levels. Future

  5. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  6. New directions in the toxicokinetics of human lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, P

    1993-01-01

    An important determinant of body lead (Pb) burden and Pb toxicity in exposed humans is Pb metabolism, or more correctly, Pb toxicokinetics. It affects the former through the quantitative processes of uptake, distribution and retention/excretion and the latter via delivery of toxic doses to cellular/molecular sites of action. Pb toxicokinetics has useful application in understanding Pb's behavior in populations. Several of these applications have been studied and results are presented for the toxicokinetic basis of dose-neurotoxic effect relationships in selected longitudinal studies and the use of toxicokinetic modeling for estimation of body lead burden in early populations. Three well-known, ongoing longitudinal studies of developmental neurotoxicity--in Boston, Cincinnati, and Port Pirie, Australia--involve cohorts who differ markedly as to their pre- and postnatal lead exposure profiles. Toxicokinetic examination of these exposure differences helps to explain the temporal variability seen in blood Pb-toxic effect relationships and supports a causal role for lead. Toxicokinetic models of Pb uptake and in-vivo behavior are increasingly being considered for estimating Pb-B levels in lieu of direct measurement. A linear biokinetic model, using reliable input data for natural/prehistoric levels of Pb in sources, was applied to estimation of prehistoric/preindustrial children's blood lead. A range of 0.06 to 0.12 microgram/dl was estimated for two lead intakes. These estimates are still two orders of magnitude (85 to 165-fold) lower than the newly issued CDC toxicity guideline for children of 10 micrograms/dl. Lastly, the toxicokinetics of lead in bone, particularly its resorption with metabolic stimuli, is of concern, particularly for "baby boom" women who are either of childbearing age or approaching menopause and who had greatly elevated environmental lead exposures in the 1940s to 1970s.

  7. Dynamic Stall Characteristics of Drooped Leading Edge Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Sahin, Mehmet; Gopal, Naveen

    2000-01-01

    Helicopters in high-speed forward flight usually experience large regions of dynamic stall over the retreating side of the rotor disk. The rapid variations in the lift and pitching moments associated with the stall process can result in vibratory loads, and can cause fatigue and failure of pitch links. In some instances, the large time lag between the aerodynamic forces and the blade motion can trigger stall flutter. A number of techniques for the alleviation of dynamic stall have been proposed and studied by researchers. Passive and active control techniques have both been explored. Passive techniques include the use of high solidity rotors that reduce the lift coefficients of individual blades, leading edge slots and leading edge slats. Active control techniques include steady and unsteady blowing, and dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE) airfoils. Considerable amount of experimental and numerical data has been collected on the effectiveness of these concepts. One concept that has not received as much attention is the drooped-leading edge airfoil idea. It has been observed in wind tunnel studies and flight tests that drooped leading edge airfoils can have a milder dynamic stall, with a significantly milder load hysteresis. Drooped leading edge airfoils may not, however, be suitable at other conditions, e.g. in hover, or in transonic flow. Work needs to be done on the analysis and design of drooped leading edge airfoils for efficient operation in a variety of flight regimes (hover, dynamic stall, and transonic flow). One concept that is worthy of investigation is the dynamically drooping airfoil, where the leading edge shape is changed roughly once-per-rev to mitigate the dynamic stall.

  8. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  9. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children : a study in environmental epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.
    Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at risk for undue lead absorption, and the exposure-response system is briefly outlined.
    Chapter 2 discusses a number of methodological issues in studies on the relationship between environment...

  10. Snapshots from a leading eco-city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal.......The government of Singapore wants to make Singapore the leading Eco-city in Asia. Professor Kim Chuan Goh explains why this might be an achievable goal....

  11. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  12. The future challenge of lead toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Five decades ago, lead toxicity in childhood was thought in nonlethal cases to be without residual effect. This misconception was corrected in 1943 by Randolph Byers, who began the modern era of lead neurotoxicology by asserting that lead not only killed cells, but interfered with the normal development of central nervous system neurons. The human data from Byers forward is reviewed, with particular attention on methodological issues that have emerged. The papers on human neurotoxicology presented at the NIEHS lead conference held in Research Triangle Park, NC, in 1974 are examined to demonstrate the progress made over the last 15 years. Seven methodological solecisms have clouded judgment over the question of lead toxicity at low dose: worship of the sacrament of p = 0.05; inaccurate causal modeling;drawing conclusions from studies with inadequate power; positing phantom covariates; underestimating the importance of small effects; demanding proof of causality; and evaluating studies in isolation. The principles behind these errors are discussed. Lead exposure is associated with hyperactivity, and hyperactivity is a risk factor for antisocial behavior. The relationship between lead exposure and antisocial behavior is estimated. A plan for the effective removal of one major lead source, housing stock, is presented.

  13. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  14. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  15. [Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, Rogelio; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Núñez-Monreal, Jorge E; García-Nieto, Edelmira; Carrizales, Leticia; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1025 - Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead. 1915.1025 Section 1915.1025 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Lead. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to...

  17. SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... ABSTRACT. A simple sensitive square wave voltammetric method for the determination of lead contamination of several kohl samples purchased from Algeria retail stores was developed using glassy carbon electrode. The peak current response of 5 standards aqueous solution of lead in NaNO3 as ...

  18. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  19. Leading Learning: Science Departments and the Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…

  20. Problem Definition Study: Lead Beta-Resorcylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Cornell, R.P. and Filkins, J.P. (1974) "Depression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis * by Acute Lead Administration," Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. lied., 147(2...Klaassen, CD. and Shoeman, D.W. (1974), "Biliary Excretion of Lead in Cats, Rabbits, and Dogs ," toxicol. Arpl. Pharmacol., 29(3), 434-446. -48

  1. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine ...

  2. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam S.; Latif, Ali H.

    2002-01-01

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  3. Interactions of lead with sediments and meiofauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D. (Queens Univ., Belfast); Maguire, C.

    1976-11-01

    Harpactacoid copepods and Turbellaria appear to be the most sensitive faunal groups in surface sand meiofauna when subjected to contamination by lead; in subsurface sand, nematodes are found to be the most sensitive group. Simple laboratory attempts to assess lead partitioning in littoral sand gave variable results and the problems and merits of such experimental approaches are discussed.

  4. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  5. Lead and Copper Control 101-slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is an overview of the most important water treatment strategies for the control of lead and copper release from drinking water corrosion. In addition to the sections specifically on lead and copper treatment, sections are included that cover sampling to find le...

  6. Polymer Coats Leads on Implantable Medical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Langley Research Center s Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI) was discovered by accident. While researching resins and adhesives for advanced composites for high-speed aircraft, Robert Bryant, a Langley engineer, noticed that one of the polymers he was working with did not behave as predicted. After putting the compound through a two-stage controlled chemical reaction, expecting it to precipitate as a powder after the second stage, he was surprised to see that the compound remained soluble. This novel characteristic ended up making this polymer a very significant finding, eventually leading Bryant and his team to win several NASA technology awards, and an "R&D 100" award. The unique feature of this compound is the way that it lends itself to easy processing. Most polyimides (members of a group of remarkably strong and incredibly heat- and chemical-resistant polymers) require complex curing cycles before they are usable. LaRC-SI remains soluble in its final form, so no further chemical processing is required to produce final materials, like thin films and varnishes. Since producing LaRC-SI does not require complex manufacturing techniques, it has been processed into useful forms for a variety of applications, including mechanical parts, magnetic components, ceramics, adhesives, composites, flexible circuits, multilayer printed circuits, and coatings on fiber optics, wires, and metals. Bryant s team was, at the time, heavily involved with the aircraft polymer project and could not afford to further develop the polymer resin. Believing it was worth further exploration, though, he developed a plan for funding development and submitted it to Langley s chief scientist, who endorsed the experimentation. Bryant then left the high-speed civil transport project to develop LaRC-SI. The result is an extremely tough, lightweight thermoplastic that is not only solvent-resistant, but also has the ability to withstand temperature ranges from cryogenic levels to above 200 C. The thermoplastic

  7. Mutagenic effects of lead (II) bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslat, A O; Haas, H J

    1989-12-01

    The mutagenicity of lead (II) bromide (a combustion product of the gasoline additives lead (IV) tetraethyl and 1,2-dibromoethane) was investigated using various strains of bacteria. Taking prodigiosin (the red pigment) production as a marker, lead (II) bromide was found to be mutagenic in S. marcescens, leading to the appearance of white mutant colonies that are unable to produce such a pigment. This compound was also found to be mutagenic in E. coli KMBL1851, resulting in the appearance of rifampicin-resistant mutants in addition to Met+ and His+ revertants. Some of the S. marcescens mutants were found to be reversible, able to resynthesize prodigiosin. Differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics as well as in the biochemical properties were detected between the mutants and their corresponding wild types. Lead (II) bromide gave positive results in the Ames test performed with strain TA 1535.

  8. Lead in a residential environment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin-Brown, B; Armour-Brown, A; Lalor, G C; Preston, J; Vutchkov, M K

    1996-09-01

    The background levels of lead in Jamaica in soils and sediments, estimated at 37 mg kg(-1), are relatively high compared with world averages. Several areas have values in excess of this due to mineralisation and pollution. One such is the residential Hope Flats/Kintyre area in which levels of lead up to 2.5% are found in the soils and up to 8 μg kg(-1) in the water of the nearby Hope River. The blood lead levels of a sample of children were in the range 5.7-57 μg dl(-1). The high lead levels suggest a potential health risk, particularly for the children. This can be minimised by programmes which include community education, case management and abatement to reduce the lead exposure.

  9. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-06

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  10. Lead Coolant Test Facility Development Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Demkowicz

    2005-06-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on May 25, 2005, to discuss the development of a next generation lead or lead-alloy coolant test facility. Attendees included representatives from the Generation IV lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) program, Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, and several universities. Several participants gave presentations on coolant technology, existing experimental facilities for lead and lead-alloy research, the current LFR design concept, and a design by Argonne National Laboratory for an integral heavy liquid metal test facility. Discussions were focused on the critical research and development requirements for deployment of an LFR demonstration test reactor, the experimental scope of the proposed coolant test facility, a review of the Argonne National Laboratory test facility design, and a brief assessment of the necessary path forward and schedule for the initial stages of this development project. This report provides a summary of the presentations and roundtable discussions.

  11. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  12. Radiologically contaminated lead shot reuse at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heileson, W.M.; Grant, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    This project involved the utilization of radioactively contaminated lead shot located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for radiation shielding on a radioactive liquid process tank located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). The use of previously contaminated shot precludes the radioactive contamination of clean shot. With limited treatment and disposal options for contaminated lead shot, the reuse of lead for shielding is significant due to the inherent characteristic of becoming a mixed waste when radiologically contaminated. The INEL conducted a lead cleanup campaign in 1990. This was designed to ensure control of potential Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated waste. Contaminated lead from throughout the INEL, was containerized per the lead Waste Acceptance Criteria at the generator sites. Limited areas at the INEL are designated for mixed waste storage. As a result, some of the lead was stored at the RWMC in the air support weather shield (ASWS). This lead was contaminated with small amounts of fission product contamination. The lead was in the form of shot, brick, sheet, casks, and other various sized pieces. In 1993, ANL-W identified a need for lead shot to be used as shielding in a radioactive liquid waste storage and processing tank at the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The contaminated lead used on this project had been in storage as mixed waste at the RWMC. This paper will focus on the processes and problems encountered to utilize the contaminated lead shot

  13. Leading neutron production at HERA in the color dipole approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study leading neutron production in e + p → e + n + X collisions at high energies and calculate the Feynman xL distribution of these neutrons. The differential cross section is written in terms of the pion flux and of the photon-pion total cross section. We describe this process using the color dipole formalism and, assuming the validity of the additive quark model, we relate the dipole-pion with the well determined dipoleproton cross section. In this formalism we can estimate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies as well as the contribution of gluon saturation effects to leading neutron production. With the parameters constrained by other phenomenological information, we are able to reproduce the basic features of the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra.

  14. Global collaboration for lead-free - IMS project EFSOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahide, O.; Koji, S.; Masahide, H. [Hitachi PERL, Yokohama (Japan); Otmar, D. [TU Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Il-Je, C.; Kyu-Sang, C. [LG-PRC, Pyungtaek (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    In the IMS project EFSOT (Next Generation Environment-Friendly Soldering Technology) Japanese, European and Korean partners cooperatively research to increase the reliability, applicability and sustainability of lead-free soldering and joining technologies. The consortium is developing and testing lead-free solders, finishes and their combinations as well as designs for components and printed wiring boards. At the same time, effects of (lead-free) soldering materials and technology on environment and human body are being evaluated. The end of life phase (EoL) is being considered to test and improve re-usability and recyclability of components and materials from printed wiring boards which using such solders and technologies. The project results will facilitate the selection of technically appropriate materials and processes and allow to minimize adverse environmental and resource impacts. (orig.)

  15. NASA-DoD Lead-Free Electronics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). depots. and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain thaI increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes. some labeled no differently and intenningled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance oflead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the reliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free lenninations, tennination finishes, or circuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers. suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers; 2. Incompatibility oflead-free processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead-free alloys) with other materials in the system; and 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint re liability.

  16. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  17. Vector boson and Charmonium production in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00241320; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in nuclear collisions, and thus should be sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The in-medium modification of heavy charmonium states plays an important role in studying the hot and dense medium. The ATLAS detector, optimized to search for new physics in proton-proton collisions, is well equipped to measure Z and W bosons as well as quarkonium in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy ion collisions. Results from the ATLAS experiment on W and Z boson yields as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead and proton-lead collisions are presented. Quarkonium results from proton-lead collisions are also presented.

  18. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  19. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  20. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  1. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  2. Intracardiac lead endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anish; Gulati, Dhiraj; Woldenberg, Nina; Singh, Mamta

    2010-09-01

    Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a rare but potentially aggressive pathogen in the family of coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS). It can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial skin to fulminant infections like endocarditis. Both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been documented in the English literature. Eight cases of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been described so far. We present the ninth case of pacemaker lead and first case of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a dr...

  4. Fallacies Leading to the Marginalization of Future CBRN Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    and conclusion” then shamelessly giving out rewards of smiley faces and gold star stickers when I got the process right. Finally and most importantly...Leading to the Marginalization of Future CBRN Capabilities 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tammy R...in contrast to the WMD threat that America faces reveals the degree of risk involved. America’s role as a member of North Atlantic Treaty

  5. The sports results of leading pentathlonists during 2000-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Pityn M.P.; Stetskovich S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The result sports changes of leading sportsmen of the world in modern pentathlon are considered in the paper. During the investigation process the competition rules changes were determined and what have affected on the sports result in the modern pentathlon. The winner results changes and top ten sportsmen of the world championships and the Olympic Games were characterized during 2000-2010. The rules changes influence of the competition holding on the results of competitive activity of high q...

  6. Lead Iodide Perovskite Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic?inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-eff...

  7. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adventini, N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D. D.; Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Rixson, L.

    2017-06-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in Cf index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia.

  8. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P 2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  9. Lipstick and Lead: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pose a health risk. FDA’s Draft Guidance for Industry on Lead in Cosmetic Lip Products and Externally ... Stargazer Lipstick 101 c 180808 2.71 23 Fashion Fair Johnson Publishing Company Forever Matte 8207 Forever ...

  10. Treating Lead Toxicity: Possibilities beyond Synthetic Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhavi Tannir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/sources being investigated by various groups.

  11. First studies of lead pollution in Guanabara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Branquinho, C.L. da.

    1973-01-01

    The main sources of direct lead intake are studied, and metal concentrations in several medium are examined. Lead was extracted by dithizone in C Cl 4 , being determined by optical spectrophotometry. 2 1 2 Pb was used as a radioactive tracer in low concentration measurements of the metal, and analysis of its 239 KeV peak was done by a Ge-Li detector. In blood samples, the metal was complexed and extracted with APDC in MIBK, being measured by flame less atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Air samples were also collected for periods of 24 hours and 90 minutes. Representative street dust samples were examined, showing a strict correlation with lead in air. It was also estimated the amount of lead in some human blood samples. (author)

  12. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cause of Death Contribute to the Hispanic Mortality Advantage in the United States? Leading Causes of Death ... Center for Health Statistics Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  13. Optimum input leads for cryogenic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Der Nigohossian, G.

    1967-02-01

    The electrical leads used to introduce a current into a cryostat cause a heat influx due to thermal conduction and to Joule heating. It is very important to be able to minimize this flux. Theoretical calculation of optimized leads takes into account the varying heat and electrical conductivities of the leads as well as the heat exchange coefficient with the effluent gas. Practical results have been summarized in different tables which permit for a specific material i.e. copper, aluminium, brass, stainless steel with the intensity and end temperatures being known (i.e. 4,2 or 18,5 deg. K at the cold end; 77,295 or 320 deg. K at the warm end) to deduce the minimum heat flow and the length-cross section ratio of the optimized leads. A general method is indicated, which would allow to solve the same problem for other materials. (author) [fr

  14. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  15. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  16. Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Ground Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water Have a question that's not answered on this ...

  17. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  18. Current practice in transvenous lead extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Kennergren, Charles

    2012-01-01

    with a compliance rate of 99.9%. Data from the survey show that there seems to be an overall increasing experience of managing various techniques of lead extraction and a widespread involvement of cardiac centres in this treatment. Results and complication rates seem comparable with those of main international......AIM: Current practice with regard to transvenous lead extraction among European implanting centres was analysed by this survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among all contacted centres, 164, from 30 countries, declared that they perform transvenous lead extraction and answered 58 questions...... registries. CONCLUSION: This survey gives an interesting snapshot of lead extraction in Europe today and gives some clues for future research and prospective European registries....

  19. [Chronic lead intoxication associated with Ayurvedic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanen, B L J; Perenboom, R M

    2005-12-24

    A 46-year-old man with multiple sclerosis had severe generalised pain for which treatment with paracetamol, ibuprofen, gabapentin and methyl-prednisolone had been unsuccessful. In addition normocytic anaemia without haemolysis and with a normal iron load was found. Due to bright red rectal blood loss and nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anorexia, abdominal pain and constipation a colonoscopy was planned. However, before this was performed, manual slide differentiation of a blood smear showed basophilic stippling and it turned out that the patient had been taking Ayurvedic medication up to one month before presentation. A moderately severe lead intoxication was diagnosed: 0.77 mg/l. The herbal medication had a very high lead content. The patient was successfully treated with the oral lead chelator 23-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Traditional and folk remedies often are important causes of lead poisoning.

  20. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...